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Sample records for current uk practice

  1. Current UK practices in the management of subacromial impingement

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Colin; Tait, Gavin R

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy presently exists surrounding the management of patients with subacromial impingement. This study aims to highlight current UK practices in the management of these patients. Methods BESS members were invited to complete a questionnaire and responses were received from 157 consultant shoulder surgeons. Results Physiotherapy is an integral part of management for 93% of surgeons with a minimum period of 12 weeks being most popular prior to consideration of arthroscopic subacromial decompression. Subacromial steroid injection is used by 95% and 86% repeat this if the patient has failed to respond to a previous injection by the general practioner. From initial presentation, 77% felt there should be at least 3 months of conservative management before proceeding to surgery. Good but transient response to subacromial injection was considered the best predictor of good surgical outcome by 77%. The coracoacromial ligament is fully released by 78%, although there was greater variation in how aggressive surgeons were with acromioplasty. Most (59%) do not include the nontender acromioclavicular joint to any extent in routine acromioplasty. Hospital physiotherapy protocols are used by 63% for postoperative rehabilitation. Conclusions Variation exists in the management regimes offered to patients with subacromial impingement, but most employ a minimum period of 12 weeks of conservative management incorporating physiotherapy and at least 2 subacromial steriod injections. PMID:27582972

  2. Management of incidental findings during imaging research in “healthy” volunteers: current UK practice

    PubMed Central

    Booth, T C; Waldman, A D; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Jackson, A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Incidental findings (IF) are becoming increasingly common due to the proliferation of imaging research. IFs can be life-changing for “healthy” volunteers. This study examined variation in IF management in UK research studies of healthy volunteers, including comparison with ethical and legal guidelines, thus providing baseline data and informing future practice. Methods Questionnaire of participant background [medical/non-medical; radiologist/non-radiologist; years as principal investigator (PI)], type of research (involving children or not), institutional policy, volunteer information, radiologist involvement in reporting scans and IF disclosure mechanisms. Investigator's current and perceived “ideal” practice was examined. Participants were PIs performing imaging research of healthy volunteers approved by UK ethics committees (2006–2009). Results 63/146 (43%) surveys completed. 54/61 (88.5%) had site-specific guidelines. Information commonly provided to volunteers should IF be found: personal data (51/62; 82%), contingency plans (54/62; 87%) and disclosure to general practitioner (GP)/treating physician (47/62; 76%). PIs used different strategies for image review. Commonest: radiologist reports research scans only when researcher suspicious of IF [15/57 (26%) compared with 5/28 (16%) in ideal practice]. Commonest ideal reporting strategy: routine reporting by specialist radiologists [9/28 (29%) compared with 8/57 (14%) in current practice]. 49/56 (87.5%) have a standardised disclosure contingency plan, usually involving GP. PIs most commonly disclosed IFs to volunteers when judged relevant (27/58; 47%), most commonly face to face (22/54; 41%), by volunteer's GP (26/60; 43%). Background of PI influenced consent, reporting and disclosure practice. Conclusion There is wide variation in handling IFs in UK imaging research. Much of the current practice contravenes the vague existing legal and ethical guidelines, and is unlikely to be in the best

  3. Health informatics in UK Medical Education: an online survey of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Walpole, Sarah; Taylor, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Health informatics has growing importance in clinical practice with successive General Medical Council recommendations. However, prior data suggest that undergraduate medical education largely neglects this area. An up-to-date, UK-wide view of health informatics training in medical schools is required. Design An online survey was developed using current guidance and recommendations of UK professional bodies. Participants and Setting Senior academic staff and health informatics educators at all 34 UK medical schools were invited to complete the survey. Main outcome measures Quantitative and qualitative data regarding health informatics in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Results A total of 26/34 (76%) of UK medical schools responded and 23 provided full information. Aspects most frequently mentioned were literature searching and research governance. Seventeen per cent of respondents felt there was little or no HI training, although clinical record keeping was addressed by all medical schools. Pedagogies used to teach health informatics were self-directed learning (78%) to lecture based (70%), seminars (70%), informal teaching in clinical settings (57%) and problem-based learning (22%). Health informatics was usually integrated vertically and horizontally across the curriculum (76%). Assessment and updates of the health informatics curriculum are limited (57 and 41%, respectively). Thirty-two per cent of respondents reported a low level of confidence among students to use health informatics as doctors. In the most up-to-date survey of health informatics teaching in UK medical schools, there are three major findings. First, the proportion of health informatics in the medical undergraduate curriculum is low. Second, there was variation in content, pedagogy and timing across medical schools. Third, health informatics is rarely assessed and course content is not regularly updated. Conclusions There is a role for national guidelines and further research in

  4. Health informatics in UK Medical Education: an online survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Walpole, Sarah; Taylor, Paul; Banerjee, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Health informatics has growing importance in clinical practice with successive General Medical Council recommendations. However, prior data suggest that undergraduate medical education largely neglects this area. An up-to-date, UK-wide view of health informatics training in medical schools is required. An online survey was developed using current guidance and recommendations of UK professional bodies. Senior academic staff and health informatics educators at all 34 UK medical schools were invited to complete the survey. Quantitative and qualitative data regarding health informatics in the undergraduate medical curriculum. A total of 26/34 (76%) of UK medical schools responded and 23 provided full information. Aspects most frequently mentioned were literature searching and research governance. Seventeen per cent of respondents felt there was little or no HI training, although clinical record keeping was addressed by all medical schools. Pedagogies used to teach health informatics were self-directed learning (78%) to lecture based (70%), seminars (70%), informal teaching in clinical settings (57%) and problem-based learning (22%). Health informatics was usually integrated vertically and horizontally across the curriculum (76%). Assessment and updates of the health informatics curriculum are limited (57 and 41%, respectively). Thirty-two per cent of respondents reported a low level of confidence among students to use health informatics as doctors. In the most up-to-date survey of health informatics teaching in UK medical schools, there are three major findings. First, the proportion of health informatics in the medical undergraduate curriculum is low. Second, there was variation in content, pedagogy and timing across medical schools. Third, health informatics is rarely assessed and course content is not regularly updated. There is a role for national guidelines and further research in this area of the curriculum which is rapidly gaining in prominence.

  5. Radiotherapy planning in high-grade gliomas: a survey of current UK practice.

    PubMed

    Creak, A L; Tree, A; Saran, F

    2011-04-01

    Primary brain tumours in adults are rare, with high-grade gliomas (HGG) being the most common and most aggressive type. The clinical management of rare tumours such as HGG can be heterogeneous across different cancer centres. The aim of this survey was to determine current UK practice in the primary management of HGG, particularly in light of the improved outcomes reported recently. In February 2009, a questionnaire was sent to 71 consultant clinical oncologists in the UK who were reported to have a neuro-oncology practice. Questions focussed on the radiotherapeutic management of HGG. In total, 46/71 (65%) completed questionnaires were returned; 31/46 (67%) routinely used magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography fusion for radiotherapy planning; 34/36 (94%) routinely prescribed 60Gy in 30 fractions in a single phase; 7/36 (19%) would consider 54-55Gy in 30 fractions in selected clinical scenarios; 42/46 (91%) defined the planning target volume (PTV) as the gross tumour volume (GTV)+2-3cm margin and 42/46 (91%) outlined at least one 'organ at risk' (OAR). Accepted tolerance doses varied considerably, e.g. retina range: 30-54Gy. Sixty-four per cent of clinicians (27/42) compromise the PTV and 30% (14/42) the GTV in order to keep OARs within preset tolerances. Nearly one-third (14/42) involve the patient in this decision-making process, e.g. weighing up the risk of late toxicity with the risks of reducing the dose to the PTV. The results of this survey show areas of strong agreement as well as areas of variation in clinical practice of aspects of treatment planning for HGG between UK neuro-oncologists. Copyright © 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    PubMed

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Debriefing after failed paediatric resuscitation: a survey of current UK practice.

