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Sample records for current knowledge attitudes

  1. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Treesearch

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices of Canadian Physiotherapists in Preventing and Managing Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Doehring, Karly; Durno, Scott; Pakenham, Catherine; DePaul, Vincent G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the knowledge, attitudes, and current practices of Canadian physiotherapists in preventing and managing diabetes. Methods: Members of the Canadian Physiotherapy Association were recruited by email to participate in a Web-based survey. The survey contained 40 items in four domains: demographics and education, attitudes and beliefs, current practices, and knowledge of diabetes. A descriptive analysis was completed for all the response variables from the survey. Results: A total of 401 physiotherapists from 10 provinces and 2 territories participated. Respondents were most confident in providing education about exercise and had decreasing confidence in providing education about managing secondary complications, weight management, blood sugar control, and nutrition, respectively. Only 32.4% of participants offered diabetes management counselling, citing lack of training. Knowledge was generally good, except for activity guidelines. Conclusions: A significant proportion of physiotherapists lack confidence in providing key aspects of care to patients with diabetes. Gaps in clinical practice and knowledge of activity guidelines were also observed. This study highlights the need to review entry-level physiotherapy training and to develop continuing educational opportunities in this area. PMID:27909380

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices of Canadian Physiotherapists in Preventing and Managing Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Doehring, Karly; Durno, Scott; Pakenham, Catherine; Versi, Bashir; DePaul, Vincent G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the knowledge, attitudes, and current practices of Canadian physiotherapists in preventing and managing diabetes. Methods: Members of the Canadian Physiotherapy Association were recruited by email to participate in a Web-based survey. The survey contained 40 items in four domains: demographics and education, attitudes and beliefs, current practices, and knowledge of diabetes. A descriptive analysis was completed for all the response variables from the survey. Results: A total of 401 physiotherapists from 10 provinces and 2 territories participated. Respondents were most confident in providing education about exercise and had decreasing confidence in providing education about managing secondary complications, weight management, blood sugar control, and nutrition, respectively. Only 32.4% of participants offered diabetes management counselling, citing lack of training. Knowledge was generally good, except for activity guidelines. Conclusions: A significant proportion of physiotherapists lack confidence in providing key aspects of care to patients with diabetes. Gaps in clinical practice and knowledge of activity guidelines were also observed. This study highlights the need to review entry-level physiotherapy training and to develop continuing educational opportunities in this area.

  4. Current knowledge and attitudes about organ donation and transplantation among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Chen, J X; Zhang, T M; Lim, F L; Wu, H C; Lei, T F; Yeong, P K; Xia, S J

    2006-11-01

    Current attitudes toward organ donation among university students in mainland China and the differences in attitudes between Chinese students in mainland China versus overseas are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires among 922 Chinese undergraduates from mainland China and overseas regions of the world. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Student t tests, chi-square tests, and a logistic regression analysis. We found that blood donors showed significantly better awareness of heart, liver, lung, skin, and tendon donation among commonly transplanted organs/tissues. As to the willingness for cadaveric organ donation, 61.3% of respondents consented, 8.5% objected, and 30.3% answered "not sure." The percentage holding an organ donor card was 15.7% among students from Hong Kong; 3.0%, mainland China; 2.8%, Macau; 2.6%, Taiwan, and 4.0%, other regions of the world. In a logistic regression analysis, female students (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 3.72) and blood donors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.32) did, but age and study specialty (medical vs nonmedical) did not show significantly more positive attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. Compared with students from mainland China, overseas Chinese students from various regions did not show significantly different attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. In summary, blood donors among university students have a greater knowledge of transplantation and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Since university students are an important source of blood donors in China, they will be a potential pool of organ donors in the future.

  5. Current and future health care professionals attitudes toward and knowledge of statistics: How confidence influences learning.

    PubMed

    Baghi, Heibatollah; Kornides, Melanie L

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals require some understanding of statistics to successfully implement evidence based practice. Developing competency in statistical reasoning is necessary for students training in health care administration, research, and clinical care. Recently, the interest in healthcare professional's attitudes toward statistics has increased substantially due to evidence that these attitudes can hinder professionalism developing an understanding of statistical concepts. In this study, we analyzed pre- and post-instruction attitudes towards and knowledge of statistics obtained from health science graduate students, including nurses and nurse practitioners, enrolled in an introductory graduate course in statistics (n = 165). Results show that the students already held generally positive attitudes toward statistics at the beginning of course. However, these attitudes-along with the students' statistical proficiency-improved after 10 weeks of instruction. The results have implications for curriculum design and delivery methods as well as for health professionals' effective use of statistics in critically evaluating and utilizing research in their practices.

  6. Fertility preservation in cancer survivors: a national survey of oncologists' current knowledge, practice and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E; Hill, E; Watson, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Around 1 in 10 of all cancer cases occur in adults of reproductive age. Cancer and its treatments can cause long-term effects, such as loss of fertility, which can lead to poor emotional adjustment. Unmet information needs are associated with higher levels of anxiety. US research suggests that many oncologists do not discuss fertility. Very little research exists about fertility information provision in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore current knowledge, practice and attitudes among oncologists in the United Kingdom regarding fertility preservation in patients of child-bearing age. Methods: A national online survey of 100 oncologists conducted online via medeconnect, a company which has exclusive access to the doctors.net.uk membership of GMC registered doctors. Results: Oncologists saw fertility preservation (FP) as mainly a women's issue, and yet only felt knowledgeable about sperm storage, not other methods of FP; 87% expressed a need for more information. Most reported discussing the impact of treatment on fertility with patients, but only 38% reported routinely providing patients with written information, and 1/3 reported they did not usually refer patients who had questions about fertility to a specialist fertility service. Twenty-three per cent had never consulted any FP guidelines. The main barriers to initiating discussions about FP were lack of time, lack of knowledge, perceived poor success rates of FP options, poor patient prognosis and, to a lesser extent, if the patient already had children, was single, or could not afford FP treatment. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest a deficiency in UK oncologist's knowledge about FP options and highlights that the provision of information to patients about FP may be sub-optimal. Oncologists may benefit from further education, and further research is required to establish if patients perceive a need for further information about FP options. PMID:23579214

  7. Breast-feeding in Bangkok, Thailand: current status, maternal knowledge, attitude and social support.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kong, L; Hotta, M; Wongkhomthong, S A; Ushijima, H

    1999-12-01

    The promotion of breast-feeding is one of the essential interventions for reduction of infant mortality and improving infant development worldwide. The aim of the present study was to examine the current status of infant feeding and the influences of suspected family sociodemographic characteristics and social support as well as maternal knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in infant feeding since the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative was launched in Thailand. A total of 221 mother-infant pairs were randomly drawn from six health care centers in Bangkok from 20 April to 1 May 1998. Health care staff, using a structured questionnaire, interviewed the mothers in the health care centers. Most sampled mothers believed that breast milk was the best food for their infants and knew that breast milk had many advantages for infants, mothers and families. Ninety-five percent of mothers breast-fed their infants up to 3 months postpartum, but the prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding was relatively low (62.4%). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the following factors independently increased the risk of mixed or formula feeding during the first 3 months of life: (i) mothers with a full-time job; (ii) grandmothers and other people as the main child caretakers; (iii) mothers who did not have an antenatal plan of exclusive breast-feeding; and (iv) newborns' non-exclusive breast-feeding in hospitals after birth. However, the mother being a housewife, mother as the main child caretaker, an antenatal plan of exclusive breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding in hospital were more likely to improve exclusive breast-feeding. The prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding was relatively low. Antenatal plans for exclusive breast-feeding and newborn feeding type in hospital after birth may play key roles in the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. These findings suggest the importance of strengthening implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital policy and prenatal health

  8. The needs, current knowledge, and attitudes of care staff toward the implementation of palliative care in old age homes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Raymond S K; Kwan, Bonnie H F; Lau, Kay P K; Kwan, Cecilia W M; Lam, L M; Woo, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to explore in depth the needs, current knowledge, and attitudes of all ranks of old age home staff. A large-scale qualitative study with 13 semistructured focus groups was conducted in Hong Kong. Key themes were extracted by framework analysis. Three major themes were extracted, including role as a service provider, current knowledge, and attitude toward palliative care. There was a marked difference in familiarity with the concept of ''palliative care'' between different groups of staff, yet both shared the motivation for enhancement. The biggest concerns for the staff were elderly residents' readiness to accept palliative care, manpower, and resources. Care staff, regardless of rank, seemed to welcome and be ready to adopt a palliative care approach in caring for old age home residents, though not without worries and concerns.

  9. Current Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Certified Athletic Trainers Regarding Recognition and Treatment of Exertional Heat Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Scruggs, Ian C.; Casa, Douglas J.; Burton, Laura J.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Maresh, Carl M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Previous research has indicated that despite awareness of the current literature on the recommended prevention and care of exertional heat stroke (EHS), certified athletic trainers (ATs) acknowledge failure to follow those recommendations. Objective: To investigate the current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of ATs regarding the recognition and treatment of EHS. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Online survey. Patients or Other Participants: We obtained a random sample of e-mail addresses for 1000 high school and collegiate ATs and contacted these individuals with invitations to participate. A total of 498 usable responses were received, for a 25% response rate. Main Outcome Measure(s): The survey instrument evaluated ATs' knowledge and actual practice regarding EHS and included 29 closed-ended Likert scale questions (1  =  strongly disagree, 7  =  strongly agree), 2 closed-ended questions rated on a Likert scale (1  =  lowest value, 9  =  greatest value), 8 open-ended questions, and 7 demographic questions. We focused on the open-ended and demographic questions. Results: Although most ATs (77.1%) have read the current National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on heat illness, only 18.6% used rectal thermometers to assess core body temperature to recognize EHS, and 49.7% used cold-water immersion to treat EHS. Athletic trainers perceived rectal thermometers as the most valid temperature assessment device when compared with other assessment devices (P ≤ .05), but they used oral thermometers as the primary assessment tool (49.1%). They identified cold-water immersion as the best cooling method (P ≤ .05), even though they used other means to cool a majority of the time (50.3%). Conclusions: The ATs surveyed have sound knowledge of the correct means of EHS recognition and treatment. However, a significant portion of these ATs reported using temperature assessment devices that are invalid with athletes

  10. Modeling the theory of planned behavior for intention to improve oral health behaviors: the impact of attitudes, knowledge, and current behavior.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L; Wagle, Madhu; Dogaru, Beatrice C; Manolescu, Bogdan

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of an extended model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intention to improve oral health behaviors. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 153 first-year medical students (mean age 20.16, 50 males and 103 females) who completed a questionnaire assessing intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, and current oral hygiene behaviors. Attitudes toward oral health behaviors and perceived behavioral control contributed to the model for predicting intention, whereas subjective norms did not. Attitudes toward oral health behaviors were slightly more important than perceived behavioral control in predicting intention. Oral health knowledge significantly affected affective and cognitive attitudes, while current behavior was not a significant predictor of intention to improve oral health behavior. The model had a slightly better fit among females than among males, but was similar for home and professional dental health care. Our findings revealed that attitude, perceived behavioral control, and oral health knowledge are predictors of intention to improve oral health behaviors. These findings may help both dentists and dental hygienists in educating patients in oral health and changing patients' oral hygiene habits.

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Comparison of Current Knowledge, Attitudes and Interest among German Medical Students and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Münstedt, Karsten; Harren, Hildegard; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been agreed that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be included in the German medical curriculum, there is no consensus on which methods and how it should be taught. This study aimed to assess needs for CAM education by evaluating current knowledge, attitudes and interests of medical students, general physicians and gynecologists. Two instruments based on established and validated questionnaires were developed. One was given to seventh semester medical students and the other to office-based doctors. Data were analyzed by bivariate correlation and cross-tabulation. Altogether 550 questionnaires were distributed—280 to doctors and 270 to medical students. Completed questionnaires were returned by 80.4% of students and 78.2% of doctors. Although 73.8% (160/219) of doctors and 40% (87/217) of students had already informed themselves about CAM, neither group felt that they knew much about CAM. Doctors believed that CAM was most useful in general medicine, supportive oncology, pediatrics, dermatology and gynecology, while students believed that dermatology, general medicine, psychiatry and rheumatology offered opportunities; both recommended that CAM should be taught in these areas. Both groups believed that CAM should be included in medical education; however, they believed that CAM needed more investigation and should be taught “critically". German doctors and students would like to be better informed about CAM. An approach which teaches fundamental competences to students, chooses specific content based on evidence, demographics and medical conditions and provides students with the skills they need for future learning should be adopted. PMID:19098296

  12. Legal rights to safe abortion: knowledge and attitude of women in North-West Ethiopia toward the current Ethiopian abortion law.

    PubMed

    Muzeyen, R; Ayichiluhm, M; Manyazewal, T

    2017-07-01

    To assess women's knowledge and attitude toward Ethiopian current abortion law. A quantitative, community-based cross-sectional survey. Women of reproductive age in three selected lower districts in Bahir Dar, North-West Ethiopia, were included. Multi-stage simple random sampling and simple random sampling were used to select the districts and respondents, respectively. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire comprising questions related to knowledge and attitude toward legal status of abortion and cases where abortion is currently allowed by law in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and multivariable logistic regression computed to assess the magnitude and significance of associations. Of 845 eligible women selected, 774 (92%) consented to participate and completed the interview. A total of 512 (66%) women were aware of the legal status of the Ethiopian abortion law and their primary sources of information were electronic media such as television and radio (43%) followed by healthcare providers (38.7%). Among women with awareness of the law, 293 (57.2%) were poor in knowledge, 188 (36.7%) fairly knowledgeable, and 31 (6.1%) good in knowledge about the cases where abortion is allowed by law. Of the total 774 women included, 438 (56.5%) hold liberal and 336 (43.5%) conservative attitude toward legalization of abortion. In the multivariable logistic regression, age had a significant association with knowledge, whereas occupation had a significant association with attitude toward the law. Women who had poor knowledge toward the law were more likely to have conservative attitude toward the law (adjusted odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.61). Though the Ethiopian criminal code legalized abortion under certain circumstances since 2005, a significant number of women knew little about the law and several protested legalization of abortion. Countries such as Ethiopia with high maternal mortality records need to lift

  13. Current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene in a developed residential community of Singapore: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Pang, Junxiong; Chua, Shao Wei Jonathan Lumen; Hsu, Liyang

    2015-06-21

    Diarrhoea incidence has been increasing progressively over the past years in developed countries, including Singapore, despite the accessibility and availability to clean water, well-established sanitation infrastructures and regular hygiene promotion. The aim of this study is to determine the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene, and the potential risk factors of diarrhoea in a residential community of Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted within a residential area in the west of Singapore from June to August 2013. A total of 1,156 household units were randomly sampled and invited to participate in an interviewer-assisted survey using standardised questionnaires. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact test and multivariate logistic regression modelling, respectively. R program was used for all statistical analysis. All tests were conducted at 5% level of significance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported where applicable. A total of 240 units (20.8%) consented and responded to the survey invitation. About 77% of the expected knowledge and attitude were observed in at least 80% of the participants, compared to only about 31% of the expected behaviours and practises. Being single [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.16-4.48], having flu in the past six month (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.74-6.06), preferred self-medication (AOR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.06-4.12) were risk factors of diarrhoea. Washing hands with water before attending to children or sick persons (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.82), washing hands with water (AOR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.05-0.45) and water with soap (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) after attending to children or sick persons, and hand washing between 30 s to a minute (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.90) were protective factors against diarrhoea. Good knowledge and attitude of the

  14. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  15. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  16. Counseling Psychologists' Attitudes and Knowledge about Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Lois I.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes held by counseling psychologists about alcoholics and alcoholism, and to determine the relationship between these attitudes and the individual's level of experience, knowledge and training in the alcoholism domain. Although counseling psychologists typically deal with developmental issues,…

  17. Menopause knowledge and attitude among Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Taherpour, M; Sefidi, F; Afsharinia, S; Hamissi, JH

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was done to assess the effects of training on knowledge and attitude level promotion of post menopause women about menopause. Methods & Material: The research communication included 100 menopausal women aged 45-60 years, who were selected in a stratified manner (according to the economic status: poor, average, and good). The tool used was an examiners-made questionnaire, which contained 3 parts: demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude measurement. Results: Eleven percent of the studied women had a low knowledge regarding menopause and 1% was good. After training, 27% got a good knowledge and no one remained at the low level. The attitude of 59% of the studied women regarding menopause was positive and 80% got a positive attitude after training. A significant relation was found between knowledge and attitude, before and after training. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the majority of women judge menopause as a positive incident, it seems that paying attention to their training caused the bringing to their knowledge of the natural menopause and having a healthy and jolly life. PMID:28255401

  18. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  19. Public knowledge and attitudes about diazepam.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, B; Fisher, S

    1984-01-01

    A total of 147 outpatients waiting for a prescription to be filled at a hospital pharmacy were tested on their knowledge about diazepam (Valium). Subjects scored highest on questions about the effects of a small overdose, the drug's interaction with alcohol and hypnotics, and the relative contraindications of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Subjects were least knowledgeable about the drug's generic name, side effects, and interaction with minor stimulants (coffee, tea, cola, and cigarettes). Subjects who had previously used diazepam (N = 97) knew significantly more than subjects who had never taken it, but subjects waiting for a diazepam prescription to be filled (N = 40) were not more knowledgeable than subjects having another type of prescription filled. In contrast to recent findings that increasing patients' drug knowledge via "Patient Package Inserts" (PPIs) may also create an overcautious attitude toward the drug, the present study finds that diazepam knowledge gained experimentally is accompanied by an attitude shift away from such overcautiousness.

  20. Father attitudes and knowledge about breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    García-Fragoso, Lourdes; Jiménez, Dorka; Ortiz, Nerian; Quintero, María

    2013-01-01

    Studies have identified fathers' attitude as the strongest indicator of whether her partner will breastfeed. To determine the attitudes and knowledge of fathers toward breastfeeding. The study included 84 volunteer fathers who answered a survey. Mean age of participants was 27 years. Most fathers (88%) would like their partners to breastfeed. Most men (56%) reported that it is acceptable for a woman to breastfeed in public. Negative attitudes included feeling jealous about breastfeeding (10%), thinking that breastfeeding is bad for breasts (17%), breastfeeding makes breasts look ugly (26%), and breastfeeding separates the baby from the father (7%). A few misconceptions about breastfeeding were identified. Most fathers have positive attitudes towards breastfeeding. We should emphasize the importance of exclusive breastfeeding and clarify misconceptions that may cause early discontinuation of breastfeeding. Programs directed toward educating fathers will help them serve as sources of support for their partners.

  1. Changing Clinical Presentation, Current Knowledge-Attitude-Practice, and Current Vision Related Quality of Life in Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Retinopathy in Eastern India: The LVPEI Eye and Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Wallang, Batriti; Semwal, Preeti; Basu, Soumyava; Padhi, Tapas R.; Ali, Mohd Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To document the changing clinical presentation of diabetic retinopathy (DR) over a decade, the current knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) of known type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and the current vision related quality of life (VR-QOL) of patients with DR in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India. Methods. Two hundred and forty patients with known type-2 DM were evaluated. The evaluation included status of DR (n = 240), KAP (n = 232), and VR-QOL (n = 75). International classification of DR was used in the study. The DR status was compared with another cohort (n = 472) examined a decade earlier, in year 2001. The KAP-25 questions were designed after literature review. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ; including optional items) was validated by Rasch analysis. Both KAP and VR-QOL were analyzed according to degree of DR, duration of known DM, and educational qualification. Results. Average age of the current cohort (n = 240) was 57.16 ± 9.03 years; there were 205 (85.4%) male patients and 143 (59.6%) patients had received less than graduate qualification. The mean duration of DM since diagnosis was 10 ± 7.8 months (range 8 months to 30 years); 118 (49.16%) patients had DR. In a decade time, 2001 to 2011, there was a change of retinopathy status at presentation (more often nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, NPDR). One-third of NPDR patients had poor vision and half of them were hypertensive. KAP was better in patients with higher education and those having DR. VFQ score was higher in better seeing patients. Conclusion. Patients currently presenting at earlier stage of retinopathy are probably related to poor vision. Early detection and treatment of DR is likely to preserve and/or improve vision. PMID:27843643

  2. Nutritional knowledge and attitudes of dental students.

    PubMed

    Pietz, C L; Fryer, B A; Fryer, H C

    1980-03-01

    The nutritional knowledge and attitudes of 230 dental students were studied. The students answered 68.6% of the nutritional knowledge questions currectly, but the test scores were low because they were adversely affected by the degree of certainty. First-year students scored significantly higher than fourth-year students. There was no significant difference between scores of men and women. Knowledge scores were highest for questions on nutrition and oral health and lowest for those on nutritional assessment. Dental students generally expressed favorable attitudes toward nutrition and nutritional care of patients. They agreed that dentists were vital members of the health team and had a responsibility to become involved in health screening and nutrition education of patients. Dietitians were seen as valuable resources to be consulted about nutrition education of the dental patient. More first-year students supported the idea that dentists should prescribe nutritoinal supplements for patients, whereas more fourth-year students were undecided about this matter. There were no differences in nutrition attitude scores attributable to gender of the student or year in dental school. In this study, nutritional knowledge scores did not correlate with nutrition attitude scores.

  3. Senior Attitudes on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryba, Gary

    In the spring of 1969, questionnaires were sent to a random sample of all 1969 seniors at the State University of New York at Buffalo to gather information of student attitudes concerning civil rights, Vietnam, poverty, selective service, and East-West differences. Of the 106 men and 90 women that responded to the questionnaire, a majority of…

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior of Nigerian Students Toward Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M; Randhawa, G

    2017-10-01

    The Nigerian transplantation program is evolving but is currently over-reliant on living donors. If deceased donation is to be viable in Nigeria, it is important to ascertain the views of the public. The objective of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Nigerian international students toward organ donation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Nigerian international students of the University of Bedfordshire through the use of a modified self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited by means of purposive sampling. Of the 110 questionnaires distributed, 103 were returned fully completed (response rate = 93.6%). A significant majority (93.2%) of the participants are aware of organ donation, and 76.7% have a good knowledge on the subject. Furthermore, more than half (52.8%) of the participants have a positive attitude toward organ donation, and less than half (42.8%) have favorable behavior toward it. Higher knowledge does not correlate to either positive attitude or behavior, but a positive attitude is correlated with favorable behavior toward donation. The attitudes and behavior of the respondents toward organ donation is not commensurate with the level of knowledge they possess. This highlights the urgent need for well-structured educational programs on deceased organ donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in Mongolian nurses.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization and the International Association for Study of Pain cite the significance of pediatric pain as a significant global health issue. Developing countries may have increased needs compared with developed countries because of limited resources and lack of training. In Mongolia a paucity of data exist regarding nursing knowledge of pediatric pain management. The purpose of this project was to assess the current knowledge of pediatric pain and to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention on improving knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses working at a major children's hospital in Mongolia. Knowledge and attitudes of Mongolian nurses were evaluated before and after a 2-hour educational intervention. The translated Modified Mongolian Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Shriner's Revision survey was used as a pre- and postintervention assessment instrument with local nurses at a pediatric hospital in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. One hundred sixty-seven nurses attended the conference, with 155 nurses completing the pre- and postsurveys. The mean score on the presurvey was 12.7 out of 35 (26.4% correct), whereas the mean score on the postsurvey score was 16.7 out of 35 (47.8% correct). A paired t test showed a significant statistical difference between scores (p < .0001). Pediatric nurses in Mongolia demonstrate insufficient knowledge of pediatric pain management. The educational intervention was effective in improving pediatric pain knowledge and attitudes in Mongolian nurses. It is recommended to establish similar educational endeavors with nurses around the world to improve pain knowledge and attitudes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical and psychology students' knowledge and attitudes regarding aging and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Rachel J; Zweig, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and sexuality, and contact with elders. The current study found that psychology students demonstrated greater aging knowledge than medical students; however, both groups showed gaps in knowledge about sexuality. Married students had greater academic/clinical exposure and greater knowledge about aging but less permissive attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Generally, knowledge about aging was the strongest correlate of knowledge about sexuality. Level of knowledge about sexuality was not associated with attitudes. Attitudes toward sexuality and aging may be more strongly tied to demographic variables reflective of religious beliefs or adherence to sociocultural norms.

  7. Changing Attitudes and Knowledge Toward SNAP Application.

    PubMed

    Bird, Carolyn L; McClelland, Jacquelyn W

    2017-01-01

    To examine effectiveness of an educational intervention on attitude and knowledge related to accessing and qualifying for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Cross-sectional survey. Community sites (38) in North Carolina. Low-income adult participants who provided data (n = 558). Participants completed pre- and postsurveys for the 45-minute program. Theoretically based surveys measured knowledge requisite to the decision to apply for SNAP benefits. Paired sample t tests tested the hypothesis of "no difference" in postintervention knowledge. Knowledge gains were statistically significant on all questions ( P < .01) including the amount of food a minimum benefit could purchase, how to apply for SNAP, how the electronic benefit transfer card and benefits work, eligibility restrictions, and how to receive application assistance. Subsequent percentage change analyses revealed the strongest intervention effects to be how to apply and accessing application assistance. Effective theory-based programs can improve knowledge and dispel myths concerning SNAP participation among low-income participants.

  8. A Survey of Students' Attitudes and Knowledge on Energy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1982-01-01

    A 64-item questionnaire was used to determine college students' (N=1,515) attitudes/knowledge on energy issues. Comparisons were made between classroom (nonvolunteers) and library (volunteers) participants on opinions regarding energy situation, attitudes regarding energy future, energy-related knowledge questions, and attitude/knowledge change…

  9. University students' knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraception pills.

    PubMed

    Downing, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess university students' knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraception pills (ECPs). A written survey was administered to a convenience sample at a university. Study findings showed favorable student attitudes toward ECP and poor knowledge levels. Knowledge and attitude scores were not influenced by gender. Students who reported receiving health care provider ECP counseling had more positive attitudes toward ECP than those who did not receive counseling, but no knowledge level difference existed. More research is needed on methods to educate students on ECP and on the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and ECP utilization.

  10. [Beliefs, attitudes and knowledge about sex education].

    PubMed

    Fernández, L; Bustos, L; González, L; Palma, D; Villagrán, J; Muñoz, S

    2000-06-01

    Previous reports show that Chilean teenagers have an inadequate knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. To compare the knowledge about sexuality among adolescents coming from private and public schools, with and without sexual education programs. A structured anonymous inquiry, containing multiple choice and open questions, was applied to a sample of 229 adolescents attending seventh and eighth grade of junior school, in private and public schools of Temuco, Chile. Eleven percent of adolescents had already their first sexual intercourse at a mean age of 12.2 +/- 2.4 years old. Of these, 96% came from public schools. An overall analysis of tests, disclosed a 53% of correct answers to the inquiry. Adolescents coming from private schools had a better performance than those coming from public schools. Sexual attitudes were not influenced by sexual education programs. Adolescents coming from private schools have a better sexual knowledge level and more conservative attitudes towards sexuality. Overall knowledge is inadequate albeit overvalued. These teenagers are high risk group for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases and require efficient sexual education programs.

  11. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    PubMed

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P < .05) were found for nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P < .05) with nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  13. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  14. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  15. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  16. A Survey of 25 North Carolina Health Departments/Districts on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices to Seeking Reimbursement From Third-Party Payers for Sexually Transmitted Disease Services.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Cheryl L; Carter, Susan

    2017-06-01

    North Carolina Administrative Code 10A Chapter 41A.0204 (a) states "local health departments shall provide diagnosis, testing, treatment, follow-up, and preventive services for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, … These services shall be provided upon request and at no charge to the patient." Although health departments/districts may bill governmental or nongovernmental insurance providers for sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, current billing practices are unknown. Because of its high STD morbidity, the eastern region of North Carolina was targeted. Using a Qualtrics Survey developed to measure attitudes as well as knowledge and reimbursement practices, this descriptive study was performed with staff from 25 eastern North Carolina health departments/districts. Snowball sampling was used to allow for greater inclusion. Analysis of data was performed at the individual and agency level based on types of questions in the survey. For knowledge, 87% of the respondents reported being aware of the possibility of reimbursement from third-party payers/commercial insurance carriers for STD services. In regard to current billing of these services, 20 health departments/districts (80%) reported they were billing these payers. When asked about their attitude of seeking reimbursement from commercial insurance, 92% reported it was acceptable or very acceptable. But when asked if STD services should remain a free service at the health department, 55% supported and 45% did not. These data provide a knowledge base for assisting health departments/districts to move forward in improving STD services as well as maximizing reimbursement from third-party payers/commercial insurance carriers when possible.

  17. Therapeutic Recreation Professionals' Attitudes toward and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cherie; Dattilo, John

    1993-01-01

    Survey of therapeutic recreation professionals' attitudes toward persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and knowledge of AIDS found no significant relationship between knowledge and attitudes but a positive relationship between attendance at workshops and knowledge. Professionals who knowingly cared for persons with AIDS expressed…

  18. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  19. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iovanna, Juan; Mallmann, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Dagorn, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22655256

  20. Adolescent knowledge and attitudes about abortion.

    PubMed

    Stone, R; Waszak, C

    1992-01-01

    A focus-group study of adolescents from cities across the United States revealed that they lacked accurate knowledge about abortion and the laws governing it. Most expressed erroneous beliefs about abortion, describing it as medically dangerous, emotionally damaging and widely illegal. The study also revealed that antiabortion views, conservative morality and religious beliefs were the primary sources of these adolescents' attitudes toward abortion. In general, the participants in the study said they were personally opposed to abortion, but supported its continued legality as a woman's choice. Although most of the teenagers expressed positive feelings toward parents, they did not feel that mandatory parental involvement would be helpful, and in some cases could cause harm.

  1. Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students toward Electroconvulsive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nitasha; Ghai, Sandhya; Grover, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the commonly used treatment modalities for patients with severe mental disorders. However, acceptance of ECT by the patient and relatives often depends on how the health-care professionals themselves present the treatment modality to the patients and their relatives. There is a lack of information about the knowledge and attitude toward ECT among health professionals. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge about and attitude toward ECT among nursing students. Methodology: Knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among nursing students were assessed using ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires. Results: The study included 183 nursing students. Majority (n = 62; 60.8%) of the participants obtained information about ECT from media (movies, television, print media, etc.). None of the students had full knowledge about ECT. Although a significant proportion of students had knowledge about the ECT procedure and consent procedure, majority of them had poor knowledge about the effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, and side effects of ECT. Negative attitudes were also highly prevalent, with more than two-thirds of the participants having negative attitudes toward ECT on more than half of the attitude items of the scale. Total knowledge score positively correlated with total attitude score, suggesting that higher knowledge was associated with more positive attitude. Conclusions: Although nursing students have knowledge about basic ECT procedure and consent, they lack knowledge about the effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, and side effects of ECT. Negative attitude toward ECT is also highly prevalent among nursing students. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the knowledge and address the negative attitude of nursing students, which may ultimately lead to better acceptance of the treatment. PMID:28936064

  2. Abused and neglected children in court: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Block, Stephanie D; Oran, Howard; Oran, Diane; Baumrind, Nikki; Goodman, Gail S

    2010-09-01

    After maltreated children are taken into protective custody, dependency courts determine the children's placements. Many, if not most, maltreated children never attend their dependency court hearings. We had the rare opportunity to interview children in a jurisdiction where children regularly attend their detention hearings in dependency court. Our main goals were to assess maltreated children's knowledge and attitudes about their court experiences and identify predictors thereof. We also examined if the maltreated children desired greater participation in dependency court decisions. Immediately after attending their dependency court hearings, 7- to 10-year-olds were interviewed about their knowledge of, attitudes concerning, and participation in dependency court. Information was also extracted from the children's dependency court files. Lack of understanding and negative attitudes were common. Age predicted court knowledge, and age, anxiety, court knowledge, abuse type, and criminal court referral predicted attitudes. Qualitative findings included that a substantial minority of children did not feel believed or listened to, and most children wanted to return home. This research is relevant to current debates about the extent to which children should be involved in legal decisions. The results suggest that maltreated children may profit from greater understanding of dependency court. Moreover, the findings indicate that children often wish to have greater influence in dependency court decisions. Professionals should consider providing children involved in dependency court hearings with age-appropriate information about the legal proceedings. Children may also benefit in dependency hearings from the opportunity, directly or indirectly (through their attorneys), to give voice to their wishes and needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current knowledge on esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Paulo Fernando Martins; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Regina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common congenital anomaly of the esophagus. The improvement of survival observed over the previous two decades is multifactorial and largely attributable to advances in neonatal intensive care, neonatal anesthesia, ventilatory and nutritional support, antibiotics, early surgical intervention, surgical materials and techniques. Indeed, mortality is currently limited to those cases with coexisting severe life-threatening anomalies. The diagnosis of EA is most commonly made during the first 24 h of life but may occur either antenatally or may be delayed. The primary surgical correction for EA and TEF is the best option in the absence of severe malformations. There is no ideal replacement for the esophagus and the optimal surgical treatment for patients with long-gap EA is still controversial. The primary complications during the postoperative period are leak and stenosis of the anastomosis, gastro-esophageal reflux, esophageal dysmotility, fistula recurrence, respiratory disorders and deformities of the thoracic wall. Data regarding long-term outcomes and follow-ups are limited for patients following EA/TEF repair. The determination of the risk factors for the complicated evolution following EA/TEF repair may positively impact long-term prognoses. Much remains to be studied regarding this condition. This manuscript provides a literature review of the current knowledge regarding EA. PMID:22851858

  4. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  5. Medical students and interns' knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Medical professionals' attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns' knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from 'true', 'false', or 'don't know'. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice.

  6. Sun protection among Spanish beachgoers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p = 0.032), educational level (p < 0.0001), sunscreen use (p = 0.048) and adequate timing of the first application of sunscreens (p = 0.015) were predictors of awareness, while factors associated with a more favourable attitude were educational level (p < 0.0001) and regular use of hats (p = 0.001). Wrong beliefs mainly concern sunscreens (false safety); the attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population.

  7. [Knowledge and attitudes on breastfeeding among parturients].

    PubMed

    Mujkić, Aida; Vuletić, Gorka

    2004-01-01

    During human history, the natural process of breastfeeding has become ever less present as a mode of infant feeding. Numerous incentives have been introduced worldwide to stop this unfavorable trend. The aim of the study was to find the basic attitudes and knowledge about breastfeeding among mothers after delivery while they were at maternity wards. Two surveys were conducted, with 940 participants in 1989-1990, and 626 participants in 1997. The women answered a self administered questionnaire with multiple choice questions. Data from the 1989-1990 and 1997 surveys were analyzed and compared. A high percentage of women (98%), stated that they wanted to breastfeed their children, but only about 44% of them expected it to be problem-free. A great number of women did not know how and when to estimate milk secretion, or its adequacy for the baby. A significant proportion of the mothers believe that milk of some women is "watery" and thus inappropriate for their children. A great number of mothers (83%), answered correctly that the child need to be fed on demand rather than according to a strict schedule. In the second phase of the survey some positive changes in their knowledge were found, however, yet quite inadequate. Comprehensive and continuing education about breastfeeding of future mothers and fathers and the society as a whole is required.

  8. Student Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Psychotropic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Kia J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 260 graduate social work students found their knowledge of and attitudes toward psychotropic medication uneven and lower than desirable. Results also suggest personal and professional experiences influence knowledge and attitudes. It is recommended that social work course content be expanded to include relevant information on these…

  9. Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

  10. Combating Ageism: Change in Student Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…

  11. Slovakian Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea; Kubiatko, Milan; Diran, Carla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…

  12. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  13. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  14. Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

  15. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  16. Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Students' Knowledge and Attitudes about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ashvind N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of knowledge and attitudes of 220 adolescents with severe emotional disturbances toward AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection found most students knew the main modes of HIV transmission. Student age, race, and gender were related to level of knowledge and attitudes toward people with…

  17. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  18. Slovakian Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea; Kubiatko, Milan; Diran, Carla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…

  19. Fetal growth restriction: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Caetano, Ana Carolina Rabachini; Zamarian, Ana Cristina Perez; Mazzola, Jaqueline Brandão; Silva, Carolina Pacheco; Marçal, Vivian Macedo Gomes; Lobo, Thalita Frutuoso; Peixoto, Alberto Borges; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-05-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition that affects 5-10% of pregnancies and is the second most common cause of perinatal mortality. This review presents the most recent knowledge on FGR and focuses on the etiology, classification, prediction, diagnosis, and management of the condition, as well as on its neurological complications. The Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Embase databases were searched using the term "fetal growth restriction". Fetal growth restriction (FGR) may be classified as early or late depending on the time of diagnosis. Early FGR (<32 weeks) is associated with substantial alterations in placental implantation with elevated hypoxia, which requires cardiovascular adaptation. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high. Late FGR (≥32 weeks) presents with slight deficiencies in placentation, which leads to mild hypoxia and requires little cardiovascular adaptation. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are lower. The diagnosis of FGR may be clinical; however, an arterial and venous Doppler ultrasound examination is essential for diagnosis and follow-up. There are currently no treatments to control FGR; the time at which pregnancy is interrupted is of vital importance for protecting both the mother and fetus. Early diagnosis of FGR is very important, because it enables the identification of the etiology of the condition and adequate monitoring of the fetal status, thereby minimizing risks of premature birth and intrauterine hypoxia.

  20. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  1. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338

  2. [Breast feeding: knowledge, attitudes and sociocultural ambiguity].

    PubMed

    Paricio Talayero, J M; Santos Serrano, L; Fernández Feijoo, A; Martí Barranco, E; Bernal Ferrer, A; Ferriol Camacho, M; Sánchez Palomares, M; Lucas Abad, M L

    1999-10-15

    Found sociocultural attitude with regard to breast-feeding (BF) between the sanitary (SP) and no sanitary personnel (NSP) of health centers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. 4 health centres and 3 hospitals of Valencia. 442 workers of these centres. Structured questionnaire. 88% of SP and 76% of NSP (p < 0.05) believed that BF has many advantages comparing with artificial-feeding in a developed country. SP said more advantages of BF than NSP (p < 0.0001). Most renowned advantages were immunological, affective relationship and comfort. Main inconveniences were dependence, work reasons, aesthetic nature and insecurity in the ingested amount. 56% of SP and 86% of NSP (p < 0.0001) believed milk's analysis necessary. 56% women and 38% men (p < 0.001) didn't see correct give BF in public. Men were more concerned than women (p < 0.05) for local problems of chest, aesthetic results, milk's quality and transmission of illnesses. It's necessary to support knowledge and re-evaluating the trust in the nutritious capacity of maternal milk between the personnel of health centers and hospitals. Generic ambiguity toward functions of feminine breast exists and public'BF isn't acceptable. It's necessary recover socioculturally the image of BF and keep in mind the existent ambiguity upon designing campaigns of promotion.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Forero, David A; Chaparro, Pablo E; Vallejo, Andres F; Benavides, Yoldy; Gutiérrez, Juan B; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2014-05-01

    Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity.

  5. Attitudes, knowledge, and intentions related to breastfeeding among university undergraduate women and men.

    PubMed

    Marrone, Sonia; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine university undergraduate women's and men's attitudes and knowledge toward breastfeeding. Data were gathered for 111 women and 50 men. Data showed a significant relationship between positive attitudes toward breastfeeding and exposure to breastfeeding. Women and participants older than 20 years scored higher on measures of knowledge and attitudes. Results indicated that positive attitude toward breastfeeding was a significant predictor of intention to breastfeed among women and men. In conclusion, the results suggest that understanding attitudes among young adults is an important line of research. Further studies are needed to develop and evaluate interventions aimed at improving attitudes about breastfeeding and increasing initiation of breastfeeding among this population.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and label use among college students.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ranjita

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the relationships among nutrition education, knowledge, attitude, use of nutritional supplements, and label reading behavior among 537 randomly selected college students using a conceptual model. The majority of the respondents were women, undergraduate students, and nonsmokers. The mean age was 23+/-6.1 years. A higher percentage of undergraduate students and women had prior exposure to nutrition education, a positive attitude, and greater knowledge of food labels as compared to their graduate and male peers. The structural equation model indicated nutrition education, age, sex, and attitude predicted label use; prior nutrition education and a positive attitude exhibited the strongest (direct) effects on label reading behavior. Attitude mediated the relationship between knowledge and label reading behavior. The indexes of fit for the tested model indicated a good fit; the predictors accounted for 44% of the variance in label usage.

  7. Israeli Dying Patient Act: physician knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Doron, Dana; Wexler, Isaiah D; Shabtai, Esther; Corn, Benjamin W

    2014-12-01

    The recently enacted Israeli Dying Patient Act was designed to strike balance between enhancing patient autonomy in end-of-life decision making and cultural/religious norms that are in opposition to active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). The current study evaluated physician attitudes regarding active and passive euthanasia, and their knowledge of specific aspects of the law. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of hospital-based physicians treating terminal patients. Physicians were queried about their attitudes regarding euthanasia and PAS. Physicians were also queried about specific aspects of the law and whether they had sufficient resources to uphold the law. Surveys were distributed to 270 physicians and 100 were returned and evaluated (37%). Nearly all physicians supported passive euthanasia (withholding treatment), whereas over 40% maintained that active forms of euthanasia should be allowed for terminal patients in severe physical pain. Multivariate analysis showed a negative relationship between support for more active forms of euthanasia and physicians' self-reported religiosity. Physicians cited lack of time as a reason for not complying with the new law. Physicians had a familiarity with the general aspects of the new legislation, but a large proportion was not aware of the specifics of the law. Compared with previous surveys, a larger number of physicians support passive euthanasia. A sizable percentage of physicians would be willing to participate in active euthanasia and even PAS. Attitudes toward euthanasia are influenced by religious factors.

  8. Computer Use, Confidence, Attitudes, and Knowledge: A Causal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Tamar; Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a causal model which links measures of computer experience, computer-related attitudes, computer-related confidence, and perceived computer-based knowledge. The causal model suggests that computer use has a positive effect on perceived computer self-confidence, as well as on computer-related attitudes. Questionnaires were administered…

  9. Civil Defense: An Analysis of Attitudes and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marko, George Franklin

    The study aimed at constructing, validating, and testing two instruments, one of which measured attitude change toward Civil Defense adult education, and one which measured level of knowledge about Civil Defense practices; and evaluating the effectiveness of the Personal and Family Survival (PFS) Course in terms of attitude change and knowledge…

  10. Law Related Education: Assessing Adolescents' Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, James L.; And Others

    A study is described which examined the relationships between law-related knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of high school students. Participants were 457 students in grades nine through 12 from four high schools near Phoenix, Arizona. Three questionnaires were administered: (1) a 65-item social attitude questionnaire on…

  11. [Current knowledge of bacterial vaginosis].

    PubMed

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Opavski, Nataša; Mijač, Vera; Ranin, Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, earlier termed nonspecific vaginitis (anaerobic vaginosis) because of the absence of recognized pathogens, is most common vaginal syndrome of women of childbearing age affecting 15-30%. This syndrome, whose aetiology and pathogenesis remains unknown, is characterized by significant changes in the vaginal ecosystem. These changes consist of a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and a large increase in the number of anaerobic organisms. The bacteria adhere to desquamated epithelial cells with a distinctive appearance of clue cells The main complaints of women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis include vaginal discharge and odour. However, a significant number of all women who have bacterial vaginosis deny symptoms. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with a number of gynaecologic and obstetric complications including cervicitis, cervical neoplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, postoperative infections, and preterm labour.The diagnosis is most frequently made based on vaginal smear stained according to Gram (Nugent scoring method). Metronidazole and clindamycin are the drugs of choice for treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. Which women should undergo treatment? According to the prevailing attitude, it should include women with symptoms. Symptomatic women with frequent relapses of bacterial vaginosisas, as a rule, have poor response to the applied therapy. To achieve better efficiency in the treatment of such women, it is necessary to have more extensive understanding of all factors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  12. Environmental knowledge and attitudes and behaviours towards energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Paço, Arminda; Lavrador, Tânia

    2017-07-15

    Numerous investigations have arisen in order to study and characterise environmentally friendly consumer profiles, with some authors applying the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour to this end. The present research approach, based upon the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), seeks to verify the existence of relationships between knowledge and attitudes and between knowledge and environmental behaviour. In this instance, data collection involved a questionnaire aimed at assessing the overall environmental knowledge of respondents as well as their attitudes and behaviours regarding energy issues (savings, consumption, interest, use). The results pointed to the lack of relationship between knowledge and attitudes, and between knowledge and behaviour whilst the relationship between attitudes and behaviour proved to be only weak. The results also found that males, older students and those studying Engineering and the Social and Human Sciences are those reporting higher levels of environmental knowledge. However, when it comes to attitudes and behaviours, females seem to display more awareness around these issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Men of diverse cultures: knowledge and attitudes about breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Christine A; Bustamante-Forest, Rosa; Giarratano, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was three-fold: (a) to describe the knowledge of and attitudes on breastfeeding of men from diverse racial backgrounds, (b) to determine the relationship between knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding, and (c) to determine the relationship between specified demographic variables and men's knowledge or attitudes on breastfeeding. Descriptive An inner-city teaching hospital and its associated prenatal clinic located in the southern United States. One hundred men from diverse cultures who spoke either English or Spanish, were 18 years of age or older, and were present at either the hospital maternity units or associated prenatal clinic. Eighty-one percent (81%) of the men in this study indicated that they would prefer their infants to be breastfed. Ethnicity and age were found to be linked to attitudes and knowledge of breastfeeding. This study demonstrated that men had a strong desire that their infants be breastfed and wanted to be included in decisions concerning breastfeeding.

  14. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  15. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  16. Gendered contexts: masculinity, knowledge, and attitudes toward biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M

    2011-05-01

    Research into the public understanding of science has revealed that the effect of scientific knowledge on attitudes toward science is contextualized by gender; however there has not yet been an account of how gender contextualizes knowledge. This paper investigates how gender identification affects attitudes toward science, and tempers the effects of scientific knowledge on attitudes toward science. Utilizing data from the Eurobarometer 52.1, it is predicted that when males perceive a threat to their masculinity (as measured by a perceived threat to their financial security) they will become more likely to be aversive to biotechnology, and that increased levels of perceived threat will reduce the effects of knowledge on attitudes toward biotechnology. Moreover, it is predicted that these effects will be smaller than their female counterparts. All predictions are affirmed.

  17. Airbags: an exploratory survey of public knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T F; Sussman, D; Graham, J D

    1999-07-01

    The present study examines public knowledge and opinion in the United States on issues related to airbag safety. Data were obtained through a national random digit-dial telephone survey of 1005 people living in the contiguous 48 United States. A majority of respondents (1) know that airbags can harm drivers seated too close to the steering wheel; (2) know that rear-facing infant seats should not be placed in the front seat of a car with passenger-side airbags; and (3) know that airbags are saving more lives of women drivers than are being lost. However, most respondents did not know that (1) airbags are killing more children than they are saving; (2) airbags can injure properly belted drivers; and (3) the majority of the lives saved by airbags have been among people who were not wearing safety belts. Knowledge of airbag risks to children and properly belted drivers was significantly associated with a less favorable attitude toward airbags, and with opposition toward the law mandating airbags on all new cars. Drivers of vehicles equipped with airbags held more favorable attitudes toward airbag technology. Further analysis suggests that as the public begins to understand the risks associated with airbags, the current high level of public support for the technology and the mandatory regulation may decline.

  18. Religious beliefs, knowledge about science and attitudes towards medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Allum, Nick; Sibley, Elissa; Sturgis, Patrick; Stoneman, Paul

    2014-10-01

    The use of genetics in medical research is one of the most important avenues currently being explored to enhance human health. For some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be at minimum worrying and at most repugnant. In particular, religious doctrines are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. The key ingredient for acceptance of genetics, on the other hand, is prototypically assumed to be scientific literacy - familiarity and understanding of the critical facts and methods of science. However, this binary opposition between science and religion runs counter to what is often found in practice. In this paper, we examine the association between religiosity, science knowledge and attitudes to medical genetics amongst the British public. In particular, we test the hypothesis that religion acts as a 'perceptual filter' through which citizens acquire and use scientific knowledge in the formation of attitudes towards medical genetics in various ways.

  19. Construction of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire for assessing plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  20. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    PubMed Central

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  1. 78 FR 76315 - Proposed Information Collection; Survey of Rancher Knowledge and Attitudes About Jaguar Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... About Jaguar Habitat Conservation in Southern Arizona AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward jaguar habitat, the level of knowledge regarding... intended to benefit jaguar habitat. This survey is necessary because there is currently no statistically...

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural kashmir.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Humera; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Imtiyaz, Bhat; Hayat, Gazala; Hayat, Rehana

    2013-12-01

    Human fertility is determined by many factors such as customs, morals and habits of social groups with regard to marital obligation of life. Acceptance of family planning methods varies within and between societies and there are many factors which are responsible for such variation at community, family and individual level. Socioeconomic environment, culture and education are few of them that play a vital role. Jammu and Kashmir state in general and Kashmir valley in particular is a Muslim-dominated population with traditionally a conservative society. Apart from family customs and influence of the elders, religious background has always been behind the passive resistance, or at the best indifference towards contraception. This study makes an attempt to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural Kashmir. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural Kashmir. Community-based Cross-Sectional study. December 2006 to May 2008. 1900 currently married women in the age group of 15-49 years of age. Rural households. 1900 currently married women, aged 15-49 years, selected by multi-stage random sampling technique from three districts of Kashmir valley who were interviewed at home using a pretested oral questionnaire. The assessment of various socioeconomic and other variables made as per the available standard procedures and scales. Percentage, Chi square test and Bivariate analysis. Knowledge of the contraceptive methods was fairly good especially for terminal methods i.e. female sterilization (97.7 %). Main source of information on contraception was obtained from mass media (60.4 %). Contraceptive practice was significantly related to number of living children, literacy, socioeconomic status and type of family. What is needed is to promote and stress contraceptive methods and their advantages using mass media approach and to explore more and more participation of private sector.

  3. Portuguese nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; da Silva, Alcione Leite; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice.

  4. Breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes among Egyptian baccalaureate students.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A; el-Guindy, S R

    2011-09-01

    To assess the breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes and perceived adequacy of breastfeeding education among baccalaureate nursing students in Cairo, Egypt. Self-confidence to provide breastfeeding support for mothers was also investigated. Nurses play a crucial role in promoting breastfeeding. Studies in Western countries have found inadequate breastfeeding knowledge among undergraduate nursing students. No published literature about breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes among nursing students in Egypt was found. An exploratory descriptive study used a sample of 110 baccalaureate nursing students from Cairo, Egypt. Students who had completed maternal/child nursing didactic and clinical courses were eligible to participate. Ninety two (83.6%) students completed the survey during spring 2009. We used a Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire adapted from Brodribb et al. to measure breastfeeding knowledge and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale to test students' breastfeeding attitudes. Students' age ranged from 18 to 21 years with a mean of 19.5±1.2 with 75% being female. The mean breastfeeding knowledge score was 12.41 points out of 24, which represents 52% of the total score. The attitudes mean score was 3.13±0.64. There was a significant relationship between the students' knowledge and attitudes scores (r=0.236, P=0.011). Eighty per cent of the students reported that they received adequate breastfeeding knowledge and skills in their nursing programme, and 70% were confident in their ability to provide breastfeeding support. Results revealed weak breastfeeding knowledge scores among students and neutral breastfeeding attitudes. Strategies to improve breastfeeding education in nursing curriculum focusing on breastfeeding management skills are warranted. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  5. Adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases: attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L S; Rozmus, C; Edmisson, K

    1999-06-01

    This study described rural adolescents' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values with regard to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rotter's Social Learning Theory (1954) provided the theoretical framework for this descriptive, correlational design. The convenience sample consisted of 170 students from one rural high school. Consistent with past studies, results included the following: participants had more correct than incorrect knowledge related to sexual intercourse and STDs; the majority had positive attitudes toward condom use and believed it was OK for peers to have sex with a "steady;" the value of an exciting life correlated positively with attitudes toward sex; knowledge of sexual intercourse correlated positively with attitudes toward condom use; and the value health correlated positively with knowledge of sex and attitudes toward condom use, and negatively with attitudes toward sex. The findings in this study suggest the need for ongoing research with adolescents in the area of sexuality and STDs. Additionally, the findings support past studies, which revealed that knowledge of sexual intercourse and STDs has little impact on attitudes toward sexual intercourse. With the serious nature of some of the undesired consequences of adolescent sexual behavior, current and accurate information on this population is needed to assist health educators in developing interventions in this area.

  6. Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Medical Professionalism among Students and Junior Doctors in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Ramsewak, SS; Youssef, FF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The past decade has seen an increasing focus on professionalism within the medical school curriculum. This reflects the growing demand for doctors who demonstrate empathy and uphold the altruistic values of the Hippocratic Oath. Such is often challenged by the resource-constrained environments of developing nations requiring uniquely tailored interventions within these regions. Purpose: As part of a wider effort to develop training of medical professionalism at our institution, an initiative was pursued to assess the current knowledge about and attitudes toward medical professionalism. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study of fourth and fifth year medical students and junior doctors. A questionnaire was adapted and revised from a previously published study. Questions were grouped into categories pertaining to knowledge about professionalism and attitudes toward professionalism. Overall, 191 questionnaires were analysed (168 students and 23 doctors). Results: Junior doctors'scores were higher than medical students for all knowledge subscales but scores on the attitude subscales were significantly lower than medical students. Overall, in both groups, attitude scores were higher than knowledge scores. There was an overall trend of decreasing attitude scores as persons progressed through their training years and into clinical practice. Conclusions: Results demonstrate limited knowledge about medical professionalism but good attitudes toward this trait. Taken together, this perhaps highlights a receptivity toward more formal training within this area that is also justified by the marked decline in attitude scores over time. PMID:26360688

  7. Pharmacy students' knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Fejza, Albina; Kryeziu, Zeqir; Kadrija, Kushtrim; Musa, Malbora

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated prescription behavior of antibiotics upon graduation. The data was statistically analyzed through using SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analysis was employed, and the results were expressed in frequency and percentages. The results showcased a good knowledge of antibiotic among students. The most common answer of students' knowledge about antibiotics was good or moderate (82 %), while 63.2% of the subjects used antibiotics by self-decision, most of them (45 %) for sore throat. Upon graduation, 56.9 % of the students will not sell antibiotics without prescription and 85.4% think that module for rational use of antibiotics is very necessary to be inside the pharmacy syllabus. The study showed good and moderate knowledge of pharmacy students regarding the antibiotics. Half of them use antibiotics by self-decision but the majority of them stated that they will not serve the antibiotics without medical prescription. Specific modules and training for proper antibiotic use should be implemented within the Pharmacy program in The Faculty of Medicine.

  8. High School Football Players' Knowledge and Attitudes About Concussions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brit L; Gittelman, Michael A; Mann, Jessica K; Cyriac, RoseAnn L; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2016-05-01

    To assess high school (HS) football players' knowledge of concussions and to determine whether increased knowledge is correlated with better attitudes toward reporting concussion symptoms and abstaining from play. Two survey tools were used to assess athletes' knowledge and attitudes about concussions. Surveys collected information about demographics, knowledge about concussions, and attitudes about playing sports after a concussion. All athletes present completed one of the 2 surveys. A knowledge and attitude score for each survey was calculated. Frequencies and mean values were used to characterize the population; regression analysis, analysis of variance, and t tests were used to look for associations. A football camp for HS athletes in the Cincinnati area. Male HS football players from competitive football programs in the Cincinnati area. None. Scores on knowledge and attitude sections; responses to individual questions. One hundred twenty (100%) athletes were enrolled although not every athlete responded to every question. Thirty (25%) reported history of a concussion; 82 (70%) reported receiving prior concussion education. More than 75% correctly recognized all concussion symptoms that were asked, except "feeling in a fog" [n = 63 (53%)]. One hundred nine (92%) recognized a risk of serious injury if they return to play too quickly. Sixty-four (54%) athletes would report symptoms of a concussion to their coach; 62 (53%) would continue to play with a headache from an injury. There was no association between knowledge score and attitude score (P = 0.08). Despite having knowledge about the symptoms and danger of concussions, many HS football athletes in our sample did not have a positive attitude toward reporting symptoms or abstaining from play after a concussion. Physicians should be aware that young athletes may not report concussion symptoms.

  9. Nigerian dentists' knowledge and attitudes towards mouthguard protection.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Arowojolu, M O; Okoje, V N

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Nigerian dentists towards mouthguard protection. A pre-tested 15-item, one-page questionnaire was distributed to 185 dentists practising in different parts of the country with government hospitals or private establishments, by 'hand-delivery' system. Filled and returned forms were 170 (response rate of 92%). The period of the survey was between April and August 2003. Dental graduates from the different dental schools in the country responded to this survey. About 49% of the respondents indicated having only classroom lectures on mouthguards during their undergraduate trainings, 11% said they had some laboratory sessions in addition while no form of education on mouthguards was received by 40%. About 82% had never recommended mouthguard protection for athletic patients, and the major reason was no formal training in the subject. Only 58.5% were familiar with the different types of mouthguards, 75.9% would not be able to supervise or fabricate mouthguards and 50.6% would prefer custom-made mouthguard for their athletic patients. About 84% felt the current training on mouthguards in Nigerian dental schools is inadequate. Over 98% agreed that mouthguard usage in contact sports should be encouraged with the involvement of the dentists. The knowledge and attitudes of the respondents towards mouthguard protection did not vary significantly across years of postqualification from dental schools as well as the professional status of the dentists (P > 0.05). Although Nigerian dentists support mouthguard protection in contact sports and want to be involved in the provision of mouthguards for athletes, their knowledge of the protective device is inadequate. There is need for attention to be given to this subject in the undergraduate curricula of our dental schools. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  10. Nutrition and shiftwork: evaluation of new paramedics' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Amanda B; Rossiter, Melissa D; Jensen, Jan L

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an oral education intervention on nutrition knowledge was evaluated in new paramedic employees. The evaluation involved measuring knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition and shiftwork before and after the directed intervention. A convenience sample of 30 new paramedic shiftworkers attended a 15-minute education session focused on nutrition management strategies. This matched cohort study included three self-administered surveys. Survey 1 was completed before education, survey 2 immediately after education, and survey 3 after one month of concurrent post-education and employment experience. Knowledge and attitude scores were analyzed for differences between all surveys. Participants were primary care paramedics, 59% of whom were male. They reported that previously they had not received this type of information or had received only a brief lecture. Mean knowledge scores increased significantly from survey 1 to survey 2; knowledge retention was identified in survey 3. A significant difference was found between surveys 2 and 3 for attitudes toward meal timing; no other significant differences were found between attitude response scores. The education session was successful in improving shiftwork nutrition knowledge among paramedics. Paramedics' attitudes toward proper nutrition practices were positive before the education intervention.

  11. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  12. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin®. PMID:26355220

  13. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors regarding Sex and Contraceptives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…

  14. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Sun; Moon, Seongmi; Kim, Eun Jung

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine public level of knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and potential drug resistance. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 1,177 residents aged 18 or over was conducted in Korea. A quota sampling method was used. Most respondents (70%) did not know that antibiotics are ineffective in treating coughs and colds. Two-thirds of the respondents were unaware of the conditions under which antibiotic resistance occurs, despite understanding the concept of resistance. Lower education level and older age were independently associated with inadequate knowledge. Lower education level, older age, inadequate knowledge and no exposure to the education campaign were independently associated with poor attitude. The results of this study demonstrate that the general public has misunderstandings and a lack of knowledge with regard to antibiotic use, despite a national educational campaign. However, the campaign may have had an effect on the public's attitudes towards antibiotics.

  15. Correlates of Social Work Students' Abortion Knowledge and Attitudes: Implications for Education and Research.

    PubMed

    Begun, Stephanie; Bird, Melissa; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Massey Combs, Katie; McKay, Kimberly

    2016-07-01

    Researchers have established that individuals' abortion knowledge is positively associated with their support of abortion rights. However, social workers' personal beliefs regarding abortion are under-researched, even though social workers are often employed in health promotion and education roles in which the topic of abortion is encountered. The current study examines the results of a nationwide survey of social work students (N = 504) and explores the relationship between social work students' abortion knowledge and abortion attitudes. Less abortion knowledge was significantly associated with antichoice attitude endorsement. Implications for social work research, training, and education are subsequently discussed.

  16. [Gender violence: Knowledge and attitudes of nurses in Primary Care].

    PubMed

    Valdés Sánchez, Carmen Ana; García Fernández, Carla; Sierra Díaz, Ángela

    2016-12-01

    To determine the knowledge and attitudes of nurses in Primary Care as regards gender violence and their relationship with socio-demographic factors and cases detected. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Urban health centres. A total of 167 nurses working in Primary Care. A questionnaire was used that included questions related to knowledge, knowledge perception and attitudes to gender violence attitudes. Variables such as age, gender, marital status, work place and health area were also analysed. The response rate was 114 (68.26%). The percentage of correct responses in the knowledge questions was 62.2%, with a medium level of knowledge being observed. Married nurses or couples living in a stable relationship obtained a higher score (95.2%, P=.077). The low detection (29%) is associated with marital status (P=.004), low knowledge (P=0,008), low knowledge perception (P=.001), lack of training (P=.03) and non-implementation of the gender violence protocol (P=.001). Nurses with low self-perception of their knowledge implement the protocol less often (OR=0.26; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7), and they consider that the lack of training is the main problem in determining the diagnosis (OR=11.24; 95% CI: 1.5-81.1). The level of knowledge was adequate. Nurses have a lack of confidence in terms of their knowledge about gender violence. The detection and diagnosis attitudes are more related to self-perception of levels of knowledge than their real knowledge. Marital status influences the level of knowledge. Professionals state that the lack of training is the main problem to give an efficient healthcare response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  18. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Aqeel Munahi; Ansari, Tahir; Sami, Waqas; Baz, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor. PMID:27695227

  19. Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.

    PubMed

    Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili

    2006-04-01

    The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

  20. Impact of family planning health education on the knowledge and attitude among Yasoujian women.

    PubMed

    Mahamed, Fariba; Parhizkar, Saadat; Raygan Shirazi, Alireza

    2012-02-29

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception's method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. RESULTS showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents' knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents' knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.

  1. Physicians’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Implantable Cardioverter- Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Sherazi, Saadia; Zareba, Wojciech; Daubert, James P.; McNitt, Scott; Shah, Abrar H.; Aktas, Mehmet K.; Block, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Information is limited regarding the knowledge and attitudes of physicians typically involved in the referral of patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Methods We conducted a survey of primary care physicians and cardiologists at the University of Rochester Medical Center and the Unity Health System Rochester, NY from December 2008 to February 2009. The survey collected information regarding knowledge and attitudes of physicians towards ICD therapy. Results Of the 332 surveys distributed, 110 (33%) were returned. Over-all 94 (87%) physicians reported referring patients for ICD implantation. Eighteen (17%) physicians reported unawareness of guidelines for ICD use. Sixty-four (59%) physicians recommended ICD in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35%. Sixty-five (62%) physicians use ≤ 35% as LVEF criteria for ICD referral in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Cardiologists were more familiar than primary care physicians with LVEF criteria for implantation of ICD in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (p value 0.005 and 0.002 respectively). Twenty-nine (27%) participants were unsure regarding benefits of ICDs in eligible women and Blacks. Eighty two (76%) physicians believed that an ICD could benefit patients ≥70 years whereas only 53 (49%) indicated that an ICD would benefit patients ≥ 80 years of age. A lack of familiarity with current clinical guidelines regarding ICD implantation exists. Primary care physicians are less aware of clinical guidelines than are cardiologists. This finding highlights the need to improve the dissemination of guidelines to primary care physicians in an effort to improve ICD utilization. PMID:20535717

  2. Knowledge, attitudes towards and acceptability of genetic modification in Germany.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Inken B; Bruhn, Maike; Roosen, Jutta

    2008-07-01

    Genetic modification remains a controversial issue. The aim of this study is to analyse the attitudes towards genetic modification, the knowledge about it and its acceptability in different application areas among German consumers. Results are based on a survey from spring 2005. An exploratory factor analysis is conducted to identify the attitudes towards genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that identified a cluster of supporters, of opponents and a group of indifferent consumers. Respondents' knowledge of genetics and biotechnology differs among the found clusters without revealing a clear relationship between knowledge and support of genetic modification. The acceptability of genetic modification varies by application area and cluster, and genetically modified non-food products are more widely accepted than food products. The perception of personal health risks has high explanatory power for attitudes and acceptability.

  3. Parental knowledge and attitudes towards dental radiography for children.

    PubMed

    Chiri, R; Awan, S; Archibald, S; Abbott, P V

    2013-06-01

    Radiographs are an essential part of most clinical dental examinations and diagnoses. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents towards dental radiographs for their children. A 21-item questionnaire, covering parental level of radiation knowledge and socio-demographics was applied. Sliding scales were used to assess attitude towards dental radiographs. There were 1467 questionnaires distributed between five primary schools in the Perth (Western Australia) metropolitan area, with 309 surveys (21%) returned for collection. Most parents displayed a low level of knowledge, but had a positive attitude towards dental radiographs. Parents with children who have previously had dental radiographs perceived dental radiographs as 'good', 'useful' and 'pleasant'. A higher level of education and parents with children who have previously had radiographs were significantly associated with a higher level of knowledge about dental radiography. Parents who had higher scores on questions assessing radiation knowledge were more likely to perceive dental radiographs as 'safe' and 'beneficial'. Most parents have a positive attitude towards dental radiographs on their children. However, the majority of parents lack knowledge regarding dental radiography, especially regarding the risks involved. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Iranian Pilgrims

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Results: Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Conclusions: Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed. PMID:25838929

  5. Health knowledge, attitude and practice among Iranian pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser

    2015-02-01

    Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed.

  6. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, prior exposure, and intent among undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Katherine F; Lou, Zixin; Nicklas, Jennifer C; Habibi, Mona F; Murphy, Lee T

    2012-11-01

    Understanding breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and exposures among nonpregnant youth who are likely to be future parents may provide significant pathways to successfully increasing breastfeeding as the normal, accepted way of feeding infants. However, based on a recent review of the literature, only 3 studies have assessed these factors in nonpregnant, young adults in the United States in the past 10 years. The objective of this study was to gather more recent data regarding breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and prior exposure among undergraduate university students. This was a cross-sectional survey, conducted in November 2010. A convenience sample, consisting of undergraduates in attendance in 2 sections of an introductory nutrition class at a large research university, was used for this project (N = 248). Breastfeeding knowledge was relatively good. However, overall breastfeeding attitudes were more neutral, which appeared to be explained by the belief that breastfeeding is painful, restrictive, and inconvenient, both in general and specifically for the working mother. Though support for breastfeeding in public was low, men were significantly less likely than women to believe it to be embarrassing or unacceptable. In addition, breastfeeding attitudes were more positive among older students and those who were breastfed as infants. Those who were breastfed as infants were also significantly more likely to intend to breastfeed future children. Though this sample indicates good breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes were more neutral, and support for breastfeeding in public appears low. This finding is contradictory and warrants further exploration.

  7. High School Knowledge and Attitudes towards Thalassemia in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548

  8. HIV-related knowledge and attitudes among Indonesian prison officers.

    PubMed

    Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Suherman, Harry; Pinxten, W J Lucas; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hospers, Harm J

    2013-01-01

    Prison officers have a vital role in running a secure and healthy living environment for the inmates. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude towards inmates living with HIV among the officers in an Indonesian narcotics prison. A total of 93 officers from a narcotics prison in Bandung, Indonesia voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study by completing a self-reported questionnaire. A Prior focus group discussion was also held among selected participants. Statistical data analyses indicate that all domains of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, i.e. knowledge of HIV-transmission, general HIV/AIDS knowledge and knowledge of HIV-prevention, have substantial positive correlations with the prison officers' attitude towards inmates living with HIV. These results show that the more knowledgeable the officers are, the less likely they are to respond in an unfavourable manner to inmates living with HIV and vice versa. Despite the limited participants involved in this study, the knowledge gaps that are identified in this study should be the starting point for the development of educational interventions for prison officers. Sufficient educational programs and the latest materials need to be made available within the prison. Commitment from prison authorities as well as a proper policy are also needed. This study helped prison authorities to identify areas for knowledge development of the officers. Hopefully the positive attitude towards inmates living with HIV will be developed.

  9. Effects of Knowledge and Persuasion on High-School Students' Attitudes toward Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Reports a study designed to investigate the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. Principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and…

  10. Current knowledge of vitamin D in dogs.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Nicole; Verbrugghe, Adronie

    2017-12-12

    There is emerging interest in linking vitamin D status to physiological health and disease states in the dog, as evidenced by the recent increase in publications in this area. This research has most likely been spurred by the studies exploring vitamin D and disease in humans. However, there are important differences in vitamin D intake and metabolism between humans and dogs that should be accounted for. The understanding of basic vitamin D metabolism and the relationship between vitamin D intake and vitamin D status in dogs remains even more limited than current knowledge in humans. This review will summarize current knowledge of vitamin D in the dog, including metabolism and dietary recommendations. Emphasis is placed on the limitations to current knowledge. Studies investigating links between vitamin D and disease will be discussed in light of this knowledge. Suggestions for future research, including the development of reference ranges to define blood vitamin D sufficiency, are provided.

  11. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Anna; Church, Terri; Fancher-Gonzalez, Kim; Shackelford, Jamie; Lofton, Annelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure knowledge and attitudes of nursing about pain management in patients before education, immediately after, and 6 months later. The end-point measure was Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems quarterly scores and percentile rank. This longitudinal, quasi-experimental, quantitative study used survey method with pretest and posttest scores to measure immediate learning and 6 months later to measure sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes for nurses in this facility. The setting was a 360-bed acute care community hospital in the midsouth. The sample consisted of approximately 206 bedside nurses who worked in an acute care facility and 164 final posttest participants. The survey was used in a group setting immediately prior to a didactic learning experience. Immediately after the session, a posttest survey was administered. The 6-month follow-up occurred via an online module developed by the principal investigator. A repeated-measures analysis of variance, a pairwise comparison with a paired t test, and a Bonferroni correction were performed to determine if sustained knowledge and attitudes have changed. Posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores on the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain immediately after a didactic education session and 6 months later (P < .017). Six months later, scores remained higher than pretest or immediate posttest scores. Nurses with a stronger knowledge base may lead to better pain management, improved outcomes, and higher patient satisfaction scores.

  12. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and attitude among general dentists in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Alkandari, Sarah A.; Alyahya, Lolwa; Abdulwahab, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dentists as health care providers should maintain a competence in resuscitation. This cannot be overemphasized by the fact that the population in our country is living longer with an increasing proportion of medically compromised persons in the general population. This preliminary study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of general dentists towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 licensed general dental practitioners working in ministry of health. Data were obtained through electronic self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data of general dentists, and their experience, attitude and knowledge about CPR based on the 2010 American Heart Association guidelines update for CPR. RESULTS: Totally 208 general dentists took part in the present study giving a response rate of 83.2%. Only 36% of the participants demonstrated high knowledge on CPR, while 64% demonstrated low knowledge. Participants’ age, gender, nationality, years of experience, career hierarchy, and formal CPR training were associated significantly with CPR knowledge. Almost all the participants (99%) felt that dentists needed to be competent in basic resuscitation skills and showed a positive attitude towards attending continuing dental educational programs on CPR. CONCLUSION: This study showed that majority of general dental practitioners in Kuwait had inadequate knowledge on CPR. It was also found that CPR training significantly influenced the CPR knowledge of the participants. Therefore, training courses on CPR should be regularly provided to general dentists in the country. PMID:28123615

  13. Knowledge Management: Changing Cultures, Changing Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidorf, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of knowledge management focuses on a case study of an organizational research department that began implementing information management initiatives. Highlights include the role of the department, including organizing and disseminating different types of information; identifying stakeholders; upgrading skills; communications to all…

  14. Parental knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Reljić, Vesna; Gazibara, Tatjana; Nikolić, Miloš; Zarić, Milica; Maksimović, Nataša

    2017-03-01

    Successful control of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children depends on parents' knowledge on the disease and attitude toward ill child, but there is a lack studies exploring parental knowledge, attitude, and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate parents' knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward AD. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatovenereology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, between February 2015 and March 2016. Parents of children with AD were invited to complete the questionnaire, which was comprised of five parts: parental sociodemographic characteristics, demographic and clinical characteristics of children, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. To assess factors associated with a higher knowledge level on AD, stronger positive attitude, and more supportive behavior, we performed two multiple linear regression models. The average parental knowledge score was 9.5 ± 1.9 out of 12. The level of knowledge did not correlate with parental conviction that they were well-informed on AD (ρ = -0.121; P = 0.319). Older (β = 0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.16, P = 0.040), married/partnered parents (β = -2.14, 95% CI -3.55 to 0.72, P = 0.004), and those who have had AD themselves were more likely to be more knowledgeable on AD. Older (β = 0.18, 95% CI 0.01-0.34, P = 0.036) and employed (β = 3.99, 95% CI 1.59-6.38, P = 0.002) parents had stronger positive attitudes toward their children with AD. More supportive behavior of parents of children with AD was associated with being older (β = 0.24, 95% CI 0.04-0.45, P = 0.020) and less educated (β = -0.76, 95% CI -1.24 to 0.28, P = 0.003). The importance of understanding AD and accounting for attitudes by family members is obvious for successful control of the disease. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Nahid; Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism. PMID:23723614

  16. Palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Miyamoto, Yuki

    This study examined factors contributing to the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff regarding palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of 275 nurses and other care workers from 74 long-term care facilities was conducted across three prefectures in August 2014. The Japanese versions of the Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) and Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-J) were used. Greater knowledge was exhibited among nursing home staff in facilities that established a manual for end-of-life care. Higher levels of positive attitudes were observed among nursing home staff in facilities that had established a manual and those in facilities with a physician's written opinions on end-of-life care. An organisational effort should be explored to establish end-of-life care policies among nursing home staff for advanced dementia.

  17. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  18. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  19. School Psychology and Issues of Sexual Orientation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…

  20. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Child Abuse Training on the Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills of Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, George T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of mandatory child abuse training on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward abused children and abusive parents among a sample of police recruits. An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in which 81 participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and 101 to…

  2. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  3. Enhancing Botswana Children's Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices through the School Civic Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi

    2008-01-01

    An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…

  4. School Psychology and Issues of Sexual Orientation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…

  5. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

  6. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

  7. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  8. Nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice of college sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Nazni, Peerkhan; Vimala, Srinivasan

    2010-06-01

    Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to Volleyball discipline, 25 belongs to weightlifter discipline and 45 belong to runners discipline in sports. All the selected athletes were including in the study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) questionnaire contained ten questions about nutrition knowledge, nine questions about attitudes, and ten questions about dietary practice were collected from the selected athletes. Dietary composition of the sportsmen is also assessed. The collected data was coded and used for evaluation. Results about KAP revealed that 42 per cent of the volleyball players had good nutritional knowledge (60-69per cent) compared to weight lifters (43per cent) who had satisfactory (50-59per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Twenty nine per cent of the runners had very good (70-79per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Regarding food consumption pattern intake of cereals, other vegetables and milk was found to be less compared to the RDA for the athletes. Among the three disciplines sports persons, the mean nutrient intake of the runners is high compared to volleyball and weight lifters. The sports disciplines strongly affected the nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of sportsmen. The overall scores indicate that most sportsmen had good knowledge of nutrition and supplements.

  9. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of College Sportsmen

    PubMed Central

    Nazni, Peerkhan; Vimala, Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to Volleyball discipline, 25 belongs to weightlifter discipline and 45 belong to runners discipline in sports. All the selected athletes were including in the study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) questionnaire contained ten questions about nutrition knowledge, nine questions about attitudes, and ten questions about dietary practice were collected from the selected athletes. Dietary composition of the sportsmen is also assessed. The collected data was coded and used for evaluation. Results Results about KAP revealed that 42 per cent of the volleyball players had good nutritional knowledge (60–69per cent) compared to weight lifters (43per cent) who had satisfactory (50–59per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Twenty nine per cent of the runners had very good (70–79per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Regarding food consumption pattern intake of cereals, other vegetables and milk was found to be less compared to the RDA for the athletes. Among the three disciplines sports persons, the mean nutrient intake of the runners is high compared to volleyball and weight lifters. Conclusion The sports disciplines strongly affected the nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of sportsmen. The overall scores indicate that most sportsmen had good knowledge of nutrition and supplements. PMID:22375196

  10. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  11. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  12. Drug Education Based on a Knowledge, Attitude, and Experience Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, John A.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)

  13. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  14. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  15. Improving Nursing Home Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…

  16. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  17. Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

  18. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

  19. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

  20. The Ignored Facets of Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Ozgur

    This paper redefines and clarifies the standpoints of environmental attitudes (EA), knowledge scales (EK), and affiliated studies. Considering the quality of environmental education studies, this paper tries to give a sharp and concrete message to environmental science educators and researchers and strengthen the paths of environmental education…

  1. Sunbathing: College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Felts, W. Michael

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed Caucasian college students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sunbathing. Surveys indicated concern with attractiveness was a major motivation for frequent sunbathing. Frequent sunbathers were more likely to be women and to report fewer self-perceived risk factors and less likely to use sunscreen. (SM)

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  3. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  4. Students' Knowledge of Energy and Attitudes to Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlahov, Stephen J.; Treagust, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected by pencil-and-paper instruments from 33 students in grade 10 in Perth, Western Australia. Data indicated that students were only slightly knowledgeable about energy and energy conservation; they had slightly positive attitudes toward energy conservation. (MNS)

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  6. Interrelationships among Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Body Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…

  7. Drug Education Based on a Knowledge, Attitude, and Experience Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, John A.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)

  8. Improving Nursing Home Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…

  9. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  10. Sunbathing: College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Felts, W. Michael

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed Caucasian college students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sunbathing. Surveys indicated concern with attractiveness was a major motivation for frequent sunbathing. Frequent sunbathers were more likely to be women and to report fewer self-perceived risk factors and less likely to use sunscreen. (SM)

  11. Interrelationships among Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Body Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…

  12. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  13. Nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior of Taiwanese elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating.

  14. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  15. Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

  16. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  17. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  18. Effects of Parent Education on Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Mary Beth; Pearl, Peggy T.; Behle, Pamela D.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated 42 pregnant and parenting adolescents (aged 13 to 20 years) and adults (who began parenting as adolescents) enrolled in parenting classes. The Parent as a Teacher Inventory and the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory were used to measure change in knowledge and attitudes following participation in the classes. The findings…

  19. Comparison of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of health professionals and parents regarding child injuries.

    PubMed

    Brčina, Nikolina; Mujkić, Aida; Milošević, Milan; Miškulin, Maja; Wallis, Anne Baber

    2014-12-01

    We wanted to primarily examine the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of parents and health workers (community nurses and paediatricians) regarding child injuries in order to understand the essence of the problem and to find out the most common misconceptions. Respondents were tested through an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire and all p values below 0.05 were considered significant. Of all respondents, paediatricians answered accurately most of the questions considering knowledge than the other groups. More than 90% of respondents, in all groups, identified correct answers to 10 questions about attitudes towards child injury prevention and safety promotion. This study, which shows the current level of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour patterns of parents and health professionals in Croatia, could help in the preparation of appropriate prevention programmes.

  20. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N

    2007-08-01

    Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.

  1. Wrestling with the hymen: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Loeber, Olga

    2014-08-01

    There is a cultural gap between girls with virginity problems and the western healthcare professionals (HCPs) they approach for help. The lack of knowledge concerning virginity-related issues among non-Western migrants in the Netherlands is illustrated by means of a selection of quotations from messages received by a single sexual health service. The differences in cultural beliefs between non-Western and Western societies are also overviewed. HCPs should have a better grasp of the ins and outs of the virginity norms prevailing in migrant communities. This would enable them to counsel the young women concerned more efficiently and to find practical, culturally acceptable solutions to their dilemmas.

  2. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dietary restriction behaviour of Taiwanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly

  3. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Sea Turtles in Elementary Students on Zakynthos, Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimopoulos, Dimitrios I.; Pantis, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizes a 32-item survey instrument to measure knowledge and attitudes of 5th and 6th grade students regarding sea turtle conservation on Zakynthos, Greece. Results indicate low knowledge scores and high scores for attitudes, but an overall positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, understanding and/or concern, and locus of…

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Sea Turtles in Elementary Students on Zakynthos, Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimopoulos, Dimitrios I.; Pantis, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizes a 32-item survey instrument to measure knowledge and attitudes of 5th and 6th grade students regarding sea turtle conservation on Zakynthos, Greece. Results indicate low knowledge scores and high scores for attitudes, but an overall positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, understanding and/or concern, and locus of…

  5. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes and behavior toward Deaf patients.

    PubMed

    Velonaki, Venetia-Sofia; Kampouroglou, Georgios; Velonaki, Martha; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Sourtzi, Panayiota; Kalokerinou, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Deaf sign language users experience severe health disparities which could be decreased with the modification of some factors associated with health professionals' attitudes, knowledge and behaviors. Relevant research referring to nurses is almost inexistent. This study aimed to examine Greek nurses' knowledge, attitudes and practices toward Deaf people and determine the factors that influence these parameters. The sample consisted of 200 randomly selected nurses working in 2 public hospitals and 2 public health centers in Attica, Greece. Data was collected from November 2010 to May 2011, using a questionnaire inquiring for demographics, previous contact with Deaf people or other people with disabilities, relevant education, practices, feelings and self-efficacy for caring for Deaf patients, knowledge and attitudes toward them and interest in being educated in such issues. A lack of relevant knowledge and education was observed. Relevant education was found to be positively correlated with knowledge (rho = 0.225, p = 0.003). Self-efficacy was found to be positively correlated with the contact with Deaf people score (rho = 0.358, p < 0.001). The participants who have avoided caring for Deaf patients had a statistically significantly lower mean score of self-efficacy (p < 0.001). No correlation was found between the contact and knowledge scores and between relevant education or contact and attitudes. The majority (64.8%) were interested in attending a relevant educational program. Our findings support that appropriate educational programs, including contact with Deaf people, could contribute to the improvement of nurses' knowledge and behavior toward Deaf people and would be welcomed by the majority. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between adolescents' civic knowledge, civic attitude, and civic behavior and their self-reported future likelihood of voting

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Chaffee, Benjamin W.