    PubMed

    Ireland, S; Gilchrist, J; Maconochie, I

    2008-06-01

    Debriefing is a form of psychological "first aid" with origins in the military. It moved into the spotlight in 1983, when Mitchell described the technique of critical incident stress debriefing. To date little work has been carried out relating to the effectiveness of debriefing hospital staff after critical incidents. The aim of this study was to survey current UK practice in order to develop some "best practice" guidelines. This study was a descriptive evaluation based on a structured questionnaire survey of 180 lead paediatric and emergency medicine consultants and nurses, selected from 50 UK trusts. Questions collected data about trust policy and events and also about individuals' personal experience of debrief. Free text comments were analyzed using the framework method described for qualitative data. Overall, the response rate was 80%. 62% said a debrief would occur most of the time. 85% reported that the main aim was to resolve both medical and psychological and emotional issues. Nearly all involve both doctors and nurses (88%); in over half (62%) other healthcare workers would be invited, eg, paramedics, students. Sessions are usually led by someone who was involved in the resuscitation attempt (76%). This was a doctor in 80%, but only 18% of responders said that a specifically trained person had led the session. Individuals' psychological issues would be discussed further on a one-to-one basis and the person directed to appropriate agencies. Any strategic working problems highlighted would be discussed with a senior member of staff and resolved via clinical governance pathways. Little is currently known about the benefits of debriefing hospital staff after critical incidents such as failed resuscitation. Debriefing is, however, widely practised and the results of this study have been used to formulate some best practice guidelines while awaiting evidence from further studies.

  8. Management of obstetric postpartum hemorrhage: a national service evaluation of current practice in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Al Wattar, Bassel H; Tamblyn, Jennifer A; Parry-Smith, William; Prior, Mathew; Van Der Nelson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) continues to be one of the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in obstetrics. Variations in practice often lead to adverse maternity outcomes following PPH. Our objective was to assess the current practice in managing PPH in the UK. Methods We performed a national multicenter prospective service evaluation study over one calendar month and compared the current performance to national standards for managing PPH. We used a standardized data collection tool and collected data on patients’ demographics, incidence of PPH, estimated blood loss (EBL), prophylactic and treatment measures, onset of labor, and mode of delivery. Results We collected data from 98 obstetric units, including 3663 cases of primary PPH. Fifty percent of cases were minor PPH (EBL 500–1000 mL, n=1900/3613, 52.6%) and the remaining were moderate PPH (EBL >1000 to <2000 mL, n=1424/3613, 39.4%) and severe PPH (EBL >2000 mL, n=289/3613, 8%). The majority of women received active management of the third stage of labor (3504/3613, 97%) most commonly with Syntometrine intramuscular (1479/3613, 40.9%). More than half required one additional uterotonic agent (2364/3613, 65.4%) most commonly with Syntocinon intravenous infusion (1155/2364, 48.8%). There was a poor involvement of consultant obstetricians and anesthetists in managing PPH cases, which was more prevalent when managing major PPH (p=0.0001). Conclusion There are still variations in managing PPH in the UK against national guidelines. More senior doctor involvement and regular service evaluation are needed to improve maternal outcomes following PPH. PMID:28176919

  9. Current practice of rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in the UK - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sajayan, A; Wicker, J; Ungureanu, N; Mendonca, C; Kimani, P K

    2016-09-01

    The 'classical' technique of rapid sequence induction (RSI) of anaesthesia was described in 1970. With the introduction of new drugs and equipment in recent years, a wide variation in this technique has been used. The role of cricoid pressure is controversial because of the lack of scientific evidence. Moreover, gentle mask ventilation has been recommended in situations such as obesity and critically ill patients, to prevent hypoxaemia during the apnoeic period. In identifying multiple techniques, we conducted a national postal survey to establish the current practice of RSI in the UK. A survey consisting of 17 questions was created and posted to 255 National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK. We included two copies of the questionnaire in each envelope; one to be completed by the airway lead (consultant anaesthetist with responsibility of overseeing the standard of airway training and implementing national airway guidelines and recommendations within their institution) and the other by a trainee in the same department. The difference in responses from consultants and trainees were assessed using the χ(2) test and the Fisher's exact test. In total we received 272 responses (response rate 53%) of which 266 (58% from consultants and 42% from trainees) were analysed. A majority of the respondents (68%) pre-oxygenated by monitoring end-tidal oxygen concentration and 76% of the respondents use 20-25° head up tilt for all RSIs. Propofol is the most commonly used induction agent (64% of all respondents). Opioid has been used by 80% of respondents and only 18% of respondents use suxamethonium for all patients and others choose rocuronium or suxamethonium based on clinical situation. Although 92% of anaesthetists use cricoid pressure, 83% of them never objectively measure the force used. During the apnoeic period 17% of the respondents use gentle mask ventilation. Our survey demonstrated a persistent variation in the practice of RSI amongst the anaesthetists in the

  10. Palliative care for cirrhosis: a UK survey of health professionals’ perceptions, current practice and future needs

    PubMed Central

    Low, Joseph; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Davis, Sarah; Bichard, Julia; Greenslade, Lynda; Hopkins, Katherine; Marshall, Aileen; Thorburn, Douglas; Jones, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the knowledge and practice patterns of a UK cohort of relevant healthcare professionals (HCPs) about delivering palliative care in cirrhosis, and to inform priorities for future research. Design An on-line questionnaire survey with closed and open responses. Setting HCPs identified from the mailing list of special interest groups in hepatology and gastroenterology (liver), general practice and specialist palliative care (SPC) across the UK. Results Of the 6181 potential contacts identified, 517 HCPs responded. Most believed a role exists for SPC in caring for people with cirrhosis, but many SPC HCPs felt ill prepared to provide good care to those facing death. Further training was needed in managing liver-related symptoms, symptom control and end of life issues. All HCP groups wished to increase community provision of palliative care support, but many general practitioners felt unable to manage advanced cirrhosis in the community. There were differences in the optimal trigger for SPC referral with liver HCPs less likely to refer at symptom deterioration. Prognostication, symptom management and service configuration were key areas identified for future research. Conclusions All who responded acknowledged the role of SPC in caring for those dying with cirrhosis and need for further training to improve confidence and enable joint working between SPC, general practice and liver teams. Low response rates make it difficult to generalise these findings, which require further validation. PMID:28839829

  11. Contralateral acoustic hearing aid use in adult unilateral cochlear implant recipients: Current provision, practice, and clinical experience in the UK.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Claire A; Kitterick, Pádraig T

    2016-05-01

    The study surveyed practising cochlear implant (CI) audiologists with the aim of: (1) characterizing UK clinical practice around the management and fitting of a contralateral hearing aid (HA) in adult unilateral CI users ('bimodal aiding'); (2) identifying factors that may limit the provision of bimodal aiding; and (3) ascertaining the views of audiologists on bimodal aiding. An online survey was distributed to audiologists working at the 20 centres providing implantation services to adults in the UK. Responses were received from 19 of the 20 centres. The majority of centres reported evaluating HAs as part of the candidacy assessment for cochlear implantation. However, a majority also indicated that they do not take responsibility for the contralateral HA following implantation, despite identifying few practical limiting factors. Bimodal aiding was viewed as more beneficial than wearing the implant alone, with most respondents actively encouraging bimodal listening where possible. Respondents reported that fitting bimodal devices to take account of each other's settings was potentially more beneficial than independently fit devices, but such sympathetic fitting was not routine practice in any centre. The results highlight some potential inconsistencies in the provision of bimodal aiding across the UK as reported by practising audiologists. The views of audiologists about what is best practice appear to be at odds with the nature and structure of the services currently offered. Stronger evidence that bimodal aiding can be beneficial for UK patients would be required in order for service providers to justify the routine provision of bimodal aiding and to inform guidelines to shape routine clinical practice.

  12. Transfusion in critical care - a UK regional audit of current practice.

    PubMed

    Plumb, J O M; Taylor, M G; Clissold, E; Grocott, M P W; Gill, R

    2017-02-18

    A consistent message within critical care publications has been that a restrictive transfusion strategy is non-inferior, and possibly superior, to a liberal strategy for stable, non-bleeding critically ill patients. Translation into clinical practice has, however, been slow. Here, we describe the degree of adherence to UK best practice guidelines in a regional network of nine intensive care units within Wessex. All transfusions given during a 2-month period were included (n = 444). Those given for active bleeding or within 24 h of major surgery, trauma or gastrointestinal bleeding were excluded (n = 148). The median (IQR [range]) haemoglobin concentration before transfusion was 73 (68-77 [53-106]) g.l(-1) , with only 34% of transfusion episodes using a transfusion threshold of < 70 g.l(-1) . In a subgroup analysis that did not study patients with a history of cardiac disease (n = 42), haemoglobin concentration before transfusion was 72 (68-77 [50-98]) g.l(-1) , with only 36% of transfusion episodes using a threshold of < 70 g.l(-1) (see Fig. 3). Most blood transfusions given to critically ill patients who were not bleeding in this audit used a haemoglobin threshold > 70 g.l(-1) . The reason why recommendations on transfusion triggers have not translated into clinical practice is unclear. With a clear national drive to decrease usage of blood products and clear evidence that a threshold of 70 g.l(-1) is non-inferior, it is surprising that a scarce and potentially dangerous resource is still being overused within critical care. Simple solutions such as electronic patient records that force pause for thought before blood transfusion, or prescriptions that only allow administration of a single unit in non-emergency circumstances may help to reduce the incidence of unnecessary blood transfusions.

  13. Gynaecological cancer follow-up: national survey of current practice in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, Simon; Stuart, Nick; Sylvestre, Yvonne; Hall, Liz; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a baseline of national practice for follow-up after treatment for gynaecological cancer. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting Gynaecological cancer centres and units. Geographical location UK. Participants Members of the British Gynaecological Cancer Society and the National Forum of Gynaecological Oncology Nurses. Interventions A questionnaire survey. Outcome measures To determine schedules of follow-up, who provides it and what routine testing is used for patients who have had previous gynaecological cancer. Results A total of 117 responses were obtained; 115 (98%) reported hospital scheduled regular follow-up appointments. Two involved general practitioners. Follow-up was augmented or replaced by telephone follow-up in 29 responses (25%) and patient-initiated appointments in 38 responses (32%). A total of 80 (68%) cancer specialists also offered combined follow-up clinics with other specialties. Clinical examinations for hospital-based follow-up were mainly performed by doctors (67% for scheduled regular appointments and 63% for patient-initiated appointments) while telephone follow-up was provided in the majority by nurses (76%). Most respondents (76/117 (65%)) provided routine tests, of which 66/76 (87%) reported carrying out surveillance tests for ovarian cancer, 35/76 (46%) for cervical cancer, 8/76 (11%) for vulval cancer and 7/76 (9%) for endometrial cancer. Patients were usually discharged after 5 years (82/117 (70%)), whereas three (3%) were discharged after 4 years, nine (8%) after three years and one (1%) after 2 years. Conclusions Practice varied but most used a standard hospital-based protocol of appointments for 5 years and routine tests were performed usually for women with ovarian cancer. A minority utilised nurse-led or telephone follow-up. General practitioners were rarely involved in routine care. A randomised study comparing various models of follow-up could be considered. PMID:23883880

  14. Endodontic 'Solutions'. Part 2: An audit comparing current practice in Belfast with UK and Republic of Ireland Dental Schools.

    PubMed

    Good, Melissa; El Karim, Ikhlas A; Hussey, David L

    2012-06-01

    Endodontic lubricants, irrigating solutions and medicaments help reduce the microbial load within root canals. Primary and secondary cases involve different microbes. Each'solution'or combinations thereof could play a significant role but no detailed guidelines exist on their use. An audit was undertaken to compare current practice in Belfast Dental School to the others across the UK and Republic of Ireland (ROI). This audit highlighted three main differences between Belfast and other dental schools. Many other institutions utilized other irrigants besides sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), different intracanal medicaments, including calcium hydroxide, and higher concentrations of NaOCl. Having gathered this information, we ask, 'Is there sufficient evidence to change the endodontic regime currently used at Belfast Dental School?'. Using the findings from the literature review (Part 1), we introduce new evidence-based protocols for primary and secondary cases for use in Belfast Dental School. In the absence of detailed clinical guidelines on the use of endodontic lubricants, irrigants and medicaments in primary and secondary cases, it is important to be aware of current practice in UK and ROI dental schools where dentists and specialists are trained.

  15. Internationalization of U.K. University Business Schools: A Survey of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to the heads of internationalization in the business schools of all U.K. universities. Sixty-five replies were received. The document covered, inter alia, the internationalization activities undertaken by the respondents' schools, the intensities with which internationalization had been implemented, motives for…

  16. Internationalization of U.K. University Business Schools: A Survey of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to the heads of internationalization in the business schools of all U.K. universities. Sixty-five replies were received. The document covered, inter alia, the internationalization activities undertaken by the respondents' schools, the intensities with which internationalization had been implemented, motives for…

  17. Sperm storage for cancer patients in the UK: a review of current practice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinay

    2011-11-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients can now hope to have a full and normal life due to significant improvements in treatment outcomes and survival rates. The application of cryobiology to store fertile gametes before sterilizing treatments has been a natural progression. Greater awareness has markedly increased the worldwide demand for long-term storage of sperm, and has prompted the UK Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority to extend the period of storage permitted by their regulations to 55 years. Other patients undergoing sterilizing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy such as haemoglobinopathies requiring bone marrow transplantation and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis may further increase the indications for sperm storage. Most adult and adolescent patients and their relatives/spouses/parents/guardians value this service even though very few eventually use the sperm. There is an urgent need to develop national and international guidelines for the provision, organization, maintenance and management of the cryopreservation services.

  18. Gynaecological cancer follow-up: national survey of current practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Leeson, Simon; Stuart, Nick; Sylvestre, Yvonne; Hall, Liz; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2013-01-01

    To establish a baseline of national practice for follow-up after treatment for gynaecological cancer. Questionnaire survey. Gynaecological cancer centres and units. Members of the British Gynaecological Cancer Society and the National Forum of Gynaecological Oncology Nurses. A questionnaire survey. To determine schedules of follow-up, who provides it and what routine testing is used for patients who have had previous gynaecological cancer. A total of 117 responses were obtained; 115 (98%) reported hospital scheduled regular follow-up appointments. Two involved general practitioners. Follow-up was augmented or replaced by telephone follow-up in 29 responses (25%) and patient-initiated appointments in 38 responses (32%). A total of 80 (68%) cancer specialists also offered combined follow-up clinics with other specialties. Clinical examinations for hospital-based follow-up were mainly performed by doctors (67% for scheduled regular appointments and 63% for patient-initiated appointments) while telephone follow-up was provided in the majority by nurses (76%). Most respondents (76/117 (65%)) provided routine tests, of which 66/76 (87%) reported carrying out surveillance tests for ovarian cancer, 35/76 (46%) for cervical cancer, 8/76 (11%) for vulval cancer and 7/76 (9%) for endometrial cancer. Patients were usually discharged after 5 years (82/117 (70%)), whereas three (3%) were discharged after 4 years, nine (8%) after three years and one (1%) after 2 years. Practice varied but most used a standard hospital-based protocol of appointments for 5 years and routine tests were performed usually for women with ovarian cancer. A minority utilised nurse-led or telephone follow-up. General practitioners were rarely involved in routine care. A randomised study comparing various models of follow-up could be considered.