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing objective of American public education is fostering civically engaged youth. Identifying characteristics associated with likelihood of future voting, a measure of democratic participation that predicts future voting behavior, might yield targets for education programs to increase civic participation. Survey data from urban adolescents were analyzed to elucidate how civic knowledge, civic attitudes, and civic behaviors are associated with self-reported likelihood of future voting. In a multivariable ordered logistic regression model with latent constructs for civic knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, two civic knowledge constructs and two civic attitude constructs maintained a positive, statistically significant independent association with future voting likelihood after adjusting for race/ethnicity and advanced coursework: knowledge of American governance, current events knowledge, general self-efficacy, and skill-specific self-efficacy. Further research is necessary to determine whether education programs can intervene upon these civic knowledge and civic attitude factors to increase voting participation later in life. PMID:24847376

  7. Use of physical restraint: Nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2017-02-23

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice of nurses towards physical restraint and factors influencing these variables. A literature review showed a lack of studies focused on the intention of nurses regarding physical restraint throughout the world. Considering that very little research on physical restraint use has been carried out in Malaysia, assessment of nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice is necessary before developing a minimising programme in hospitals. A cross-sectional study was used. A questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice was completed by all nurses (n = 309) in twelve wards of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Moderate knowledge and attitude with strong intention to use physical restraint were found among the nurses. Less than half of nurses considered alternatives to physical restraint and most of them did not understand the reasons for the physical restraint. Nurses' academic qualification, read any information source during past year and nurses' work unit showed a significant association with nurses' knowledge. Multiple linear regression analysis found knowledge, attitude and intention were significantly associated with nurses' practice to use physical restraint. This study showed some important misunderstandings of nurses about using physical restraint and strong intention regarding using physical restraint. Findings of this study serve as a supporting reason for importance of educating nurses about the use of physical restraint. Exploring the knowledge, attitude, intention and current practice of nurses towards physical restraint is important so that an effective strategy can be formulated to minimise the use of physical restraints in hospitals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS in Chinese registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Yinglan; Zeng, Kai; Wu, Ying

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the current knowledge and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHAs) in Chinese registered nurses (RNs) and describe the relationships between the nurses' HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes towards PWHAs. A cohort of 1350 RNs from 51 comprehensive hospitals in Hunan, China were studied over a 4-month period. A 3-stage random sampling method was used. The total correct rate in AIDS Knowledge Scale was 63.2%. Most nurses were good at conceptions of routes of AIDS infection and some basic characteristics, with more than 80% of the correct responses rate of relevant items. Their weakness was in the knowledge of some activities which would not transfer AIDS, such as "eating in a restaurant where the cook has AIDS may infect HIV", with less than 50% of the correct response rate of relevant items. As for attitudes, 94% of the nurses sympathized with HIV patients. About 82.7% of the nurses showed little sympathy to patients getting HIV by sexual promiscuity. Among all the AIDS related knowledge, nurses' conception of non-infectious activities was significantly related to their attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Chinese nurses waster well about HIV/AIDS basic characteristics and the routes of infection, and most nurses sympathize with PWHAs. Their weakness is in the knowledge of non-HIV-infectious activities and they hold different attitudes to those patients getting HIV/AIDS in different ways. There are some barriers for Chinese nurses to take care of all patients equally. Professional development programs are urgently needed to remedy this situation including clarifying the nurses' misconceptions on AIDS related knowledge, developing non-judgmental professional attitudes, and using universal prevention measures when they take care of all patients.

  9. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  10. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  11. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes in pain management practice.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Elizabeth; Malcolm, Colette

    Nursing a patient in pain is a challenging task requiring up-to-date knowledge, skilled interventions and attitudes that convey trust, care and an honest belief in what the patient says (Carr, 1997). This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of nurses who have completed a knowledge and competency training programme within an orthopaedic centre (Group one) against a group of nurses who were attending a pain conference who had not completed this programme (Group two). The questionnaire used was the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (Ferrell and McCaffery, 2002). Findings from the survey revealed that there was no significant difference in the total correct responses between the two groups and there was a severe deficit in knowledge relating to questions about non-pharmacological methods of treating pain and opioid use in chronic pain conditions. However Group one had a higher correct response rate (p=0.001) in the vignettes that are based on daily nursing practice.

  12. Stem cells in Dentistry: knowledge and attitude of Nigerian Dentists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several controversies exist about the methods of harvesting and eventual utilization of stem cells in Medicine and Dentistry. The objective of the study was to investigate the awareness, attitude and knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among Nigerian Dentists. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists selected from both private and public health sectors, in some of the major cities in Nigeria. Results The majority of the participants were ≤35 years in age, male, Pentecostal Christians, possessed a postgraduate qualification, had practiced for ≤5 years and were specialists or specializing. In this study, 153(81.0%) of the participants reported awareness about the use of stem cells in dentistry which was significantly associated with qualification and type of practice. Most of the respondents 114 (60.3%) had a poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry. This was significantly associated with type of practice and awareness about stem cell use in dentistry but binary logistic regression showed awareness as the only determinant of knowledge. About three-quarters 142 (75.1%) of the participants exhibited positive attitude towards stem cell use. This had a positive non-significant association with knowledge and reported awareness. Conclusion Data from this study revealed a high level of awareness, positive attitude to and poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among a cross section of Nigerian Dentists. PMID:23767980

  13. Turkish school teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nur, Naim

    2012-06-01

    To assess Turkish school teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and misconceptions of HIV/AIDS. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Sivas, Middle Anatolian province of Turkey, from January to May 2009. We selected and interviewed 898 teachers using a simple systematic sampling method. All respondents heard about AIDS. Most knew that it could be transmitted by infected blood (98.0%) and sexual contact (93.4%) and some (33.2%) thought that it could be transmitted by mosquitoes. Although the majority of them strongly agreed or agreed with the statement that "people with AIDS should be helped, supported and treated" (98.0%), about 40% and 70% of them, respectively, agreed or strongly agreed with the statement that infected people should be quarantined. Young teachers with a higher level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS had more positive attitudes. This study provided basic information on school teachers' AIDS knowledge and attitudes and showed that various misconceptions of HIV transmission were a matter of concern. A considerable number of respondents with undesirable attitudes toward HIV/AIDS indicates the need for education of teachers on the subject.

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  15. Contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice among rural women.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Rozina; Afreen, Uzma; Hashmi, Haleema A

    2008-09-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. A cross-sectional observational study. The gynaecological outpatient clinic of Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, from July to December 2005. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands' positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives.

  16. The Contribution of Geography to Current Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerasimov, I. P.

    1975-01-01

    The three main principles on which geographical knowledge is based are regionalism, ecology, and anthropogenesis. The role that each of these principles has played in the development of geographical science is examined. Current and future trends in geography are also discussed. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

  17. Knowledge About Hospice: Exploring Misconceptions, Attitudes, and Preferences for Care.

    PubMed

    Cagle, John G; Van Dussen, Daniel J; Culler, Krystal L; Carrion, Iraida; Hong, Seokho; Guralnik, Jack; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2016-02-01

    Poor knowledge and misperceptions about hospice are believed to be common, but there is scant evidence about the public's understanding of hospice. To examine hospice knowledge among geographically diverse adults; and describe linkages between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about hospice care, and demographics. A small cross-sectional telephone survey of adults living in the contiguous US was conducted using randomly selected numbers (cell phone and landline) and over-sampling of minorities. Measures assessed knowledge (23-item test), attitudes (8-item scale), experiences and preferences related to hospice. 123 participants completed surveys (response rate 46%). 106 (86%) had heard about hospice, 65 (54%) of whom had a personal experience with hospice. Participants had an average hospice knowledge test score of 18 (SD = 3.4) indicating moderate knowledge of hospice. A majority of respondents (62%) did not know that hospice cannot provide concurrent cure-oriented care. Misperceptions about eligibility, coverage of hospice, the provision of hospice in nursing homes or to persons who live alone were not uncommon (missed by >20%). Greater knowledge of hospice was associated with more favorable attitudes about the hospice philosophy of care (r = .22, p = .023) and a greater preference for hospice (p = .049). Respondents who were more educated, worked in the medical field, were non-Hispanic White, and had direct experience with hospice were also more likely to be more knowledgeable about hospice. Despite relatively high hospice awareness and favorability, myths and misperceptions about hospice still abound--and may drive ethnic disparities in end-of-life care. Educational interventions and future study are needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Genetic testing among Spanish pediatric neurologists: Knowledge, attitudes and practices.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Carral, J; López-Pisón, J; Macaya, A; Bueno Campaña, M; García-Pérez, M A; Natera-de Benito, D

    2017-02-01

    Advances in genetic testing applied to child neurology have enabled the development of genetic tests with greater sensitivity in elucidating an etiologic diagnosis for common neurological conditions. The objective of the current study was to examine child neurologists' perspectives and insights into genetic testing. We surveyed 118 Spanish child neurologists, exploring their knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning genetic tests. All of them had requested at least one genetic test in the past six months. Global developmental delay or intellectual disability in absence of a strong specific etiologic suspicion and autism spectrum disorders were the disorders for which genetic testing was most frequently requested. The most commonly requested genetic test was CGH-array. Overall, child neurologist perception of readiness for making genetic-related decisions was not bad, although many would like to have a greater support from geneticists and were interested in increasing the time dedicated to genetics within their continuing education program. These data have important implications for future practice, research, and education.

  19. Teaching Pharmacology in 2010--new knowledge, new tools, new attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ian

    2003-11-01

    Changes in pharmacology teaching are being driven by various pressures. These originate: from changes in the discipline itself; from government; from professional bodies; from students; from changes in teaching styles and opportunities; from academic staff; from ethical/animal rights considerations; from employers and from higher education institutions. These changes will require an alteration in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of academic pharmacologists as much as they will require changes in the way teaching is delivered and learning is facilitated. Pharmacology courses will be provided in a changed environment and must prepare students to work in a changed discipline as well as being appropriate for students who will take employment in non-pharmacology areas. Change is likely to centre around the curriculum, problem based learning, simulated practicals, peer assessment, use of the internet, information technology and interactive computer based learning, virtual learning environments and integrated medical courses. The most effective strategy to achieve the necessary changes is likely to involve collaboration between pharmacology teachers on a global scale and a general consciousness among current academic pharmacologists that we need to ensure tomorrow's academics are well prepared for the changed environment in which they will have to work.

  20. Genetic susceptibility testing for beryllium: worker knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Silver, Ken; Kukulka, Gary; Gorniewicz, John; Rayman, Kathleen; Sharp, Richard

    2011-07-01

    We sought to gain insight into workers' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on the subject of testing for genetic susceptibility to beryllium. Five focus groups were held with 30 current and former beryllium workers and nine family members. Audio recordings were transcribed and assessed by hierarchical coding using an inductive approach. Some workers were unclear about the distinction between genotoxicity and heritability. A key finding is that they perceived the benefits of a positive test result to be related to enhanced autonomous decision-making. The major concern cited by participants was potential abuse of genetic information by employers. Complete financial separation of a prospective testing entity from the employer was seen as crucial. A window of opportunity exists to create regional partnerships for translational research on genetic susceptibility testing. Such partnerships would involve labor, management, public health scientists, primary care professionals, and other stakeholders. They would be critical to identifying testing strategies that maximize worker autonomy along with the public health advantages of genetic testing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Maternal knowledge, attitudes and practice in diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, P; Rajput, V J

    1993-01-01

    In developing countries where diarrhea is a major health problem, mothers are often ignorant about the cause and management of the disease and tend to restrict fluid intake instead of taking steps to prevent dehydration. 300 mothers of children hospitalized in Rewa, India, were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire on their diarrhea knowledge. 74.3% were rural and 80.6% were aged 20-30 years. 70% were illiterate and belonged to the upper lower or lower middle class. Causes of diarrhea cited by the mothers included teething (64.3%), evil eye (46%), contact with another case (36.6%), malnutrition (28.3), worm infestation (22.6%), eating mud (18.6%), mother's food habits (17.6%), eating sweets (17.3%), dirty water (15.3%), hot/cold foods (10.6%), change of food (8.3), and dirty environment (6%). During diarrhea, 266 mothers allowed breast milk, 118 pulses and rice gruel, 104 diluted cow's milk, 57 undiluted cow's milk, 25 boiled pulses water, 23 boiled rice water, 16 banana, 13 oral rehydration solution, 10 a whole diet, 8 tea, and 7 curd. Half of the mothers considered passage of liquid stools 3-5 times a day as diarrhea. Only 3% of the mothers listed dehydration as an important complication of the disease. Of the mothers using oral rehydration therapy, the fluid was often not reconstituted properly, and inadequate amounts were administered. Improved health education for mothers, with information on general hygiene, adequate diet during illness, and the use of oral rehydration solution in diarrhea would reduce diarrhea deaths.

  2. Speech-language pathologists' knowledge of genetics: perceived confidence, attitudes, knowledge acquisition and practice-based variables.

    PubMed

    Tramontana, G Michael; Blood, Ingrid M; Blood, Gordon W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication disorders, (d) the primary sources used by SLPs to learn about genetic disorders/syndromes, and (e) the association between general knowledge, confidence, attitudes, the number of years of experience working as an SLP, and the number of children currently provided services with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads. Survey data from a nationwide sample of 533 SLPs was analyzed. Results showed SLPs earned a median knowledge score about genetics of 66% correct responses. Their mean confidence and attitude ratings were in the "unsure" categories while they reported they learned about genetics from three main sources, (a) self-study via web and internet-based searches, (b) on-the-job training and (c) popular press magazines and newspapers. Analyses revealed that Confidence summary scores, Attitude Summary scores, the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads are positively associated with the ratings of participants with the highest Knowledge scores. Readers will be able to (a) explain the important links between developmental and communication disabilities and genetics, (b) describe the associations between knowledge about genetics and confidence, attitudes, and the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on their caseloads, and (c) outline the clinical and theoretical implications of the results from this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  4. The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Concerning Alcohol Use of Resident Assistants and Residence Hall Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Marsha L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward alcohol among resident assistants and residence hall students at midwestern university. Found no statistically significant difference between assistants and students. Data revealed statistically significant relationship between students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior…

  5. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  6. Palliative Care: Improving Nursing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors
.

    PubMed

    Harden, Karen; Price, Deborah; Duffy, Elizabeth; Galunas, Laura; Rodgers, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Oncology nurses affect patient care at every point along the cancer journey. This creates the perfect opportunity to educate patients and caregivers about palliative care early and often throughout treatment. However, healthcare providers frequently do not have the knowledge and confidence to engage in meaningful conversations about palliative care.
. The specific aims were to improve oncology nurses' palliative care knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors by providing a palliative care nursing education program. An additional aim was to increase the number of conversations with patients and families about palliative care.
. This project had a pre-/post-test design to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at baseline and one month after implementation of an established education curriculum. The teaching strategy included one four-hour class for oncology RNs with topics about the definition of palliative care, pain and symptom management, and how to have palliative care conversations.
. Results showed a statistically significant difference after the educational intervention for knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The number of conversations with patients and caregivers about palliative and end-of-life care increased significantly.

  7. Food Label Knowledge, Usage and Attitudes of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Jackey, Beverly A; Cotugna, Nancy; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Few recent studies have investigated food label practices in older adults. This cross-sectional study surveyed adults, 60 years and older in Delaware (n = 100, 82% female, 74% between 60 and 79 years, 49% Caucasian, 45% African Americans) to examine associations between food label knowledge, attitudes, and usage patterns. A 28-item questionnaire assessed knowledge, attitudes, usage, and demographic information. Bivariate analysis results showed food label knowledge was associated with education and monthly income. Those reporting a high school education or less incorrectly identified calorie (P < 0.05) and carbohydrate information (P < 0.03). Monthly income ≤$2000 was associated with incorrectly interpreting carbohydrate information (P < 0.03). Label usage was associated with being female (P < 0.001), having a high school education or less (P < 0.000), being 70 years or older (P < 0.05), and having a monthly income ≤$2000 (P < 0.001). Respondent's usage and perceived label comprehension was high; however less than half could correctly interpret label information. When shown samples of the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed new labels, subjects had a very favorable attitude toward the new changes. Increasing nutrition knowledge through education interventions appropriate for older adult consumers may improve comprehension of information on the food labels.

  8. Dental students' knowledge and attitudes toward patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Yazan M; Mahmoud, Ahmad Abd Al-Aziz; Ryalat, Soukaina M; Sawair, Faleh A

    2014-07-01

    Inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward epilepsy can affect the provision of health services for patients with epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among clinical dental students in Jordan. The study was conducted using a 21-item questionnaire to assess professional experience with epilepsy, knowledge about epilepsy, social tolerance, and willingness to care for patients with epilepsy among dental students at the University of Jordan. More than one-third of dental students believed that epilepsy is due to insanity or mental illness. Only 45% were able to identify convulsion or shaking as a sign of epilepsy, and more than one-third did not know how to act in case of an epileptic seizure in the dental clinic. Disappointingly, 43.4% of the respondents were of the opinion that people with epilepsy should not have children, and only 38.6% thought that people with epilepsy should be employed at the same jobs as other people. About 50% indicated that their families would be concerned about them treating patients with epilepsy, and 30% believed that knowing that patients with epilepsy were treated in their clinic might make other patients reluctant to continue their treatment there. The results revealed an inadequate level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward epilepsy among dental students at the University of Jordan. There is an urgent need to educate dental students about epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Portuguese Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lucas; Gato, Jorge; Esteves, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people still face discrimination in healthcare environments and physicians often report lack of knowledge on this population's specific healthcare needs. In fact, recommendations have been put forward to include lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in medical curricula. This study aimed to explore factors associated with medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality in different years of the medical course. An anonymous online-based questionnaire was sent to all medical students enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine - University of Porto, Portugal, in December 2015. The questionnaire included socio-demographic questions, the Multidimensional Scale of Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (27 items) and a Homosexuality Knowledge Questionnaire (17 items). Descriptive statistics, ANOVAs, Chi-square tests and Pearson's correlations were used in the analysis. A total of 489 completed responses was analyzed. Male gender, religiosity and absence of lesbian, gay or bisexual friends were associated with more negative attitudes towards homosexuality. Attitudinal scores did not correlate with advanced years in medical course or contact with lesbian, gay or bisexual patients. Students aiming to pursue technique-oriented specialties presented higher scores in the 'Modern Heterosexism' subscale than students seeking patient-oriented specialties. Although advanced years in medical course correlated significantly with higher knowledge scores, items related with lesbian, gay or bisexual health showed the lowest percentage of correct answers. There seems to be a lack of exploration of medical students' personal attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and also a lack of knowledge on lesbian, gay or bisexual specific healthcare needs. This study highlights the importance of inclusive undergraduate curriculum development in order to foster quality healthcare.

  10. Japanese mothers' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes assessed by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Madoka; Binns, Colin W; Katsuki, Yoko; Ouchi, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    This study describes Japanese mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale (IIFAS). A cross-sectional survey of 1,612 mothers was conducted in Japan in 2007. The participants were recruited at the free health checks conducted for infants at 18 months of age. The survey was self-administered using the Japanese version of the IIFAS. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise sample characteristics and IIFAS score followed by multiple logistic regression to identify association between total IIFAS score and breastfeeding duration. While the IIFAS showed that the majority recognized some benefits of breastfeeding, their overall knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding were neutral and more positive towards the use of infant formula. It is important to provide accurate prenatal education that focuses on methods and long-term benefits of infant feeding to mothers, family and health professionals.

  11. Knowledge and attitudes of mariners about AIDS in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Acaroglu, Rengin

    2007-01-01

    Given the significant high risks of both being exposed to the virus and spreading it, mariners traveling across countries on a regular basis fall into one of the top-priority populations of those to whom education on HIV/AIDS should be given. However, there have been no reports regarding HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes on the part of mariners in Turkey. Therefore, this study was carried out with the aim of defining the knowledge and attitudes of 660 Turkish mariners. Data were determined using a self-completed questionnaire. Percentage and mean scores were used in data analysis. Results show that the mariners' knowledge was inadequate (mean score was 52.31 +/- 20.46 over a total of 100 points). The lowest knowledge pertained to HIV/AIDS prevention (mean score was 44.62 +/- 19.97). About half of the mariners considered themselves to be in the risk group. Very few of them (10%) have had an AIDS test. Most (68%) were informed about HIV/AIDS by the media. These results show that the mariners need to increase HIV/AIDS knowledge about prevention, transmission, treatment information, motivation, and behavioral skills to decrease HIV/AIDS risky behaviors. The mariners had the least knowledge about HIV/AIDS protection. Having a critical role in preventing the transmission and spreading of diseases, nurses should conduct more extensive and advanced research into HIV/AIDS and assume educational and counseling responsibilities in illuminating society.

  12. Nurses knowledge and attitudes regarding nutrition in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Endevelt, R; Werner, P; Goldman, D; Karpati, T

    2009-06-01

    Nurses in the community are in contact with the elderly at different levels of care. The aim of this study was to assess nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding nutritional-care for the elderly, and the impact of their attitude on the quality of assessment-care they provide to this growing population in need of nutritional-care. A structured questionnaire was distributed by mail to 600 nurses working in Maccabi-Health-Care-Services (MHS). The questionnaire assessed different aspects of elderly nutrition. The vast majority (91%) of the participants reported treating elderly in their practice. Religious nurses and the nurses with an individual orientation specialty reported more positive attitudes about nutritional-care for the elderly than others did (p=0.05). Nurses with a bachelor's degree had better attitudes than registered nurses about the importance of nutrition for the elderly (p < 0.01). Younger nurses were found to be more knowledgeable than older ones (p < 0.04). The nurses perceived nutrition as influencing different health conditions, and 85% pointed to the importance of feeding at the end of life. Nurses working in the community recognize the impact of proper nutrition on elderly patients' health, but need more training in screening for nutritional problems in the elderly.

  13. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  14. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  15. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  16. Age dependence of attitudes and knowledge in cyclists.

    PubMed

    Maring, W; van Schagen, I

    1990-04-01

    A number of factors related to bicycle accidents were studied, namely, knowledge of priority rules, attitude and self-reported behavior regarding traffic rules, and general opinions about the safety of the traffic behavior of cyclists and drivers. In order to get an indication of the influence of these factors at different stages of the life span, subjects ranging from 9 to 83 years of age were represented in the study. The relationship between age and the various measures was found to be U-shaped in most cases. The older cyclists and the 9 to 11 year olds, the two groups that are most at risk, were deficient regarding knowledge while showing the most positive attitudes. Implications with respect to possible counter measures are discussed.

  17. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers.

  18. The Relationship between Attitudes, Knowledge, and Demographic Variables of High School Teachers Regarding Food Irradiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…

  19. Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Alternative Conceptions of Primary School Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes and…

  20. Disability and Sexuality: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Level of Comfort among Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…

  1. Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Alternative Conceptions of Primary School Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes and…

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  3. The Knowledge About Drugs, Attitudes Towards Them And Drug Use Rates Of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejer, Dianne; Smart, Reginald G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about them and the use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit and psychoactive drugs was conducted among 4,693 high school students. Knowledge level and permissive attitudes tended to increase with grade level. Knowledge scores also increased, but attitudes became less permissive with increasing academic…

  4. The Relationship between Attitudes, Knowledge, and Demographic Variables of High School Teachers Regarding Food Irradiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…

  5. Concussions in Community-Level Rugby: Risk, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Martin, R Kyle; Hrubeniuk, Travis J; Witiw, Christopher D; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff

    Rugby is a popular collision sport where participants are at risk of sustaining concussions. Most research focuses on elite-level or youth divisions. Comparatively, little is known about adult community rugby. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion during participation in community-level rugby and summarize the collective knowledge and attitudes toward concussions. Concussion symptoms will be reported frequently among community-level rugby players and a substantial proportion will report a willingness to continue participation despite the risk. Cross-sectional analysis. Level 3. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to all 464 senior rugby players registered in the province of Manitoba in 2015. Two primary domains were assessed: (1) concussion history from the preceding season including occurrence, symptomatology, and impact on daily activities and (2) knowledge and attitudes toward concussion risks and management. In total, 284 (61.2%) rugby players responded. Concussive symptoms were reported by 106 (37.3%). Of those, 87% were formally diagnosed with a concussion and 27% missed school and/or work as a result. The danger of playing while symptomatic was recognized by 93.7% of participants, yet 29% indicated they would continue while symptomatic. Furthermore, 39% felt they were letting others down if they stopped playing due to a concussion. Concussive symptoms were common among the study cohort and had a notable impact on daily activities. A high proportion of players were willing to continue while experiencing symptoms despite recognizing the danger. The observed discord between knowledge and attitudes implicates a culture of "playing injured." Understanding the risk of injury may affect an individual's decision to participate in community-level rugby. Moreover, evidence of discord between the knowledge and attitudes of players may direct future research initiatives and league governance.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and competence in nursing practice of typhoon disaster relief work among Chinese nurses: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; He, Hong-Gu; Zhou, Wen-Guang; Shi, Su-Hua; Yin, Ting-Ting; Kong, Yue

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationships among nurses' knowledge of, attitudes towards and level of competence in nursing practice, as well as factors influencing nurses' competence in nursing practice, in typhoon disaster relief work. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a self-developed questionnaire to obtain data from 607 nurses working in four tertiary hospitals and two secondary hospitals in Fujian, China, in November 2011. Our findings show that the nurses' average percentage scores on their responses to questions in the domains of knowledge, attitudes and practice were 66.33%, 68.87% and 67.60%, respectively. The findings demonstrated a significant positive relationship between nurses' attitudes and their practice. Nurses' working unit, prior training in typhoon disaster relief, current position of employment and attitudes were significant predictors of nurses' competence in practice. The results indicate that strategies need to be developed for nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and practice.

  7. Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.

    PubMed

    Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

    2015-02-01

    Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children.

  8. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings.

  9. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897

  10. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. Results: More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). Conclusion: These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings. PMID:28503216

  11. Knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation among medical students and physicians.

    PubMed

    Schaeffner, Elke S; Windisch, Wolfram; Freidel, Klaus; Breitenfeldt, Kristin; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2004-06-15

    There is a discrepancy between demand and supply of donor organs for kidney transplantation. Health care providers can influence the willingness to donate or hold an organ donor card. It is unclear how educated current and future health care professionals are about organ donation and what constitutes their attitude toward this topic. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1136 medical students and physicians to evaluate the knowledge about and attitude toward organ donation and transplantation at a large academic medical center in Germany. The authors used a 28-item questionnaire that included items on knowledge, attitude, and demographics. Only 8% of the respondents felt sufficiently prepared for approaching relatives of potential organ donors. Knowledge about and attitude toward organ donation were highly associated with increasing level of medical education. In multivariate analyses, knowledge (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.25), attitude (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04), and level of education (OR for preclinical students, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.20-0.76 compared with physicians) were significantly associated with the likelihood of holding an organ donor card, whereas age, gender, and personal experience with renal replacement therapy were not. Higher medical education is associated with greater knowledge about and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Health care professionals with a higher education level are more likely to hold an organ donor card and also feel more comfortable in approaching relatives of potential organ donors. Educating health care professionals about the organ donation process appears to be an important factor in maximizing the benefits from the limited organ donor pool.

  12. Knowledge and Attitude of Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Towards the Illness

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Shahrokh; Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Noorazar, Seyed Gholamreza; Rahmani Ivrigh, Sina; Abdi, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background The knowledge and attitude of parents about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a public health issue in which management and rehabilitation approaches may be influenced. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the parents of children with ADHD towards this disorder in Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods The current cross-sectional study evaluated 295 parents of children and adolescents with ADHD referred to psychiatric clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were diagnosed based on Kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-aged children (K-SADS) and recruited according to a convenience sampling method in the first five months of 2014. The parents’ knowledge and attitude towards ADHD was studied by a researcher-made questionnaire. Results The overall knowledge of parents was 66% in which 76.72% were aware of related signs and symptoms and 43.38% were able to identify the aberrations. Meanwhile, 44.62% of the parents knew the etiology and 54.75% had information about treatment strategies. In addition, 33.55%, 37.91%, 25.52% were aware of ADHD consequences, diagnosis and prevalence dimensions, respectively. Moreover, 82.72% of the parents had a positive attitude towards ADHD. A positive correlation was found between parents’ attitude towards ADHD and their overall knowledge (identification, etiology, treatment, consequences and prevalence dimensions), ranging from 0.12 to 0.36 (P < 0.50). Age, gender, and place of residence did not have a correlation with parents’ knowledge and attitude towards ADHD. Parent’s education level only had a positive correlation with the knowledge of symptoms, with a value of 0.19 (P < 0.01). Parents with a higher overall knowledge, knowledge of ADHD symptoms, and prevalence rates accepted combination therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions While the overall knowledge of parents regarding ADHD was favorable, they were mostly

  13. Oncofertility Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Canadian Breast Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Warner, Ellen; Yee, Samantha; Kennedy, Erin; Glass, Karen; Foong, Shu; Seminsky, Maureen; Quan, May Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Guidelines recommend that oncologists discuss treatment-related fertility issues with young cancer patients as early as possible after diagnosis and, if appropriate, expedite referral for fertility preservation (FP). This study sought to determine the attitudes and practices of Canadian breast surgeons regarding fertility issues, as well as barriers to and facilitators of fertility discussion and referrals. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 28 site lead surgeons (SLSs) at 28 (97 %) of 29 centers (25 % cancer centers, 64 % teaching hospitals) across Canada participating in RUBY, a pan-Canadian research program for young women with breast cancer. In addition, 56 (65 %) of 86 of their surgical colleagues (non-site lead surgeons [NSLSs]) completed an online survey of their oncofertility knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Of the 28 SLSs (43 % male, 36 % in practice <10 years), 46 % had inadequate oncofertility knowledge, 25 % discussed fertility only if mentioned by the patient, 21 % believed fertility discussion and referral were the mandate of the medical oncologist, and 45 % did not know of an FP center in their area. More than 80 % of the NSLSs (54 % male, 30 % in practice <10 years) were unfamiliar with oocyte or embryo cryopreservation; 36 % never or rarely discussed fertility issues; and 51 % thought referral to a fertility specialist was not their responsibility. Oncofertility knowledge was low among the SLSs, especially the NSLSs, and barriers to referral were identified. An oncofertility knowledge translation intervention specifically for breast surgeons is being developed to increase surgeon knowledge and awareness of oncofertility issues and referral.

  14. Dental students and bloodborne pathogens: occupational exposures, knowledge, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Myers, Ronnie; Wheat, Mary E; Yin, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    Dental professionals may be exposed to bloodborne pathogens in their work, and dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group. Fear of exposure has also been linked to discriminatory practices. A cross-sectional survey of dental students was conducted at one U.S. dental school to assess their knowledge about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens and management of exposures; the frequency of their bloodborne pathogen exposures (BBPEs); and associations among their prior exposure, knowledge, perception of knowledge, and attitudes toward practice. Overall, 220 students (72.1 percent) responded to the survey, and 215 (70.5 percent) answered questions about exposures. The prevalence of BBPE was 19.1 percent and was greater among clinical than preclinical students (p<0.01). Percutaneous injuries occurred in 87.5 percent of those exposed. All students (preclinical and clinical combined) answered more survey questions correctly about transmission of bloodborne pathogens (66.7 percent) than about post-exposure management (25.0 percent). Fewer than half reported adequate knowledge of transmission and management (47.5 percent and 37.3 percent, respectively). In this context, 8.2 percent of the respondents acknowledged an unwillingness to perform procedures on patients with HIV. Since knowledge gaps may lead to failure to report incidents and delays in appropriate exposure management and some negative attitudes towards treating individuals with HIV persist, these findings justify improving BBPE education at U.S. dental schools.

  15. The effects of dolphin education programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lance Joseph

    Zoological institutions typically exhibit dolphins in educational programs such as dolphin shows and interaction programs. The goal of these programs is to entertain visitors while increasing their conservation-related knowledge, attitude and behavior towards dolphins and the marine environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine dolphin shows and interaction programs in terms of their effectiveness in meeting these goals. A multi-institutional study was conducted at six different facilities throughout the United States. A repeated measures design was used to examine the knowledge, attitude and behavior of visitors before, immediately after and three months following participation in dolphin shows or interaction programs. Participants of dolphin shows reflected a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. These participants' attitudes and behavioral intentions returned to entry levels three months following the shows. However, knowledge and reported behavior were significantly higher three months following the show compared to entry levels. Participants of interaction programs had a short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions immediately following the program and levels were significantly higher three months following the program when compared to entry levels. Additionally, these participants also reported engaging in more conservation-related behavior than during the entry surveys. Results from the current study suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program within zoological facilities. Understanding the aspects of these types of programs that lead people to conservation action will help zoological facilities in meeting their goals.

  16. Population Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Helicobacter pylori Transmission and Outcomes: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Lisa J; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Current clinical recommendations are that H. pylori test-and-treat should be individualized based on comorbidities and patient preferences among populations at increased risk for certain morbidities. However, knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding H. pylori among potential patient populations are largely unknown. We conducted a literature review to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients or community populations around H. pylori transmission, prevention, and associated morbidity. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, all published between 1997 and 2014. Eight studies evaluated perception of H. pylori among at-risk populations, while one study evaluated perception among a general population. The studies suggest inconsistencies between the perceptions of these populations and the established understanding of knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices for H. pylori among even at-risk populations. To adequately respond to current test-and-treat recommendations for treatment of H. pylori, general population education must be implemented, especially among at-risk populations. Further work is needed within at-risk populations in the United States to determine prevalence of H. pylori and their current knowledge if adequate prevention strategies are to be designed.

  17. Parental knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding infant basic life support

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Patricia Ching Yen; Lian, Wee Bin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in children is rare but significant, with poor survival rates and high morbidity. Asystole is the most common dysrhythmia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is of great importance in such cases. We aimed to survey the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of parents in Singapore regarding infant basic life support (IBLS). METHODS A questionnaire survey was administered to parents of children managed at the Neonatal Department of Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between 1 September and 31 December 2008. The questionnaire consisted of three sections – section A collected demographic data, section B included questions on knowledge, and section C explored attitudes and perceptions. Knowledge T-scores were analysed for the entire cohort and subanalysed with respect to prior IBLS training. RESULTS In our study cohort (n = 375), the median Basic Knowledge (BK) T-score was 7 (range 1–9) and the pass rate was 55%. Median BK T-scores were significantly different between untrained (6; range 3 –9) and previously trained (8; range 3–9) participants. A majority of the trained participants obtained pass marks. Median Total Knowledge T-score, involving advanced questions, for previously trained participants was 11 (range 3–14), but pass rate was low (35.7%). Higher educational qualification was a significant factor impacting all scores. Untrained participants indicated interest in attending IBLS courses, while trained participants were interested in refresher courses. CONCLUSION IBLS training, as part of basic cardiac life support training, is important given that CPR can significantly alter the outcome in children with CPA. Our survey revealed knowledge gaps that could be bridged through formal training. Refresher courses to regularly update parents’ knowledge are recommended. PMID:24664380

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of mosque imams regarding organ donation.

    PubMed

    Keten, Hamit Sirri; Keten, Derya; Ucer, Huseyin; Cerit, Mustafa; Isik, Oguz; Miniksar, Okkes Hakan; Ersoy, Ozgur

    2014-11-17

    In this study we aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of mosque imams regarding organ donation. This study involved 322 mosque imams working in Kahramanmaras, a city in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to determine participants' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding organ donation. Out of a total of 322 participants, 253 (78.6%) stated that organ donation is allowed in Islam, while 5 (1.6%) expressed that it is religiously forbidden, and 64 (19.9%) stated that they have no idea about the issue. Only 2 (0.6%) participants were registered organ/tissue donors, wile 320 (99.4%) were not. Out of all participants, 72 (22.4%) imams were willing to donate organs. Forty-six (14.3%) imams had previously received basic training about organ donation, and 166 (51.6%) were willing to attend a related training. Television programs and healthcare professionals were the most common means of learning about organ donation. Educational programs by healthcare professionals for imams and the public were proposed to be effective in increasing the number of organ donations. This study revealed that the knowledge of mosque imams regarding organ donation is poor and they had little willingness to donate their organs. Interestingly, many imams had no knowledge about organ donation under Islam. Collaboration of media, healthcare professionals, and mosque imams regarding organ donation might help increase organ donation.

  19. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Monter, Héctor A.; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C.; O'Brien, Jessica P.; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643

  20. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario I; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; O'Brien, Jessica P; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas.

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward epilepsy among rural Tanzanian residents.

    PubMed

    Rwiza, H T; Matuja, W B; Kilonzo, G P; Haule, J; Mbena, P; Mwang'ombola, R; Jilek-Aall, L

    1993-01-01

    Before a health education program can be established, one must first know what the target population believes and does with respect to the disease in question. Therefore, we performed a study among Tanzanian rural inhabitants to identify their knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward epilepsy: 3,256 heads of households (mean age 40.2 years, range 15-90 years; M/F ratio 1:1) were interviewed. Of the respondents, 32.9% said they had never seen a seizure; 67.7% said they did not know the cause of epilepsy; 33.3% mentioned various causes including heredity, witchcraft, infection of the spinal cord, hernia; 40.6% believed epilepsy was infectious through physical contact, flatus, breath, excretions, sharing food; 36.8% believed epilepsy could not be cured and 17.1% believed it could not even be controlled; 45.3% believed epilepsy could be treated by traditional healers, and only 50.8% believed hospital drugs were of any use; and 62.7% of the respondents would not allow an epileptic child to go to school for various reasons, including mental subnormality (54.0%), fear of the child falling while alone (65.9%), and fear that the epileptic child would infect other children (11.2%). Concerning what is to be done when a seizure occurs, 33.5% of the respondents would keep away and not touch the person; 16.5% would take some potentially harmful measure such as forcing a mouth gag or forcing a drink such as water (1 even mentioned urine); 5.2% would take unnecessary measures such as rushing the patient to a hospital. Only 35.7% of respondents would perform at least some of the currently recommended first-aid measures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Pediatrician Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Related to Electronic Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gorzkowski, Julie A; Whitmore, Regina M; Kaseeska, Kristen R; Brishke, Janet K; Klein, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown rapidly in popularity, creating concerns for pediatricians and families. Evaluating pediatricians' understanding of e-cigarettes is an important first step in effectively addressing these products in practice. This qualitative study assesses pediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and current clinical practices related to e-cigarettes. We conducted six focus groups with 37 pediatric clinicians in 2014. Groups were led by a trained facilitator using a semistructured discussion guide. Responses were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify relevant themes. Pediatricians know that e-cigarettes generally contain nicotine and that adolescents and young adults are most likely to use them. However, most feel uninformed about the health effects of e-cigarettes and report wanting scientific evidence for safety or harm from credible sources. Pediatricians are skeptical of claims that e-cigarettes are safe, either for users or for those exposed to second-hand e-cigarette vapor or emissions. Participants noted that clinical conversations about e-cigarettes were rare, citing barriers including a lack of systematic screening, competing priorities during clinical visits, and, for some, limited confidence in their ability to address e-cigarettes during clinical encounters. No participants recommended e-cigarettes for cessation. Pediatricians feel poorly informed about e-cigarettes and are concerned about their potential health effects. While clinical discussions about e-cigarettes are rare, recent increases in their use leaves many clinicians wanting guidance about what to say to patients and families. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A quantitative study of Iranian nursing students' knowledge and attitudes towards pain: implication for education.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Tavakol, Mohsen; Dennick, Reg

    2010-10-01

    It is well documented that pain management and pain assessment is an indispensible part of the nursing care of patients. This study sought to quantify the current knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Iran about pain management. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a well-validated questionnaire entitled the 'Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Pain Tool', previously used to evaluate undergraduate nursing students. Results from the survey questionnaire showed that there was a severe deficit in knowledge relating to pain and its management. It is argued that there is a real need for improving the content of pain and its management in the undergraduate nursing education curriculum, which might improve the delivery of optimal nursing care of patients. The limitations of the study are discussed and some recommendations are made for reforming pain management education for future practice.

  4. Concussion in rugby: knowledge and attitudes of players.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, E; Molloy, M G

    2016-05-01

    Concussion is a traumatic brain injury, resulting in the alteration of mental status with or without loss of consciousness. There is increasing awareness that recurrent concussion may contribute to long-term neurological complication. To determine player knowledge and attitudes regarding concussion. To identify sources of information and medical care, and to estimate the incidence of concussion in this group. To determine if player gender and grade of competition are associated with differences in knowledge, attitudes, medical care, and incidence. Five rugby teams were recruited and players invited to complete a paper-based questionnaire. The questionnaire sought information on player demographics, knowledge level, attitudes and concussion experience. 90.8 % of players knew they should not continue playing when concussed. 75 % of players would continue an important game even if concussed. Of those concussed, 39.1 % have tried to influence medical assessment with 78.2 % stating it is possible or quite easy to do so. Males are less likely to worry about long-term effects of concussion (χ (2) = 9.23, p = 0.026). Club players are less likely to have medical care at training (χ (2) = 28.2, p < 0.001) or matches (χ (2) = 19.47 p < 0.001). Despite good knowledge of concussion complications, management players engage in unsafe behaviour with little difference between gender and competition grades. Information regarding symptoms and management should be available to all players, coaches, and parents. Provision of medical care should be mandatory at every level of competition.

  5. Knowledge and Attitude about Stem Cells and Their Application in Medicine among Nursing Students in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    LYE, Jee Leng; SOON, Lean Keng; WAN AHMAD, Wan Amir Nizam; TAN, Suat Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stem cell research has been extensively explored worldwide to enhance human health in medical setting. Nevertheless, there is currently no full understanding of the stem cell knowledge and attitude levels among student nurses in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess the level of stem cell knowledge, attitude toward stem cell application in medicine, and its association with years of education, among Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) undergraduate nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional study (n = 88) was conducted using self-administered questionnaire consisted of demographic information, stem cells knowledge and attitude statements. Data was analysed using Statistical Package Social Software 20.0. Results: The majority of participants (92%) had moderate knowledge score about stem cells. Many students (33%) worried that stem cell application might cause a harm to humanity yet had a positive (76.1%) attitude towards its therapeutic potential (45.5%). Poor correlation between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.08) indicated that acceptance towards stem cell is not solely based on the knowledge level but also on other factors including religion and culture. Conclusion: Therefore, this study suggests that various educational programs on stem cell should be implemented considering the religion, cultural, social, and behavioural determinants in the population to improve stem cell knowledge and encourage a more positive attitude towards stem cells in medicine among these nursing students. PMID:26715905

  6. Young Egyptians' perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of injuries.

    PubMed

    Day, Hannah R; El-Setouhy, Maged; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Assem, Amr; Ismail, Mona; Salem, Marwa; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians' perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians' attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of 'accidents' and fatalism. Participants were 14-26 years of age and were from medium to high socioeconomic status. Focus group participants noted that the concept of hadthah ('accident') signified an event determined by destiny, whereas esabah ('injury') was the result of human actions. The results of these focus groups indicate that young, educated Egyptians are interested in injury prevention programmes despite low confidence in the preventability of injuries.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue infection in Westmoreland, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Faisal; Todd, Dana; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Ehiri, John; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in most tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Dengue fever is endemic in Jamaica and continues to be a public health concern. There is a paucity of information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Jamaicans regarding dengue infection. Objective To describe dengue related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of residents of Westmoreland, Jamaica. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 192 parents attending child health clinics in the Parish of Westmoreland was conducted. Results More than half of the parents (54%) had good knowledge about signs, symptoms, and modes of transmission of dengue. Approximately 47% considered dengue to be a serious but preventable disease to which they are vulnerable. Nevertheless, a majority (77%) did not use effective dengue preventive methods such as screening of homes and 51% did not use bed nets. Educational attainment (OR, 2.98; CI, 1.23–7.23) was positively associated with knowledge of dengue. There was no correlation between knowledge about dengue and preventive practices (p=0.34). Radio and TV were the predominant sources of information about dengue fever. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the good knowledge about dengue fever among residents of Westmoreland did not translate to adoption of preventive measures. Health program planners and practitioners need to identify and facilitate removal of barriers to behavior change related to control of dengue fever among the population. Future campaigns should focus on educating and encouraging individuals and families to adopt such simple, inexpensive preventive actions, such as, use of insecticide treated bed nets and screening of homes. PMID:21132094

  8. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies.

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Pediatric Dentists Regarding Speech Evaluation of Patients: Implications for Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Van Eyndhoven, Lisa; Chussid, Steven; Yoon, Richard K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine pediatric dentists' attitudes about speech evaluation in the dental setting and assess their knowledge of speech development and pathology. In October 2013, members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry were invited to participate in an electronic questionnaire. Categories of questions were demographics, attitudes and confidence in speech pathology, and theoretical and practical knowledge of speech development and speech pathology. Theoretical knowledge was assessed using questions about phonetics and speech milestones. Practical knowledge was determined with three 30-second interview-style video clips. A total of 539 responses were received for a response rate of 10.4%. The majority of respondents reported feeling that speech evaluation should be part of the pediatric dental visit (72.8%) and felt confident in their ability to detect speech issues (73.2%). However, they did poorly on the theoretical knowledge questions (41.9%) as well as the practical knowledge questions (8.5%). There was a statistically significant difference in theoretical score between gender and type of occupation (p<0.05). This difference was not observed when examining practical knowledge. This study suggests that although pediatric dentists are in an ideal position to aid in the detection of speech issues, they currently have insufficient training and knowledge to do so.

  10. Ethiopian teachers: their knowledge, attitude and practice towards epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gebrewold, Meron Awraris; Enquselassie, Fikre; Teklehaimanot, Redda; Gugssa, Seid Ali

    2016-09-08

    In Ethiopia where the burden of epilepsy is highest among school age children and teenagers, and where people with epilepsy (PWE) and their relatives suffers from high level of perceived stigma, there had not been any study that assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards PWE. This study aims to assess and understand the social and demographic determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards PLW in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to identify twenty schools from three sub cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Standardized self administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 845 volunteer teachers in the pre identified schools. Frequencies were used to characterize the demographic variables while multiple response frequencies were used to characterize the multiple response variable sets. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to describe the association among the demographic variables of interest and the count sums of multiple response variables which were grouped into biologically and culturally plausible responses. The most common biologically plausible responses were: brain diseases (26.5 %) from causes, allow my offspring to play with PWE (19.1 %) from attitude, protect the subject from injury (20.4 %) from first aid measures and seek help from medical doctors (52.2 %) from epilepsy treatment. On the contrary, the most common culturally plausible responses were: psychiatric illness (12.9 %) from causes, epilepsy be cured before attendance to school (21.6 %) from attitude, smelling the smoke of struck match (14.2 %) from first aid measures and Holy water treatment (20.3 %) from epilepsy treatment suggestions. The biologically and culturally plausible responses were negatively correlated. Level of education was positively associated with biologically plausible responses while teaching experience was negatively correlated with culturally plausible responses. A high

  11. [Smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes of freshmen students].

    PubMed

    Shiota, M; Matsubara, S; Kamei, M; Iwamoto, K

    1997-04-01

    A questionnaire on smoking behavior, knowledge of smoking-related diseases and attitudes toward the passive exposure to smoking was administered and results analyzed for differences in (1) region, (2) major area of study in the university, (3) grade and (4) date of survey on smoking behavior, knowledge and attitude of the freshmen students. (1) 294 urban and 217 provincial university students, (2) 138 freshmen at the Department of Pharmacology and 156 freshmen at the Department of Technology, (3) 136 freshmen of Y. University and 158 freshmen in senior high school of Yamaguchi prefecture, and (4) 217 freshmen surveyed in 1990 and 136 freshmen surveyed in 1995 were the subjects. The results were as follows; 1) The percentage who had smoked once ranged from 0 to 3% among the senior high school girls and female students at minor universities. However, the percentage for male students ranged from 26% to 44% in each survey. There were clear gender differences in smoking behavior. 2) The proportion of students who admitted that they had smoked cigarettes was 30.9% for urban students and 38.6% for provincial university students, but was not a significant difference. There were no significant differences between urban and provincial students regarding knowledge of smoking-related diseases or attitudes toward passive smoke. 3) The proportion of students who admitted that they had smoked cigarettes was 44.0% for the Department of Pharmacology and 26.2% for the Department of Technology, a significant difference. There were no significant differences between pharmaceutical and engineering students in knowledge of smoking-related diseases or attitudes toward passive smoke. 4) The proportion of students who admitted that they had smoked cigarettes was 27.4% for university freshmen and 1.6% for senior high school freshmen. There was a significant difference between the two. The percentage who replied that the smoker must be considerate to non-smokers tended to be higher in the

  12. Nursing faculties’ knowledge and attitude on evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP. PMID:23922597

  13. Breastfeeding Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Attitudes of Canadian Physicians.

    PubMed

    Pound, Catherine M; Williams, Kathryn; Grenon, Renee; Aglipay, Mary; Plint, Amy C

    2014-08-01

    Physicians' attitudes and recommendations directly affect breastfeeding duration. Yet, studies in many nations have shown that physicians lack the skills to offer proper guidance to breastfeeding mothers. This study aims to assess breastfeeding knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and attitudes of Canadian physicians. A breastfeeding questionnaire was developed and piloted prior to study enrollment. These questionnaires were sent to 1429 pediatricians (PED), 1329 family physicians (FP), and final-year pediatric and final-year family medicine residents (PR and FMR). The analysis included 397 PED, 322 FP, 17 PR, and 44 FMR who completed the questionnaire. Mean overall correct knowledge score was 67.8% for PED, 64.3% for FP, 72.7% for PR, and 66.8% for FMR. Two hundred eighty-five PED (74.2%), 228 FP (73.1%), 7 PR (41.2%), and 21 FMR (53.8%) felt confident with their breastfeeding counseling skills. Less than half (49.6% of PED and 45.4% of FP) believed that evaluating breastfeeding was a primary care physician's responsibility, and few PED or FP (5.1% and 11.3%) routinely observed breastfeeding in mother-infant pairs. Several areas of potential deficits were identified in Canadian physicians' breastfeeding knowledge. Physicians would benefit from greater education and support, to optimize care of infants and their mothers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, Parimalam; Raghavan, Premalatha Mundankandath; Srinivasan, Padmini Dasu; Kumar, Ganguli Anindya

    2010-10-01

    Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health.. The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers' and fabric printers' knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview. The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (±10.7). When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s), all the workers agreed that dye(s) will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE) such as rubber hand gloves during work. The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

  15. Revealing sexuality: have nurses' knowledge and attitudes changed?

    PubMed

    Giddings, L S; Wood, P J

    1998-07-01

    All nurses should be adequately prepared for assisting clients with issues relating to sexuality. This article describes a descriptive study undertaken between 1988 and 1991 which used a questionnaire to survey the knowledge and attitudes of New Zealand pre- and post-registration nursing students regarding sexuality. The results of this study have previously been available only in an unpublished report. As interest in this area of research is increasing overseas, and as it is now time to consider resurveying New Zealand nurses, it is useful to have a summary of the findings available to a wider audience. Phase One analysed the responses of a convenience sample of 319 registered nurses undertaking a one-year post-registration programme in four New Zealand schools of nursing in either 1988 or 1989. Phase Two analysed 575 questionnaires completed by a convenience sample of nursing students in their first and/or third years of a three-year programme leading to nursing registration. Analysis of the 35 true/false items showed that students near the completion of their programme were as knowledgeable or more knowledgeable than registered nurses, although there were areas where both groups lacked information. Analysis of the 33 items measuring attitudes on a 5-point Likert scale suggested that the attitudes of both pre- and post-registration students were more liberal than conservative, but with some differences discernible when participants were grouped by demographic variables. Importantly, the study found that 55% of pre-registration students, and 88% of registered nurse participants, felt that nurses were inadequately prepared for helping clients with concerns about sexual matters. The findings are compared with those of studies undertaken overseas this decade.

  16. Knowledge and attitude of university students towards premarital screening program.

    PubMed

    Al Kindi, Rahma; Al Rujaibi, Salha; Al Kendi, Maya

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program. A cross-sectional study conducted at the students' clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program. Most of the participants (n=469; 79%) were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%), media (n=209; 35%), family and friends (n=197; 33%), and/or health services (n=181, 31%). The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92%) thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53%) favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36%) favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results. Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Al Kindi, Rahma; Al Rujaibi, Salha; Al Kendi, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program. Results Most of the participants (n=469; 79%) were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%), media (n=209; 35%), family and friends (n=197; 33%), and/or health services (n=181, 31%). The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92%) thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53%) favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36%) favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results. Conclusion Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program. PMID:23071880

  18. The influence of death attitudes and knowledge of end of life options on attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Steven W

    End of life decisions, such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS), have continued to be controversial as health care policy, moral, and individual health care issues. This study considers knowledge of end of life options and death attitudes as predictors of attitudes toward PAS. Data were gathered from approximately 300 adults through a mailing sent to a household research panel. Validated measures of attitudes toward PAS, knowledge about that state's assisted suicide laws, demographics, and attitudes toward death as measured through the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) were collected and analyzed. The data indicate that attitudes toward PAS are a function of knowledge of end of life options as well as death attitudinal factors.

  19. Cypriot nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Zoe, Roupa; Charalambous, Charalambos; Popi, Sotiropoulou; Maria, Rekleiti; Aris, Vasilopoulos; Agoritsa, Koulouri; Evangelia, Kotrotsiou

    2014-02-01

    To investigate Cypriot nurses' knowledge and attitude towards alternative treatments. Two hundred randomly selected registered Nurses from public hospitals in Cyprus were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire with closed-type questions. The particular questionnaire has previously been used in similar surveys. Six questions referred to demographic data and 14 questions to attitudes and knowledge towards alternative medicine. One hundred and thirty-eight questionnaires were adequately completed and evaluated. Descriptive and inferential statistics was performed. SPSS 17.0 was used. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Over 1/3 of our sample nurses reported that they had turned to some form of alternative treatment at some point in their lives in order to deal with a certain medical situation. Most of these nurses who reported some knowledge on specific alternative treatment methods, (75.9%) also reported using such methods within their clinical practice. The nurses who had received some form of alternative treatment reported using them more often in their clinical practice, in comparison to those who had never received such treatment (Mann-Whitney U = 1137, p = 0.006). The more frequently nurses used alternative treatment in their clinical practice, the more interested they got in expanding their knowledge on the subject (Pearson's r = 0.250, p = 0.006). Most nurses are familiar with alternative medicine and interested in expanding their knowledge on subject, despite the fact that they do not usually practice it. Special education and training as well as legislative actions are necessary for alternative medicine to be broadly accepted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls regarding folic acid use].

    PubMed

    Benítez, Ania; Benítez, Omar; Irizarry, Luis; Ginel Rodríguez, José; Vélez-Crespo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To determine the adolescent's knowledge and attitude on the use of folic acid to avoid congenital neural tube defects. Three hundred and three (303) adolescent students from two different schools, one private and one public, were asked to complete a pre-test survey. After completing the survey, a lecture was given addressing the importance of folic acid and the benefits of taking this vitamin at an early stage to avoid neural tube defect. Two weeks later a post-test was administered to evaluate the knowledge acquired. The variables were grouped based on the knowledge of folic acid used, the attitudes toward folic acid consumption and the economic level of the participants. On the pre-test the adolescents demonstrated 52.5% of knowledge on the use of folic acid. After the educational conference, the tested knowledge increased to 87.5%. Eighteen percent (18%) of the adolescents reported on the pre-test that they consumed folic acid; this result increased to 69.3% on the post-test. On the pre-test, 31.7% of the participants related folic acid as an etiology of neural tube defect. Following the post-test, 96% of the adolescents were able to provide correct answers about the benefits of folic acid. Less than 50% of the adolescents recognized that folic acid is a vitamin. More than 80% of the surveyed adolescents do not consume folic acid. In general, the majority of the adolescents did not know the benefits of folic acid during the pre-conception period.

  1. Pediatricians’ Self-Reported Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Child Passenger Safety

    PubMed Central

    Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K.; Hoffman, Benjamin D.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate pediatricians’ self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and dissemination practices regarding the new American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP) child passenger safety (CPS) policy recommendations. Study design A cross-sectional survey was distributed to pediatric primary care physicians via AAP e-mail distribution lists. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to current AAP CPS recommendations and the revised policy statement were ascertained. Results There were 718 respondents from 3497 physicians with active e-mail addresses, resulting in a 20.5% response rate, of which 533 were eligible based on the initial survey question. All 6 CPS knowledge and scenario-based items were answered correctly by 52.9% of the sample; these respondents were identified as the “high knowledge” group. Pediatricians with high knowledge were more likely to be female (P < .001), to have completed a pediatrics residency (vs medicine-pediatrics) (P = .03), and have a child between 4 and 7 years of age (P = .001). CPS information was distributed more frequently at routine health visits for patients 0-2 years of age vs those 4-12 years of age. Those with high knowledge were less likely to report several specific barriers to dissemination of CPS information, more likely to allot adequate time and discuss CPS with parents, and had greater confidence for topics related to all CPS topics. Conclusions Although CPS knowledge is generally high among respondents, gaps in knowledge still exist. Knowledge is associated with attitudes, practices, barriers, and facilitators of CPS guideline dissemination. These results identify opportunities to increase knowledge and implement strategies to routinely disseminate CPS information in the primary care setting. PMID:25195160

  2. Beliefs, knowledge and attitudes as predictors of sunbathing habits and use of sun protection among Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bränström, R; Brandberg, Y; Holm, L; Sjöberg, L; Ullén, H

    2001-08-01

    In 1996, a random population sample of 2615 adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning habitual sun-related behaviours, attitudes towards sunbathing, and knowledge about skin cancer. Females, older adolescents, those with less sun-sensitive skin, those with higher knowledge and those with a positive attitude towards sunbathing were more likely to be frequent sunbathers. Younger adolescents, those who today sunbathe moderately, and those with sensitive skin were more likely to believe that they would sunbathe more often in the future. Males, adolescents with less sensitive skin, those with a positive attitude towards sunbathing and those sunbathing often, were less likely to use protection when sunbathing. Interventions to decrease sun exposure among adolescents should focus on changing attitudes toward sunbathing and having a tan, since knowledge of skin cancer and the damaging affect of sunbathing did not seem to effect current sunbathing habits, or use of sun protection.

  3. Public Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Genetics and Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barry, William T.; Mills, Rachel; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Svetkey, Laura; Sullivan, Jennifer; Willard, Huntington F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Variable health literacy and genetic knowledge may pose significant challenges to engaging the general public in personal genomics, specifically with respect to promoting risk comprehension and healthy behaviors. Methods: We are conducting a multistage study of individual responses to genomic risk information for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 300 individuals were recruited from the general public in Durham, North Carolina: 60% self-identified as White; 70% female; and 65% have a college degree. As part of the baseline survey, we assessed genetic knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing. Results: Scores of factual knowledge of genetics ranged from 50% to 100% (average=84%), with significant differences in relation to racial groups, the education level, and age. Scores were significantly higher on questions pertaining to the inheritance and causes of disease (mean score 90%) compared to scientific questions (mean score 77.4%). Scores on the knowledge survey were significantly higher than scores from European populations. Participants' perceived knowledge of the social consequences of genetic testing was significantly lower than their perceived knowledge of the medical uses of testing. More than half agreed with the statement that testing may affect a person's ability to obtain health insurance (51.3%) and 16% were worried about the consequences of testing for chances of finding a job. Conclusions: Despite the relatively high educational status and genetic knowledge of the study population, we find an imbalance of knowledge between scientific and medical concepts related to genetics as well as between the medical applications and societal consequences of testing, suggesting that more effort is needed to present the benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing, particularly, at the social and personal levels, to ensure informed decision making. PMID:23406207

  4. Urban Youth Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Lead Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bogar, Sandra; Szabo, Aniko; Woodruff, Shane; Johnson, Sheri

    2017-05-20

    Environmental health literacy (EHL) is a promising and evolving field of research that could benefit from youth engagement. Yet studies focused on youths' environmental health awareness and concerns are limited. For example, although lead exposure remains a threat to youth development in urban environments, no published studies have measured urban youth's knowledge of lead poisoning. A CBPR partnership established a youth advisory council (YAC) who helped to design, interpret and disseminate a mixed methods study exploring environmental health perceptions among urban youths ages 10-18. Surveys assessed awareness, attitudes, and knowledge regarding lead poisoning and five environmental health issues determined by the YAC. Focus group questions further contextualized youths' lead knowledge and understanding of youths' environmental health concerns. A majority of youth could identify specific sources of lead exposure but had minimal knowledge of prevention strategies, and focus group data revealed misinformation regarding lead sources and consequences. Survey and focus group respondents' level of awareness and concern regarding YAC-selected EH issues was high in comparison to lead poisoning. In particular, job opportunities and police brutality were endorsed as both neighborhood concerns and priorities. Awareness and knowledge of environmental health issues among urban youth have not been well described. These findings reinforce the importance of addressing problems of local relevance. Moving forward, lead poisoning prevention education for youth and youth EHL partnerships may benefit from incorporating an ecological approach wherein connections to the social and economic context are made explicit.

  5. Rural doctors' attitudes to and knowledge of medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Graham

    2006-08-01

    The use of cannabis for medical purposes remains controversial. Since support from general practitioners would be needed for the successful operation of a legalised prescription regime, New South Wales Northern Rivers general practitioners were surveyed on their attitudes to and knowledge of medicinal cannabis. A representative random sample of general practitioners, stratified by age and gender, was derived and interviewed. Results indicated generally high levels of knowledge of cannabis's medical uses. The mean number of patients seen in 2004 with medicinal cannabis-treatable conditions was 66.8, with chronic pain patients accounting for 36.7. Overwhelming majorities of respondents reported they would prescribe medicinal cannabis if it were legal, professionally supported and backed by research and that they would approve of clinical trials and a legalised regulatory scheme under such conditions. These results suggest the need to conduct a Statewide general practitioners' survey to confirm or refute the present findings.

  6. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive

  7. Evidence-Based Practice: Attitude and Knowledge of Social Workers across Geographic Regions.

    PubMed

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the author in this article was to examine possible differences in knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP) among social workers across geographic regions. A random national sample of 180 NASW members was obtained from mail and Internet groups. MANOVA analysis was performed to determine possible differences in knowledge and attitudes toward EBP among these social workers. Findings suggest that knowledge and attitude toward EBP did not differ among these practitioners. Despite increasing efficacy and widespread knowledge of EBPs, there is little or no empirical evidence to support any differences in attitudes and knowledge of EBP among social workers across geographic regions.

  8. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Volarevic, Vladislav; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC) is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26635880

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards blood donation in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Atherley, A E; Taylor, C G; Whittington, A; Jonker, C

    2016-12-01

    To obtain information to devise strategies for a voluntary blood donor mobilisation campaign in Barbados. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that 100% blood should be collected from voluntary non-remunerated donors (VNRD), yet the majority of blood donations (75%) in Barbados are family/replacement donations. Increasing VNRD is paramount to achieving a safe, reliable blood supply, and understanding the population is a strategy suggested by the WHO to inform donor recruitment and education. Participants in Barbados (n = 429) completed a self-administered questionnaire in 2014. The questionnaire comprised 31 questions, including demographics (age, gender, highest educational attainment) and blood donation-related knowledge, attitudes and practices. Analysis of variance, t-test and linear regression were used to analyse data. A total of 53% (n = 219) of participants had previously donated blood; almost half were family/replacement donors, and over one-third (36·2%) were lapsed donors and had not donated within the past 2 years. Knowledge deficits included blood donation requirements, deferral factors and maximum yearly donations. Most participants (79%) were willing to donate with more information. Participants with higher educational attainment and previous donors had higher total knowledge and attitude scores (P < 0·01). Single, female and younger participants were less likely to donate blood (P < 0·05). Barbados can likely increase voluntary blood donation rates by addressing knowledge deficits through education campaigns and increasing awareness of the need for donation. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. Knowledge and attitude of elderly persons towards dental implants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Frauke; Salem, Kamel; Barbezat, Cindy; Herrmann, François R; Schimmel, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Despite their unrivalled place in restorative treatment, dental implants are still scarcely used in elderly patients. The aim of this survey was therefore to identify potential barriers for accepting an implant treatment. Participants were recruited from a geriatric hospital, two long-term-care facilities and a private clinic. The final study sample comprised 92 persons, 61 women and 31 men with an average age of 81.2 ± 8.0 years. In a semi-structured interview, the participants' knowledge of implants and attitude towards a hypothetical treatment with dental implants were evaluated. Twenty-seven participants had never heard of dental implants, and another 13 participants could not describe them. The strongest apprehensions against implants were cost, lack of perceived necessity and old age. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis identified being women, type and quality of denture, having little knowledge on implants and being hospitalised as the risk factors for refusing implants. However, old age as such was not associated with a negative attitude. The acceptance of dental implants in the elderly population might be increased by providing further information and promoting oral health in general. Regardless of the age, dental implants should be placed when patients are still in good health and live independently. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Dietitian preceptor knowledge, skills, attitudes, and training: key informant perceptions.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Roseann; Morley, Catherine; Cook, Stephanie L; Coleman, Jean; Berenbaum, Shawna

    2011-01-01

    Through consultation with Canadian dietitian informants, we aimed to identify the desired knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) for preceptors, training opportunities, and the barriers that prevent preceptor training. In this qualitative study, an open-ended survey was sent electronically to 100 key informants across Canada. Informants had experience as preceptors or with dietitian preceptors. Informants were asked to reflect upon the desired KSA, training needs, and barriers to training for dietitian preceptors. Categories of responses under each of these headings were developed on the basis of informants' responses. Forty-nine key informants completed the survey, for a 49% response rate. Of the respondents, 41% (20/49) were in clinical practice and 35% (17/49) worked in community/public health areas. The knowledge and skills domains consisted of themes related to teaching and learning, including assessing, planning, and evaluating. Attitudes expressed included considering learners as colleagues and the training of learners as a professional responsibility. Perceived barriers to training preceptors included workload demands and a lack of recognition from peers and employers for this work. Dietitian preceptor training opportunities ranged from no training to formal programs. These findings are integral to the basic understanding of the desired KSA and training needs of Canadian dietitian preceptors.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and noise exposure of baristas.

    PubMed

    Pursley, Alyssa J; Saunders, Gabrielle H

    2016-01-01

    To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. A total of 11 females and four males, aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices.

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Noise Exposure of Baristas

    PubMed Central

    Pursley, Alyssa J.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Design Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. Study Sample 11 females and 4 males aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Results Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 dBA and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Conclusions Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices. PMID:26795371

  14. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity

    PubMed Central

    Awan, K.H.; Khan, S.; Abadeen, Z.; Khalid, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity. Material and methods Second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students completed a self-administered questionnaire. An ethics committee approved the study. Participants were asked questions focused on three areas: (i) knowledge, (ii) perceptions, and (iii) attitudes about obesity. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS version 20. Results Among the dental students, 78.9% received 0–1 h of formal education about obesity. The mean score of the total time allocated for obesity-related education was 1.31 ± 0.23 h. Eighty-nine percent of the dental students agreed that obesity is a chronic medical condition, 30% agreed that they would modify their equipment and office furniture to accommodate obese patients, and 46.8% were interested in learning more about obesity in dental school. Conclusion Obesity-related education should be implemented as a formal component of dental student training. Oral health practitioners should also provide their patients with information about how weight loss is beneficial to both general and oral health. PMID:26792969

  15. [Tuberculosis patient disease knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions: the impact of individualized counseling].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiau-Jiun; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Pan, Hui-Juan; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2011-12-01

    The Taiwan government currently promotes a case management approach to tuberculosis (TB) treatment to address the growing number of TB and multiple drug-resistant TB cases in Taiwan. The approach aims to improve medical follow-up and monitor quality of care. The efficacy of this case management approach has yet to be evaluated. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of individualized case manager counseling on TB patient disease knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention. This study employed a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. Participants first answered an initial questionnaire survey including three structured scales that addressed, respectively, the facets of disease knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention. TB case managers then delivered two- stage counseling to participants based on assessed individual needs and outstanding issues identified in questionnaire answers. A second questionnaire survey was administered 30~42 days after the intervention. Data on a total of 96 TB patients were collected. Key study findings were (1) individualized counseling significantly improved TB patient disease knowledge (p < .001) and (2) TB patient attitudes correlated significantly and positively with behavior intention (p < .001). Individualized counseling provided during the early stages of TB helps elevate patient awareness of the importance of treatment, enhances compliance and increases the cure rate.

  16. GP speciality trainees' knowledge, attitude and practice regarding risks associated with common radiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Hannah; Ahmed, Haroon; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Edwards, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-eight million radiological or radio-diagnostic tests were undertaken in England between August 2010 and August 2011. A systematic review of studies based in secondary care reports that risk is rarely discussed with patients undergoing radiological investigations and only a minority of hospital doctors are well informed about the dose and risk associated with common radiological procedures. There is little available evidence on knowledge, attitudes and practice of radiological risk in a primary care setting. Explore knowledge, attitudes and practice of discussing risks associated with common radiological procedures amongst current general practice specialty trainees (GPSTs). cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. GPSTs in Wales. trainees' current knowledge, attitude and practice with regard to risk communication about radiological procedures. Participants estimated the radiation dose of common radiological investigations, using a chest X-ray as one unit. Participants were also asked to estimate the lifetime cancer risk associated with common radiological procedures. One hundred and twenty-eight completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 32%). Only 28% of respondents had prior radiation training. Although most respondents felt it was the referrer's role to explain the risk of radiological procedures (85%), the vast majority underestimated the radiation doses associated with commonly requested investigations, including lumbar and thoracic spine X-rays. General practice specialty trainees underestimate the risk of common radiological procedures. Educational interventions are needed to address this issue, particularly in light of increasing open access to radiology in primary care.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected.

  18. Childhood experiences with, and current attitudes toward, corporal punishment.

    PubMed

    Ateah, Christine A; Parkin, C Melanie

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine, in a Canadian sample, the extent to which corporal or physical punishment use continues, personal experiences, and current attitudes. Of the 436 participants, 75% reported receiving physical punishment as children. Approximately 40% of participants agreed that corporal punishment is necessary as a means of discipline. Since parental attitude toward physical punishment has been determined to be an important predictor in its use with children, the authors recommend that parent education programming must include information related to its risks.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and predictors of advance directive discussions of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Amy R; Hausman, Alice J; Higgins, Patricia A; Burant, Christopher J

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences regarding advance directives. A secondary purpose was to examine predictors of advance directive discussions between nurses and patients. Seven-hundred and nineteen respondents, randomly selected from a list of registered nurses in the state of Ohio, completed mailed questionnaires. Descriptive t test, chi-square, and logistic regression statistics were used in the data analyses. The respondents were knowledgeable and possessed positive attitudes about advance directives. Higher self-perceived confidence in advance directive discussion skills and the experience of caring for at least one patient with a current advance directive were found to be significant predictors of advance directive discussions. These findings suggest that experience with advance directives documents is critical for nurses' comfort and that developing interventions to further nurses' confidence in their discussion skills may increase advance directive discussions.

  20. Knowledge, skills and attitudes of nursing students regarding culturally congruent care of Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Deborah R

    2004-01-01

    The provision of culturally congruent care for Native Americans can improve health care compliance and outcomes. The purpose of this survey was to determine the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students deem essential to provide culturally competent healthcare for Native American clients. This information provides nurse educators with critical information regarding the cultural competence of nursing students and may be used to direct curriculum development. An open-ended survey was administered to associate degree nursing students, and conceptual analysis was used for data analysis. The researcher identified four knowledge themes, two skill themes, and two attitude themes. These themes were interrelated and connected. Findings from this study indicate that the current nursing curriculum supports the development of cultural competence among the student nurses who will practice in a multicultural climate. Practice implications include the use of a cultural assessment tool by the students.

  1. Knowledge and attitudes of Irish Mental Health Professionals to the concept of recovery from mental illness - five years later.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, K; Evans, D S; Walsh, F

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: The Advancing Recovery in Ireland (ARI) project (Health Service Executive, 2012) promotes recovery-orientated services. A previous study of Irish mental health practitioners (Cleary & Dowling ) identified the need to improve knowledge and attitudes towards recovery. To facilitate implementation of ARI and monitor progress, this study provided a 'benchmark' of current knowledge and attitudes to recovery. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The study provides important baseline information on recovery knowledge and attitudes which can be used to assess the impact of the ARI Project. It also provides valuable information that can be compared to recovery approaches employed in other countries. Despite the increased emphasis on recovery in Ireland, knowledge and attitudes of health care practitioners towards recovery remain relatively unchanged between 2007 and 2013. Working in dual settings, being a non-nurse, and training was associated with better RKI scores. Training appears to be the strongest factor in predicting better recovery knowledge. The findings suggest that knowledge levels and attitude changes following education may not be sustained over time and ongoing training may be required. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: There is considerable scope to improve recovery knowledge. Key recommendations include the need for more recovery training, evaluate whether training translates into clinical practice, using 'Recovery Champions', introducing peer support workers and developing local policies and protocols to support recovery practice. Introduction A study of Irish mental health practitioners (Cleary & Dowling ) identified the need to improve knowledge and attitudes towards recovery. This led to the Advancing Recovery in Ireland Project (ARI) which promoted recovery-orientated services and a need to 'benchmark' progress. There is little evidence regarding the types of educational interventions that maintain

  2. Knowledge and attitudes toward brain stem death among university undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Leung, K K H; Fung, C O Y; Au, C C; Chan, D M K; Leung, G K K

    2009-06-01

    Withdrawal of life support and organ procurement for transplantation are the main implications of a diagnosis of brain stem death (BSD). Various factors may impact this important decision-making process. The present study sought to investigate the knowledge and attitudes about BSD among university undergraduates as a "well-informed" subgroup of our local population. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of nonmedical university undergraduate students in Hong Kong. The subjects' overall knowledge of BSD was unsatisfactory. Only 24% of subjects knew that BSD was the equivalent of legal death in Hong Kong. Among subjects who agreed to withdraw life support treatment from themselves upon the diagnosis of BSD, 30% and 24% refused to do so for their family members or a stranger, respectively. Subjects who agreed to withdraw life support showed significantly better knowledge about BSD than did those who did not agree. Concerns about doctors' inclination to diagnose BSD to save resources and extract organs for transplantation were not observed to negatively affect subjects' decisions about life support withdrawal. The level of knowledge is an important factor affecting an individual's decision concerning withdrawal of life support therapy upon the diagnosis of BSD. Adequate explanation and counseling are important to facilitate family members in coping with this important end-of-life issue.

  3. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES REGARDING CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Nina; Muratbegovic, Amra Arslanagic; Kobaslija, Sedin; Bajric, Elmedin; Selimovic-Dragas, Mediha; Huseinbegovic, Amina; Cuković-Bagic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) regarding signs and symptoms of child abuse and neglect (CAN), reporting procedure and level of education. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administrated structured questionnaire adopted and modified from previous studies. It was administrated to 300 dentists out of which a total number of 210 subjects were in final sample for statistical analyses. Response rate was seventy percent. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to analyze statistical differences in responses. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Dentists in BH are very rarely provided (80%) with training related to recognition and reporting of CAN. Sixty six percent of dentists had never suspected CAN in their practice. Only nine percent of dentists would report suspicious of CAN. Prevailing reasons for not reporting suspected case of CAN was lack of knowledge of the reporting procedure (43%), and combination of indicated answers that never had a case and lack of knowledge about the procedure (31%). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that dentists need an effective education to increase their knowledge and awareness of all aspects of CAN. PMID:26889093

  4. Knowledge and attitudes to reporting adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Pulford, Andrew; Malcolm, William

    The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by health professionals forms an important component of ongoing surveillance of post-marketing drug safety. The extension of responsibility for all health professionals to report ADRs has coincided with national immunization programmes, such as the national childhood immunization, human papillomavirus (HPV), and seasonal and H1N1 influenza programmes. The study objective was to evaluate knowledge of, and attitudes to, reporting ADRs among the professional groups most likely to see suspected reactions to vaccines. This included nursing professionals, whose views have not been included in previous studies. A survey of 91 practice nurses, health visitors, school nurses and GPs working in Ayrshire and Arran during June, July and August 2007 was undertaken. The respondents' knowledge of ADR reporting varied considerably. Although the majority of respondents recognized that it is the responsibility of health professionals to report suspected ADRs, there were lower levels of knowledge about the purpose of the Yellow Card system specifically; less than 50% of the respondents reported good knowledge about the system. The study suggests implications for practice with regard to the implementation of large-scale immunization programmes and potential solutions to under-reporting among these professional groups.

  5. Knowledge and attitude of European urology residents about ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Söylemez, Haluk; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Silay, Mesrur Selcuk; Penbegül, Necmettin; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Atar, Murat; Altunoluk, Bülent; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the attitude and knowledge of urology residents concerning ionizing radiation, we undertook a survey of European urology residents. The questionnaire was sent to 1184 urology residents within the database of the European Society of Residents in Urology (ESRU) by e-mail between November 2011 and January 2012. The questionnaire was composed of demographic questions and questions about the frequency of radiation exposure and use of radiation safety measures during fluoroscopy-guided endourologic procedures. In addition, there were questions about education programs and respondents' knowledge about diagnostic imaging modalities. A total of 124 questionnaires were returned from urology residents in 20 different European countries. All of the respondents reported that they were routinely exposed to ionizing radiation, and 69 (72.5%) were exposed more than 3 times per week. Despite the common but not sufficient use of lead aprons (75%), use of other radiation protection measures was very low. Although 55% of the respondents had attended an education program in Europe about radiation safety, attendance was highest in Poland (82.6%). The level of knowledge about ionizing radiation was low among urology residents, and approximately half of responders had no idea that commonly used imaging modalities have a fatal cancer risk. The results of this study showed the lack of knowledge and awareness about the importance of ionizing radiation protection among urology residents in Europe. We therefore suggest radiation safety courses in every step of medical life for doctors, especially for endourologists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Statistical Analysis of Children's Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alp, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Tekkaya, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was three-fold: (1) to determine 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' environmental knowledge and attitudes in Turkey; (2) to investigate the effect of the grade level and gender on students' environmental knowledge and attitudes; (3) to explore how environmentally responsible behaviour is related to environmental knowledge,…

  7. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences: Survey of Resident Practice, Knowledge, and Attitude.

    PubMed

    Tink, Wendy; Tink, Jessica C; Turin, Tanvir C; Kelly, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) affect 20%-50% of adults and are associated with considerable adult chronic disease, unhealthy behavior, and early mortality. Physicians seldom identify this history although identification can improve health. Low screening rates are attributed to poor physician knowledge of ACEs and barriers to screening, including a lack of confidence to screen and insufficient training. Female physicians and physicians with personal ACE histories report more confidence to screen and fewer time barriers. Our aims were to identify resident screening practices, ACE knowledge, attitudes, and personal ACE histories and to determine preferred ways to learn more, if required. Family medicine residents were surveyed, using a previously published survey. Items included ACE screening practices, ACE knowledge, attitudes, and personal ACE histories. The response rate was 97% (112/115), and 58% were female. Two percent of residents screened females and males at the first visit, thereafter residents screened women (6.3%) more than men (0.9%). One third of residents identified the correct prevalence of ACE in women and one tenth male prevalence. Unhealthy behaviors or physical chronic disease were not associated with ACE histories. Sixty-five percent of residents were not confident to screen. Twenty-nine percent of residents reported a trauma history. Eighty percent believed it was their role to screen. Formal medical training to screen was received by 45.5%; only five residents recalled training during residency. Resident ACE screening rates were extremely low. Physician educational initiatives are recommended to increase confidence to screen and actual screening prior to graduation.

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Tobacco Cessation Among Indian Dentists.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabiha; Reddy, Srikanth; Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, Padma; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding tobacco cessation among dentists in Hyderabad city, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 264 dentists registered in the local Indian Dental Association branch, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. The questionnaire comprised of 35 items and used a five-point Likert scale to assess tobacco use prevention and cessation counseling. The majority of the study participants were females (55.7%) with a mean age of 29.9 ± 7.5 years. No significant gender difference was observed for any of the mean domain scores. A statistically significant difference was noted between age groups in the 'Knowledge' domain, 'professional role and identity' item (P = 0.03) vs the 'Practice' domain, 'social influences' item (P = 0.05) with 40+ years having a higher mean score (6.5 ± 1.5). In terms of the education, those possessing Bachelor's of Dental Science had a significantly higher mean score (10.8 ± 2.2) for the 'Attitude' question 'belief about consequences' (P = 0.05) than did those with a Master's degree. The reported barriers were insufficient reimbursement (48.1%), lack of tobacco-related self-help material/pamphlets for patients (46.5%) and lack of patient motivation to receive tobacco cessation counseling (43.6%). In the present study, although dentists possessed knowledge about tobacco cessation, it was not adequate. Dental professionals play an important role in educating patients regarding the oral health risks of tobacco use and motivating them to quit.

  10. Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward cancer among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Natalie; Ragin, Camille; Heron, Dwight E; Alford, Renae J; Andraos-Selim, Cecile; Bondzi, Cornelius; Butcher, Jamila A; Coleman, Jamison C; Glass, Charity; Klewien, Barbara; Minor, Aerie T; Williams, Diana J; Taioli, Emanuela

    2009-02-10

    It has been noted that the African American population in the U.S. bears disproportionately higher cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any racial and ethnic group for most major cancers. Many studies also document that decreased longevity is associated with low educational attainment and other markers of low socioeconomic status (SES), both of which are prevalent in African American communities across the nation. Evidence suggests that this phenomenon may be due to attitudes that reflect a lack of knowledge surrounding facts about cancer awareness and prevention. This study was designed to yield data concerning the general population's attitudes toward cancer, taking into consideration racial and/or socioeconomic differences in the population studied. Two hundred and fifteen subjects participated in the survey, of which 74% (159/215) defined themselves as African-American, 20% were White, and 6% were of other races. While only 38% of the study population was able to identify at least 5 risk factors associated with cancer, a lower proportion of African Americans identified at least 5 risk factors than whites (34% vs. 53%, p = 0.03). In addition, a slightly higher percentage of African Americans (10%) were not aware of the definition of a clinical trial when compared to whites (8%, p > 0.1). Of those aware of the definition of a clinical trial, African Americans were more reluctant to participate in clinical trials, with 53% answering no to participation compared to 15% of whites (p = 0.002). When comparing results to a similar study conducted in 1981, a slight increase in cancer knowledge in the African American population was observed. Our results suggest that while knowledge of cancer facts has increased over the years amongst the general population, African Americans and lower income populations are still behind. This may affect their risk profile and cancer early detection.

  11. Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward cancer among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Natalie; Ragin, Camille; Heron, Dwight E; Alford, Renae J; Andraos-Selim, Cecile; Bondzi, Cornelius; Butcher, Jamila A; Coleman, Jamison C; Glass, Charity; Klewien, Barbara; Minor, Aerie T; Williams, Diana J; Taioli, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been noted that the African American population in the U.S. bears disproportionately higher cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any racial and ethnic group for most major cancers. Many studies also document that decreased longevity is associated with low educational attainment and other markers of low socioeconomic status (SES), both of which are prevalent in African American communities across the nation. Evidence suggests that this phenomenon may be due to attitudes that reflect a lack of knowledge surrounding facts about cancer awareness and prevention. This study was designed to yield data concerning the general population's attitudes toward cancer, taking into consideration racial and/or socioeconomic differences in the population studied. Results Two hundred and fifteen subjects participated in the survey, of which 74% (159/215) defined themselves as African-American, 20% were White, and 6% were of other races. While only 38% of the study population was able to identify at least 5 risk factors associated with cancer, a lower proportion of African Americans identified at least 5 risk factors than whites (34% vs. 53%, p = 0.03). In addition, a slightly higher percentage of African Americans (10%) were not aware of the definition of a clinical trial when compared to whites (8%, p > 0.1). Of those aware of the definition of a clinical trial, African Americans were more reluctant to participate in clinical trials, with 53% answering no to participation compared to 15% of whites (p = 0.002). Conclusion When comparing results to a similar study conducted in 1981, a slight increase in cancer knowledge in the African American population was observed. Our results suggest that while knowledge of cancer facts has increased over the years amongst the general population, African Americans and lower income populations are still behind. This may affect their risk profile and cancer early detection. PMID:19208206

  12. A Study of Attitude and Knowledge of the Psychiatry Resident Doctors toward Clinician-Pharmaceutical Industry Interaction.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mathur, Shachi; Anand, Nikhilesh

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry and clinicians are the two important stakeholders in the modern-day health care. However, concerns have been expressed about the lack of congruence between the goals of these two. The current study aimed at exploring the knowledge and attitude of the psychiatry resident doctors toward the clinician-pharmaceutical industry interaction and also at exploring the knowledge of the residents about the new Medical Council of India guidelines on this issue. The survey was conducted among psychiatry residents. Descriptive statistics with frequency distribution was carried out by using SPSS version 17.0. It had a good response rate of around 90%. The survey reveals the knowledge and attitude of the psychiatry residents toward the psychiatrist-pharmaceutical industry interaction. The survey provides understanding in knowledge and attitude of the psychiatry residents towards the psychiatrist-pharmaceutical industry interaction.