  19. Treatment planning for replacing missing teeth in UK general dental practice: current trends.

    PubMed

    Patel, P M; Lynch, Christopher D; Sloan, A J; Gilmour, A S M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the confidence, barriers and attitudes towards the replacement of missing teeth by general dental practitioners (GDPs). The perceived impact of the recently introduced National Health Service (NHS) contract on the provision of prosthodontic treatments was also considered. Pre-piloted postal questionnaires were mailed to 500 GDPs in Wales. Open- and closed-ended questions were utilised to establish confidence, adequacy of training and attitudes towards treatments for replacing missing teeth. Two hundred and seventeen completed questionnaires were received (response rate = 43.4%). Many respondents described themselves as 'confident' or 'very confident' in the provision of removable partial dentures (RPDs) (acrylic = 100%, metal based = 99.5%), cantilever resin-bonded bridges (94.4%) and conventional bridgework (98.6%). GDPs were 'not confident' providing fixed-fixed resin-bonded bridges (21.1%) or implants (81.4%). Financial barriers were identified to the provision of prosthodontic treatments, including comments such as "the new [National Health Service] contract does limit the treatments available". Privately funded patients were more likely to be offered a fixed bridge or implant replacement of a missing upper first molar, whereas non-privately funded patients were more likely to be offered no treatment (P < 0.01). Most respondents reported confidence at providing more routine forms of prosthodontic care such as RPDs and bridges. It appears that funding arrangements may have an impact on treatments offered to replace missing teeth, particularly under the current NHS contract.

  20. Current International Flow Cytometric Practices for the Detection and Monitoring of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) clones: A UK NEQAS Survey.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Matthew; Whitby, Liam; Whitby, Alison; Barnett, David

    2016-03-02

    Background Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired genetic disorder, with an incidence of approximately 1.3 new cases per million population per year. Evidence from the UK National External Quality Assessment Service for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping (UK NEQAS LI) programme suggested major discrepancies on how PNH testing is undertaken. To investigate this we surveyed laboratories in the UK NEQAS LI PNH programme and report here the findings. Method A questionnaire was distributed to all centres registered in UK NEQAS LI flow cytometry programmes (n=1587). Comprising several subsections, it covered the majority of clinical flow cytometric practices. Participants completed a general section and then the subsections relevant to their laboratory repertoire. One subsection contained 34 questions regarding practices in PNH clone detection. Results A total of 105 laboratories returned results for the PNH section; the results demonstrated lack of consensus in all areas of PNH testing. Variation was seen in gating and testing strategies, sensitivity levels and final reporting of test results. Several incorrect practices were highlighted such as inappropriate antibody selection and failure to wash the red blood cells (RBCs) prior to analysis. Conclusion Despite the availability of consensus guidelines there appears to be no agreement in the detection and monitoring of PNH. We found only fourteen centres using methods compatible with the International Clinical Cytometry Society guidelines. Of specific note we found that no two laboratories used the same method. This technical variation could lead to incorrect diagnoses, highlighting the need for better adoption and understanding of consensus practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer risk communication, predictive testing and management in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK: general practitioners' and breast surgeons' current practice and preferred practice responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Nippert, Irmgard; Julian-Reynier, Claire; Harris, Hilary; Evans, Gareth; van Asperen, Christi J; Tibben, Aad; Schmidtke, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Genetic testing has its greatest public health value when it identifies individuals who will benefit from specific interventions based upon their risk. This paradigm is the basis for the use of predictive tests, such as BRCA1/BRCA2 testing which has become part of clinical practice for more than a decade. Currently predictive BRCA1/BRCA2 testing is offered to women using low, moderate and high risk based upon family history as cut-off levels. Non-genetic health professionals such as general practitioners (GPs) and breast surgeons (BS) are seen as gatekeepers to manage demand and/or facilitate access to appropriate services for high-risk patients. Data about current practices are lacking. The paper presents data on the current practice of GPs' and BS' cancer risk assessment, referral practices and preferred practice responsibilities for women at risk for familial breast cancer in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK derived by a self-administered questionnaire send to a representative sample of GPs and BS in the four countries. One thousand one hundred ninety-seven GPs and 1,223 BS completed the questionnaire. Both GPs and BS reported that they are consulted by a considerable number of patients presenting with concerns about a family history of cancer. Both commonalities and striking differences could be observed between GPs and BS from the four participating countries. GPs from France and Germany reported significantly higher proportions taking a family history of cancer including the extended family than GPs from the Netherlands and the UK. Most GPs from France, Germany and the Netherlands stated their willingness for providing risk assessment for an unaffected (high-risk) woman with a family history of breast cancer and the vast majority of BS from all four countries reported that they themselves would provide risk assessment for an unaffected (high-risk) woman with a family history of breast cancer. However, a substantial number of both GPs and BS would

  2. A survey of current United Kingdom practice for antenatal screening for inherited disorders of globin chain synthesis. UK Forum for Haemoglobin Disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, B J; Chapman, C

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To document current United Kingdom practice for antenatal screening for inherited disorders of globin chain synthesis and to compare such practice with guidelines published by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology and the Standing Committee on Sickle Cell, Thalassaemia and other Haemoglobinopathies (SMAC). METHODS: The members of the UK Forum on Haemoglobin Disorders were surveyed about their current practice for antenatal haemoglobinopathy screening. The UK Forum is a national group of haematologists, paediatricians, laboratory scientists, and counsellors working in the field of diagnosis and management of disorders of haemoglobin synthesis; such disorders including the alpha and beta thalassaemias, sickle cell disease, and other haemoglobinopathies. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires from 38 hospitals (or cooperating groups of hospitals) were analysed. The great majority of hospitals were applying appropriate laboratory methods, but problems were commonly encountered in ensuring that appropriate testing of antenatal patients and, when necessary, of their partners, was carried out early in pregnancy. When screening was selective there was quite often a failure to identify all women in whom testing was indicated, and cut off points used as an indication for further testing were sometimes inappropriate. CONCLUSIONS: Many practical problems are still encountered in following guidelines for the antenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies. A need for improved administrative procedures and increased funding was identified. In addition there is a need for agreed guidelines giving more specific advice on technical aspects of laboratory practice. PMID:9708206

  3. An evaluation of the current patterns and practices of educational supervision in postgraduate medical education in the UK.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priyank

    2016-08-01

    Globally, clinical supervision has been widely adopted and studied. But in the UK, another variant of supervision has developed in the form of educational supervision. The quality of supervision remains highly variable and inadequate time, investment and guidance hinders its ability to actually benefit trainees. Therefore, undertaking a detailed study of the patterns and practices in educational supervision to inform developments in supervisory practice would be extremely beneficial. In this mixed methods study, educational supervisors and trainees working within a large London Trust were surveyed online about their experiences of educational supervision. In addition, observations of supervision sessions with a small group of supervisor and trainee pairs followed-up by semi-structured interviews were conducted. The quantitative data were analyzed using statistical software via descriptive statistics. The qualitative data underwent thematic framework analysis. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that whilst most junior doctors and supervisors value the ideal of educational supervision as a process for engaging in mentoring dialogues, it can become a tick box exercise, devaluing its usefulness and purpose. Trainees highlighted the need for more frequent formal meeting along with better preparation by supervisors. Supervisors would appreciate more support from trusts to help them enhance supervision for trainees. The effectiveness of educational supervision can be improved with trainees and supervisors engaging in meaningful preparation and proactive communication before meetings. During these formal meetings, improving the quality of feedback and ensuring that regular mentoring dialogues occurred would be highly valuable.