  13. Domestic violence: knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice of selected UK primary healthcare clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Jean; Rutterford, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Dunne, Danielle; Eldridge, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Feder, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Background Domestic violence affects one in four women and has significant health consequences. Women experiencing abuse identify doctors and other health professionals as potential sources of support. Primary care clinicians agree that domestic violence is a healthcare issue but have been reluctant to ask women if they are experiencing abuse. Aim To measure selected UK primary care clinicians’ current levels of knowledge, attitudes, and clinical skills in this area. Design and setting Prospective observational cohort in 48 general practices from Hackney in London and Bristol, UK. Method Administration of the Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), comprising five sections: responder profile, background (perceived preparation and knowledge), actual knowledge, opinions, and practice issues. Results Two hundred and seventy-two (59%) clinicians responded. Minimal previous domestic violence training was reported by participants. Clinicians only had basic knowledge about domestic violence but expressed a positive attitude towards engaging with women experiencing abuse. Many clinicians felt poorly prepared to ask relevant questions about domestic violence or to make appropriate referrals if abuse was disclosed. Forty per cent of participants never or seldom asked about abuse when a woman presented with injuries. Eighty per cent said that they did not have an adequate knowledge of local domestic violence resources. GPs were better prepared and more knowledgeable than practice nurses; they also identified a higher number of domestic violence cases. Conclusion Primary care clinicians’ attitudes towards women experiencing domestic violence are generally positive but they only have basic knowledge of the area. Both GPs and practice nurses need more comprehensive training on assessment and intervention, including the availability of local domestic violence services. PMID:22947586

  14. Men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility.

    PubMed

    Hammarberg, Karin; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol; Young, Kate; McLachlan, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel. However, evidence suggests that the lack of a partner or a partner willing to commit to parenthood is the main reason for later childbearing. To better understand men's contributions to childbearing decisions and outcomes, the literature pertaining to men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was reviewed. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to identify investigations of men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility, infertility, reproductive health or childbearing using relevant fertility keyword search terms. Studies were included if they had investigated factors associated with men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, had been conducted in a high-income country and were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal between January 2005 and August 2016. The search yielded 1349 citations. Of these, 47 papers representing 43 unique studies were included in the review. Where response rate was reported, it ranged between 13 and 94%. Studies varied in terms of research design; inclusion and exclusion criteria; recruitment strategies; adequacy of sample size; recruitment and retention rates and data collection tools. However, findings were consistent and indicate that men almost universally value parenthood, want and expect to become fathers, and aspire to have at least two children. Yet

  15. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  16. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  17. Human bocavirus: Current knowledge and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Guido, Marcello; Tumolo, Maria Rosaria; Verri, Tiziano; Romano, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; De Giorgi, Mattia; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Zizza, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus isolated about a decade ago and found worldwide in both respiratory samples, mainly from early life and children of 6-24 mo of age with acute respiratory infection, and in stool samples, from patients with gastroenteritis. Since then, other viruses related to the first HBoV isolate (HBoV1), namely HBoV2, HBoV3 and HBoV4, have been detected principally in human faeces. HBoVs are small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses of about 5300 nucleotides, consisting of three open reading frames encoding the first two the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear phosphoprotein (NP1) and the third the viral capsid proteins 1 and 2 (VP1 and VP2). HBoV pathogenicity remains to be fully clarified mainly due to the lack of animal models for the difficulties in replicating the virus in in vitro cell cultures, and the fact that HBoV infection is frequently accompanied by at least another viral and/or bacterial respiratory and/or gastroenteric pathogen infection. Current diagnostic methods to support HBoV detection include polymerase chain reaction, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunoassay using recombinant VP2 or virus-like particle capsid proteins, although sequence-independent amplification techniques combined with next-generation sequencing platforms promise rapid and simultaneous detection of the pathogens in the future. This review presents the current knowledge on HBoV genotypes with emphasis on taxonomy, phylogenetic relationship and genomic analysis, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnostic methods. The emerging discussion on HBoVs as true pathogen or innocent bystander is also emphasized. PMID:27818586

  18. Knowledge and attitudes towards food safety among Canadian dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Rajić, A; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S A

    2010-04-01

    The Canadian dairy industry has recently begun implementing an on-farm food-safety (OFFS) program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). For CQM to be effective, producers should be familiar with food-safety hazards in their industry and have an adequate understanding of on-farm good production practices that are necessary to ensure safe food. To assess their knowledge and attitudes towards food safety, a postal questionnaire was administered to all (n=10,474) Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008. The response rate was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Most producers (88.7%) reported that they or their families consume unpasteurized milk from their bulk milk tanks and 36.3% indicated that consumers should be able to purchase unpasteurized milk in Canada. Producers who reported completion of a dairy-health management course (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.92) and participation in CQM (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) were less likely to support the availability of unpasteurized milk for consumers, while organic producers (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.47), younger producers (aged <30) and producers with smaller herds were more likely to favour this practice. Two-thirds of producers (66.7%) were concerned that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) might preclude successful treatment of sick cattle. Producers who completed a dairy-health management course (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.69), organic producers (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.69) and producers from Quebec compared to each other province were more likely to indicate concern about AMR. Most producers reported that Salmonella (74.2%) and Escherichia coli (73.0%) could be transmitted through contaminated beef or milk to humans, while most were not sure or did not think that Brucella (70.3%) and Cryptosporidium (88.5%) could be transmitted via these routes. Most producers did not perceive that any type of farm visitor has a high risk of introducing infectious agents into their herds. Producers rated veterinarians

  19. Knowledge, Practices and Attitudes Towards Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting by Private Practitioners from Klang Valley in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Renu; Daher, Aqil Mohammad; Mohd Ismail, Nafeeza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study aimed to determine current status of knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among private practitioners in Klang region of Malaysia. Methods: A total of 238 private practitioners in Klang valley were distributed a questionnaire consisting of seven questions, two knowledge-related, two practice-related and three attitude-related. Each favourable and unfavourable response was given a score of 1 and 0 respectively. Total score of 70% or more for each domain was considered “satisfactory” whereas less than 70% as “unsatisfactory”. Results: One hundred forty-five participants completed questionnaire. Knowledge assessment showed 83.4% responses stating that ADR reporting helps to identify safe drugs and 91.7% responded that it measures ADR incidence. Regarding practices, 76.6% respondents were willing to report only if confident that reaction is an ADR. Regarding attitudes, 81.9%, 66.9% and 23.5% participants showed complacency, ignorance, and indifference respectively. Unsatisfactory knowledge, practices, and attitudes were observed in 57.2%, 56.6%, and 73.1% respondents respectively. Satisfactory knowledge was significantly higher in respondent with higher qualification with odds ratio of 2.96 with 95% confidence interval of 1.48–5.93. Conclusion: The study showed unsatisfactory level of knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards ADR reporting among high proportion of private practitioners in Klang valley, Malaysia. PMID:23983578

  20. Client knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding zoonoses: a metropolitan experience.

    PubMed

    Steele, S G; Mor, S M

    2015-12-01

    To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to zoonoses among pet owners. Questionnaire completed by 81 clients attending a small animal practice in Sydney, Australia. Most (64.5%) clients reported that they were not concerned about contracting a disease from their pet, but 7.9% and 3.9% of clients were a little or very concerned, respectively; 23.7% of clients stated that they had not considered the possibility. Although respondents indicated that they had heard of a number of zoonoses, knowledge of animal sources and exposure pathways was generally low, particularly for the more important zoonoses in Australia such as toxoplasmosis, psittacosis and Q fever. Only 37.0%, 12.3% and 11.1%, respectively, of clients had heard of these diseases. Most respondents (84.1%) indicated that they viewed veterinarians as having the primary responsibility for providing information about zoonoses, yet less than half (48.1%) recalled ever getting information from their veterinarian. Likewise, many respondents (48.1%) indicated that medical professionals played a role in providing information about zoonoses, yet less than one-quarter (23.5%) recalled ever getting information from their doctor. The low level of knowledge among pet owners about sources and exposure pathways indicates a need to strengthen communication between veterinarians, doctors and their clients around the possible risks of zoonoses and appropriate prevention strategies. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Paediatrician knowledge, attitudes, and counselling patterns on teen driving.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jeffrey C; O'Neil, Joseph; Shope, Jean T; O'Connor, Karen G; Levin, Rebecca A

    2012-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of death among teenagers. Little is known about the content of US paediatrician counselling about teen driving. To examine US paediatrician knowledge, attitudes, and counselling patterns regarding teen driving. A random sample questionnaire was mailed to American Academy of Pediatrics members in 2009 (n=1606; response=875 (55%)). Analysis was limited to 596 paediatricians who provide adolescent checkups. Questions addressed counselling and attitudes towards roles in promoting safe driving. Logistic regression assessed the relationship between counselling topics and practice characteristics. Most (89%) respondents provide some counselling about driving. Two topics commonly discussed by paediatricians were seatbelts (87%) and alcohol use (82%). Less frequently discussed were: cell phones (47%), speeding (43%), and dangers of transporting teen passengers (41%). Topics rarely discussed were: night driving (21%), graduated driver licensing laws (13%), safe cars (9%), driver education (9%), fatigue (25%), and parental limit setting (23%). Only 10% ever recommend a parent-teen driver agreement. Paediatricians who had a patient injured or killed in an MVC were more likely to discuss night driving (OR=2.86). Physicians caring for a high proportion of adolescents (OR=1.83) or patients with private insurance (OR=1.85) counsel more about the risks of driving with teen passengers. Paediatricians in the USA support counselling on teen driving during routine office visits, but omit many important risk factors. Few recommend parent-teen driver agreements. Methods that help clinicians efficiently and effectively counsel families about teen driving should be developed.

  2. Women's knowledge of and attitude towards disability in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, Padam P; Shyangdan, Deepson; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Kadel, Santosh; Stephen, Jane; Gurung, Tara

    2013-04-01

    What is perceived to be a disability is both culturally specific and related to levels of development and modernity. This paper explores knowledge and attitudes towards people with disabilities among rural women in Nepal, one of the poorer countries in South Asia. Four hundred and twelve married women of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years), from four villages in two different parts of Nepal, who had delivered a child within the last 24 months preceding the study, completed a standard questionnaire. The majority of the participants only considered physical conditions that limit function of an individual and are visible to naked eyes, such as missing a leg or arm, to be disability. Attitudes towards people with disability were generally positive, for example most women believed that disabled people should have equal rights and should be allowed to sit on committees or get married. Most respondents thought that disability could result from: (i) accidents; (ii) medical conditions; or (iii) genetic inheritance. Fewer women thought that disability was caused by fate or bad spirits. There is need to educate the general population on disability, especially the invisible disabilities. There is also a need for further research on disability and its social impact. • There is need to educate the general population on disability, especially the invisible disabilities and its rehabilitation. There is also a need for further research on disability and its social impact.

  3. Determinants of drug abuse in high school students and their related knowledge and attitude.

    PubMed

    Geramian, Nahid; Akhavan, Shohreh; Gharaat, Leila; Tehrani, Afsaneh Malekpour; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of high school students toward addicting drugs. Thus, the interventions, which are more appropriate for this age group can be designed and applied. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009 in Isfahan province. The study population was high school students, who were randomly selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. The evaluation tool was an author-devised questionnaire, which was filled out by the students. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS software, version 16. Among 6998 students who filled out the questionnaire, 50.1% were female. The mean knowledge scores were 58.7 +/- 10.3 and 57.9 +/- 10.2 for girls and boys, respectively, which were significantly different (p = 0.002). Considering the scores students obtained in attitude toward inclination to drug abuse, the most important factors in this regard were parents' divorce, familial conflicts, seeking pleasure, adolescents' curiosity, availability of the drugs, peer pressure, low levels of self-confidence, psychological disorders, and strict parents. With respect to the results obtained, promoting the knowledge and modifying the attitude of students, and increasing their self-confidence particularly in schools can play an important role in decreasing drug abuse in this age group. Moreover, policymakers should consider the strategies, which can support the family structure and reduce the harms in unstable families.

  4. Knowledge and attitudes towards sun protection in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Vurnek Zivković, Maja; Dediol, Iva; Zeljko Penavić, Jasna; Simić, Dubravka

    2010-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer; the World Health Organization estimates that more than 2 million cases of skin cancer are being diagnosed each year worldwide. Excessive sun exposure and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are the major avoidable risk factors for skin cancer, including melanoma. Sun protection can be achieved through behavioral modification, social changes and environmental changes: regular use of sunscreen, wearing hats and protective clothes, staying in the shade, creating shade by planting trees or constructing canopies, practicing work and sport activities during the time of the day when the sun is not the strongest and many others. The aim of this paper was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes about sun protection and sun behavior patterns in Croatia, as well as the perception of melanoma among general population. Our results indicate relatively good sun behavior patterns among our participants and their mostly correct perception of melanoma.

  5. Medication safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among community pharmacists in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Hajj, Aline; Hallit, Souheil; Ramia, Elsy; Salameh, Pascale

    2017-08-30

    The effectiveness of a national post-marketing surveillance program depends directly on the active participation of all health professionals. There is no current comprehensive and active pharmacovigilance program available in Lebanon. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Lebanon with respect to potential pharmacovigilance and adverse-drug-reaction reporting in Lebanon. A cross-sectional descriptive study, using a self-administered KAP questionnaire and conducted between March and July 2016, included 1857 pharmacists practicing in community settings. Statistical analysis included χ(2) test for dichotomous or multinomial qualitative variables, and Wilcoxon test for quantitative variables with non-homogeneous variances or non-normal distribution. The majority of responders had good knowledge concerning the concept and purpose of pharmacovigilance as well as adverse drug reactions (how to report these/the importance of reporting adverse events/the definition of an adverse event and pharmacovigilance). Concerning community pharmacists' attitudes and practice towards pharmacovigilance, the majority described having a positive attitude towards their role in adverse drug reaction reporting and this activity was even seen as one of their core duties. The questionnaire revealed a lack of practice and training regarding pharmacovigilance. Nonetheless, the pharmacists agreed on the Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon and the Ministry of Health's role in promoting this practice and helping them be more involved in reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The pharmacists thought that they are well positioned regarding patient-safety practice in their pharmacies and the results were not statistically different between pharmacy employers and employees. Lebanese pharmacists have the required knowledge and positive attitude to start reporting ADRs, were aware of ADRs occurring with various medicines post-marketing, yet were currently

  6. Knowledge, attitude, and willingness of Nigerian physiotherapy students to provide care for patients living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje; Utti, Victor; Oyeyemi, Luqman; Onigbinde, Teslim

    2007-01-01

    In the current AIDS pandemics, equipping health professional students with adequate knowledge and positive attitude is necessary to produce graduates who can deliver appropriate intervention to patients infected with HIV or who have developed AIDS. The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the Nigerian physiotherapy students' knowledge, attitude, and their willingness to provide care for patients living with AIDS (PWA) and to 2) determine the sociodemographic variables that could influence the students' attitude and willingness to provide care for PWA. Physiotherapy students (N = 104) in four training programs in Nigeria were surveyed using a two-part questionnaire. Part I elicited sociodemographic and previous AIDS encounter information, and Part II assessed knowledge, attitude, and willingness to provide care to PWA. Nigerian students showed unsatisfactory knowledge, harbored negative attitude, and many of them were unwilling to render care for PWA. Religious affiliation, training programs, long-term career goals, and previous instructions on AIDS influenced the students' attitude. The study identified the need for a comprehensive AIDS curriculum and recommend that all programs in Nigeria include clinical clerkship, small group discussions, and seminars on ethical and medico-legal issues on AIDS in their curriculum.

  7. Mothers and vaccination: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Angelillo, I. F.; Ricciardi, G.; Rossi, P.; Pantisano, P.; Langiano, E.; Pavia, M.

    1999-01-01

    The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population. PMID:10212512

  8. [Knowledge and attitudes of the population about the living wills].

    PubMed

    Angel-López-Rey, Esther; Romero-Cano, Marta; Tébar-Morales, Juan Pablo; Mora-García, Cristina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Olga

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate knowledge of living wills and attitudes to these documents in the populations of two basic health areas in Toledo (Spain). We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study in primary care centers. Participants consisted of the populations of two basic health areas selected by systematic stratified sampling. Inclusion criteria comprised age between 18 and 80 years, and absence of mental or terminal illnesses. The participants were contacted by telephone before a personal interview was carried out. Data on demographic variables and knowledge of living wills and attitudes to these documents were recorded. A total of 395 participants were interviewed (58% women) with a mean age of 46.22 years (SD: 17.13). The vast majority (88.6%) were unaware of living wills, with no significant differences in sex or religious beliefs. Most (67.8%) would sign a living will in the case of terminal illness whereas 56.3% would sign at the present moment, with no significant differences in sex or religious beliefs. More than half of the men (57.5%) would agree to modify the living will if requested by relatives versus 42.6% of the women. More than three-quarters (76.2%) believed that information on living wills was insufficient. One-third (34.5%) would allow a relative's organs to be donated even without the relative leaving express wishes, while 49.2% would donate their own organs. There was a huge lack of awareness on living wills in our population, which nevertheless proved to be highly receptive to, and in agreement with, the implications of these documents after receiving information on the topic.

  9. Report Card: Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge in America. The Fifth Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…

  10. Report Card: Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge in America. The Fifth Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…

  11. Emergency contraception: knowledge, attitude and prescription practice among doctors in different specialties in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sue S T; Kok, Wai-Ming; Fan, Susan Y S

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated doctors' knowledge, attitudes and practices as regards emergency contraception (EC). Some studies have reported inadequate knowledge, bias and wrong prescriptions by doctors. This article compares the prescription pattern, attitude and knowledge of EC in Hong Kong doctors in different specialties. Questionnaires were mailed to family physicians, obstetrician-gynecologists and doctors working in family planning clinics to ascertain their attitudes to EC. Those who provided EC described the types of EC used, whether drugs were given in advance and answered a 12-question knowledge test. Those who did not provide EC stated why. A total of 443 completed questionnaires were analyzed: 70.9% of doctors agreed that the benefits of EC outweigh its risks and 61.2% agreed that doctors should discuss it with clients. Advanced provision was supported by 54.2% of doctors but reduced to 32.5% if the target client was a girl aged 16 or below. Even fewer doctors (40.2%) supported the over-the-counter sales of EC pills. In the knowledge test, family planning doctors scored 10.45 out of 12 and obstetrician-gynecologists in private practice had the lowest score of 6.08. Family planning doctors used levonorgestrel pills while private family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists used Yuzpe. Among 352 doctors who provided EC, only 21.7% of private family physicians and 15.9% of private obstetrician-gynecologists prescribed it in advance. Only doctors working in family planning clinics were competent in their knowledge of emergency contraception and up to date with current practice. Although half of the doctors supported advanced provision, few implemented it. Most doctors did not support advanced provision to young girls nor the over-the-counter sales of EC pills.

  12. Oral Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Survey of Undergraduate Medical Students in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Fotedar, Vikas; Fotedar, Shailee; Gupta, Manish; Manchanda, Kavita; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-08-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cancer among Indian females. Early detection of oral cancers makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Lack of awareness among the health care providers is the most significant factor in delaying diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. So the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of oral cancer among undergraduate medical students in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 186 undergraduate medical students between the third to fifth years in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. Test used were t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. The response rate of the study was 96.5%. The mean knowledge percent of the sample was good. Mean knowledge percent was higher in females than males. Higher percentage of students in 5(th) year (internship) had excellent knowledge. The knowledge and practices about risk factors was not satisfactory. One hundred and twenty four (66.6%) of the subjects disagreed/strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current adequate. One hundred and seventy six and (94.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that there is need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. It can be concluded that though the mean knowledge of the population was good but the knowledge and practices about risk factors had to be reinforced among these students so that they can help the patients in tobacco and alcohol cessation and contribute in prevention of oral cancers.

  13. Oral Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Survey of Undergraduate Medical Students in Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, Shailee; Gupta, Manish; Manchanda, Kavita; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cancer among Indian females. Early detection of oral cancers makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Lack of awareness among the health care providers is the most significant factor in delaying diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. So the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of oral cancer among undergraduate medical students in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 186 undergraduate medical students between the third to fifth years in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. Test used were t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results The response rate of the study was 96.5%. The mean knowledge percent of the sample was good. Mean knowledge percent was higher in females than males. Higher percentage of students in 5th year (internship) had excellent knowledge. The knowledge and practices about risk factors was not satisfactory. One hundred and twenty four (66.6%) of the subjects disagreed/strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current adequate. One hundred and seventy six and (94.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that there is need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. Conclusion It can be concluded that though the mean knowledge of the population was good but the knowledge and practices about risk factors had to be reinforced among these students so that they can help the patients in tobacco and alcohol cessation and contribute in prevention of oral cancers. PMID:26436029

  14. Hand osteoarthritis: current knowledge and new ideas.

    PubMed

    Haugen, I K

    2016-08-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease that can lead to substantial pain and physical disability. Currently, no disease-modifying drugs exist for the treatment of OA. Most OA research has been conducted on knee OA and we have limited knowledge about disease mechanisms in hand OA. During her research career, Ida K Haugen (IKH) has focused on the epidemiology of hand OA and imaging techniques. She has established a large international network, providing the opportunity to study the epidemiology of hand OA in large international OA cohorts. In the Framingham study, she found that symptomatic hand OA was present in 16% of women and 8% of men aged between 40 and 84 years. In her PhD thesis, IKH studied the reliability and validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hand OA. In collaboration with OMERACT (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology), an MRI scoring system for hand OA was developed. MRI is more sensitive than radiographs for detecting structural abnormalities. Synovitis, as detected by both MRI and ultrasound, is associated with pain and predicts future disease progression. Hence, synovitis may represent a treatment target in hand OA. Her future research plans include the observational Nor-Hand study and a placebo-controlled randomized trial on methotrexate (MTX) in hand OA. The data collection of 300 patients in the Nor-Hand study is ongoing, and focuses on causes of pain and novel imaging techniques to assess inflammation in hand OA. In a future clinical trial, patients with moderate to severe long-lasting pain and inflammation will be treated with MTX and the effect on pain and inflammation will be explored.

  15. Current Knowledge on Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a new biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing, offering non-invasive and directly observable sample collection reducing adulteration potential, ease of multiple sample collections, lower biohazard risk during collection, recent exposure identification, and stronger correlation with blood than urine concentrations. Because cannabinoids are usually the most prevalent analytes in illicit drug testing, application of OF drug testing requires sufficient scientific data to support sensitive and specific OF cannabinoid detection. This review presents current knowledge on OF cannabinoids, evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, detection windows, and correlation with other biological matrices and impairment from field applications and controlled drug administration studies. In addition, on-site screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure are reviewed. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OF concentrations could be > 1000 μg/L shortly after smoking, whereas minor cannabinoids are detected at 10-fold and metabolites at 1000-fold lower concentrations. OF research over the past decade demonstrated that appropriate interpretation of test results requires a comprehensive understanding of distinct elimination profiles and detection windows for different cannabinoids, which are influenced by administration route, dose, and drug use history. Thus, each drug testing program should establish cutoff criteria, collection/analysis procedures, and storage conditions tailored to its purposes. Building a scientific basis for OF testing is on-going, with continuing OF cannabinoids research on passive environmental exposure, drug use history, donor physiological conditions, and oral cavity metabolism needed to better understand mechanisms of cannabinoid OF disposition and expand OF drug testing applicability. PMID:23983217

  16. Assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among medical and nursing students: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ung, Andrew; Salamonson, Yenna; Hu, Wendy; Gallego, Gisselle

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pain results in significant personal, societal and economic burden. Doctors and nurses have a pivotal role in patient pain management. In order to determine the effectiveness of current pain education on knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical and nursing students, there needs to be a valid measure to assess and quantify these domains. We reviewed the literature to identify approaches for assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among nursing and medical students. Databases of peer-reviewed literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1993 and December 2014 using the following search terms: student, graduate, intern, junior, pain, pain management, analgesia, analgesic, pharmacology, pharmacological, knowledge, competence, attitude, preparedness, practice, nursing, medical, doctor, nurse. The search revealed over 3500 articles, and on application of the inclusion criteria, 26 articles were included in the review. A total of 14 instruments were used in these studies with the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) as the main instrument in 9 out of the 26 articles. The various instruments used different question formats such as multiple-choice questions (MCQs), true/false statements and Likert scales that went from 3 points to 7 points. Clinical skills examinations were also used in four studies to assess pain management. There is no gold standard instrument currently used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management. The results of this review showed, despite the diversity of standardised instruments that have been used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitude to pain management, the literature has consistently reported that knowledge about pain management among nursing and medical students was generally poor among both groups.

  17. Assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among medical and nursing students: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Andrew; Salamonson, Yenna; Hu, Wendy; Gallego, Gisselle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic pain results in significant personal, societal and economic burden. Doctors and nurses have a pivotal role in patient pain management. In order to determine the effectiveness of current pain education on knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical and nursing students, there needs to be a valid measure to assess and quantify these domains. We reviewed the literature to identify approaches for assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among nursing and medical students. Methods: Databases of peer-reviewed literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1993 and December 2014 using the following search terms: student, graduate, intern, junior, pain, pain management, analgesia, analgesic, pharmacology, pharmacological, knowledge, competence, attitude, preparedness, practice, nursing, medical, doctor, nurse. Results: The search revealed over 3500 articles, and on application of the inclusion criteria, 26 articles were included in the review. A total of 14 instruments were used in these studies with the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) as the main instrument in 9 out of the 26 articles. The various instruments used different question formats such as multiple-choice questions (MCQs), true/false statements and Likert scales that went from 3 points to 7 points. Clinical skills examinations were also used in four studies to assess pain management. Conclusion: There is no gold standard instrument currently used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management. The results of this review showed, despite the diversity of standardised instruments that have been used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitude to pain management, the literature has consistently reported that knowledge about pain management among nursing and medical students was generally poor among both groups. PMID:27551407

  18. Medical student intrauterine device knowledge and attitudes: an assessment of clerkship training.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Deborah; Tang, Jennifer; Maurer, Rie; Janiak, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    Studies demonstrate that many clinician populations have poor knowledge of and harbor negative attitudes towards intrauterine devices (IUDs). We set out to assess the impact of the clinical clerkship in obstetrics and gynecology on medical student IUD knowledge and attitudes. In this prospective cohort study, students at seven diverse US medical schools were surveyed at the start and completion of their obstetrics and gynecology clinical clerkships regarding IUD exposure, knowledge and attitudes. Subject responses were compared pre- and postclerkship. One hundred six students returned completed paired surveys (response rate 82%). The preclerkship mean knowledge percent correct (54%, SD 17%) increased significantly at postclerkship assessment (72%, SD 18%) (p<.0001). The mean attitudes score also increased significantly from pre- (34%, SD 31%) to postclerkship (59%, SD 26%) (p<.0001). US medical student IUD knowledge and attitudes are significantly improved through the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship. However, significant gaps in knowledge persist postclerkship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Turkish adolescents' knowledge on and attitude toward emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Nuray; Korucuoğlu, Umit; Aksakal, F Nur; Biri, Aydan; Ciftçi, Banu; Maral, Işil; Tiraş, Bülent

    2006-12-01

    Adolescents tend to be at risk for unwanted pregnancies, so detecting their level of knowledge on emergency contraception and providing them information is important to prevent such pregnancies. Hence, in two faculties at Gazi University, this study aimed to detect freshman students' level and need of knowledge on emergency contraception and to evaluate their attitude towards emergency contraception. The study was performed with freshman students of the Occupational Education Faculty and the Technical Education Faculty. A questionnaire including questions about demographic properties, obstetrical history, status of contraceptive use, level of knowledge and opinions on emergency contraception was administered to the students. Data was analyzed statistically with the computer program EPI Info 6.0. A total number of 385 adolescents were included in the studys; 157 of whom were males (40.8%) and 228 of whom were females (59.2%). To the question "is there any way to prevent a possible pregnancy after an unprotected sexual intercourse?", 166 students replied "yes" (50.5%), 39 "no" (11.9%) and 124 "I do not know" (37.7%). Of 166 students replying "yes," 114 (68.7%) listed a possible contraceptive method. The mostly cited method was "morning after pills" (n = 62; 54.4%), followed by curettage (n = 15; 13.2%). Among all students, 158 (49.8%) informed us that they were aware of the presence of "morning after pills" whereas 159 (50.2%) claimed they were not. Eighty-six male students (70.5%) and 115 female students (72%) emphasized that they would use emergency contraception upon necessity. Half of the participants were familiar with various options to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected sexual intercourse episode, but they lacked specific knowledge about possible methods and ways to use them. Thus, it is essential that information about emergency contraception be included in adolescents' educational programs and that adolescents be provided with easily accessible medical

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practice about malaria in rural Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Paulander, Johan; Olsson, Henrik; Lemma, Hailemariam; Getachew, Asefaw; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding malaria and their determinants in a rural population of northern Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in the district of Samre Saharti, Tigray, northern Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire collecting socio-demographic and malaria-related KAP information was administered to the mothers from a representative sample of households. Results A total of 1652 questionnaires were available for analysis. Most of the respondents (92.7%) were able to mention at least one symptom of malaria. Mosquito as a cause of malaria was recognized by nearly half of the respondents (48.8%). Most of the households had a bed net (85.9%). To have a literate person at home, to belong to the lowland stratum, to have received some type of health education and to own a radio were associated with the knowledge of malaria. A strong association remained between living in the lowland stratum, to own a radio and to live close to the health post and the use of ITN. Being a housewife, lack of health education and to live further than 60 minutes walking distance to the health post were related to a delay on treatment finding. Conclusion This study has identified some aspects which the MCP might need to improve. The knowledge about malaria transmission should be strengthened. Promotion of literacy and participation in health education are vital components in terms of malaria knowledge and practice. Issues related to geographical location and accessibility to health post should be also carefully examined. PMID:20027277

  1. Knowledge: a possible tool in shaping medical professionals' attitudes towards homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Pantović, Maja; Vuković, Vuk; Randjelović, Dunja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Ivković, Maja

    2012-06-01

    The attitudes of medical professionals towards homosexuals can influence their willingness to provide these individuals with medical help. The study evaluated the medical professionals' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes towards it. The sample consisted of 177 participants (physicians n=79 and students n=98). The study respondents anonymously completed three questionnaires (socio-demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire on knowledge, and the questionnaire on attitudes towards homosexuals). Male and religious participants showed a lower level of knowledge and a greater tendency to stigmatize. Furthermore, the subjects who knew more about homosexuality tended to hold less stigmatizing attitude. Age group, specialty (psychiatry, gynecology, internal medicine and surgery), and student's/physician's status had no effect on stigmatization. The study showed that the final year students/ residents had more knowledge than the second year students/specialists did. Knowledge had significant negative predictive effect on attitudes in the analyzed predictive model. To our knowledge, this has been the first study in Serbia and Eastern Europe, which provides information on knowledge and attitudes of health professionals towards homosexuality. We would like to point out the degree of knowledge on homosexuality as a possible, but not exclusive tool in shaping the attitudes towards homosexuals and reducing stigmatization. However, regardless of the personal attitude, knowledge and variable acceptance of the homosexuals' rights, medical professionals' main task is to resist discriminative behavior and provide professional medical help to both homosexual and heterosexual patients.

  2. Inclusive Education for Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Secondary Mainstream Schools: Teacher Attitudes, Experience and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Symes, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the experience, attitudes and knowledge of school staff in relation to inclusive education for pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) in mainstream secondary schools. Fifty-three participants from 11 secondary schools in the north-west of England completed a survey that covered socio-demographic…

  3. Knowledge, Skills, or Attitudes/Beliefs: The Contexts of Agricultural Literacy in Upper-Elementary Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallera, Farah L.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural literacy connects knowledge, skills, and attitudes/beliefs (KSABs) about agriculture to KSABs in environmental education, education for sustainable development, and science education identified in recent reform initiatives. This study conducted a content analysis of 12 current upper-elementary U.S. science textbooks and curriculum…

  4. Comparison of breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs before and after educational intervention for rural Appalachian high school students.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Allison K; Schetzina, Karen E; Freeman, Sherry C; Coulter, Meredith M; Colgrove, Nicole J

    2013-03-01

    Breast-feeding rates in rural and southeastern regions of the United States are lower than national rates and Healthy People 2020 targets. The objectives of this study were to understand current breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among rural southern Appalachian adolescents and to explore whether a high school educational intervention designed to address the five tenets (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms) of the theory of planned behavior may be effective in increasing future rates of breast-feeding in this population. An educational session including an interactive game was developed and administered to occupational health science students during a single class period in two county high schools. A presurvey and a postsurvey administered 2 weeks after the intervention were completed by students. Pre- and postsurveys were analyzed using paired t tests and Cohen d and potential differences based on sex and grade were explored. Both pre- and postsurveys were completed by 107 students (78%). Knowledge, attitudes about breast-feeding benefits, subjective norms, and intentions significantly improved following the intervention. Baseline knowledge and attitudes about breast-feeding benefits for mothers were low and demonstrated the greatest improvement. Offering breast-feeding education based on the theory of planned behavior in a single high school class session was effective in improving student knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast-feeding and intention to breast-feed.

  5. Factors that influence concussion knowledge and self-reported attitudes in high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Kurowski, Brad; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Schaiper, Courtney; Gittelman, Michael A

    2014-09-01

    Many organizations and health care providers support educating high school (HS) athletes about concussions to improve their attitudes and behaviors about reporting. The objectives of this study were to determine if previous education, sport played, and individual factors were associated with better knowledge about concussion and to determine if more knowledge was associated with improved self-reported attitudes toward reporting concussions among HS athletes. We conducted a survey of HS athletes aged 13 years to 18 years from two large, urban HSs. Players were recruited from selected seasonal (fall and winter) as well as men and women's sports. During preseason, each participant was given a survey asking about his or her previous education, current knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the association of age, sex, sport, and previous concussion education with knowledge and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. Surveys were completed by 496 athletes. The median age was 15 years, and 384 (77.4%) were male. A total of 212 (42.7%) participated in football, 123 (24.8%) in soccer, 89 (17.9%) in basketball, and 72 (14.5%) in wrestling. One hundred sixteen (23.4%) reported a history of concussion. Improved knowledge regarding concussions was not associated with improved self-reported behaviors (p = 0.63) in bivariate regression models. The multivariate model demonstrated that older age (p = 0.01) and female sex (p = 0.03) were associated with better knowledge. Younger age (p = 0.01), female sex (p = 0.0002), and soccer participation (p = 0.02) were associated with better self-reported behaviors around reporting concussions. Previous education on concussions was less predictive of knowledge about concussions when controlling for other factors such as sport and sex. Younger age, female sex, and soccer participation were more likely to be

  6. Factors that influence concussion knowledge and self-reported attitudes in high school athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Brad; Pomerantz, Wendy J.; Schaiper, Courtney; Gittelman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many organizations and health care providers support educating high school (HS) athletes about concussions to improve their attitudes and behaviors about reporting. The objectives of this study were to determine if previous education, sport played, and individual factors were associated with better knowledge about concussion and to determine if more knowledge was associated with improved self-reported attitudes toward reporting concussions among HS athletes. METHODS We conducted a survey of HS athletes aged 13 years to 18 years from two large, urban HSs. Players were recruited from selected seasonal (fall and winter) as well as men and women’s sports. During preseason, each participant was given a survey asking about his or her previous education, current knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the association of age, sex, sport, and previous concussion education with knowledge and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. RESULTS Surveys were completed by 496 athletes. The median age was 15 years, and 384 (77.4%) were male. A total of 212 (42.7%) participated in football, 123 (24.8%) in soccer, 89 (17.9%) in basketball, and 72 (14.5%) in wrestling. One hundred sixteen (23.4%) reported a history of concussion. Improved knowledge regarding concussions was not associated with improved self-reported behaviors (p = 0.63) in bivariate regression models. The multivariate model demonstrated that older age (p = 0.01) and female sex (p = 0.03) were associated with better knowledge. Younger age (p = 0.01), female sex (p = 0.0002), and soccer participation (p = 0.02) were associated with better self-reported behaviors around reporting concussions. CONCLUSION Previous education on concussions was less predictive of knowledge about concussions when controlling for other factors such as sport and sex. Younger age, female sex, and

  7. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Alaska Native people: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Kristen; Boles, Myde; Bushore, Chris J.; Pizacani, Barbara A.; Maher, Julie E.; Peterson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1) or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6) than non-Natives. Conclusion Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke

  8. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Alaska Native people: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Kristen; Boles, Myde; Bushore, Chris J; Pizacani, Barbara A; Maher, Julie E; Peterson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%-44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%-18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.6-9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.8-7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) or in restaurants (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5-6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.6) than non-Natives. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.

  9. Men's knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer screening in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Joelle I; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Hamisi, Sabina; Huchko, Megan J

    2014-11-22

    A number of studies have identified male involvement as an important factor affecting reproductive health outcomes, particularly in the areas of family planning, antenatal care, and HIV care. As access to cervical cancer screening programs improves in resource-poor settings, particularly through the integration of HIV and cervical cancer services, it is important to understand the role of male partner support in women's utilization of screening and treatment. We administered an oral survey to 110 men in Western Kenya about their knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening. Men who had female partners eligible for cervical cancer screening were recruited from government health facilities where screening was offered free of charge. Specific knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors, prevention, and treatment was low. Only half of the men perceived their partners to be at risk for cervical cancer, and many reported that a positive screen would be emotionally upsetting. Nevertheless, all participants said they would encourage their partners to get screened. Future interventions should tailor cervical cancer educational opportunities towards men. Further research is needed among both men and couples to better understand barriers to male support for screening and treatment and to determine how to best involve men in cervical cancer prevention efforts.

  10. Mexican adolescent sexuality: attitudes, knowledge, and sources of information.

    PubMed

    Baird, T L

    1993-08-01

    Data from a study of the attitudes, knowledge, and sources of information of Mexican adolescents are presented. 24 male and 57 female unmarried adolescents of mean age 16.2-16.5 years (range 14-19 years) from Cuernavaca and Guadajara responded to a 66-item questionnaire. Participants were from a broad range of socioeconomic levels and 86% self-identified as being Catholic. 12 males and 4 females had experienced sexual intercourse. Responses to the questionnaire indicate that 85% had received some sex education in school, yet only 8% thought that teachers should be responsible for sex education. Further, the majority were satisfied with what they knew about sex, but the greatest mean score was 5.5 on a series of 9 knowledge questions. The youths were generally conservative, holding that people, especially females, should be married before having sex and that sex without love is unacceptable. The author hopes that these findings will help health education providers plan programs for this population in Mexico and the US.

  11. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and consumption of organic yogurt.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Experimental Study of the Relationship between Attitude toward and Knowledge of Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between gain in attitude toward and increases in knowledge of educational research was investigated in preservice social studies teachers. Results indicated that increases in knowledge did not result in gains in attitude. There were no significant differences between individual-workbook and lecture-workbook instructional…

  13. Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

  14. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  15. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  16. Knowledge and Attitudes of Health-Care Providers toward Sexuality in the Institutionalized Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home caretakers toward elderly sexuality, looking at certain sociodemographic and institutional factors. The more knowledge providers possessed, the more restrictive their attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Education, religiosity, position, nursing education, time in current…

  17. Predictors of College Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Elderly Sexuality: The Relevance of Grandparental Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Jennifer L.; Stricker, George

    1996-01-01

    Young and middle-age adult college students (n=241) completed an attitude scale indicating that age is associated with their knowledge of elderly sexuality. Contact and closeness with grandparents predicted more favorable attitudes toward elderly sexuality. For young adults without grandparent contact, the relationship between knowledge and…

  18. A Linkage of Knowledge and Attitudes toward Elderly Sexuality: Not Necessarily a Uniform Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Jennifer L.; Stricker, George

    1994-01-01

    Presents critical review of literature regarding individuals' knowledge and their attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Notes generally positive relationship discovered between various age cohorts' depth of knowledge and their permissiveness of attitudes. Also notes that some health care providers demonstrated negative relationship between their…

  19. Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

  20. Development of a Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test for the Moderately and Mildly Retarded. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Barbara; And Others

    The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…

  1. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  2. Profile of Knowledge Management, Basic Sanitation and Attitudes towards Clean and Health Community in Kupang City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikmah; Ardi, Muhammad; Yahya, Mohamad; Upa, Muhamad D. Pua; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2017-01-01

    The objective of research is to describe the knowledge and attitude of basic sanitation management community in Kupang City. This type of research is a survey research using quantitative approach. Data were collected by using the instrument in the form of test knowledge of basic sanitation management and attitude questionnaire. The data was then…

  3. Effects of Puppetry on Elementary Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB) puppet shows on elementary school students' knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities are described. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and change attitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both…

  4. [Development of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on prevention and control of occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Feng, Yuchao; Wang, Min; Su, Yiwei; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Zhi; Tang, Shihao

    2015-04-01

    To develop the knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups, and to provide a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect. The initial questionnaire which was evaluated by the experts was used to carry out a pre-survey in Guangzhou, China. The survey results were statistically analyzed by t test, identification index method, correlation analysis, and Cronbach's a coefficient method. And then the questionnaire was further modified, and the content of the questionnaire was determined finally. After modification, there were 18 items on knowledge, 16 items on attitude, and 12 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for enterprise managers"; there were 19 items on knowledge, 10 items on attitude, and 11 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for workers". The knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups is developed successfully, and it is a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect.