  4. Knowledge Exchange between Universities and the Creative Industries in the UK: A Case Study of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Morag

    2014-01-01

    The importance to the economy of knowledge exchange between universities and industry has long been recognized, and in the UK a number of initiatives are in place to support such activities. These initiatives have helped to stimulate engagement between universities and the creative industries, a sector of increasing importance to the UK economy.…

  5. Knowledge Exchange between Universities and the Creative Industries in the UK: A Case Study of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Morag

    2014-01-01

    The importance to the economy of knowledge exchange between universities and industry has long been recognized, and in the UK a number of initiatives are in place to support such activities. These initiatives have helped to stimulate engagement between universities and the creative industries, a sector of increasing importance to the UK economy.…

  6. Post-exposure prophylaxis for non-occupational exposure to HIV: current clinical practice and opinions in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Giele, C; Maw, R; Carne, C; Evans, B

    2002-01-01

    Method: A retrospective survey was carried out of physicians representative of all UK GUM clinics using self completed questionnaires requesting information for January to December 1999. The number of requests for NONOPEP, reasons for the requests, the number prescribed, and physician opinions regarding the justification for its administration were noted. Results: The number of requests and prescriptions for NONOPEP increased fourfold and sevenfold respectively in comparison with a survey from 1997. Of 242 requests, 130 people were prescribed NONOPEP. Half the requests followed sexual exposures between known HIV discordant couples. Requests for NONOPEP were received by 56 of 132 (42%) clinics, with nine clinics receiving over half of them (145/242, 60%). Similarly, over half the prescriptions for NONOPEP (83/130, 64%) were given by six of 39 prescribing clinics. Most physicians thought that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was justified for people exposed to a known HIV positive source patient resulting from sexual assault or unprotected receptive anal or peno-vaginal sex. Conclusion: The use of NONOPEP has increased since the last survey and there is considerable variation between GUM clinics in practice and beliefs regarding administration of NONOPEP. PMID:12081175

  7. Relapse prevention in UK Stop Smoking Services: current practice, systematic reviews of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, T; Agboola, S; Leonardi-Bee, J; Taylor, M; McEwen, A; McNeill, A

    2010-10-01

    Reducing smoking is a chief priority for governments and health systems like the UK National Health Service (NHS). The UK has implemented a comprehensive tobacco control strategy involving a combination of population tobacco control interventions combined with treatment for dependent smokers through a national network of NHS Stop Smoking Services (NHS SSS). To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of relapse prevention in NHS SSS. To (1) update current estimates of effectiveness on interventions for preventing relapse to smoking; (2) examine studies that provide findings that are generalisable to NHS SSS, and which test interventions that might be acceptable to introduce within the NHS; and (3) determine the cost-effectiveness of those relapse preventions interventions (RPIs) that could potentially be delivered by the NHS SSS. A systematic review of the literature and economic evaluation were carried out. In addition to searching the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group register of trials (2004 to July 2008), MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index were also searched. The project was divided into four distinct phases with different methodologies: qualitative research with a convenience sample of NHS SSS managers; a systematic review investigation the efficacy of RPIs; a cost-effectiveness analysis; and a further systematic review to derive the relapse curves for smokers receiving evidence-based treatment of the type delivered by the NHS SSS. Qualitative research with 16 NHS SSS managers indicated that there was no shared understanding of what relapse prevention meant or of the kinds of interventions that should be used for this. The systematic review included 36 studies that randomised and delivered interventions to abstainers. 'Self-help' behavioural interventions delivered to abstainers who had achieved abstinence unaided were effective for preventing relapse

  8. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  9. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  10. Current practice in the management of new-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients: a UK-wide survey.

    PubMed

    Chean, Chung Shen; McAuley, Daniel; Gordon, Anthony; Welters, Ingeborg Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    New-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in critically ill patients. Although evidence base and expert consensus opinion for management have been summarised in several international guidelines, no specific considerations for critically ill patients have been included. We aimed to establish current practice of management of critically ill patients with new-onset AF. We designed a short user-friendly online questionnaire. All members of the Intensive Care Society were invited via email containing a link to the questionnaire, which comprised 21 questions. The online survey was conducted between November 2016 and December 2016. The response rate was 397/3152 (12.6%). The majority of respondents (81.1%) worked in mixed Intensive Care Units and were consultants (71.8%). Most respondents (39.5%) would start intervention on patients with fast new-onset AF and stable blood pressure at a heart rate between 120 and 139 beats/min. However, 34.8% of participants would treat all patients who developed new-onset fast AF. Amiodarone and beta-blockers (80.9% and 11.6% of answers) were the most commonly used anti-arrhythmics. A total of 63.8% of respondents do not regularly anti-coagulate critically ill patients with new-onset fast AF, while 30.8% anti-coagulate within 72 hours. A total of 68.0% of survey respondents do not routinely use stroke risk scores in critically ill patients with new-onset AF. A total of 85.4% of participants would consider taking part in a clinical trial investigating treatment of new-onset fast AF in the critically ill. Our results suggest a considerable disparity between contemporary practice of management of new-onset AF in critical illness and treatment recommendations for the general patient population suffering from AF, particularly with regard to anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulation used. Amongst intensivists, there is a substantial interest in research for management of new-onset AF in critically ill patients.

  11. Work-Based Learning and Universities in the U.K.: A Review of Current Practice and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Elizabeth; Stephenson, John

    1998-01-01

    Discusses work-based learning in the United Kingdom and traces its history, examines the shift from work experience to work-based learning, and the nature of current work-based learning. Key variables that appear to distinguish different styles of work-based learning are identified, and attention is given to the nature of the relationship between…

  12. Current status of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Karen J; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and benchmark the current clinical and dosimetric practices in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the UK. Methods: A detailed questionnaire was sent to 70 radiotherapy centres in the UK. 97% (68/70) of centres replied between June and December 2014. Results: 21 centres stated that they are practising SRS, and a further 12 centres plan to start SRS by the end of 2016. The most commonly treated indications are brain metastases and acoustic neuromas. A large range of prescription isodoses that range from 45% to 100% between different radiotherapy centres was seen. Ionization chambers and solid-water phantoms are used by the majority of centres for patient-specific quality assurance, and thermoplastic masks for patient immobilization are more commonly used than fixed stereotactic frames. The majority of centres perform orthogonal kilovoltage X-rays for localization before and during delivery. The acceptable setup accuracy reported ranges from 0.1 to 2 mm with a mean of 0.8 mm. Conclusion: SRS has been increasing in use in the UK and will continue to increase in the next 2 years. There is no current consensus between SRS centres as a whole, or even between SRS centres with the same equipment, on the practices followed. This indicates the need for benchmarking and standardization in SRS practices within the UK. Advances in knowledge: This article outlines the current practices in SRS and provides a benchmark for reference and comparison with future research in this technique. PMID:26689091

  13. Current UK practice of pediatric supraglottic airway devices - a survey of members of the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Anthony E D; White, Michelle C; Engelhardt, Thomas; Bayley, Guy; Beringer, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    Over half of general anesthetics in the UK involve supraglottic airway devices (SADs). The National Audit Project 4 undertaken by the Royal College of Anaesthetists demonstrated that aspiration was the most frequent complication relating to SAD use. SADs designed to reduce this risk (second-generation devices) are increasingly recommended in both adults and children. As well as routine use, SADs are recommended for use in cases of 'difficult airway'. This survey assessed current usage of SADs in routine practice and difficult airways. Sixteen questions, approved by the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (APAGBI) survey committee, were distributed to all its members. Two hundred and forty-four members responded. Eighty-eight percent preferentially use first-generation rather than second-generation devices. The most important design feature was the availability of a complete range of sizes (84%). Seventy-seven percent felt that randomized controlled trials assessing SAD safety in children are needed. In cases of failed intubation, classically shaped SADs are preferred (79%). Three percent of responders intubate via an SAD routinely. Eighteen percent have employed this technique in an emergency. Thirty-six percent of responders have found an SAD to function poorly. Pediatric anesthesiologists appear slow to embrace second-generation SADs. The role of SADs in the management of difficult airways is widely accepted. Research currently has little influence over the choice of which SAD to use, which is more likely determined by personal choice and departmental preference. There is a risk that some SADs are unsafe. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Undergraduate teaching in UK general practice: a geographical snapshot

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Helen; Rees, Eliot; Gay, Simon P; McKinley, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning in general practice is an essential component of undergraduate medical education; currently, on average, 13% of clinical placements in the UK are in general practice. However, whether general practice can sustainably deliver more undergraduate placements is uncertain. Aim To identify the geographical distribution of undergraduate teaching practices and their distance from the host medical school. Design and setting National survey of all medical schools in the UK. Method All 33 UK medical schools were invited to provide the postcodes of their undergraduate teaching practices. These were collated, de-duplicated, and mapped. The distance in kilometres and journey times by car and public transport between each medical school and its teaching practices was estimated using Transport Direct (www.transportdirect.info). The postcodes of every practice in the UK were obtained from the UK’s health departments. Results All 33 UK medical schools responded; 4392 practices contributed to teaching, with a median (minimum–maximum) of 142 (17–385) practices per school. The median (minimum–maximum) distance between a school and a teaching practice was 28 km (0–1421 km), 41 (0:00–23:26) minutes’ travel by car and 1 hour 12 (0:00–17:29) minutes’ travel by public transport. All teaching practices were accessible by public transport in one school and 90–99% were in a further four schools; 24 schools had >20% of practices that were inaccessible by public transport. Conclusion The 4392 undergraduate teaching general practices are widely distributed and potentially any practice, no matter how isolated, could contribute to undergraduate education. However, this is, at the price of a considerable travel burden. PMID:24868071

  15. Post-trauma support in the workplace: the current status and practice of critical incident stress management (CISM) and psychological debriefing (PD) within organizations in the UK.

    PubMed

    Regel, Stephen

    2007-09-01

    Employers' duties of care under both common and statute law include the need to take reasonable care of the health and safety of the workforce. This includes both the moral and legal duties to consider the psychological needs of personnel following exposure to traumatic events related to the workplace. While this has been recognized within many high-risk occupations such the police, fire and rescue services and the military, there is also evidence that post-trauma support in the workplace is increasingly commonly provided not only among health and social services agencies, but within many private sector organizations. Over the past decade, however, there has been considerable controversy over the provision of early psychological support to personnel in the form of critical incident stress management (CISM) processes. In particular, one aspect of CISM, the use of psychological debriefing (PD) has come under scrutiny and criticism as two studies indicated that PD was ineffective and had the potential to do harm. Inevitably, this has provoked much uncertainty and confusion among some organizations as what should be the most appropriate support. It has also led to misconceptions and misunderstandings as to the aims and purpose of PD, together with inaccuracies of terminology, for example describing PD as 'counselling'. Despite the controversy, both CISM and PD continue to be provided on a widespread basis, often utilizing a framework of voluntary peer group support. This paper intends to (i) present a review of the current status of CISM practices, including the use of PD within various organizations in the UK and (ii) provide a clear framework and understanding of the main issues and to clarify conceptual misunderstandings. The history, principles and background of the use of post-trauma support in the workplace, charting trends over the past two decades, previous research, problems with the evidence base and current thinking and practice in the field are reviewed

  16. Current training provision and training needs in oral health for UK general practice trainees: survey of General Practitioner Training Programme Directors.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Aneeta; Crossman, Tim; Smith, Helen

    2016-05-11

    In the UK the incidence of oral cancers has risen by a third in the last decade, and there have been minimal improvements in survival rates. Moreover, a significant proportion of the population no longer access dental health services regularly, instead presenting their oral health concerns to their General Medical Practitioner. Therefore, General Practitioners (GP) have an important role in the diagnosis of oral health pathologies and the earlier detection of oral cancers. This study aims to understand the current provision of training in oral health and cancer for GP trainees and to identify how unmet training needs could be met. A cross-sectional survey of GP Training Programme Directors using an online questionnaire asking about current oral health education training (hospital placements and structured teaching), the competencies covered with trainees and ways to improve oral health training. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis was undertaken of free text responses. We obtained responses from 132 GP Training Programme Directors (GPTPDs), from 13 of the 16 UK medical deaneries surveyed. The majority of respondents (71.2%) indicated that their programmes did not provide any structured oral health training to GP trainees and that ≤ 10% of their trainees were undertaking hospital posts relevant to oral health. GPTPDs were of the view that the quality of oral health training was poor, relative to the specified competencies, and that teaching on clinical presentations of 'normal' oral anatomy was particularly poor. It was envisaged that oral health training could be improved by access to specialist tutors, e-learning programmes and problem-based-learning sessions. Respondents highlighted the need for training sessions to be relevant to GPs. Barriers to improving training in oral health were time constraints, competing priorities and reluctance to taking on the workload of dentists. This UK-wide survey has identified

  17. Positioning end-of-life care education within the pre-registration therapeutic radiography curriculum: A survey of current practices amongst UK higher education institutions.

    PubMed

    White, N

    2017-09-01

    It is essential that all health professionals who come into contact with patients with terminal diagnoses are equipped to effectively and competently provide end of life care. This study aims to investigate the manner in which Higher Education Institutions address this requirement with their programmes of pre-registration therapeutic radiography education. A structured survey was administered electronically to all UK universities with responsibility for therapeutic radiography education. The scope of the survey addressed mode and duration of end of life care education, its location, curricular assessment, identifiable barriers and best practice. All respondents confirmed the presence of dedicated end of life care education within their curriculum. Variation in the duration and location of this education is reported as are approaches to assessment of associated skills and knowledge. Analysis of respondent commentary has identified three themes-preparedness for the clinical role, dissonance between technology and care, and holistic approaches to course design. Respondents have highlighted the importance of end of life care instruction with their programmes of study and identified aspects of the mode and duration of its delivery. Inclusion of this aspect of study may be problematic in the face of competing demands arising from the volume and complexity of the curriculum. Practical experience of end of life care predominantly occurs within the radiotherapy department, although there is scope to explore opportunities within the hospice and community care setting. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protocol for a national audit on self-reported confidence levels, training requirements and current practice among trainee doctors in the UK: The Trainees Own Perception of Delivery of Care in Diabetes (TOPDOC) Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increases across the world, resource pressures require doctors without specialist training to provide care for people with diabetes. In the UK, national standards have been set to ensure quality diabetes care from diagnosis to the management of complications. In a multi-centre pilot study, we have demonstrated a lack of confidence among UK trainee doctors in managing diabetes. Suboptimal confidence was identified in a number of areas, including the management of diabetes emergencies. A national survey would clarify whether the results of our pilot study are representative and reproducible. Methods/Design Target cohort: All postgraduate trainee doctors in the UK. Domains Studied: The self reported online survey questionnaire has 5 domains: (1) confidence levels in the diagnosis and management of diabetes, (2) working with diabetes specialists, (3) perceived adequacy of training in diabetes (4) current practice in optimising glycaemic control and (5) perceived barriers to seeking euglycaemia. Assessment tools: Self-reported confidence is assessed using the 'Confidence Rating' (CR) scale for trainee doctors developed by the Royal College of Physicians. This scale has four points - ('not confident' (CR1), 'satisfactory but lacking confidence' (CR2), 'confident in some cases (CR3) and 'fully confident in most cases' (CR4). Frequency of aspects of day-to-day practice is assessed using a six-point scale. Respondents have a choice of 'always' (100%), 'almost always' (80-99%), 'often' (50-79%), 'not very often' (20-49%) and 'rarely' (5-19%) or never (less than 5%). Discussion It is anticipated that the results of this national study will clarify confidence levels and current practice among trainee doctors in the provision of care for people with diabetes. The responses will inform efforts to enhance postgraduate training in diabetes, potentially improving the quality of care for people with diabetes. PMID:20659349