  5. Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Environmental Knowledge, Awareness, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Ahmet; Sargin, Seyid Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan; Kelani, Raphael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure science and mathematics teacher candidates' environmental knowledge level, awareness, behavior and environmental attitudes. Four instruments comprising Environmental Sensitivity Scale, environmental Behavior Scale, Environmental Attitudes Scale and Environmental Knowledge Test were administered to a total…

  6. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  7. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  8. Measuring the Knowledge and Attitudes of Health Care Staff toward Older People: Sensitivity of Measurement Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers…

  9. Attitudes, Perceptions, and Aging Knowledge of Future Law Enforcement and Recreation Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Maria L.; Intrieri, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed knowledge of aging, ageism, and attitudes toward aging in undergraduate recreation and law enforcement majors. Past research with psychology, social work, and nursing majors showed that greater knowledge of aging was related to fewer ageist attitudes and beliefs. The results showed that law enforcement students possessed…

  10. Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

  11. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  12. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  13. Environmental Literacy in Teacher Training: Attitudes, Knowledge, and Environmental Behavior of Beginning Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pe'er, Sara; Goldman, Daphne; Yavetz, Bela

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the environmental attitudes and knowledge of 765 1st-year students in 3 teacher-training colleges in Israel and examine the relationship between these variables and background factors and their relationship to environmental behavior. Although the students' environmental knowledge was limited, their overall attitudes toward the…

  14. The Relationship of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Processes to Initial Teaching Behaviors in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Ryda Dwarys

    Relationships of science attitudes, science content, and process knowledge to initial science teaching behaviors were studied among 25 student teachers of a liberal arts college. The 13-subject experimental group was subjected to an elementary school methods course with emphases upon positive attitudes and process knowledge. The control group was…

  15. Environmental Literacy in Teacher Training: Attitudes, Knowledge, and Environmental Behavior of Beginning Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pe'er, Sara; Goldman, Daphne; Yavetz, Bela

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the environmental attitudes and knowledge of 765 1st-year students in 3 teacher-training colleges in Israel and examine the relationship between these variables and background factors and their relationship to environmental behavior. Although the students' environmental knowledge was limited, their overall attitudes toward the…

  16. Adolescent Boys' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Testicular Self-Examination: Evaluating an Outreach Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey K.; Sauter, Marcia; Day, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent boys who had participated in a brief outreach program to high school health education classes designed to increase boys' knowledge about and improve their attitudes toward testicular self-examination (TSE) and early cancer detection. Results indicated that the 1-hour outreach improved students' knowledge and attitudes regarding…

  17. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  18. Knowledge and Attitude regarding Recovery among Mental Health Practitioners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Nordenmark, Mikael; Dalin, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…

  19. A Field Study of First Aid Knowledge and Attitudes of College Students in Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2006-01-01

    A random sample of 562 students completed a questionnaire including demographic data; 20 questions testing knowledge (right answers scored 1 and wrong answers 0); and 20 exploring attitudes ("yes", "not sure" and "no"). Overall, students scored 0.49 for knowledge and 2.30 (of a maximum 3) for attitude. Knowledge…

  20. Change in Knowledge and Attitudes among Students in an Undergraduate Developmental Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohr-Preston, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Non-parent college students enrolled in a lifespan developmental psychology course were assessed at two time points (beginning of the semester and shortly after midterm) on knowledge and attitudes that would likely to be useful for the transition to parenthood. Students reported perceived change in knowledge and attitudes, and repeated measures…

  1. Pre-Service Teachers' Perception toward Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borhan, Mohamad Termizi; Ismail, Zurida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours exhibited by the pre-service teachers and determined if there was any significant relationship between environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Method: This descriptive study adopted a quantitative approach using questionnaires to obtain information on…

  2. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  3. Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

  4. A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

  5. Knowledge and Attitude regarding Recovery among Mental Health Practitioners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Nordenmark, Mikael; Dalin, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…

  6. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  7. Examination of the Alcohol Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior Model with Incoming College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Victor B.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the validity of the knowledge-attitudes-behavior model of alcohol consumption with a group of first-time, full-time college students (N=432) at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Asserts that there is a relationship between people's knowledge about alcohol, their attitudes concerning alcohol, and their behavior relating to…

  8. Voices of Teacher Candidates: Positive Changes in Multicultural Attitudes and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capella-Santana, Nadya

    2003-01-01

    Explored changes in preservice teachers' multicultural attitudes and knowledge, as well as factors that contributed positively to those changes. Student teachers were followed throughout their preparation program. Data from questionnaires and interviews indicated that respondents' multicultural attitudes and knowledge change in a positive…

  9. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Sexuality in Adolescents and Their Association with the Family and Other Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Franco, Raquel; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies family structure and function and their association with knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in student and adolescent factory workers. Finds female workers at higher risk for unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes included age, schooling…

  10. An Experimental Study of the Relationship between Attitude toward and Knowledge of Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between gain in attitude toward and increases in knowledge of educational research was investigated in preservice social studies teachers. Results indicated that increases in knowledge did not result in gains in attitude. There were no significant differences between individual-workbook and lecture-workbook instructional…

  11. A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

  12. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

  13. Short-Term Effects of Teenage Parenting Programs on Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of teenage parenting programs upon the knowledge and attitudes of pregnant teenagers (N=31). The programs studied produced a significant change in the teenagers' knowledge of sexuality and child development while having no apparent effect on the teenagers' parenting attitudes. (Author/JAC)

  14. Knowledge acquired, satisfaction attained and attitudes towards shared decision making in colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alonso, Francisco J.; Tejero, María Hernández; Cambrodón, Daniel Bonillo; Bermejo, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background Introducing shared decision making (SDM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening requires patients to acquire appropriate knowledge. We aimed to describe the knowledge attained by subjects with a family history of CRC. Methods Consecutive patients attending the gastroenterology clinic for a CRC family history were invited to take part in a cross-sectional survey. Attitudes towards SDM, satisfaction with the information received, knowledge currently achieved, and relevant influencing factors were evaluated. Satisfaction and attitudes towards SDM were evaluated with Likert scale questions. Knowledge was surveyed with closed (80%) and open (20%) questions. Results Of the 160 patients, 42.7% were male and the median age was 51.8 years (interquartile range: 43.9-58.5). Most subjects favored SDM; only 12.8% (8.4-19.1%) favored passive attitudes. Satisfaction with the information received about what a colonoscopy is and why it is recommended was adequate in 83.1% (76.4-88.2%). Information about risks satisfied 62.9% (55-70.1%) and about alternatives to colonoscopy only 30.6% (23.8-38.3%). The benefits of screening were better known than its risks and alternatives. The CRC decrease associated with screening was known to 71.3% (63.7-77.8%), but only 38.5% (31.1-46.4%) knew that a reduced risk still exists. Just 21.2% (15.5-26.9%) could mention an alternative screening method to colonoscopy and only 42.5% (35-50.4%) were aware of any associated harm. On multivariate analysis, higher educational level and younger age of the attending physician were associated with higher knowledge scores. Conclusion SDM is considered favorably by most patients. Although information about the benefits of CRC screening is transmitted adequately, risks and alternatives should be better addressed. PMID:28042241

  15. Financial attitudes, knowledge, and habits of chiropractic students: A descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Lorence, Julie; Lawrence, Dana J.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to describe the financial knowledge, habits and attitudes of chiropractic students. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey to measure basic financial knowledge, current financial habits, risk tolerance, and beliefs about future income among 250 students enrolled in business courses at one US chiropractic college. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: We received 57 questionnaires (23% response rate). Most respondents would accumulate over $125,000 in student loan debt by graduation. Financial knowledge was low (mean 77%). Most respondents (72%) scored as average financial risk takers. Chiropractic students reported recommended short-term habits such as having checking accounts (90%) and health insurance (63%) or paying monthly bills (88%) and credit cards (60%). Few saved money for unplanned expenses (39%) or long-term goals (26%), kept written budgets (32%), or had retirement accounts (19%). Conclusion: These chiropractic students demonstrated inadequate financial literacy and did not engage in many recommended financial habits. PMID:24587498

  16. An evaluation of knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kiyak, Emine; Dayapoglu, Nuray

    2017-08-23

    This study was designed to determine the knowledge and attitudes regarding epilepsy among individuals in eastern Turkey. This descriptive study involved 530 healthy individuals who came to the Research and Application Hospital of Ataturk University in Erzurum, Turkey. A questionnaire and the epilepsy knowledge and attitude scale were administered to collect data. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman's correlation tests were used to analyze the data. The participants' epilepsy knowledge mean score was 6.34 (SD=3.71), and their attitude mean score was 50.22 (SD=11.17). There was a positive (r=0.404) correlation between the knowledge and the attitude scores (p<0.001), and negative correlations between age and the knowledge (p=0.036) and the attitude scores (p<0.001). The mean knowledge and attitude scores were higher for the participants who were high school and university graduates, had expenses equal to income, and lived in nuclear families and in the city center (p<0.001). Civil servants and housewives had significantly higher mean knowledge scores, and students had significantly higher mean attitude scores (p<0.001). Significantly higher knowledge and attitude mean scores were also found for those who knew patients with epilepsy, had witnessed epileptic seizures, obtained information from healthcare personnel, and did not believe that epilepsy was associated with religion (p<0.001). The study participants had low knowledge about epilepsy but displayed positive attitudes toward it. Higher knowledge positively affected attitude, and younger individuals had greater knowledge and, thus, more positive attitudes. Women, civil servants, and housewives had higher knowledge, whereas singles and students had better attitudes. The participants who had high educational levels and expenses equal to income and lived in nuclear families and the city center had more knowledge and displayed more positive attitudes. Greater knowledge and more positive attitudes were also

  17. [Obstetricians/gynaecologists and breastfeeding: practice, attitudes, training and knowledge].

    PubMed

    Simard-Émond, Laurence; Sansregret, Andrée; Dubé, Johanne; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène

    2011-02-01

    Sole use of breastfeeding is recommended during the first six months of life. The treating physician's opinion influences whether or not the patient will opt for breastfeeding. We wanted to ascertain if obstetricians-gynaecologists and obstetrics and gynaecology residents from Quebec offered counselling on breastfeeding and to examine various aspects of their disposition towards such counselling. A questionnaire evaluating five aspects of physicians' disposition towards breastfeeding was used: practice and confidence, attitudes, training, knowledge. We emailed obstetrics and gynaecology residents from Quebec and members of the Association des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Québec who had a valid email address to invite them to complete the questionnaire, which was offered on a secured website. Only 49% of obstetricians-gynaecologists and 35% of residents periodically offer counselling on breastfeeding. Furthermore, 56% and 35% respectively of both groups have confidence in their ability to meet the needs of breastfeeding patients, while 79% of the former and 93% of the latter believe that such counselling comes under their authority. On average, obstetricians-gynaecologists answered correctly 82% of the questions concerning theoretical knowledge. Only 16% of obstetricians-gynaecologists and 22% of residents believe they have received an "at least adequate" training on how to support breastfeeding women. Respondents have not adequately integrated breastfeeding counselling into their practice, in spite of the fact that they had adequate theoretical knowledge on the matter and that they were convinced that such a role was important and that it came under their authority. A more practical form of training could enhance their confidence level and encourage them to integrate such counselling into the obstetrical follow-up.

  18. Adolescent Reproductive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs and Future Fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Peters, Sarah; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, Patricia Lindsay

    2016-05-01

    With a growing focus on the importance of men's reproductive health, including preconception health, the ways in which young men's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) predict their reproductive paths are understudied. To determine if reproductive KAB predicts fatherhood status, timing and residency (living with child or not). Reproductive KAB and fatherhood outcomes were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a 20-year, nationally representative study of individuals from adolescence into adulthood. Four measures of reproductive KAB were assessed during adolescence in waves I and II. A generalized linear latent and mixed model predicted future fatherhood status (nonfather, resident/nonresident father, adolescent father) and timing while controlling for other socio-demographic variables. Of the 10,253 men, 3,425 were fathers (686 nonresident/2,739 resident) by wave IV. Higher risky sexual behavior scores significantly increased the odds of becoming nonresident father (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; p < .0001), resident father (OR, 1.07; p = .007), and adolescent father (OR, 1.71; p < .0001); higher pregnancy attitudes scores significantly increased the odds of becoming a nonresident father (OR, 1.20; p < .0001) and resident father (OR, 1.11; p < .0001); higher birth control self-efficacy scores significantly decreased the odds of becoming a nonresident father (OR, .72; p < .0001) and adolescent father (OR, .56; p = .01). Young men's KAB in adolescence predicts their future fatherhood and residency status. Strategies that address adolescent males' reproductive KAB are needed in the prevention of unintended reproductive consequences such as early and nonresident fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent Reproductive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs and Future Fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Craig F.; Duncan, Greg; Peters, Sarah; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W.; Adam, Emma K.; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Background With a growing focus on the importance of men’s reproductive health--including preconception health--the ways in which young men’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) predict their reproductive paths are understudied. Objective To determine if reproductive KAB predicts fatherhood status, timing and residency (living with child or not). Methods Reproductive KAB and fatherhood outcomes were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a 20-year, nationally representative study of individuals from adolescence into adulthood. Four measures of reproductive KAB were assessed during adolescence in Waves I and II. A generalized linear latent and mixed model predicted future fatherhood status (non-father, resident/nonresident father, adolescent father) and timing while controlling for other socio-demographic variables. Results Of the 10,253 males, 3425 were fathers (686 non-resident/2739 resident) by wave IV. Higher risky sexual behavior scores significantly increased the odds of becoming nonresident father (OR=1.30, p < 0.0001), resident father (OR=1.07, p = 0.007), and adolescent father (OR=1.71, p < 0.0001); higher pregnancy attitudes scores significantly increased the odds of becoming a nonresident father (OR=1.20, p < 0.0001) and resident father (O =1.11, p < 0.0001); higher birth control self-efficacy scores significantly decreased the odds of becoming a nonresident father (O =0.72, p < 0.0001), and adolescent father (OR=0.56, p = 0.01). Conclusion Young men’s KAB in adolescence predicts their future fatherhood and residency status. Strategies that address adolescent males' reproductive KAB are needed in the prevention of unintended reproductive consequences such as early and nonresident fatherhood. PMID:26896211

  20. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of urban Gujarati type 2 diabetics: Prevalence and impact on disease control.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jayesh Dalpatbhai; Sheth, Nidhi Shaileshbhai; Shah, Chinmay J; Mehta, Hemant B

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is the modern epidemic wherein patient care needs multiple approaches, education, and self-awareness being one of them. There are some knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) studies from India but very few relating it with disease control. We tried to study KAP of treated type 2 diabetics and its correlation with glycemic control. Cross-sectional KAP study. We formulated KAP questionnaires in the form of KAP - 10 points for each and total 30. We recruited 200 type 2 diabetics (96 males, 104 females) treated by MD physicians with known current glycemic status. They were asked KAP questionnaires one to one by a direct interview in local language and results were associated with various factors and glycemic control. KAP score on was average 19 out of 30 in type 2 diabetics having mean age 58 years, mean duration 9 years. KAP score was unaffected by gender, occupation, duration of disease but significantly affected by current age, and education level. Only 40% patients had good glycemic control who scored better KAP than poor glycemic. There was positive correlation between KAP score and glycemic control, with significance for only glycosylated hemoglobin and not fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar. Physician treated type 2 diabetics of our region had moderate KAP score, affected by age, education which suggested to affect glycemic control. Lacunae in knowledge regarding incurability of disease, attitudes toward complication, self-care, and good practices like walking, enriching knowledge need improvement so as an optimum glycemic control.

  1. A study on knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among college students in Sikkim, India

    PubMed Central

    Renjhen, Prachi; Kumar, Ashwini; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Sagir, Afrin; Samarasinghe, Charmaine Minoli

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the college students. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in the Government College, Gangtok, Sikkim, during the month of April 2009 to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among 156 students enrolled in the first year bachelor course. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Results 98% (153/156) of the students had knowledge about family planning and 86% (134/156) of them had heard about contraceptives. Most of them knew about condoms (85%) and contraceptive pills (40%) but knowledge about permanent methods and Cu-T was poor (average 12%). Most students thought contraceptives were to be used to prevent unwanted pregnancy (35%) and for birth spacing (30%). 11% of students had used some form of contraceptive in the past and 7% were currently users. The most commonly used contraceptives were condoms, followed by combined use of OCP and condom. Conclusion The study highlights the need to motivate the youth for effective and appropriate use of contraceptives when required and arrest the trend towards unwanted pregnancy. PMID:24591903

  2. Concussion Attitudes and Beliefs, Knowledge, and Clinical Practice: Survey of Physical Therapists.

    PubMed

    Yorke, Amy M; Littleton, Sheila; Alsalaheen, Bara A

    2016-07-01

    A concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury that may cause physical, cognitive, affective, and sleep dysfunction. Physical therapists have been identified as health care providers involved in the multidisciplinary care of a patient with concussion. The purpose of this study was to describe the current attitudes and beliefs, knowledge, and practice of physical therapists in the treatment of patients with concussion. A 55-question electronic survey divided into 6 sections-(1) demographics, (2) current practice in concussion, (3) youth concussion legislation, (4) attitudes and beliefs toward concussion management, (5) concussion knowledge, and (6) clinical decision making-was developed and distributed online through selected American Physical Therapy Association sections. A total of 1,272 physical therapists completed the survey. Seventy percent of the respondents (n=894) reported having concussion training. Although supportive of the role of the physical therapist in the treatment of a person with concussion, the respondents demonstrated less confidence when making return-to-play decisions. Respondents correctly answered, on average, 13 (out of 15) concussion knowledge questions, with gaps exhibited in understanding the clinical utilization of concussion severity scales, the conservative treatment of youth who sustain a concussion, and anticipated normal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging after a concussion. When provided with clinical scenarios, respondents were able to recognize when a referral to a physician was indicated; however, they demonstrated variability in identifying a need for vestibular or manual physical therapy. Convenience sampling was utilized, limiting generalizability of the results of the study to the physical therapy profession as a whole. Physical therapists demonstrated a solid foundation of concussion knowledge, but gaps still existed. Future professional development opportunities should be developed to target

  3. Consumers of Mental Health Services: Their Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices About High Energy Drinks and Drugs.

    PubMed

    Smoyak, Shirley A; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Nowik, Katerina; Ancheta, April; Lombardo, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    To date, whether individuals with mental illness use high energy drinks (HED) to offset their symptoms, or whether their use began after diagnosis or psychoactive drugs were prescribed is unknown. Their degree of knowledge regarding their symptoms, diagnosis, or what strategies they have used to feel better is also undetermined. A search of the literature yielded no studies about these areas or domains. The current article provides background information on caffeine and HED, with or without alcohol, and the use patterns of consumers of mental health services, as well as their attitudes and knowledge. Participants in the Network for Psychiatric Nursing Researchers, who were consumers, influenced the current study group to expand their thinking about how to address the unknown areas. Their related work and publication are described. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(4), 37-43.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Substance Use Practices Among Street Children in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Embleton, Lonnie; Ayuku, David; Atwoli, Lukoye; Vreeman, Rachel; Braitstein, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The study describes the knowledge of and attitudes toward substance use among street-involved youth in Kenya, and how they relate to their substance use practices. In 2011, 146 children and youth ages 10–19 years, classified as either children on the street or children of the street were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey in Eldoret, Kenya. Bivariate analysis using χ2 or Fisher’s Exact Test was used to test the associations between variables, and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent covariates associated with lifetime and current drug use. The study’s limitations and source of funding are noted. PMID:22780841

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and breast feeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Susheela, T; Mythili, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant feeding practices among Indian postnatal mothers. Methodology A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected postnatal mothers at Pediatric outpatient department at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Our findings revealed that a majority (88.5%) of the mothers were breast feeders. However, merely 27% of the mothers were exclusive breast feeders and only 36.9% initiated breast feeding within an hour. While mothers have good knowledge on breast feeding (12.05±1.74, M±SD), the average score of the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) (58.77±4.74, M ±SD) indicate neutral attitudes toward breast feeding. Mothers those who were currently breast feeding (58.83 ± 4.74) had more positive attitudes than non- breastfeed mothers (45.21±5.22). Conclusion Our findings also show that the level of exclusive breast-feeding was low. Thus, it is important to provide prenatal education to mothers and fathers on breast-feeding. We also recommend strengthening the public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding. PMID:26715916

  6. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa.

  7. The Effects of Thrust Uncertainty and Attitude Knowledge Errors on the MMS Formation Maintenance Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Dean C.

    2005-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission will use a formation of four spinning spacecraft to study the Earth s magnetosphere. The science objectives of MMS require a near-regular tetrahedron formation to be maintained with side lengths ranging from ten kilometers to several thousand kilometers at orbit apogee. To reduce spacecraft complexity and cost, the current mission concept assumes MMS can achieve its formation goals through open-loop orbit control from the ground, rather than in-flight, closed-loop formation control that has been the subject of recent study. Significant analysis has been performed to provide optimal reference orbit and relative orbit designs. However, the feasibility of achieving these orbits, and maintaining them for an extended period of time in the presence of real world errors and perturbations has not been investigated. In particular, attitude knowledge and control errors, which may have a negligible effect on orbit control for conventional missions with spinning spacecraft, can contribute significant errors to the MMS orbits. In this work, a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) simulation is developed and used to analyze the effects of realistic errors on formation maintenance maneuver accuracy. Several realistic considerations including a finite-burn model, attitude perturbations, and thrust uncertainty are studied. The primary objective is to quantify the effects of realistic attitude and orbit control, knowledge, and actuator errors on the formation geometry by observing representative maneuver errors of a single spacecraft.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and breast feeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Susheela, T; Mythili, D

    2015-10-01

    Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant feeding practices among Indian postnatal mothers. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected postnatal mothers at Pediatric outpatient department at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that a majority (88.5%) of the mothers were breast feeders. However, merely 27% of the mothers were exclusive breast feeders and only 36.9% initiated breast feeding within an hour. While mothers have good knowledge on breast feeding (12.05±1.74, M±SD), the average score of the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) (58.77±4.74, M ±SD) indicate neutral attitudes toward breast feeding. Mothers those who were currently breast feeding (58.83 ± 4.74) had more positive attitudes than non- breastfeed mothers (45.21±5.22). Our findings also show that the level of exclusive breast-feeding was low. Thus, it is important to provide prenatal education to mothers and fathers on breast-feeding. We also recommend strengthening the public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding.

  9. Effects of knowledge and persuasion on high-school students' attitudes toward nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

    Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;

  10. Summer sun exposure: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Midwest adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J K; Rademaker, A W; Sylvester, J A; Cook, B

    1997-01-01

    Extensive print, radio, and television coverage about the dangers of sun exposure and benefits of sun protection occurred over the past decade. Illinois teen knowledge and attitudes about sun exposure/protection, sun-exposure/protection behavior, and information sources were determined by a summer telephone survey. Telephone interviews with 658 teenagers between ages 11 and 19 included African-American, Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and white teenagers. Teens knew that too much sun was harmful as it caused skin cancer and sunburn. Sunburn was mentioned more often by those with skin types that burned easily and tanned poorly (I,II) (P < 0.001), was better known to girls than to boys (P < 0.001), and was recognized more by those with higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.001) but was not associated with age. Widely held sun exposure attitudes were socializing with friends and feeling better when outdoors. On weekdays, boys averaged 5.3 hr (SD, 1.65 hr) outside compared with 3.9 hr (SD, 0.75 hr) for girls (P < 0.001). Teenage boys were more likely to obtain occupational sun exposure, and girls sunbathed. Subjects with skin types I and II reported an average of 3.3 sunburns in the past year. During unprotected sun exposure, extensive numbers of teens with moderate-risk skin type experienced at least 1 sunburn per year. Indoor tanning use was more prevalent among older girls and those with skin types I and II. Sunscreen use was associated with water recreational activities (swimming, water sports, and going to the beach) by girls slightly more than by boys (P < 0.001). Hat-wearing was more common among boys than among girls. Teen knowledge that excessive sun exposure causes skin cancer and sunburns and that wearing sunscreens and hats were sun-protective methods did not enable sun protection that prevented burning. This is particularly troublesome because severe sunburns in youth are associated with an increased risk of melanoma. Existing teen sunscreen use could be

  11. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    PubMed

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  12. Drinking and driving in Vietnam: public knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhan T; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Pham, V Cuong; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Jo, Youngji; Passmore, Jonathon; Nguyen, Phuong N; Hyder, Adnan A

    2012-01-01

    Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam, and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices around alcohol use and drinking and driving by age and sex in 3 provinces in Vietnam. This study was conducted between January and February 2011, surveying randomly selected road users over the age of 17 years at gas stations in 3 provinces: Ha Nam, Ninh Binh, and Bac Giang, Vietnam. Data were collected for one week at each gas station. A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) survey was administered in 7 time blocks of 90 min throughout the day, from 07:30 am to 9:30 pm. There were a total of 633 respondents almost evenly divided among the 3 provinces. Males accounted for 69.1 percent of respondents; the majority were 36 years of age or younger. Despite the belief that drinking and driving will increase the risk of a crash, a significant proportion of respondents (44.9%) reported drinking and driving; 56.7 percent admitted to drinking and driving within the last month. Drinking and driving was more common among males, with approximately 60.2 percent indicating a history of drinking and driving. This proportion was particularly high among males aged 17 to 26 (71.4%). It was found that preferred alternatives to drinking and driving when available were leaving with a nondrinker (42%), resting until "feeling conscious" (23%), and drinking less (20%). This study shows that, in general, alcohol use and drinking and driving remain a problem in Vietnam, a major concern given that the country is rapidly motorizing and likewise increasing the likelihood of road traffic crashes in the absence of effective interventions. To target drinking and driving in Vietnam we call for a multifaceted approach

  13. Assessing Undergraduate University Students' Level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour Towards Biodiversity: A case study in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisiforou, Olympia; Charalambides, Alexandros George

    2012-05-01

    Biodiversity is a key resource as it provides both goods and services to society. However, humans value these resources differently, especially when biodiversity is exploited for its economic potential; a destruction on a scale rarely seen before. In order to decrease the threats that biodiversity is facing due to human activity, globally (climate change) and locally (economic development), individuals must have fundamental knowledge and exhibit appropriate behaviour towards biodiversity and its values. Nevertheless, the effect of human's knowledge, policies and attitudes towards biodiversity's protection are often limited by insufficient education and public support. A balance between the use of resources and technology, reconciling economic development and the need to maintain biodiversity is a challenge. The current paper looks into the knowledge level, attitudes and behaviour of university students of the Department of Environmental Science and Technology at the Cyprus University of Technology towards biodiversity. The investigation was carried out using a closed format questionnaire on a sample of first- and second-year university students (n = 44), in order to access their perceptions and attitudes towards environmental issues regarding biodiversity. The questionnaire was derived from relevant literature. The test results showed that there are significant differences with regard to the level of knowledge about biodiversity between the two groups. However, no significant differences were found on attitudes and behaviour towards biodiversity. The results have also shown that all students have a positive attitude towards biodiversity, while on the other hand, they find themselves, most of the time, unwilling to engage in environmental behaviour.

  14. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF HEALTH CARE SCIENCE STUDENTS TOWARD OLDER PEOPLE.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Dragana; Simin, Dragana; Kacavendić, Jelena; Turkulov, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Education of health science students in geriatrics is important in order to provide optimal care for the growing number of elderly people because it is the attitudes of health professionals toward the elderly that play the key role in the quality of care provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care science students towards ageing and care for the elderly. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 130 students (medical, nursing and special education and rehabilitation) of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad. The students were divided into two groups. The first group (E) included students having been taught geriatrics and nursing older adults and the other group (C) included students who had not been trained in this subject. The authors used Palmore's facts on Ageing Quiz for the knowledge evaluation and Kogan's Attitude toward Older People Scale for the attitude evaluation. The results of Facts on Aging Quiz showed the average level of students' knowledge and statistically significant difference between E and C group. The analysis of Kogan's Attitudes toward Old People Scale showed that both groups had neutral attitudes toward older people. Furthermore, a positive correlation between students' knowledge and attitudes was found. There is increasing evidence on the correlation between education, knowledge and attitudes toward older people which suggests that by acquiring better insights into all aspects of ageing through their education the students develop more positive attitudes and interest in working with older adults.

  15. Environmental education and its effect on the knowledge and attitudes of preparatory school students.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M; El-Naggar, Hesham M; Hussein, Rim A

    2009-01-01

    Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum.

  16. Knowledge and Attitude of Dental Students towards HIV/AIDS Patients in Melaka, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra Pal; Osman, Izni Syazana; Rahmat, Nur Amanina; Bakar, Nur Ashikin Abu; Razak, Nurul Fathin Natasha Abdul; Nettem, Sowmya

    2017-05-01

    Cross contamination of HIV is a real threat today. Dental treatment often includes direct contact with a patient's blood and saliva, therefore dental professionals can be easily exposed to HIV microorganisms. Hence, it is essential to gain insight into dental students' knowledge and attitude towards HIV patients. A cross-sectional survey of 186 clinical year dental students (year 3, 4 and 5) in the 2015-2016 academic session at the Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College (MMMC), Manipal University, Melaka volunteered to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine their knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients. Among 137 respondents (females 74.5% and males 25.6%), 40.9% were Malay, 46.7% were Chinese, 10.2% were Indian and 2.2% were others. The majority had an excellent (41.6%) to good (56.2%) knowledge and only (18%) had a professional attitude. There was a statistically significant association of knowledge with gender (P = 0.009) and ethnicity (P = 0.024), However, no association was found between attitude and gender (P = 0.756) or ethnicity (P = 0.792), or between knowledge and attitude (P = 0.473) of dental students. Dental students' knowledge was not significantly associated with attitude. However, knowledge was associated with gender and ethnicity, but no association was found between age and knowledge and between age, gender, or ethnicity and attitude.

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of Dental Students towards HIV/AIDS Patients in Melaka, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijendra Pal; Osman, Izni Syazana; Rahmat, Nur Amanina; Bakar, Nur Ashikin Abu; Razak, Nurul Fathin Natasha Abdul; Nettem, Sowmya

    2017-01-01

    Background Cross contamination of HIV is a real threat today. Dental treatment often includes direct contact with a patient’s blood and saliva, therefore dental professionals can be easily exposed to HIV microorganisms. Hence, it is essential to gain insight into dental students’ knowledge and attitude towards HIV patients. Method A cross-sectional survey of 186 clinical year dental students (year 3, 4 and 5) in the 2015–2016 academic session at the Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College (MMMC), Manipal University, Melaka volunteered to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine their knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients. Results Among 137 respondents (females 74.5% and males 25.6%), 40.9% were Malay, 46.7% were Chinese, 10.2% were Indian and 2.2% were others. The majority had an excellent (41.6%) to good (56.2%) knowledge and only (18%) had a professional attitude. There was a statistically significant association of knowledge with gender (P = 0.009) and ethnicity (P = 0.024), However, no association was found between attitude and gender (P = 0.756) or ethnicity (P = 0.792), or between knowledge and attitude (P = 0.473) of dental students. Conclusion Dental students’ knowledge was not significantly associated with attitude. However, knowledge was associated with gender and ethnicity, but no association was found between age and knowledge and between age, gender, or ethnicity and attitude. PMID:28814935

  18. Parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes as predictors of 5-6-year-old children's healthy food knowledge.

    PubMed

    Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Sinn, Natalie; Petkov, John; Dollman, James

    2012-07-01

    Young children's knowledge about healthy food may influence the formation of their eating behaviours, and parents have a major influence on the development of children's knowledge in the early years. We investigated the extent to which parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes around food predicted young children's knowledge of healthy foods, controlling for other influences such as socio-economic status (SES) and parent education levels in a cross-sectional research design. Children were given a healthy food knowledge activity and parents completed questionnaires. Twenty primary schools in Adelaide, Australia, stratified by SES. We recruited 192 children aged 5-6 years and their parents. Structural equation modelling showed that parent nutrition knowledge predicted children's nutrition knowledge (r = 0·30, P < 0·001) independently of attitudes, SES and education level. Nutrition education for parents, targeted at low-SES areas at higher risk for obesity, may contribute to the development of healthy food knowledge in young children.

  19. Dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes of young drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, F

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain information about a group of young drug addicts' dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes. Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions based on well-defined hypotheses were obtained with 20 intravenous drug addicts attending a Danish addiction clinic. All the interviews were taped and typed out verbatim. The analysis of the interviews was primarily carried out qualitatively. Almost all the addicts had been enrolled in the Public Child Dental Care system and the majority vividly remembered this as an unpleasant experience. None of the addicts attended a dentist regularly after having finished school, when the drug abuse usually started. Only a need for acute relief could generally motivate the addicts to visit a dentist, and in the few instances they were questioned about any drug abuse or viral hepatitis infection they usually concealed this. They evidenced very limited knowledge concerning the causes and prevention of dental decay and periodontal disease, and the high prevalence of dental caries was often believed to be caused solely or partly by the ascorbic acid or citric acid that is mixed and injected together with the drugs. A distinct behaviour with a neglected oral hygiene and an excessive intake of candy, soft drinks, and other food with a high sugar content was common. The dietary habits were related to the injection of the drugs in a ritual manner. The drug addicts only realized how deplorable their dental health had become during periods of abstinence, and then they were often embarrassed or ashamed of their esthetic appearance, although this was not perceived to have a negative influence on attempts at resocialization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviours towards Recommended Vaccinations among Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Scalingi, Stefania; Garruto, Veronica; Siclari, Marco; Chiarini, Massimiliano; Mannocci, Alice

    2017-03-07

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group of professionals exposed to biological risk during their work activities. So, the aim of this study is to perform a survey on the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of Italian HCWs towards the vaccinations recommended by the Ministry of Health. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period September 2014-August 2015 in the Lazio region. The study was conducted by recruiting HCWs and biomedical students. The sample was comprised of 571 responders, of whom 12.4% were physicians, 18.9% were nurses, 34.3% were other HCW, and 34.3% were biomedical students (medical and nurses students). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is perceived as a risk for personal health by 457 (80%) participants; TB is also worrying (434; 76%). Moreover, HBV (70.9%) and tuberculosis (TB) (79.2%) are perceived as a risk for health, while influenza is not considered so by most participants (46.2%). There is an underestimation of the role of influenza, perceived as a risk for 137 respondents (24%). The vaccination rate among these HCWs is highest for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (82%), and lowest for influenza (28.5%) and varicella (40.3%). The vast majority of responders are in favour of HBV (77.8%) and TB (64.8%) vaccines. For other vaccinations there is less interest (between 33% and 40% for measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis and influenza). This study shows that knowledge of recommended occupational vaccinations is insufficient in HCWs, with few exceptions represented by HBV and TB. There is a need for novel approaches in this field, with the aim of enhancing vaccine coverage among HCW.

  1. Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviours towards Recommended Vaccinations among Healthcare Workers

    PubMed Central

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Scalingi, Stefania; Garruto, Veronica; Siclari, Marco; Chiarini, Massimiliano; Mannocci, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group of professionals exposed to biological risk during their work activities. So, the aim of this study is to perform a survey on the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of Italian HCWs towards the vaccinations recommended by the Ministry of Health. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period September 2014–August 2015 in the Lazio region. The study was conducted by recruiting HCWs and biomedical students. The sample was comprised of 571 responders, of whom 12.4% were physicians, 18.9% were nurses, 34.3% were other HCW, and 34.3% were biomedical students (medical and nurses students). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is perceived as a risk for personal health by 457 (80%) participants; TB is also worrying (434; 76%). Moreover, HBV (70.9%) and tuberculosis (TB) (79.2%) are perceived as a risk for health, while influenza is not considered so by most participants (46.2%). There is an underestimation of the role of influenza, perceived as a risk for 137 respondents (24%). The vaccination rate among these HCWs is highest for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (82%), and lowest for influenza (28.5%) and varicella (40.3%). The vast majority of responders are in favour of HBV (77.8%) and TB (64.8%) vaccines. For other vaccinations there is less interest (between 33% and 40% for measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis and influenza). This study shows that knowledge of recommended occupational vaccinations is insufficient in HCWs, with few exceptions represented by HBV and TB. There is a need for novel approaches in this field, with the aim of enhancing vaccine coverage among HCW. PMID:28272332

  2. [Knowledge and attitudes on reproductive health among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Donati, S; Grandolfo, M; Spinelli, A; Medda, E

    1996-01-01

    During 1993-94, 5 sex information programs were conducted in various secondary schools in Rome, involving a total of 292 students whose age ranged from 14 to 21 years. The courses were organized in 5 sessions lasting 2 hours each and were held by a specialist in obstetrics and gynecology. Visual teaching materials were presented, followed by discussions. The initiative was evaluated by means of 3 questionnaires: the pretest questionnaire on attitudes and knowledge about reproductive health; the second was administered at the end of the course about recommendations; and the third one verified the modification of the knowledge level 4 months later. 20-50% of the students answered correctly all questions about reproductive health before the course and 70-100% of them at the end of 4 months. 95% of the sample thought that the school should provide information about sexuality and 74% of the students suggested that it should be introduced in the lower grades of secondary schools. The major subjects requested were hygiene and sexually transmitted diseases (75%), sexuality and psychological aspects (68%), and infections (65%). Information about reproductive physiology and contraception among young people was obtained from friends (74%), books and journals (57%), parents (42% for boys and 56% for girls), the school (25%), family counseling (4%), and the family physician (3%). The fertile period of the menstrual cycle was correctly stated by 48% in the pretest sample, 88% after the course, and 93% 4 months later. 87% of the subjects knew that the condom also offers protection against sexually transmitted diseases, but 25% said that it has no expiration date. 23% of the students did not know that abortion is legal in Italy. Family counseling should focus on prevention activities for the school-age population.

  3. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  4. [Knowledge and attitudes toward vaccination among midwives in Quebec].

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Vivion, Maryline; Valderrama, Alena; Sauvageau, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Vaccine acceptability among Quebec midwives is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to examine midwives' knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to immunization in Quebec. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 participants (17 midwives and 8 midwifery students). The mean duration of the interviews was 1 hour. The interviews were conducted in 2010 and were audiotaped, transcribed and submitted to content analysis using NVivo 8 software. In addition to the laws regulating midwifery practice in Quebec, the findings suggest that most midwifery interventions are based on midwifery philosophy. Informed choice is one of the key principles of this philosophy. In order to help women make an informed decision about vaccination, midwives seek to outline the pros and cons of vaccination using government documentation, as well as other sources such as books on naturopathy. Most of the participating midwives recognized that vaccination has advantages, including disease prevention and free vaccines. Various arguments against vaccination were also identified. Most of these were related to the vaccination schedule and to combined vaccines. Some of the participants noted that it was difficult to find unbiased information about vaccination. This study highlights the key role of midwifery philosophy in midwifery practice. Most decisions (such as vaccination) are made on the basis of the principle of informed choice. Most of the participants noted that they lacked information on vaccination.

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital staff management.

    PubMed

    Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh

    2013-07-01

    The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals.

  6. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards HIV Patients among Dentists.

    PubMed

    Dhanya, R S; Hegde, Vijaya; Anila, S; Sam, George; Khajuria, Rajat R; Singh, Rishav

    2017-01-01

    Discrimination by some health care workers, including dentists, against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons has been noted. The main aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards HIV patients among the dentists of Trichur district, Kerala. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 206 dentists practicing in Trichur district of Kerala. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered 26-item questionnaire and was statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Out of 206 participants, 39.3% were unwilling to treat HIV patients. A statistical significance was found between willingness to treat HIV infected patients and age groups (P = 0.0001) as well as between the willingness to treat HIV infected patients and ethical responsibility (P = 0.0001). Staff fears and increased personal risk are found to be the most frequently reported concerns in treating HIV patients among dentists of Trichur district, Kerala. Senior dentists showed more reluctance to treat HIV positive individuals.

  7. Patient's Knowledge and Attitude towards Tuberculosis in an Urban Setting.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Saria; Rahman, Aminur; Hoque, F M Anamul

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge of TB patients about symptoms, ways of transmission and treatment of tuberculosis, and their perception of the illness. Between March and August 2008, 762 adult TB patients were interviewed at selected DOTS centre of Dhaka city. Male and female distribution was 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. One quarter of them were illiterate, and more than half had extended family and live in a congested situation. Night fever was the most common symptom known (89.9%), and 56% were aware that it could spread through sneezing/coughing. Television was mentioned as a source of information about TB. The majority expressed a helping attitude towards other TB patients. Although most of them were positive about getting family support, 46.6% mentioned discrimination of separate utensils for food or drink. About 50.5% expressed increased sadness, 39.8% had fear of loss of job/wedges, and 21.4% felt socially neglected. Along with drug treatment the psychosocial reactions of TB patients should be addressed at DOTS centers for better control of the disease.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food safety: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Laís Mariano; da Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Capriles, Vanessa Dias; Stedefeldt, Elke

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an overview of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of food handlers with training in food safety, in addition to proposing reflections on the training of food handlers, considering its responsibility for food safety and health of consumers. The review was based on the integrative method. The descriptors used were: (food handler), (knowledge, attitudes and practice) and (training). Six databases were searched, 253 articles were consulted and 36 original articles were included. Fifty per cent of the articles pointed that there was no proper translation of knowledge into attitudes/practices or attitudes into practices after training. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers are important for identifying how efficient training in food safety is allowing prioritize actions in planning training. The evaluation of KAP is the first step to understand the food handler's point of view. After this evaluation other diagnostic strategies become necessary to enhance this understanding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Utilizing a Substance Use Attitudes, Practices and Knowledge Survey for Multidisciplinary Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Dale; Waters, Vicki; McQueen, Katie; Basinger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development and administration of a substance use attitudes questionnaire to social work students and clinicians, physician assistant students and practitioners, and medical interns. The general purpose for the Attitudes Survey was to collect baseline data regarding past training, current attitudes, beliefs, practices, and…

  10. Utilizing a Substance Use Attitudes, Practices and Knowledge Survey for Multidisciplinary Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Dale; Waters, Vicki; McQueen, Katie; Basinger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development and administration of a substance use attitudes questionnaire to social work students and clinicians, physician assistant students and practitioners, and medical interns. The general purpose for the Attitudes Survey was to collect baseline data regarding past training, current attitudes, beliefs, practices, and…

  11. Service Learning With a Geriatric Population: Changing Attitudes and Improving Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Audrey; Foito, Kim; Pearlin, Nina; Yost, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Relatively few nursing students choose to specialize in geriatric nursing. While increased clinical exposure and improved knowledge of the elderly have been proposed to manage this staffing dilemma, successful strategies have not been identified. This study examined nursing students' attitudes and knowledge about the elderly, before and after service learning experiences in Senior Citizen Centers. Through these interventions, students had significantly improved attitudes and knowledge about the elderly.