  19. From Graduate Employability to Employment: Policy and Practice in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Sonal; Hristov, Dean; Reynolds, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to enrich the current conceptualization of graduate employability and employment through the lens of policy, academia and practice in UK higher education. We examine the UK policy context that is shaping graduate employability and employment debates before enriching this conceptualization through a discussion of key…

  20. Current margin practice and effect on re-excision rates following the publication of the SSO-ASTRO consensus and ABS consensus guidelines: a national prospective study of 2858 women undergoing breast-conserving therapy in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sarah Shuk-Kay; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Haddow, James B; Mondani, Giuseppina; Elsberger, Beatrix; Tasoulis, Marios Konstantinos; Obondo, Christine; Johns, Neil; Ismail, Wisam; Syed, Asim; Kissias, Panayioti; Venn, Mary; Sundaramoorthy, Souganthy; Irwin, Gareth; Sami, Amtul S; Elfadl, Dalia; Baggaley, Alice; Remoundos, Dionysios Dennis; Langlands, Fiona; Charalampoudis, Petros; Barber, Zoe; Hamilton-Burke, Werbena L S; Khan, Ayesha; Sirianni, Chiara; Merker, Louise Anne-Marie Grant; Saha, Sunita; Lane, Risha Arun; Chopra, Sharat; Dupré, Sophie; Manning, Aidan T; St John, Edward R; Musbahi, Aya; Dlamini, Nokwanda; McArdle, Caitlin L; Wright, Chloe; Murphy, James O; Aggarwal, Ravi; Dordea, Matei; Bosch, Karen; Egbeare, Donna; Osman, Hisham; Tayeh, Salim; Razi, Faraz; Iqbal, Javeria; Ledwidge, Serena F C; Albert, Vanessa; Masannat, Yazan

    2017-10-01

    There is variation in margin policy for breast conserving therapy (BCT) in the UK and Ireland. In response to the Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society for Radiation Oncology (SSO-ASTRO) margin consensus ('no ink on tumour' for invasive and 2 mm for ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]) and the Association of Breast Surgery (ABS) consensus (1 mm for invasive and DCIS), we report on current margin practice and unit infrastructure in the UK and Ireland and describe how these factors impact on re-excision rates. A trainee collaborative-led multicentre prospective study was conducted in the UK and Ireland between 1st February and 31st May 2016. Data were collected on consecutive BCT patients and on local infrastructure and policies. A total of 79 sites participated in the data collection (75% screening units; average 372 cancers annually, range 70-900). For DCIS, 53.2% of units accept 1 mm and 38% accept 2-mm margins. For invasive disease 77.2% accept 1 mm and 13.9% accept 'no ink on tumour'. A total of 2858 patients underwent BCT with a mean re-excision rate of 17.2% across units (range 0-41%). The re-excision rate would be reduced to 15% if all units applied SSO-ASTRO guidelines and to 14.8% if all units followed ABS guidelines. Of those who required re-operation, 65% had disease present at margin. There continues to be large variation in margin policy and re-excision rates across units. Altering margin policies to follow either SSO-ASTRO or ABS guidelines would result in a modest reduction in the national re-excision rate. Most re-excisions are for involved margins rather than close margins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Can the revised UK code direct practice?

    PubMed

    Snelling, Paul C

    2017-06-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council, the United Kingdom regulator of nursing and midwifery has recently revised its professional code of practice. This article begins by arguing that a professional code must be capable of sustaining close reading and of action guidance. Using four exemplar clauses, it is argued that the new revised code does not meet this purpose. First, I show that in setting out requirements for consent and documentation, the meaning of the relevant clause has changed significantly during the editing process so that a literal reading of the final document bears little relation to established professional practice. Second, I argue that the clause concerning the nature of professional relationships has also been altered during the editing process so that it is inconsistent with other professional groups and established accounts of the professional nurse-patient relationship. Third, I argue that the clause concerning disclosure of confidential information, which survived revision and editing with its meaning intact, is nevertheless factually incorrect and inconsistent with UK law and authoritative guidance. Finally, fourth, I argue that use of the word 'inappropriate' is inappropriate as it amounts to meaningless circularity, discussed in relation to a clause on expressing personal beliefs. Taken together, these examples demonstrate that the Code is seriously flawed and does not fulfil its purpose. One way that simple prescriptive clauses in the Code can be usefully understood is through the provision of detailed guidance. I argue that the Nursing and Midwifery Council has changed its position on its view of the value of guidance and has significantly reduced the amount of written guidance and advice it provides. The article concludes by arguing that in order to meet its action directing function, further clarifying revision and the provision of detailed guidance is required.

  2. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    PubMed

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested.

  3. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context…

  4. Provision and practice of specialist preterm labour clinics: a UK survey of practice.

    PubMed

    Sharp, A N; Alfirevic, Z

    2014-03-01

    To identify the current status of specialist preterm labour (PTL) clinic provision and management within the UK. Postal survey of clinical practice. All consultant-led obstetric units within the UK. A questionnaire was sent by post to all 210 NHS consultant-led obstetric units within the UK. Units that had a specialist PTL clinic were asked to complete a further 20 questions defining their protocol for risk stratification and management. Current practice in specialist preterm labour clinics. We have identified 23 specialist clinics; the most common indications for attendance were previous PTL (100%), preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (95%), two large loop excisions of the transformation zone (95%) or cone biopsy (95%). There was significant heterogeneity in the indications for and method of primary treatment for short cervix, with cervical cerclage used in 45% of units, progesterone in 18% of units and Arabin cervical pessary in 5%. A further 23% used multiple treatment modalities in combination. A significant heterogeneity in all topics surveyed suggests an urgent need for networking, more evidence-based guidelines and prospective comparative audits to ascertain the real impact of specialist PTL clinics on the reduction in preterm birth and its sequelae. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Intensive care unit tracheostomy: a snapshot of UK practice