  12. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants - current knowledge and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Taxvig, Camilla; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2014-07-01

    Fluorochemicals are a diverse group of synthetically produced compounds with the unique ability to repel water as well as oil. This property makes them ideal for multiple purposes in a variety of consumer and industrial products. Fluorochemicals have been detected in the environment, as well as in human blood, urine and milk. Due to their long half-life in human beings, there is an increased risk that exposure to these compounds can cause adverse effects. However, except for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), there is a large data gap regarding toxicological information on fluorochemicals. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants (PAPs) belong to the group of polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants. They have been detected in indoor dust and are widely used in food-contact materials, from which they have the ability to migrate into food. Toxicological data on PAPs are very limited, but current studies indicate that some PAPs have the potential to interfere with sex hormone synthesis in vitro. Disturbance of the sex hormone balance in foetal life has been suggested to be an important mechanism involved in adverse effects on, for example, male reproductive health and development. The current lack of toxicological data on PAPs impairs the risk assessment of this group of compounds. However, until more toxicological data on PAPs are available, the limited data currently accessible give reason to believe that these compounds might have the ability to cause potentially adverse effects, as seen for other perfluorinated chemicals, including some metabolic products of PAPs. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  13. Emergency contraception: providers' knowledge and attitudes and their relationship with users' knowledge and attitudes at public health centers/posts of tabriz.

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh; Moeinpoor, Roya

    2012-05-01

    Emergency contraceptives are accessible and acceptable methods for most women, which their proper use could prevent about three quarters of unwanted pregnancies. In this study, we aimed to determine the providers' knowledge, attitudes and their relation with the pills and condoms users' knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception at public health centers/posts in Tabriz, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, subjects were 140 health providers working in randomly selected 19 health centers and 33 health posts and 280 married women aged 15 to 49 years who were using contraceptive pills or condoms (two clients of each selected provider). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the providers, while the questionnaire for the clients was filled up by face-to-face interview. The relationships were determined by Pearson's correlation test. Mean score of the providers' knowledge and attitude was 69.4 ± 11.8 and 70.1 ± 12.8, respectively (possible score range was 0-100). The providers' knowledge score was good only in 35% (score > 75.0). High majority (95.7%) had positive attitudes (score > 50.0). Overall, there were no sig-nificant relationships, neither between the provider's and users' knowledge nor between their attitudes (p > 0.05). The providers' knowledge was insufficient, and there was no significant association between the providers' and users' knowledge and attitudes. Thus, in addition to the need for promoting providers' knowledge, the other barriers should also be recognized and removed in order to promote using this method.

  14. Public Knowledge and Attitudes towards Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng; Wang, Yue; Li, Xuan; Hou, Lina; Wang, Yufeng; Liu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The rate of bystander CPR is much lower in China than in developed countries. This survey was implemented to assess the current status of layperson CPR training, to analyze the willingness of bystanders to perform CPR, and to identify barriers to improving bystander CPR rates. The questionnaire included individual information, current status of bystander CPR training, and individual's willingness and attitude towards performing CPR. There were 25.6% laypersons who took CPR training. The majority (98.6%) of laypersons would perform CPR on their family members, but fewer laypersons (76.3%) were willing to perform CPR on strangers. Most respondents (53.2%) were worried about legal issues. If laws were implemented to protect bystanders who give aid, the number of laypersons who were not willing to perform CPR on strangers dropped from 23.7% to 2.4%. An increasing number of people in China know CPR compared with the situation in the past. CPR training in China is much less common than in many developed countries. The barriers are that laypersons are not well-trained and they fear being prosecuted for unsuccessful CPR. More accredited CPR training courses are needed in China. The laws should be passed to protect bystanders who provide assistance. PMID:28367441

  15. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p < 0.001) and most students have learned some definitions and examples of biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p < 0.001) despite studying AB or not. However, there is no significant difference between students today and 18 years ago in opinions towards medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Knowledge of, perceptions of, attitudes and practices regarding epilepsy among medical students in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ayşe

    2016-05-01

    Medical practitioners' attitudes have a significant impact on the quality of care for patients with epilepsy. This study was conducted to assess the current level of knowledge about epilepsy and treatment together with attitudes and perception toward patients with epilepsy among medical students in Turkey. The study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to assess knowledge, awareness, and practices about epilepsy among medical students at Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey. Eight hundred and ninety subjects were interviewed, and 73.5% reported their awareness about epilepsy. Of these, 38.1% knew someone who had epilepsy, and 38.5% had witnessed an epileptic seizure. Although most of the students had heard about epilepsy, 38.4% of the students believed that epilepsy was primarily a genetic disease. About one-fifth of the students attributed the causes of epilepsy to vitamin deficiency (8.8%) and psychiatric (19.1%), infectious (19.5%), mental (4.4%), and hematological disorders (3.4%). According to 4.8% of the students, epilepsy could be a punishment from God, and 2.1% of students thought that it could be caused by an evil spirit. Eighty-eight percent considered epilepsy as a dangerous disease, and most of them thought that epilepsy is a lifelong condition. Fifty point six percent indicated that putting an object into the patient's mouth to prevent tongue-biting during a seizure is appropriate while 91.9% stated that drug therapy was the only treatment available for epilepsy. The most common negative attitudes toward people with epilepsy were students' objection to marrying someone with epilepsy and patients with epilepsy having children. Misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy are common among medical students at a Turkish medical school. Negative attitudes toward patients with epilepsy still exist. Medical school training programs should be designed to increase awareness of students about epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  17. Nurse practitioner and physician assistant students' knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Briana S.; Ball, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess nurse practitioner (NP) and physician assistant (PA) students' views of chiropractic. As the role of these providers progresses in primary care settings, providers' views and knowledge of chiropractic will impact interprofessional collaboration and patient outcomes. Understanding how NP and PA students perceive chiropractic may be beneficial in building integrative health care systems. Methods: This descriptive quantitative pilot study utilized a 56-item survey to examine attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of NP and PA students in their 2nd year of graduate studies. Frequencies and binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine responses to survey totals. Results: Ninety-two (97%) students completed the survey. There were conflicting results as to whether participants viewed chiropractic as mainstream or alternative. The majority of participants indicated lack of awareness regarding current scientific evidence for chiropractic and indicated a positive interest in learning more about the profession. Students who reported prior experience with chiropractic had higher attitude-positive responses compared to those without experience. Participants were found to have substantial knowledge deficits in relation to chiropractic treatments and scope of practice. Conclusion: The results of this study emphasize the need for increased integrative initiatives and chiropractic exposure in NP and PA education to enhance future interprofessional collaboration in health care. PMID:26771903

  18. Knowledge and attitudes to prescription charges in New Zealand and England.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline T; Wilson, Sarah E; Green, James A; Gu, Jessica; Goddard, Shelby; Deadman, Logan R; Dai, Jennefa; Fastier, Kelsi; Kothapally, Christina; Shi, Wendy; Whyte, Aleisha; Aslam, Haleema; Desai, Raeesa; Wood, Nicole; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-02-22

    Prescription charge regimes vary between countries but there is little research on how much people know about these or support values underlying them. To explore, in New Zealand (NZ) and England, the public's knowledge of, and attitudes to, charges and whether knowledge and attitudes varied by demographic characteristics or by values about entitlement to public goods. A questionnaire was developed and administered to people over 18 recruited in public places in NZ and England. 451 people in NZ and 300 people in England participated. Less than half in each country knew the current prescription charge. In each country 62% of people were unaware of arrangements to protect people from excessive annual charges. Support for free or lower cost medicines for children, people over 65, people on low incomes, people on benefits, and people with chronic health problems was higher in England than in NZ. Support varied by participants' demographic characteristics and, in the case of people on low incomes and people on benefits, by values about universal entitlements. Gaps in knowledge, particularly about mechanisms to protect people from high costs, are concerning and may lead to people paying excessive charges. There was consensus about the elderly, children and the chronically ill being "deserving" of lower prescription charges, but people who did not believe in universal access to public goods appeared to see people on low incomes or benefits as less "deserving". In general, public views resembled those underlying the prescription charge regime in their country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. First-year family medicine residents' use of computers: knowledge, skills and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding computers. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between the respondents and all first-year family medicine residents in Canada. French-speaking respondents from Quebec were underrepresented (p < 0.001). Only 56 respondents (13%) felt extremely or very comfortable with computer use. The most commonly cited barriers to obtaining computer training were lack of time (243 respondents [56%]) and the high cost of computers (214 [49%]) but not lack of interest (69 [16%]). Most residents wanted more computer training (367 [85%]) and felt that computer training should be a mandatory component of family medicine training programs (308 [71%]). CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and skills and comfort with computer use appear low among first-year family medicine residents in Canada, and barriers to acquisition of computer knowledge are impressive. Computer training should become an integral part of family medicine training in Canada, and user-friendly applicable computer systems are needed. PMID:7614442

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practices associated with adverse drug reaction reporting amongst doctors in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Deepti; Wardhan, Neeta; Rehan, H S

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge, attitude and practices associated with adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among doctors in a teaching hospital. A total of 100 doctors working in a teaching hospital were evaluated with a questionnaire for their knowledge, attitude and practices related to ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance programmes. Nearly two third (66%) of the doctors knew the definition of ADR. Only one third (38%, 40%) could correctly define pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) respectively. Although 100% of the doctors felt the need for a National Pharmacovigilance Programme (NPP) only approximately three fourth (73%) were aware of the existing programme in India and nearly half of the them (47%) actually knew the current status of the NPP at their institute. Surprisingly only one tenth of the doctors (10%) knew what should be reported. The majority (74.4%) felt that reactions to new drug should be reported and also those reactions that are serious and unusual. Only one third (30%) knew whom to report to and less than half (30%) had actually ever reported an ADR. The knowledge of ADRs and how to report them is inadequate among doctors. More awareness should be created regarding the purpose and usefulness of ADR reporting through Continuous Medical Education, training and integration of ADR reporting into the clinical activities of the doctors.

  1. Shared Decision Making and Patient Decision Aids: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Hawai‘i Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Friend, John; Chun, Maria BJ

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the health care field moves toward patient-centered care (PCC), increasing emphasis has been placed on the benefits of patient decision aids for promoting shared decision making (SDM). This study provides a baseline measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Hawai‘i's physicians with respect to patient decision aids (DAs). Physicians throughout the State of Hawai‘i were invited to complete a survey assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to the clinical use of DAs. One hundred and seventy four valid surveys were analyzed. Reported awareness and use of DAs were low, but recognition of the benefits of SDM and openness to the use of DAs were very high. The leading perceived barriers to the implementation of DAs were lack of awareness, lack of resources, and limited physician time to learn about DA technology. However, a significant majority of the respondents reported that DAs could empower patients by improving knowledge (88%), increasing satisfaction with the consultation process (81%), and increasing compliance (74%). Among physicians currently employing DAs, use of brochures or options matrix sheets was the most common aid tool. However, leading recommended DA formats were paper-based brochures for clinic use (75%) and interactive online website programs for outside clinic use (73.5%). Given growing emphasis on the PCC model and the recognized desire of many patients to participate in the medical decision making process, positive responses toward SDM and the use of DAs by Hawai‘i physicians are promising. PMID:24251086

  2. Knowledge of Genetics and Attitudes toward Genetic Testing among College Students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Olwi, Duaa; Merdad, Leena; Ramadan, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing has been gradually permeating the practice of medicine. Health-care providers may be confronted with new genetic approaches that require genetically informed decisions which will be influenced by patients' knowledge of genetics and their attitudes toward genetic testing. This study assesses the knowledge of genetics and attitudes toward genetic testing among college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage stratified sample of 920 senior college students enrolled at King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Information regarding knowledge of genetics, attitudes toward genetic testing, and sociodemographic data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. In general, students had a good knowledge of genetics but lacked some fundamentals of genetics. The majority of students showed positive attitudes toward genetic testing, but some students showed negative attitudes toward certain aspects of genetic testing such as resorting to abortion in the case of an untreatable major genetic defect in an unborn fetus. The main significant predictors of knowledge were faculty, gender, academic year, and some prior awareness of 'genetic testing'. The main significant predictors of attitudes were gender, academic year, grade point average, and some prior awareness of 'genetic testing'. The knowledge of genetics among college students was higher than has been reported in other studies, and the attitudes toward genetic testing were fairly positive. Genetics educational programs that target youths may improve knowledge of genetics and create a public perception that further supports genetic testing. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The knowledge-attitude dissociation in geriatric education: can it be overcome?

    PubMed

    Koh, Gerald C H; Merchant, Reshma A; Lim, Wee Shiong; Amin, Zubair

    2012-09-01

    A knowledge-attitude dissociation often exists in geriatrics where knowledge but not attitudes towards elderly patients improve with education. This study aims to determine whether a holistic education programme incorporating multiple educational strategies such as early exposure, ageing simulation and small group teaching results in improving geriatrics knowledge and attitudes among medical students. We administered the 18-item University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Geriatric Knowledge Test (GKT) and the Singapore-modified 16-item UCLA Geriatric Attitudes Test (GAT) to 2nd year students of the old curriculum in 2009 (baseline reference cohort, n = 254), and before and after the new module to students of the new curriculum in 2010 (intervention cohort, n = 261), both at the same time of the year. At baseline, between the baseline reference and intervention cohort, there was no difference in knowledge (UCLA-GKT Score: 31.6 vs 33.5, P = 0.207) but attitudes of the intervention group were worse than the baseline reference group (UCLA-GAT Score: 3.53 vs 3.43, P = 0.003). The new module improved both the geriatric knowledge (UCLA-GKT Score: 34.0 vs 46.0, P <0.001) and attitudes (UCLA-GAT Score: 3.43 vs 3.50, P <0.001) of the intervention cohort. A geriatric education module incorporating sound educational strategies improved both geriatric knowledge and attitudes among medical students.

  4. AIDS knowledge and attitudes among adults in Vermont.

    PubMed Central

    Kappel, S; Vogt, R L; Brozicevic, M; Kutzko, D

    1989-01-01

    To design a statewide educational campaign, the Vermont Department of Health attempted to measure knowledge about AIDS among residents of the State. During the period November 1986 through January 1987, the authors conducted a telephone survey of noninstitutionalized residents ages 18 and over. The results were examined in relation to age and education. The most accurate answers were given by respondents less than 45 years. In terms of educational attainment, respondents with less than a high school education had an average score of 61.4 and those with a college degree averaged 85.0. When the authors examined responses to individual questions, it became apparent that respondents were more knowledgeable about ways the virus could be transmitted than about ways it could not. A more comprehensive education program must reduce fear. One component of the current AIDS campaign in Vermont is an advertisement that addresses unfounded concern about casual transmission of AIDS. PMID:2502812

  5. Trainers' Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, M; Castrén, M; Nurmi, J; Niemi-Murola, L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers' attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D), Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N = 185) focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree). Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse's Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation). Cronbach's alphas were 0.92-0.51. Statistics were Student's t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p < 0.01). Participants scoring high on Hesitation scale (p < 0.01) were less confident about their Nurse's Role (p < 0.01) and Nontechnical Skills (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Quality of undergraduate education affects the work of CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills.

  6. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality in Flemish nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Lieslot; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Acke, Jolien; Vandermarliere, Hanne; Van Elssen, Kim; Fieuws, Steffen; Gastmans, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Admission to a nursing home does not necessarily diminish an older person's desire for sexual expression and fulfillment. Given that nursing staff directly and indirectly influence the range of acceptable sexual expressions of nursing home residents, their knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality can have far-reaching effects on both the quality of care they provide to residents and the self-image and well-being of these residents. To investigate nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality, to determine whether certain sociodemographic factors of the nursing staff relate to their knowledge and attitudes toward later-life sexuality, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. The administered questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and data from an adapted, Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. Data were collected from November 2011 through April 2012. A total of 43 geographically dispersed nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium, participated. Out of a potential research sample of 2228 nursing staff respondents, 1166 participated. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of the KU Leuven. Nursing staff appeared to be moderately knowledgeable about aged sexuality and displayed a rather positive attitude toward sexuality in older people. Significant relationships between various variables were found both at univariable and multivariable levels. Knowledge and attitudes proved to be positively related, indicating that a higher level of knowledge of aged sexuality is associated with a more positive attitude toward sexuality in later life. Research findings are discussed within a broader international context. There is room for improvement for both nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality. This might be aided by appropriate educational interventions. Our results identified different target groups

  7. Emotional Intelligence, Pain Knowledge, and Attitudes of Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed.

  8. A cluster analysis to investigating nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the clinical management system.

    PubMed

    Chan, M F

    2007-01-01

    Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the Clinical Management System are explored by identifying profiles of nurses working in Hong Kong. A total of 282 nurses from four hospitals completed a self-reported questionnaire during the period from December 2004 to May 2005. Two-step cluster analysis yielded two clusters. The first cluster (n = 159, 56.4%) was labeled "negative attitudes, less skillful, and average knowledge" group. The second cluster (n = 123, 43.6%) was labeled "positive attitudes, good knowledge, but less skillful." There was a positive correlation in cluster 1 for nurses' knowledge and attitudes (rs = 0.28) and in cluster 2 for nurses' skills and attitudes (rs = 0.25) toward computerization. The study showed that senior and more highly educated nurses generally held more positive attitudes to computerization, whereas the attitudes among younger and less well educated nurses generally were more negative. Such findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems following computer training and to increase the depth and breadth of nurses' computer knowledge and skills and improve their attitudes toward computerization.

  9. Breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge in bachelor of science in nursing candidates.

    PubMed

    Vandewark, Aurora C

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an important health topic worldwide, although lack of breastfeeding knowledge is noted among health-care professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in undergraduate nursing students at the beginning and end of their clinical education. An electronic survey, based on the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and the Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire, was administered. Attitude scores did not differ significantly between groups. Total knowledge scores between groups differed modestly (p = .006). Correlations between total knowledge and total attitude scores were found (r[89] = .482, p < .000). Respondents reported that nursing education effectively teaches breastfeeding and that breastfeeding advocacy through patient education is a crucial nursing role.

  10. Breastfeeding Attitudes and Knowledge in Bachelor of Science in Nursing Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Vandewark, Aurora C.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an important health topic worldwide, although lack of breastfeeding knowledge is noted among health-care professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in undergraduate nursing students at the beginning and end of their clinical education. An electronic survey, based on the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and the Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire, was administered. Attitude scores did not differ significantly between groups. Total knowledge scores between groups differed modestly (p = .006). Correlations between total knowledge and total attitude scores were found (r[89] = .482, p < .000). Respondents reported that nursing education effectively teaches breastfeeding and that breastfeeding advocacy through patient education is a crucial nursing role. PMID:25364217

  11. General practitioners' knowledge of ageing and attitudes towards older people in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanni; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Ullah, Shahid; Deng, Lanlan

    2015-06-01

    To explore general practitioners (GPs)knowledge of ageing, attitudes towards older people and factors affecting their knowledge and attitudes in a Chinese context. Four hundred GPs were surveyed using the Chinese version of the Aging Semantic Differential (CASD) and the Chinese version of the Facts on Aging Quiz (CFAQ1) scale. The CASD scores indicated that GPs had a neutral attitude towards older people. The CFAQ1 scores indicated a low level of knowledge about ageing. GPs' awareness of the mental and social facts of ageing was poorer compared to that of physical facts. Male GPs had a significantly higher negative bias score than female GPs. No other variables had a statistically significant influence on knowledge and attitudes. The findings suggest the need for education interventions for GPs regarding knowledge of ageing and also provide evidence to guide future development of continuing medical programs for this group of medical doctors. © 2013 ACOTA.

  12. [Hypnosis and pain: current and perspective knowledge].

    PubMed

    Bioy, Antoine

    2012-06-27

    After further controversies, the definition of hypnosis is to be at the same time a modified state of consciousness and a particular intersubjective relation between a practitioner and his patient. In a synthetic way, we can say that mechanisms of hypnosis on acute pain are now well known, and its efficiency is particularly proved in the pain provoked by the care. On the other hand, the knowledge concerning the action of the hypnosis on chronic pain is much more complex to understand. If the hypnosis allows connoting differently pain and to decrease its implication in patient's life, otherWise the long-term reorganizations of hypnosis on chronic pain are still for the study. In practice, the field which his particularly in development is the analogical processes of the speech, because they are particularly present in pain medicine, and easy to use in hypnotic method.

  13. [Investigation of HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitude among 6,487 high school students].

    PubMed

    He, Zhong-hu; Ji, Cheng-ye

    2009-11-01

    To investigate HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitude among high school students in China, and to preliminarily evaluate the effects of the special HIV/AIDS prevention education programme. A total of 6487 high school students from 24 high schools of Beijing, Zhengzhou and Tangshan were investigated by using questionnaire, among which, 6487 students completed the questionnaire (96.08%). chi(2) test, t test and one way ANOVA were used to test the group differences and logistic regression was employed for further analysis. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significance. The mean knowledge and attitude scores of the students were separately 14.42 out of 20 and 6.47 out of 10. Students from Tangshan had the significantly (P < 0.001) highest knowledge and attitude level (average score of knowledge = 15.11, average score of attitude = 7.21) followed by Beijing (average score of knowledge = 14.62, average score of attitude = 6.15) and Zhengzhou (average score of knowledge = 13.56, average score of attitude = 6.07). The significant differences were observed in all except the varying attitude between Zhengzhou and Beijing (Knowledge comparison: t(Tangshan vs Beijing) = 0.49, P < 0.001, t(Tangshan vs Zhengzhou) = 1.56, P < 0.001, t(Zhengzhou vs Beijing) = 1.07, P < 0.001; Attitude Comparison: t(Tangshan vs Beijing) = 1.06, P < 0.001, t(Tangshan vs Zhengzhou) = 1.14, P < 0.001, t(Zhengzhou vs Beijing) = 0.08, P = 0.282). Boys had higher knowledge scores (average score of knowledge = 14.61) than those of girls (average score of knowledge = 14.23, t = 4.22, P < 0.001) but no significant difference was found (average knowledge score of boys = 6.47, average knowledge score of girls = 6.48, t = 0.16, P = 0.869). Higher knowledge level (OR = 1.21, P < 0.001) and being a rural student (OR = 1.31, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher attitude level, while higher grade (OR = 0.85, P = 0.003) and better academic performance (OR = 0.94, P = 0.003) were negative

  14. Attitude and knowledge of hearing loss among medical doctors selected to initiate a residency in Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, M; Berruecos, P; Lopez, L E; Cacho, J

    2009-03-01

    Early diagnosis and intervention of hearing loss are directly influenced by the knowledge and attitude towards this condition among medical personnel, particularly in countries where screening is not performed routinely. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of hearing loss in a group of physicians. A questionnaire with five Likert-type items and five multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank items was completed by 2727 physicians selected to start a medical residency. Results suggested that physicians' knowledge level on the matter is deficient and their attitude is far from the ideal; however, physicians selected for a residency in audiology showed slightly better results.

  15. Educating parents about youth suicide: knowledge, response to suicidal statements, attitudes, and intention to help.

    PubMed

    Maine, S; Shute, R; Martin, G

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the video Youth Suicide: Recognising the Signs as a parent educational medium. Before and after viewing the video, parents (N = 112) of young people answered questionnaires measuring their (1) knowledge of suicidal signs, (2) responses to a young person showing suicidal signs, (3) attitude to suicide, and (4) intentionalitv toward suicidal people. After the video, parents' knowledge of suicidal signs, responses toward a suicidal person, and intention to help improved. Their attitude was more rejecting of suicide. Knowledge and intentionality predicted response to suicidal statements, but no relationships existed between attitude and the other variables. Implications for youth suicide education programs are discussed.

  16. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40-45 years.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40-45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years.

  17. Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention on Medical Students' Knowledge About and Attitude Towards Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Simiyon, Manjula; Vedachalam, Ahalya

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to determine the effectiveness of a lecture and exposure to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) followed by interaction with patient, on medical students' knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. A questionnaire was administered to second year medical students to determine their baseline knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. Following this, they underwent two educational interventions, a lecture on ECT and exposure to the procedure and interaction with the patient and relative, and their knowledge and attitude were reassessed after each intervention using the same questionnaire. Eighty-one students completed all the three assessments. Students' knowledge about ECT at baseline was minimal (mean 3.58 out of 12). Their knowledge increased significantly after the lecture (mean 10.3), and there was further increase following exposure to the procedure and subsequent interaction with the patient and relative (mean 11.1). At baseline, students had an overall negative attitude towards ECT. There was significant improvement on all attitude items following the lecture. Exposure to the procedure resulted in further improvement in attitude regarding whether ECT is a cruel treatment and has to be used as a last resort. Exposure to ECT in lecture and clinical scenarios followed by interaction with the patient should be included in the undergraduate medical curriculum to improve students' knowledge and attitude about this safe, effective, and potentially lifesaving treatment modality.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran.

    PubMed

    Tajvar, Abdolhamid; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Madani, Abdolhossein; Omidi, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Traffic injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in many countries. The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations are key factors in decreasing traffic injuries and deaths. The objectives of this research were to study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran, and to determine the relationships between demographic features and knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations. This cross-sectional study was done in 2014 in Bandar-Abbas, Iran (Hormozgan Province). To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of 241 intra-city taxi drivers towards traffic regulations, researchers developed questionnaires and a checklist. The chi-squared test was performed to determine the relationships between knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations and demographic features. Among the 241 drivers, 50 of them (20.7%) thought that the seat belt could cause discomfort while driving, and 107 (44.4%) did not wear a seat belt while driving. The study determined that there was a significant difference between the knowledge and work experience of the drivers (p = 0.014). The 94 drivers (43.5%) in the 31-40 year age group had positive attitudes towards traffic regulations (among 216 drivers expressed positive attitudes) and 92 (44.4%) of the drivers in this age group had safe practices towards traffic regulations (among 207 drivers with safe practice). Many of the taxi drivers in Bandar-Abbas had inadequate knowledge, less positive attitudes, and risky practices towards traffic regulations. Implementation of effective intervention programs may increase the taxi drivers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards traffic regulations.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tajvar, Abdolhamid; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Madani, Abdolhossein; Omidi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traffic injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in many countries. The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations are key factors in decreasing traffic injuries and deaths. The objectives of this research were to study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran, and to determine the relationships between demographic features and knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in 2014 in Bandar-Abbas, Iran (Hormozgan Province). To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of 241 intra-city taxi drivers towards traffic regulations, researchers developed questionnaires and a checklist. The chi-squared test was performed to determine the relationships between knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations and demographic features. Results Among the 241 drivers, 50 of them (20.7%) thought that the seat belt could cause discomfort while driving, and 107 (44.4%) did not wear a seat belt while driving. The study determined that there was a significant difference between the knowledge and work experience of the drivers (p = 0.014). The 94 drivers (43.5%) in the 31–40 year age group had positive attitudes towards traffic regulations (among 216 drivers expressed positive attitudes) and 92 (44.4%) of the drivers in this age group had safe practices towards traffic regulations (among 207 drivers with safe practice). Conclusion Many of the taxi drivers in Bandar-Abbas had inadequate knowledge, less positive attitudes, and risky practices towards traffic regulations. Implementation of effective intervention programs may increase the taxi drivers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards traffic regulations. PMID:26813231

  20. The Impact of a Concussion-U Educational Program on Knowledge of and Attitudes about Concussion.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Matthew E; Bradbury-Squires, David J; Powell, Maria F; Murphy, Justin R; Campbell, Graeme D; Maroun, Falah B

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of a sports-related concussion is often dependent on the athlete self-reporting their symptoms. It has been suggested that improving youth athlete knowledge and attitudes toward concussion may increase self-reporting behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine if a novel Concussion-U educational program improves knowledge of and attitudes about concussion among a cohort of elite male Bantam and Midget AAA hockey players. Fifty-seven male Bantam and Midget AAA-level hockey players (mean age=14.52±1.13 years) were recruited from the local community. Each participant completed a modified version of the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey-Student Version immediately before and after a Concussion-U educational presentation. Follow-up sessions were arranged 4 to 6 months after the presentation, and assessed retention of knowledge and attitude changes. Forty-three players completed all three surveys. Concussion knowledge and attitude scores significantly (p<0.01) increased from pre- to post-presentation by 12.79 and 8.41%, respectively. At long-term follow-up, knowledge levels remained significantly (p<0.01) higher than baseline by 8.49%. Mean attitude scores were also increased at follow-up; however, this increase was not statistically significant. A Concussion-U educational program led to an immediate improvement in concussion knowledge and attitudes among elite male Bantam and Midget AAA hockey players. Increased knowledge was maintained at long-term follow-up, but improved attitude was not. Future studies should investigate whether similar educational programs influence symptom reporting and concussion incidence. In addition, they should focus on how to maintain improved concussion attitudes.

  1. Pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and evaluation of direct-to-consumer advertising.

    PubMed

    Naik, Rupali K; Borrego, Matthew E; Gupchup, Gireesh V; Dodd, Melanie; Sather, Mike R

    2007-10-15

    To assess pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and evaluation of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). A cross sectional, self-administered, 106-item survey instrument was used to assess first, second, and third professional year pharmacy students' knowledge about DTCA regulations, attitudes toward DTCA, and evaluation of DTC advertisements with different brief summary formats (professional labeling and patient labeling) and in different media sources (print and television). One hundred twenty (51.3%) of the 234 students enrolled participated in the study. The mean percentage knowledge score was 48.7% +/- 12.5%. Based on the mean scores per item, pharmacy students had an overall negative attitude toward DTC advertisements. Students had an overall negative attitude toward television and print advertisements using the professional labeling format but an overall positive attitude toward the print advertisement using the patient labeling format. Lectures discussing DTC advertising should be included in the pharmacy curriculum.

  2. Pharmacy Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Evaluation of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, Matthew E.; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Dodd, Melanie; Sather, Mike R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and evaluation of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Methods A cross sectional, self-administered, 106-item survey instrument was used to assess first, second, and third professional year pharmacy students' knowledge about DTCA regulations, attitudes toward DTCA, and evaluation of DTC advertisements with different brief summary formats (professional labeling and patient labeling) and in different media sources (print and television). Results One hundred twenty (51.3%) of the 234 students enrolled participated in the study. The mean percentage knowledge score was 48.7% ± 12.5%. Based on the mean scores per item, pharmacy students had an overall negative attitude toward DTC advertisements. Students had an overall negative attitude toward television and print advertisements using the professional labeling format but an overall positive attitude toward the print advertisement using the patient labeling format. Conclusions Lectures discussing DTC advertising should be included in the pharmacy curriculum. PMID:17998983

  3. Primary school teachers' knowledge about and attitudes toward anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Hulya; Ozen, Ahmet; Karatepe, Hande; Berber, Mustafa; Cengizlier, Reha

    2012-08-01

    One in 10,000 children experiences an anaphylactic attack, every year. It has been demonstrated that 82% of these attacks occur in children of school age and that most of the attack-related deaths have occurred in schools. In this study, we aimed to investigate primary school teachers' knowledge about and attitudes toward anaphylaxis. A total of 237 teachers were questioned: 91 working in elementary state schools and 146 in private schools. A questionnaire was completed to obtain data on their knowledge of anaphylaxis and the availability of emergency treatment facilities in schools. Fifty-two percent of the teachers knew which students had an allergic disease. When questioned about agents that can potentially cause anaphylaxis, the most significant causes were thought to be pollen by 54% of the teachers, food by 47%, mites by 40%, and drugs by 30%. Of foods, eggs (30.4%) and strawberries (25.3%) were thought to be the two leading causes. The teachers' responses on what would be their initial reaction in the event of an anaphylactic reaction were: he/she would give first aid in 24.3%, notify the school nurse in 39.7%, and call the emergency services in 19.8%. Only 10% were aware of an epinephrine autoinjector, and only 4% knew where to apply it. While 28% of the teachers reported that they had been informed about anaphylaxis previously, most had formed their ideas from brochures or the media. While 25% of the teachers knew all of the symptoms of anaphylaxis, 54% knew some, and 21% none. Only 6% of the teachers reported that there was a management plan for anaphylaxis in their schools. This study shows that primary school teachers are not well informed about anaphylaxis. Teachers should be given training on the subject, and there should be a re-evaluation of school and health policies with a wider global perspective. There is an urgent need to inquire into the allergy management plans and policies in schools and to develop teacher education organizations on the

  4. [Tularaemia - an overview of the current knowledge].

    PubMed

    Lukásová, Eva; Cermák, Pavel; Smelá, Gabriela; Jedlicková, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Francisella tularensis belongs to the family Francisellaceae. It is the aetiological agent of a zoonosis called tularaemia, spread throughout the northern hemisphere. Currently, several subspecies of F. tularensis may be distinguished with various pathogenicity and geographical distribution. In human medicine, only sporadic infections or local epidemics are reported. Given the fact that F. tularensis is highly pathogenic for humans and is easily spread by aerosol, water or food, it may be exploited as a biological weapon. It belongs to fastidious strains requiring specially prepared culture media.

  5. Faecal incontinence: Current knowledges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Alban; Bouvier, Michel; Vitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a disabling and frequent symptom since its prevalence can vary between 5% and 15% of the general population. It has a particular negative impact on quality of life. Many tools are currently available for the treatment of FI, from conservative measures to invasive surgical treatments. The conservative treatment may be dietetic measures, various pharmacological agents, anorectal rehabilitation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and transanal irrigation. If needed, patients may have miniinvasive approaches such as sacral nerve modulation or antegrade irrigation. In some cases, a surgical treatment is proposed, mainly external anal sphincter repair. Although these different therapeutic options are available, new techniques are arriving allowing new hopes for the patients. Moreover, most of them are non-invasive such as local application of an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, stem cell injections, rectal injection of botulinum toxin, acupuncture. New more invasive techniques with promising results are also coming such as anal magnetic sphincter and antropylorus transposition. This review reports the main current available treatments of FI and the developing therapeutics tools. PMID:26909229

  6. Infant feeding attitudes and knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged women in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Dungy, Claibourne I; McInnes, Rhona J; Tappin, David M; Wallis, Anne Baber; Oprescu, Florin

    2008-05-01

    This study: (1) investigated infant feeding attitudes and knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers in an urban community with historically low breastfeeding rates, (2) examined the influence of women's social networks on infant feeding attitudes and decisions, and (3) validated a measure of infant feeding attitudes and knowledge in this population (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale, IIFAS). Women attending a prenatal clinic (n=49) reported on: (1) demographics, (2) infant feeding attitudes and knowledge (IIFAS), (3) feeding intent, (4) opinions about breastfeeding in public, and (5) social networks. Feeding method at discharge was abstracted from hospital charts. Social network members (n=47) identified by the prenatal sample completed interviews covering: (1) demographics, (2) infant feeding attitudes and knowledge (IIFAS), (3) prior infant feeding methods and recommendations, and (4) opinions about breastfeeding in public. Mean IIFAS scores were low in both groups, indicating neutral to negative breastfeeding attitudes; mothers' scores were lower than social network members. Higher maternal IIFAS score was significantly associated with intended and actual breastfeeding. A social network positive towards breastfeeding was significantly associated with mothers' positive attitude towards breastfeeding. Both mothers and social network members support breastfeeding in public. IIFAS internal consistency was robust for both mothers and social network members. Predictive validity was demonstrated by significant positive association between score and intended and actual feeding methods. Knowledge and attitude predict breastfeeding initiation in this population. Social network members may influence mothers' feeding choices. This research is important because attitudes and knowledge derived from the IIFAS can be used to develop and evaluate breastfeeding promotion programs.

  7. Exploring AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Female Mexican Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organista, Pamela Balls; Organista, Kurt C.; Soloff, Pearl R.

    1998-01-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed among female migrant laborers (N=32). Results are reported regarding knowledge and beliefs about AIDS transmission, knowledge and beliefs about condom use, and actual use of condoms. Needs for health education and services, sexual power, and other implications of findings are…

  8. Reviewing the Relations between Teachers' Knowledge and Pupils' Attitude in the Field of Primary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is…

  9. Attitudes Toward Alzheimer's Care-Seeking Among Korean Americans: Effects of Knowledge, Stigma, and Subjective Norm.

    PubMed

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin; Lee, Sang E

    2017-03-10

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ensures that affected individuals and their caregivers can make appropriate plans for health care needs, yet many ethnic minorities delay seeking care for AD until the disease has progressed. This study examined attitudes toward care-seeking for AD among Korean Americans (KAs) and identified factors affecting their attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 234 KA adults. We conducted hierarchical regression analyses to examine the effects of sociocultural background (age, gender, education, cultural orientation), AD knowledge and exposure to AD, and beliefs about AD (stigma of pity, shame, and public avoidance) and AD care (subjective norm) on KAs' attitudes toward seeking AD care from primary care physicians (PCPs) and AD specialists. We also tested whether knowledge of AD moderated the impact of beliefs about AD and AD care on KAs' attitudes toward seeking AD care. For both PCPs and AD specialists, the subjective norm had the strongest effect on KAs' attitudes toward care seeking (β = 0.557 for PCPs, β = 0.360 for specialists). Effects of stigma beliefs disappeared in the presence of the subjective norm. AD knowledge moderated the impact of the subjective norm on the attitudes toward both PCPs (β = -1.653) and specialists (β = -1.742). The significance of the subjective norm in KAs' attitudes toward AD care-seeking underscores the importance of public education, and our study suggests that increasing AD knowledge could facilitate a change in public attitudes toward seeking AD care.

  10. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  11. Adolescent Co-Occurring Disorders Treatment: Clinicians' Attitudes, Values, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denby, Ramona W.; Brinson, Jesse A.; Ayala, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This study examined community-based clinicians' (N = 294) attitudes, background/experiences, values, and knowledge relating to issues of co-occurring disorders, which occur at a high rate among adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system. Study results reveal that clinicians self-rate their clinical values and attitudes at or above the…

  12. Turkish University Students' Knowledge of Biotechnology and Attitudes toward Biotechnological Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk-Akar, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology…

  13. Boosting Students' Attitudes & Knowledge about Evolution Sets Them up for College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…

  14. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  15. Adolescent Environmental Behaviors. Can Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinhold, Jana L.; Malkus, Amy J.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among adolescent environmental behaviors and self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitudes. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrate more proenvironmental attitudes are more likely to demonstrate proenvironmental behaviors. It was further hypothesized that perceived self-efficacy would have a…

  16. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  17. Knowledge, Affection and Basic Attitudes Toward Animals in American Society. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.

    This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…

  18. A Study of Steroid Use among Athletes: Knowledge, Attitude and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)

  19. Exploring the Attitudes and Knowledge of Support Workers towards Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Natalie S.; Rose, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore support workers' attitudes and knowledge towards individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to see whether a new attitude scale needs to be developed. Method: Support workers from a charitable organization located in the West Midlands in the United Kingdom participated in one of four focus…

  20. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  1. Exploring the Attitudes and Knowledge of Support Workers towards Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Natalie S.; Rose, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore support workers' attitudes and knowledge towards individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to see whether a new attitude scale needs to be developed. Method: Support workers from a charitable organization located in the West Midlands in the United Kingdom participated in one of four focus…

  2. Boosting Students' Attitudes & Knowledge about Evolution Sets Them up for College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…

  3. Development of Positive Racial Attitudes, Knowledges, and Activities in Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.

    Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…

  4. Obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and diet and health-related attitudes among women intending to become pregnant

    PubMed Central

    BERENSON, Abbey B.; POHLMEIER, Ali M.; LAZ, Tabassum H.; RAHMAN, Mahbubur; SAADE, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and diet and health-related attitudes among women intending to become pregnant compared to those not intending to become pregnant. Study Design Cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception, and diet and health-related attitudes among women (16-40 years) attending reproductive health clinics in southeast Texas. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires and chart review. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and health-related attitudes after adjusting for age, race, income and gravidity. Results Overall, 1,726 women completed the survey of which 1,420 responded to a question on pregnancy intention. Of these, 126 stated they were intending to become pregnant. Obesity risk knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.77) and weight misperception (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 0.75-1.83) did not differ between women intending and not intending to become pregnant. Additionally, diet and health-related attitudes did not differ between these two groups (P>0.05 for all). Among women intending to become pregnant, 51% had low obesity risk knowledge and 31% misperceived their body weight. Further, 76% of these women felt confused about what constitutes a healthy diet, although 47% believed that their current diet was healthy and saw no reason to change their current eating patterns. While weight misperception did not differ significantly between the two groups, overweight women intending to become pregnant were more likely to misperceive their weight than obese women intending to become pregnant (71% vs 10%, P<0.001). Conclusion There is a need for improved preconception counseling, especially for women intending to become pregnant, regarding the risks associated with being overweight or obese

  5. Relationship between knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among dental school employees and students.

    PubMed

    Börsum, K M; Gjermo, P E

    2004-08-01

    Employees and students at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo responded to a comprehensive questionnaire regarding knowledge and attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The intention of the present study was to describe possible relationships between the two. The questionnaire consisted of 39 closed questions. The response rate was 75% (436/584). The answers were used to construct additive indices for knowledge and attitudes. The knowledge index reflected the number of correct answers concerning risk groups and transmission. A factor analysis revealed three dimensions of attitudes ('legal', 'personal risk', and 'personal consequences'), which were analysed separately against knowledge. Correlation analyses (Spearman r) of all respondents together (n = 436) revealed a weak, but statistically significant, positive correlation between knowledge and the 'legal' and 'personal risk' dimension of attitudes (r = 0.16, P < 0.01; r = 0.21, P < 0.001). The 'personal consequence' dimension was not significantly correlated with knowledge (r = 0.06, P > 0.05). The strongest correlation was found between knowledge and the 'legal' dimension (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and knowledge and the 'personal risk' dimension (r = 0.41, P < 0.002) amongst fourth year students. No particular group of employees or students displayed a significant correlation between knowledge and the 'personal consequence' dimension of attitudes. Three dimensions on attitudes concerning patients with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome were identified amongst the respondents. A weak correlation between knowledge and two of the attitudes might indicate that knowledge plays a role in this respect.

  6. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that "cures" or "stops" SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.

  7. Current Knowledge on Genetic Biofortification in Lentil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Debjyoti Sen; Kumar, Shiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2016-08-24

    Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits. Studies revealed that a single serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients and vitamins for adults. Therefore, lentils have been identified as a food legume for biofortification, which could provide a whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present review discusses the current ongoing efforts toward genetic biofortification in lentils using classical breeding and molecular marker-assisted approaches.

  8. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052

  9. Cryoprecipitate: the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Callum, Jeannie L; Karkouti, Keyvan; Lin, Yulia

    2009-07-01

    Cryoprecipitate is a diverse product containing factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor XIII, and platelet microparticles. The role of this complex product in the management of hemostasis has not been well studied (excluding patients with factor VIII deficiency). There are insufficient data to determine the clinical setting where this product might be clinically efficacious despite its widespread use in multiple different clinical scenarios. The best method of pooling before transfusion has also not been thoroughly investigated to determine the optimal infusion strategy (intralaboratory vs bedside). The most common current indication for the use of this product is hypofibrinogenemia in the setting of massive hemorrhage. There are insufficient data in the literature to determine the efficacy, safety, and dosage in this patient population. Despite 45 years of the use of this product, we still have a lot to learn regarding the optimal use of cryoprecipitate.

  10. Knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS: a survey among dental students in Ajman, UAE.

    PubMed

    Premadasa, Gamini; Sadek, Maha; Ellepola, Arjuna; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary

    2015-05-01

    Encounters between dentists and patients with HIV/AIDS are bound to rise due to increased prevalence and emerging new treatments. This study assessed dental students' knowledge about transmission and oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS, and their attitudes towards patients regarding obligations to treat. Out of 109 students in 4 years of a 6-year dental undergraduate program, 106 responded to a questionnaire on knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Knowledge and attitude scores were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis one-way anova and the gender differences with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The median score for students' overall knowledge was 39.5 (67%; maximum possible 59). The median knowledge scores for males and females were 38 and 40 respectively, although the difference was not statistically significant. The knowledge levels in Year 4 (42.5 ± 4.7), Year 3 (44 ± 6.5), and Year 2 (42 ± 5.8), were similar but significantly higher than in Year 1 (33 ± 7.9; P < 0.01). The median attitude score was 14 out of 24, with no significant differences within genders and years of study. Although the level of knowledge of the senior students was higher than that of the first years, the negative attitudes remained largely unchanged. Appropriate educational programs may alter the misconceptions and the negative attitudes. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Enhancing knowledge and attitudes in pain management: a pain management education program for nursing home staff.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p < .05) after the 8-week PMP. A PMP can improve the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management.

  12. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    PubMed

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-07-21

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  13. Information sources, donation knowledge, and attitudes toward transplant recipients in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Melissa K; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge is linked consistently with organ donation attitudes, willingness, and consent. Negative information about donation and the recipients of donation can affect public opinion and donation willingness. However, it is unclear which information sources are most important in forming knowledge, particularly in Australia where little prior research exists. To identify information sources that may inform Australians' organ donation knowledge and attitudes toward transplant recipients. 1487 Australian residents aged 18 years or older who completed an online survey. Self-reported knowledge, information sources, and attitudes toward transplant recipients. Participants felt fairly well informed about organ donation, particularly if they registered donation wishes, were female, and were older. More than half reported their driver's license, television news, and discussion with family/friends as donation information sources. However, information sources contributing to knowledge were personal experience, online, hospital, government campaign, discussion with family/friends, Medicare, doctor's surgery, and the newspaper. Differences based on registration status, sex, and age, were found. Discussion with family/friends and movies or television shows, as well as not having seen information in a newspaper or doctor's surgery, contributed to positive attitudes toward recipients, although the variance explained was small. People felt more informed by personal, medical, and government information sources than by mass media. Family discussion was not only a common information source but also contributed significantly and positively to both donation knowledge and attitudes toward recipients. Further exploration of information sources contributing to donation knowledge and community attitudes toward transplant recipients among young men is needed.

  14. Attitudes to and knowledge about elderly people: a comparative analysis of students of medicine, English and Computer Science and their teachers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Aldous, I R

    1996-05-01

    Attitudes to and knowledge about elderly people were assessed in 1091 students and lecturers from the London Hospital Medical College (LHMC), London, UK and the English and Computer Science departments of Queen Mary and Westfield College (QMW), London, UK. General knowledge about elderly people was measured by the Palmore 'Facts about Aging Quiz 1'. Attitudes towards elderly people were measured by the Rosencranz and McNevin Semantic Differential scale. A higher level of knowledge about elderly people was found both in medical students and in medical lecturers compared to their counterparts in the English and Computer Science departments (P < 0.001). The cross-sectional data indicated that medical students developed a significantly increasing knowledge about elderly people as they progressed through their training, in contrast to students of English and Computer Science. Scores on the Rosencranz & McNevin scale indicated that attitudes towards elderly people across all three groups of students and lecturers were similar. The scores obtained for all groups indicated that they held approximately neutral attitudes towards elderly people. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between high levels of knowledge about elderly people, and positive attitudes towards them. The necessity of interventions to improve general attitudes towards and knowledge of elderly people among medical students is questioned. It is suggested that future research should look beyond surveys of general attitudes towards elderly people for the causes of the current lack of interest in geriatric medicine.

  15. Medical and psychology students' knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness as a clinical intervention.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Stephen P; Hassed, Craig S; Gear, Jacqui L

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness is a technique for training people to pay full attention and to fully accept the reality of what they are paying attention to. The clinical efficacy of mindfulness has been increasingly demonstrated during the last two decades. Very little research, however, has been undertaken on health professionals' and students of health professions' knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness. These may affect the current and future level of use of a technique that offers important clinical advantages. We aimed to compare knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness of medical students without exposure to it in their training with psychology students without exposure and with medical students with exposure to mindfulness in their training. A total of 91 medical students from Monash University, 49 medical students from Deakin University, and 31 psychology students from Deakin University were given a questionnaire that elicited quantitative and qualitative responses about level of knowledge of mindfulness and willingness to administer or recommend it to their future patients. Psychology students without exposure to mindfulness in their training have a greater knowledge of it and are more likely to administer it or recommend it than are medical students without exposure to it in their training. Medical students with exposure to mindfulness in their course have a greater knowledge of it and are more likely to administer it or recommend it than are medical students without exposure. Knowledge of mindfulness is positively correlated with students' willingness to use or recommend it. Possible implications of the findings of this study are that if future doctors are routinely instructed in mindfulness as a clinical intervention they may be more likely to form a more positive attitude towards it, that is more consistent with that of nonmedical health professions such as psychologists, and that they therefore may be more likely to administer it or refer its use. The

  16. A Multicultural Study of University Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; D'Andrea, Michael J.; Gaughen, Kiaka J. S.; Sahu, Poonam K.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether or not a relationship exists between university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward homosexuality. Reports significant results and discusses the implications of findings for educational and counseling practice. (Author/MKA)

  17. Twelfth Grade Student Knowledge and Attitudes toward the Environment in the Dominican Republic: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert E.; Perez, Julio

    1989-01-01

    Reported is an assessment of secondary school pupils regarding their attitudes about and knowledge of environmental issues. It was found that gender was a significant variable and that poverty and deforestation were ranked as the most critical environmental problems. (CW)

  18. Developing two different measures for assessing knowledge of and attitudes toward epilepsy for the Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Nuran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop two new scales for assessing Turkish public's knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes toward it. A 26-item knowledge scale and a 15-item attitude scale were first developed and then tested using a random selection of adults aged 18 n = 613) from different parts of Istanbul. After item and factor analyses of the knowledge scale, 10 items were omitted. Varimax rotation resulted in three underlying components that explained 35.7% of the variance. As a reliability assessment, the Kuder-Richardson-20 coefficient was 0.72. For the attitude scale one item was excluded after factor analyses. Varimax rotation revealed two underlying components that explained 46.31% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.84. Additionally, it was found that subjects with more knowledge of epilepsy had more positive attitudes toward epilepsy (r = .36, P<0.01).

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  20. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and fat intake: application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, R; Towler, G

    2007-06-01

    Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.

  1. Twelfth Grade Student Knowledge and Attitudes toward the Environment in the Dominican Republic: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert E.; Perez, Julio

    1989-01-01

    Reported is an assessment of secondary school pupils regarding their attitudes about and knowledge of environmental issues. It was found that gender was a significant variable and that poverty and deforestation were ranked as the most critical environmental problems. (CW)

  2. Residents' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburg, Marie M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A survey of residents at five training hospitals concerning the variables affecting physicians' practice behavior in treating alcoholism supported the view that alcohol-related training and experience would influence practice behavior more than attitudes or knowledge. (MSE)

  3. Knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among primary, secondary and tertiary level teachers.

    PubMed

    Dantas, F G; Cariri, G A; Cariri, G A; Ribeiro Filho, A R

    2001-09-01

    The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instruction on epilepsy during their training. This study was done to access three hundred teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy by answering a questionnaire in order to quantify their knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Almost all the teachers had heard about epilepsy yet could not demonstrate discrimination among the students. Some teachers still thought that epilepsy was contagious. A few others either objected to having epileptic children in their classes or did not think that an epileptic child could achieve higher studies. The knowledge about the clinical characteristics and initial procedures to attend a person during a seizure was unsatisfactory. We conclude that schools should offer some kind of knowledge or assistance in health services and physicians must ensure that these teachers have sufficient knowledge of epilepsy. Also general public education campaigns should be encouraged in this field.

  4. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping.

  5. Tuberculosis: current state of knowledge: an epilogue.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chi Chiu; Lange, Christoph; Zhang, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has developed various mechanisms to survive and cause disease in the human host. Incomplete understanding of the complex microbe-host interactions has hindered the identification of suitable biomarkers to expedite the development of diagnostic tools, drugs and vaccines. The field effectiveness of directly observed therapy-short course has been compromised by the intrinsic limitations of sputum microscopy and suboptimal adherence to the long duration of treatment amid the HIV-TB syndemic and various socioeconomic constraints. While molecular tools are transforming the diagnostic processes, especially for multi-drug-resistant (MDR)-TB, drug development and service provision for MDR-TB seriously lag behind. Inappropriate management of detected MDR-TB cases may amplify drug resistance, jeopardizing future control. Targeted screening and treatment of latent infection with M. tuberculosis with the currently available immunodiagnostic tools and treatment regimens aim more for personal protection than major epidemiological impact or elimination. The interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) are not affected by cross-reaction to the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and are increasingly used for such screening before initiation of biologics for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders. BCG offers only partial and unreliable protection against pulmonary TB in adults, the crucial transmission link for this airborne infection. Systems biology and vaccinomics may speed up vaccine research. The successful development of a fully effective TB vaccine that targets both growing bacteria and non-growing persisters may reflect a major breakthrough, as natural infection does not induce sufficient immunity to prevent reinfection.

  6. Computer thought: propositional attitudes and meta-knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Though artificial intelligence scientists frequently use words such as belief and desire when describing the computational capacities of their programs and computers, they have completely ignored the philosophical and psychological theories of belief and desire. Hence, their explanations of computational capacities that use these terms are frequently little better than folk-psychological explanations. Conversely, though-philosophers and psychologists attempt to couch their theories of belief and desire in computational terms, they have consistently misunderstood the notions of computation and computational semantics. Hence, their theories of such attitudes are frequently inadequate. A computational theory of propositional attitudes (belief and desire) is presented here. It is argued that the theory of propositional attitudes put forth by philosophers and psychologists entails that propositional attitudes are a kind of abstract data type. This refined computational view of propositional attitudes bridges the gap between artificial intelligence, philosophy, and psychology. It is argued that this theory of propositional attitudes has consequences for meta-processing and consciousness in computers.

  7. Dietary sodium intake: knowledge, attitudes and practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Ma, Ji-Xiang; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Engelgau, Michael; Yan, Liu-Xia; Li, Yuan; Li, Yi-Chong; Wang, Hui-Cheng; Lu, Zi-Long; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Liang, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China. In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the 'intention to' and 'currently taking action to' reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area.

  8. Dietary Sodium Intake: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Ai-qiang; Ma, Ji-xiang; Shi, Xiao-ming; Guo, Xiao-lei; Engelgau, Michael; Yan, Liu-xia; Li, Yuan; Li, Yi-chong; Wang, Hui-cheng; Lu, Zi-long; Zhang, Ji-yu; Liang, Xiao-feng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China Methods In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the ‘intention to’ and ‘currently taking action to’ reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. Results KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. Conclusion Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area. PMID:23527061

  9. A survey of dentists' knowledge and attitudes with respect to the treatment of scleroderma patients.

    PubMed

    Leader, David; Papas, Athena; Finkelman, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis causes dry mouth, a major risk factor for tooth decay, and shrinks the mouth opening, complicating care. A 2011 survey determined that 28% of systemic sclerosis patients have difficulty finding dentists prepared to treat them, and 63% do not recommend their current dentist to other systemic sclerosis patients. We use a survey to gauge dentists' knowledge and attitudes regarding the care of scleroderma patients. We conducted an Internet-based survey of all 4465 members of the Massachusetts Dental Society to determine their knowledge and attitudes of treating systemic sclerosis patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Qualtrics research suite. Surveys were accessed by 351 dentists and completed by 269. Responses were primarily from Eastern Massachusetts (80%), but represented the Boston area less than expected. Most dentists believed they have an ethical responsibility to treat patients who have scleroderma (93%). More than half of dentists believed that in not knowing about systemic sclerosis they might harm a patient (51%). If contacted by a patient who has scleroderma, 50% of dentists would gather information on the disease or the patient's condition. Dentists who felt prepared (71%) were more likely to correctly answer questions related to diagnosis and classification of scleroderma than those who felt unprepared (P = 0.004, Mann-Whitney U test). Results indicate the potential value of creating a health communication effort targeting oral health providers to improve scleroderma patient satisfaction and access to care.

  10. The Relationship between Attitude and Knowledge in an Introductory Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihari, James; White, Arthur

    1998-04-01

    Pre and posttests were given over a three year period to students in an introductory university physics course, a two-quarter, hands-on, laboratory-based, science literacy course with a focus on energy. Attitude items on the tests related to student anxiety and efficacy, discovery, relevance, enjoyment, and interest. Knowledge items on the tests related to course subject matter. Quantitative analysis was used to study relationships between attitude variables, age, gender, subject matter knowledge, and performance in the course.

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Personal Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Occupational Therapy Educators in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline description of American occupational therapy educators' knowledge, attitudes, and personal use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a first step in exploring the larger issue of future occupational therapy practitioners' preparedness for meeting clients' occupational needs in today's evolving healthcare environment. Results of this cross-sectional survey highlighted limitations of occupational therapy educators' knowledge of common CAM concepts and therapies across all demographic variables, varying attitudes towards CAM in general and its inclusion in occupational therapy education, and personal use of common CAM therapies. Without increased occupational therapy educator knowledge about CAM and engagement in the current healthcare practices, occupational therapy practitioners are at risk for having a limited role in integrative healthcare.

  12. Social Inclusion of Children With Down Syndrome: Jewish and Muslim Mothers' Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behavioral Intentions.

    PubMed

    Barnoy, Sivia; Biton, Anna; Itzhaki, Michal

    The current study examined mothers' knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to socially integrate children with Down syndrome (DS) in the family, with children without disabilities and school system. A questionnaire based on a descriptive, cross-sectional design was administered to Jewish and Muslim mothers. The questionnaire included demographics, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to integrate children with DS. Analysis included a regression test of intention to integrate children with DS and a one-way ANOVA for differences between Jewish and Muslim mothers. Nearly all the Jewish mothers (93.7%) and about half the Muslim mothers (52.8%) had performed screening tests for DS during their pregnancy. All mothers displayed low knowledge level about DS. Being Jewish (t=2.89; p=0.005) and holding more positive beliefs (t=3.39; p=0.001) were associated with a higher intention to socially integrate children with DS. Significant positive correlations were found between beliefs and attitudes (r=0.65; p<0.001) and between attitudes and intention to socially integrate children with DS (r=0.39; p<0.001). This study shows that Jewish and Muslim mothers' beliefs and attitudes towards social inclusion of children with DS are quite positive and the intention to integrate children with DS in the family, with children without disabilities, and in the mainstream school system is high. However, their level of knowledge about DS is low. Nurses, as a critical source of information about DS, should develop an ethno-cultural sensitivity to diverse populations in order to influence attitudes and beliefs regarding the social integration of children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, Social Desirability, and Organizational Characteristics in Youth Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Izmirian, Sonia C; Nakamura, Brad J

    2016-10-01

    This project investigated the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and organizational characteristics predicted attitudes toward EBPs, while controlling for social desirability and organization membership. Participants were 167 public sector youth practitioners. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine which factors significantly predicted EBP attitudes. Findings suggested that social desirability, organization membership, and various organizational characteristics predicted EBP attitudes. Results are discussed as they relate to the importance of including social desirability in future research and identifying different factors that influence EBP attitudes across various organizations.

  14. Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory.

  15. Knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among school teachers in West of Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Narges; Heidari, Mohammad

    2015-07-06

    Epilepsy comprised the highest proportion of neurological problem of childhood stage, which observed mostly in the first decade of life. The dramatic effect of having a seizure in the classroom can be very traumatic for any child. The knowledge and attitude of teachers toward epilepsy have a direct impact on the life of students with epilepsy. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in Kermanshah (West of Iran). 305 teachers from 25 public schools were randomly participated in this study. The questionnaire included 39 items and three sections (demographic information, knowledge, and attitude about epilepsy). In this study, 97% participants had heard or read about epilepsy. Attitude and knowledge about epilepsy was positive in weighted sum of the item responses, but there were deficits in individual items and first-aid management of seizure attacks. There was no meaningful relationship between attitude scores and demographic items, but higher level of education, female gender, and marital status had a positive influence on teachers' knowledge toward children with epilepsy. The main findings indicated a good knowledge and positive attitude about epilepsy among school's teachers. Nevertheless, there is still a need to improve certain aspects of knowledge and attitude and first aid management of an epileptic attack among teachers.

  16. Knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among school teachers in West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Narges; Heidari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy comprised the highest proportion of neurological problem of childhood stage, which observed mostly in the first decade of life. The dramatic effect of having a seizure in the classroom can be very traumatic for any child. The knowledge and attitude of teachers toward epilepsy have a direct impact on the life of students with epilepsy. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in Kermanshah (West of Iran). 305 teachers from 25 public schools were randomly participated in this study. The questionnaire included 39 items and three sections (demographic information, knowledge, and attitude about epilepsy). Results: In this study, 97% participants had heard or read about epilepsy. Attitude and knowledge about epilepsy was positive in weighted sum of the item responses, but there were deficits in individual items and first-aid management of seizure attacks. There was no meaningful relationship between attitude scores and demographic items, but higher level of education, female gender, and marital status had a positive influence on teachers’ knowledge toward children with epilepsy. Conclusion: The main findings indicated a good knowledge and positive attitude about epilepsy among school’s teachers. Nevertheless, there is still a need to improve certain aspects of knowledge and attitude and first aid management of an epileptic attack among teachers. PMID:26622977

  17. Turkish university students' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Öztürk-Akar, Ebru

    2017-03-04

    This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology applications. Sample of the study consists of 403 undergraduate and graduate students, 198 nonscience, and 205 science majors. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire and the Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics (mean and percentages), t test, and correlations were used to examine the participants' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications and differences as regards their majors. Although the science majors had higher knowledge and attitude scores than the nonscience majors, it is not possible to say that they have sufficient knowledge of biotechnologies. Besides, the participants' attitudes toward biotechnological applications were not considerably related to their knowledge of biotechnology. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):115-125, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Young children's dietary habits and associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea

    2010-02-01

    The study investigates the dietary habits of Flemish preschoolers and associations of these habits with both sociodemographic characteristics and the mother's nutritional knowledge and attitudes. A sample of 862 parents of preschoolers from 56 schools completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children's dietary intake, and a nutritional knowledge-and-attitude questionnaire. Regression analysis showed a lower dietary adequacy in children of mothers with low and medium level of education, medium-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food-related health attitude. The highest excess score (representing items that should be avoided or moderated) was found in children of mothers with low education level, without a job, with three or more children, of age less than 30 years, and possessing lower levels of nutritional knowledge and attitude scores for health and taste. The associations of the dietary adequacy and excess scores with sociodemographic background can help practitioners to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions. The associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.

  19. An Online Educational Program Improves Pediatric Oncology Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Spiritual Care Competence.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Cheryl L; Callahan, Margaret Faut; McCarthy, Donna O; Hughes, Ronda G; White-Traut, Rosemary; Bansal, Naveen K

    This study evaluated the potential impact of an online spiritual care educational program on pediatric nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and their competence to provide spiritual care to children with cancer at the end of life. It was hypothesized that the intervention would increase nurses' positive attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and increase nurses' level of perceived spiritual care competence. A positive correlation was expected between change in nurses' perceived attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and change in nurses' perceived spiritual care competence. A prospective, longitudinal design was employed, and analyses included one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, linear regression, and partial correlation. Statistically significant differences were found in nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and nurses' perceived spiritual care competence. There was a positive relationship between change scores in nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and nurses' spiritual care competence. Online spiritual care educational programs may exert a lasting impact on nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and their competence to provide spiritual care to children with cancer at the end of life. Additional studies are required to evaluate the direct effects of educational interventions patient outcomes.

  20. Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J

    1994-01-01

    Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that

  1. Study of knowledge, attitude and practice concerning aspects of torture.

    PubMed

    Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E

    2000-06-01

    The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It

  2. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE TOWARD DISEASE AND PRACTICE SURVEY ON DIABETES IN GARDABANI DISTRICT.

    PubMed

    Kajaia, M; Butsashvili, M; Gulbiani, L; Khatiashvili, Kh; Mindeli, K; Osepaishvili, N; Gordeladze, K; Kobaek, A; Kamkamidze, G

    2016-09-01

    In 2014-2016, the Georgia Red Cross Society (GRCS) implemented a project to improve diabetes prevention, detection and care in rural Georgia, namely in the Gardabani district. The KAP survey was conducted to determine current levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding diabetes among the general population in the Gardabani district. We compared current findings with baseline results from a 2014 survey to identify trends. A cross sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to select participants. Data were collected at households through face-to-face individual interviews using a specially designed questionnaire. In total, 716 individuals were surveyed, the majority of whom (98.9%) were aware of diabetes. Most respondents (85.3%) believed that diabetes can be prevented and correctly identified measures of diabetes prevention. Compared to the previous survey, the level of knowledge regarding risk factors, symptoms and complication of diabetes had improved significantly. Knowledge of diabetes prevention correlated positively with individuals having a higher education level (62.6% vs. 50.8%; p=0.05), higher family income (62.2% vs. 53.5%; p=0.03) and residing in rural settlements (58.6% vs. 25%; p<0.001). Knowledge of diabetes management was significantly associated with type of residence (rural 50.3% vs. urban 28.4%; p<0.001) and family income (high family income 52.3% vs. low family income 45.5%; p=0.05). Respondents identifying GRCS as a source of information tended to have a higher awareness of diabetes prevention and management. Knowledge of diabetes has significantly improved among the general population of the Garabani district from 2014 to 2016. The development and implementation of similar public health programs to increase the level of awareness and knowledge about diabetes is required in other parts of Georgia to improve control and management of the disease throughout the country.

  3. Gynecologists and human papillomavirus DNA testing: exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practice in Italy.

    PubMed

    Caglioti, Claudia; Pileggi, Claudia; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pavia, Maria

    2016-11-22

    The aim of this survey was to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of gynecologists in terms of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. A national cross-sectional web survey was carried out through multistage sampling using an overall sample of 1000 gynecologists. Gynecologists were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire exploring their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward cervical cancer screening and HPV-DNA testing. A total of 582 gynecologists completed the web questionnaire. Of these, 24.5% were uncertain on the higher sensitivity of HPV-DNA compared with the Pap test, whereas 19% were uncertain on the role of the HPV-DNA test as a primary test in women younger than 30 years old and only 44.9% knew that a negative HPV-DNA test allows for an extension of the test interval to 5 years. Most gynecologists showed a definite positive attitude on the role of screening for cervical cancer prevention and were prepared to accept new technologies. The HPV-DNA test was considered highly effective by 86.9%, whereas 94% recommend/perform HPV-DNA tests in women older than 30 years of age; 25.5% performed HPV-DNA as a primary test, followed by a Pap test in those cases that were positive. Only 56.3% recommended/performed HPV-DNA tests 1 year after a positive HPV-DNA test, followed by a negative Pap test, whereas 42.9% recommended colposcopy. Although the use of the HPV-DNA test is very widespread among Italian gynecologists performing cervical cancer screening, there is lack of standardization of practices according to current guidelines.

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of doctors toward the sexuality of older people in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sultan; Demir, Basaran; Eker, Engin; Karim, Salman

    2008-10-01

    Few studies have looked at healthcare professionals' knowledge of and attitudes to later life sexuality in both Western and Eastern cultures. Here we examine the attitudes and knowledge of Turkish medical doctors toward sexuality in older people. Eighty-seven doctors, from various specialties, who were directly involved in the care of older people, were contacted by post and asked to complete the Turkish version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS). A majority of physicians indicated that they had limited information and knowledge regarding sexual health issues in older people (69%). Although a small percentage (14.5%) reported that they "always" discuss sexuality and sexual problems with older patients, the majority (69%) indicated that they "sometimes" raise questions about sexuality with these patients. A high percentage (81%) stated that they would be helpful and receptive should an elderly patient initiate a discussion about sexual issues. Most participants (77%) thought that the patient's gender was of no importance when taking a sexual history. Overall, the responses to ASKAS showed that physicians had limited knowledge but their attitude was positive toward sexuality in the elderly. Female physicians had less knowledge than males and had more negative attitudes toward sexuality in this age group. Total and knowledge subscale scores of ASKAS showed that older physicians had more knowledge than younger physicians but similar attitudes. A comparison of the knowledge and attitude scores of psychiatrists, surgeons and non-surgeons showed no significant difference among the three groups. This study identified a low level of awareness of later life sexuality among Turkish medical doctors. These findings identify a need to improve the education and training of doctors at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels to enable them to provide better sexual health care to older people.

  5. Comorbidity, knowledge and attitude towards sex among patients with Dhat syndrome: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Mehra, Aseem; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge about sex, attitude towards sex, prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and relationship of the comorbidity with onset of symptoms of Dhat syndrome. Treatment records of 264 patients diagnosed with Dhat syndrome were reviewed for clinical profile including psychiatric comorbidity and sexual dysfunction and information on sexual knowledge and attitude using Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire (SKAQ-II). None of the patients gave all the correct responses on the SKAQ-II. Poor knowledge about sexual matters was not limited to the semen formation only, but also involved other aspects of sexuality, like masturbation, relationship of pregnancy with orgasm in women, breast feeding and pregnancy, relationship of sexual desire with addictive drugs and sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by having sex with a virgin girl. Higher level of education showed significant association with better sexual knowledge and liberal attitude. There was significant positive correlation between sexual knowledge and attitude. About half (51.9%) of patients had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder and/or sexual dysfunction. Among the psychiatric disorders, depressive disorders were the most common and premature ejaculation was the most common comorbid sexual dysfunction. Among those with comorbidity, symptoms of Dhat syndrome preceded the onset of other disorders. Patients with Dhat syndrome have high rates of comorbidity and poor sexual knowledge and less liberal attitude, which was not only limited to loss of semen but also involves other spheres of sexuality. Accordingly psychoeducation in patients of Dhat syndrome should not be limited to addressing the myths and lack of knowledge about semen formation, but also should address poor sexual knowledge on all the aspects related to sexuality and the negative attitude towards sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.

  7. Sexuality and people with intellectual disabilities: assessment of knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and needs.

    PubMed

    Siebelink, Eline M; de Jong, Menno D T; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo

    2006-08-01

    The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show that sexuality and romantic relationships are important aspects in the lives of many persons with intellectual disabilities. Male respondents generally reported more sexual needs than did females. Correlations were found between sexual knowledge and attitudes and between attitudes and experience or needs, suggesting that general behavioral models may be fruitfully used to further explore the topic of sexuality among people with intellectual disabilities.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of autism spectrum disorder in a stratified sampling of preschool teachers in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingna; Li, Jialing; Zheng, Qiaolan; Zaroff, Charles M; Hall, Brian J; Li, Xiuhong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-05-13

    In China, children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can potentially benefit from universal education policies and recent initiatives designed to address the needs of children with developmental disorders. However, adequate schooling is often unavailable for children with ASD, in part because teachers lack the knowledge and skills needed to work with this population. To better understand the current state of knowledge of ASD in China, we surveyed knowledge and attitudes regarding the disorder in preschool teachers. A total of 471 preschool teachers in the cities of Guangzhou and Foshan, China completed questionnaires assessing participant demographics, knowledge of typical child development and knowledge of ASD, attitudes towards ASD, practices and self-perceptions of efficacy in the education of children with ASD, and awareness of organizations and intervention approaches devoted to the care of individuals with ASD. The correlation between individual- and school-level variables with current knowledge of typical child development and ASD was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. The majority (84%) of participants answered correctly more than half of the questionnaire items assessing understanding of typical child development. In contrast, 83% provided inaccurate responses to more than half of the questionnaire items assessing knowledge of ASD. Knowledge of typical child development and knowledge of ASD were both associated with geographic region (teachers in Guangzhou had greater knowledge than those in Foshan, p < 0.0001). Knowledge of ASD was also associated with a higher education level (p < 0.05) and school type (p = 0.023). In general, participants believed fairly strongly in the need for greater service provision for children with ASD, and were receptive towards receiving additional specialized training. Most participants were unaware of ASD-specific organizations and empirically validated intervention approaches. Knowledge of ASD

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

  10. Awareness, Knowledge, Attitude and Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-03-01

    Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. The main objective of this study was to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and skills of telemedicine among the health professionals working in the teaching hospitals of Puducherry Region of India. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among various healthcare professionals using a proper sampling frame obtained from a list of teaching hospitals located in Puducherry Union Territory, India. A total of 120 teaching faculties and practitioners from the preclinical, para-clinical and clinical departments were taken up for the study. A pre-validated self-administered questionnaire was used for the survey to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and skills of telemedicine. The questionnaires were mailed to the respondents and the completed questionnaires were analysed as per the study objectives using descriptive statistics for the quantitative data and content analysis for the qualitative data. The knowledge level of the respondents was found to be good with 41% of the respondents, 35% possess fair knowledge and 24% don't have adequate knowledge of telemedicine. With regard to the attitude towards telemedicine 39% of the respondents possess high attitude, 31% possess moderate attitude and 30% possess low level of attitude. Investigations on the skills of the respondents on telemedicine showed that 19% respondents are highly skilled or experts, 25% are moderately skilled which includes learners or beginners, and 56% are unskilled in handling telemedicine and its related equipments. The findings of the study suggest that although the respondents experience and knowledge are limited in telemedicine technology a fair number of them have positive attitude towards telemedicine. It is

  11. Women's knowledge and attitudes surrounding abortion in Zambia: a cross-sectional survey across three provinces

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Schroeder, Rosalyn; Dennis, Mardieh; Owolabi, Onikepe; Vwalika, Bellington; Musheke, Maurice; Campbell, Oona; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Zambia, despite a relatively liberal legal framework, there remains a substantial burden of unsafe abortion. Many women do not use skilled providers in a well-equipped setting, even where these are available. The aim of this study was to describe women's knowledge of the law relating to abortion and attitudes towards abortion in Zambia. Setting Community-based survey in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. Participants 1484 women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Correct knowledge of the legal grounds for abortion, attitudes towards abortion services and the previous abortions of friends, family or other confidants. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse how knowledge and attitudes varied according to sociodemographic characteristics. Results Overall, just 16% (95% CI 11% to 21%) of women of reproductive age correctly identified the grounds for which abortion is legal. Only 40% (95% CI 32% to 45% of women of reproductive age knew that abortion was legally permitted in the extreme situation where the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother. Even in urban areas of Lusaka province, only 55% (95% CI 41% to 67%) of women knew that an abortion could legally take place to save the mother's life. Attitudes remain conservative. Women with correct knowledge of abortion law in Zambia tended to have more liberal attitudes towards abortion and access to safe abortion services. Neither correct knowledge of the law nor attitudes towards abortion were associated with knowing someone who previously had an induced abortion. Conclusions Poor knowledge and conservative attitudes are important obstacles to accessing safe abortion services. Changing knowledge and attitudes can be challenging for policymakers and public health practitioners alike. Zambia could draw on its previous experience in dealing with its large HIV epidemic to learn cross-cutting lessons in effective mass

  12. HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Young People in Iran: Findings of a National Population-Based Survey in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Rafierad, Ali-Ahmad; Sedaghat, Abbas; Sharifi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The evidence is mixed on the HIV knowledge, attitude, and practices of youth in Iran. The aim of the current study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Iranian youth towards HIV through a national survey. Materials and Methods Through a cross-sectional study with multistage cluster sampling, we administered a pilot-tested standard questionnaire to assess the levels of HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices of individuals aged 15–29 years old. Participants were recruited from 13 provinces in Iran and consisted of 2456 men and 2412 women. Results Only 37.3% of the participants had a high knowledge score. Most participants knew the main routes of HIV transmission; however, misconceptions existed about the transmission of HIV through mosquito bites across all age groups (31.7% correct response). Positive levels of attitude wereobserved among 20.7% of the participants. Most participants believed that people living with HIV (PLHIV) should be supported (88.3%) while only 46.3% were ready to share a table with them. Among those aged 19–29 years old, the main source of HIV information was mass media (69.1%), only 13.1% had ever tested for HIV, around 20.8% had ever had extramarital sex (31.7% male vs. 9.6% female),1.8% ever injected drugs (2.9% male vs. and 0.7% female). Among sexually active subjects in this age group, only 21.8% (26.1% male vs. 7.1% female) were consistent condom users. Conclusions The findings showed that Iranian youth and young adults have relatively insufficient overall knowledge and negative attitudes about HIV and PLHIV. Novel strategies involving schools and youth’s networks could be employed to deliver a culturally sensitive sexual health program. PMID:27626638

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of university students for advancing peer HIV education.

    PubMed

    Othero, D M; Aduma, P; Opil, C O

    2009-01-01

    To determine the current HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Sexual Practices (KASP) indicators amonguniversity students that would facilitate development and implementation of a peer education programme and the subsequent monitoring and evaluation of other HIV/AIDS activities. An institutional based cross-sectional study. Maseno University, Kenya. Five hundred students composed of 60% males and 40% females as dictated by the university's male to female ratio. Levels of HIV and AIDS awareness, knowledge and attitudes and the current related behavioural trends and tendencies, among the students at the University. Of the five hundred respondents included in the study, 68.5% of them reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with males being the majority at 78.2%, while the females were 54.7%. A large majority (77%) of females were in current sexual relationships compared to 66.7% of males. A significant proportion (54.8%) of first year students reported having had their first sexual intercourse at the university. Sexual activity was seen to increase from 56.9 to 71.2% among the first year students when they got to second year of study at the university. Peer pressure emerged as an important factor in students' sexual behaviour (P=0.001). Of the students, 32% reported having undergone HIV tests, 70.8% were willing to go for a test while 74.3% perceived they had a chance of being infected with the virus based on their previous risky sexual experiences. A significant 77.7% of the respondents affirmed having ever used condoms but only 15.8% reported consistent use. High proportions of students are sexually active with peaks in first and second years of study. This is coupled with an equal inconsistent use of condoms. Peer influence emerged as an important feature in accelerating risky sexual behaviour hence the need for advancing peer education programmes in universities.

  14. Assessment of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among students in higher education in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkumbo, Kitila

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have systematically and comprehensively investigated the knowledge level, attitudes and the pattern of sexual behaviours related to HIV and AIDS in higher education settings in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Tanzania in particular. This study attempted to fill a void in knowledge. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, employing a self-administered questionnaire as the main data collection tool. More than 400 higher education students completed a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to HIV and AIDS. About three quarters of respondents demonstrated comprehensive knowledge about HIV and AIDS, and the majority of respondents expressed positive attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS. Despite demonstrating high knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, the results show that sexual behaviours among students in higher education are characteristically risky, and do not significantly differ from youth in the general population.

  15. Current optometric practices and attitudes in keratoconus patient management.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Martin, Raul

    2017-08-01

    To compare the current optometric practices and attitudes in the management of keratoconus patients in the UK and Spain. An online survey (adapted to optometric practices) was distributed via a newsletter emailed by various professional organizations in the UK and Spain. Four hundred and sixty-four practitioners (126 in the UK; 338 in Spain) who prescribed gas permeable GP contact lenses (CLs) more than once per month (54.8% of UK practitioners and 28.1% of practitioners in Spain; p<0.01) responded to the questionnaire. A combination of multiple factors is considered necessary in the keratoconus detection (79.4% in the UK, 75% in Spain; p=0.68), and the use of classification criteria is considered relevant (67.5% in the UK, 70.7% in Spain; p=0.49). There is a high consensus on the consideration that GP CL fitting is more difficult in keratoconus (79.4% in the UK, 80.5% in Spain; p=0.79) requiring more diagnostic lenses (3.2±1.4 and 3.4±1.2 in the UK and Spain, respectively; p=0.72) than are necessary for healthy eyes. Using corneal topography is uncommon from both countries (38.1% in the UK, 59.8% in Spain; p<0.01), with a similar ophthalmologist referral pattern (at initial diagnosis, 50% in both the UK and Spain; p=1.00). Few cases of co-management with ophthalmologists were noted (no co-management reported by 60.3% in the UK and 72.8% in Spain, p=0.01). This study provides initial observations and evidence regarding keratoconus management by optometrists in the UK and Spain and shows similarity in the professional practices and attitudes of practitioners in these two countries. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Students Enrolled in an Introductory Gerontology Course: Their Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Sexual Expression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…

  17. Students Enrolled in an Introductory Gerontology Course: Their Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Sexual Expression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…

  18. Attitudes and knowledge regarding emergency contraception among emergency department adolescents and providers.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jennifer L; Vaughn, Lisa M; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2012-08-01

    Teen pregnancy is a public health issue in the United States. Emergency contraception (EC) has the potential to reduce teen pregnancy rates. The use of EC remains controversial, and barriers have been identified for adolescents seeking care. The objective of this study was to evaluate similarities and differences of knowledge and attitudes regarding EC among pediatric emergency department (PED) female adolescents, nurses, and physicians/nurse practitioners (NPs). A quantitative survey including demographics, knowledge, and attitudes regarding EC was administered to 3 groups: (1) PED nurses, (2) PED physicians and NPs, and (3) adolescent female patients seeking care in the PED. Demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Differences between groups were analyzed using Student t test for continuous variables and χ or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. Attitude and knowledge differences among the groups were analyzed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon test. There was no difference in overall knowledge regarding EC between nurses and physicians/NPs, adolescents and nurses or adolescents and physicians/NPs, and overall knowledge was poor among all groups. There was no difference in overall attitudes between nurses and adolescents; however, physicians were more liberal in their attitudes regarding EC compared with adolescents (P < 0.0001) and nurses (P < 0.0001). Older age trended toward more conservative responses (P = 0.05). Adolescents and nurses had more conservative attitudes toward EC than physicians. Further studies are needed to confirm the generalizability of these findings.

  19. AIDS knowledge and attitudes among injection drug users: the issue of reliability.

    PubMed

    Longshore, D; Hsieh, S C; Anglin, M D

    1992-01-01

    Among injection drug users (IDUs), AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes have not consistently predicted AIDS risk behavior. This may be due in part to the limited reliability of indexes used to measure drug users' AIDS knowledge and attitudes. In addition, the substantive interpretation of findings is confounded if index reliability is lower for particular demographic groups (e.g., ethnic populations and women). This report is based on 8 measures of AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes in a sample of 332 injection drug users in Los Angeles. The reliability of knowledge and attitude indexes for the overall sample is generally acceptable for the purpose of group comparison (average alpha = .60). But reliability is consistently lower for respondents who are Hispanic (average alpha = .49) and respondents with less formal education (alpha = .56). The reliability of 2 measures of sex-related attitudes is lower for female respondents. It is therefore important that the reliability of knowledge and attitude indexes be assessed not just for drug-user samples as a whole, but also within demographic groups of substantive interest.

  20. Investigating Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119