    PubMed Central

    Veenith, Tonny; Ganeshamoorthy, Sangeetha; Standley, Thomas; Carter, Joseph; Young, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background and methods Tracheostomy is a common procedure in intensive care patient management. The aim of this study was to capture the practice of tracheostomy in Intensive Care Units in the United Kingdom. A postal survey was sent to the lead clinicians of 228 general intensive care units (ICUs) throughout the United Kingdom excluding specialist units. We aimed to identify the current practice of tracheostomy, including timing of insertion, equipment used and post-operative care and follow-up. Results A response rate of 86.84% was achieved. Percutaneous tracheostomy continues to be favoured over surgical tracheostomy with less than 8% of ICUs opting for surgical tracheostomies > 50% of the time. 89% of units required only 2 operators to perform the technique and single stage dilatation is the technique of choice in 83% of units. The Ciaglia technique, which was strongly favoured less than a decade ago, is currently practiced in less than 5% of ICUs. Bronchoscopic guidance is an important adjunct to the technique of percutaneous tracheostomy with 80% of units using it routinely. Follow-up care of patients remains poor with 59% of ICUs not having routine follow-up once the patient has left the unit. Conclusion The practice of percutaneous tracheostomy remains the preferred technique within the UK. There seems to be a growing preference for single stage dilatational techniques. Timing of tracheostomy remains variable despite evidence to suggest benefit from an earlier procedure. Follow-up of tracheostomised patients after discharge from ICU is still low, which may mean significant morbidity from the procedure is being missed. PMID:18950520

  6. Current Psychosomatic Practice.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    Psychosomatic research has advanced over the past decades in dealing with complex biopsychosocial phenomena and may provide new effective modalities of patient care. Among psychosocial variables affecting individual vulnerability, course, and outcome of any medical disease, the role of chronic stress (allostatic load/overload) has emerged as a crucial factor. Assessment strategies include the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. They are presented here in an updated version based on insights derived from studies carried out so far and encompass allostatic overload, type A behavior, alexithymia, the spectrum of maladaptive illness behavior, demoralization, irritable mood, and somatic symptoms secondary to a psychiatric disorder. Macroanalysis is a helpful tool for identifying the relationships between biological and psychosocial variables and the individual targets for medical intervention. The personalized and holistic approach to the patient includes integration of medical and psychological therapies in all phases of illness. In this respect, the development of a new psychotherapeutic modality, Well-Being Therapy, seems to be promising. The growth of subspecialties, such as psychooncology and psychodermatology, drives towards the multidisciplinary organization of health care to overcome artificial boundaries. There have been major transformations in health care needs in the past decades. From psychosomatic medicine, a land of innovative hypotheses and trends, many indications for changes in the current practice of medicine are now at hand. The aim of this critical review is to outline current and potential clinical applications of psychosomatic methods.

  7. Developing Competence Frameworks in UK Healthcare: Lessons from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lindsay; Boak, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the use of competence frameworks in the UK healthcare sector and to explore characteristics of the sector that may influence the success of projects to develop new frameworks. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on project reports and evaluations of practice in a range of recent projects…

  8. Current optometric practices and attitudes in keratoconus patient management.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Martin, Raul

    2017-08-01

    To compare the current optometric practices and attitudes in the management of keratoconus patients in the UK and Spain. An online survey (adapted to optometric practices) was distributed via a newsletter emailed by various professional organizations in the UK and Spain. Four hundred and sixty-four practitioners (126 in the UK; 338 in Spain) who prescribed gas permeable GP contact lenses (CLs) more than once per month (54.8% of UK practitioners and 28.1% of practitioners in Spain; p<0.01) responded to the questionnaire. A combination of multiple factors is considered necessary in the keratoconus detection (79.4% in the UK, 75% in Spain; p=0.68), and the use of classification criteria is considered relevant (67.5% in the UK, 70.7% in Spain; p=0.49). There is a high consensus on the consideration that GP CL fitting is more difficult in keratoconus (79.4% in the UK, 80.5% in Spain; p=0.79) requiring more diagnostic lenses (3.2±1.4 and 3.4±1.2 in the UK and Spain, respectively; p=0.72) than are necessary for healthy eyes. Using corneal topography is uncommon from both countries (38.1% in the UK, 59.8% in Spain; p<0.01), with a similar ophthalmologist referral pattern (at initial diagnosis, 50% in both the UK and Spain; p=1.00). Few cases of co-management with ophthalmologists were noted (no co-management reported by 60.3% in the UK and 72.8% in Spain, p=0.01). This study provides initial observations and evidence regarding keratoconus management by optometrists in the UK and Spain and shows similarity in the professional practices and attitudes of practitioners in these two countries. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, S.; Griffiths, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk of skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK. Aims To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential strategies for improving sun safety in this occupational group. Methods Postal delivery workers completed a questionnaire that collected data on occupational sun safety knowledge and practice in addition to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. One-way analysis of variances were applied to assess differences in knowledge and practice by these characteristics. Results A total of 1153 postal delivery workers completed the questionnaire, a 60% response rate. Thirty-three per cent reported receiving sun safety training within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents reported correct knowledge on three of the six domains and good practice on four of the six behavioural domains. However, only one-fifth of respondents reported wearing sunglasses and ensuring a plentiful intake of water. Knowledge and practice differed significantly according to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. Conclusions There is a need to raise the profile of occupational skin cancer in this occupational group and to increase the priority given to occupational sun safety policies alongside targeted and tailored interventions, the effect of which can be evaluated. PMID:26675005

  10. A survey of the practice and management of radiotherapy linear accelerator quality control in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, A; Kearton, J; Hayman, O

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine current radiotherapy linear accelerator quality control (QC) practice in the UK, as a comparative benchmark and indicator of development needs, and to raise awareness of QC as a key performance indicator. Methods All UK radiotherapy centres were invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding their local QC processes, and submit their QC schedules. The range of QC tests, frequency of measurements and acceptable tolerances in use across the UK were analysed, and consensus and range statistics determined. Results 72% of the UK's 62 radiotherapy centres completed the questionnaire and 40% provided their QC schedules. 60 separate QC tests were identified from the returned schedules. There was a large variation in the total time devoted to QC between centres: interquartile range from 13 to 26 h per linear accelerator per month. There has been a move from weekly to monthly testing of output calibration in the last decade, with reliance on daily constancy testing equipment. 33% of centres thought their schedules were in need of an update and only 30% used risk-assessment approaches to determine local QC schedule content. Less than 30% of centres regularly complete all planned QC tests each month, although 96% achieve over 80% of tests. Conclusions A comprehensive “snapshot” of linear accelerator QC testing practice in the UK has been collated, which demonstrates reasonable agreement between centres in their stated QC test frequencies. However, intelligent design of QC schedules and management is necessary to ensure efficiency and appropriateness. PMID:22674707

  11. Current management strategies for patellofemoral pain: an online survey of 99 practising UK physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus; Moffatt, Fiona; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Selfe, James; Smith, Toby O; Logan, Pip

    2017-05-08

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is considered one of the commonest forms of knee pain. This study aimed to identify how physiotherapists in the United Kingdom (UK) currently manage patellofemoral pain (PFP), particularly in relation to exercise prescription, and response to pain. An anonymous survey was designed with reference to previous surveys and recent systematic reviews. Practising UK physiotherapists who treat patients with PFP were invited to take part via an invitation email sent through professional networks, the 'interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (iCSP)' message board, and social media (Twitter). Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. A total of 99 surveys were completed. Responders reported a wide range of management strategies, including a broad selection of type and dose of exercise prescription. The five most common management strategies chosen were: closed chain strengthening exercises (98%); education and advice (96%); open chain strengthening exercises (76%); taping (70%) and stretches (65%). Physiotherapists with a special interest in treating PFP were statistically more likely to manage patients with orthotics (P = 0.02) and bracing (P = 0.01) compared to physiotherapists without a special interest. Approximately 55% would not prescribe an exercise if it was painful. Thirty-one percent of physiotherapists would advise patients not to continue with leisure and/or sporting activity if they experienced any pain. Current UK practice in the management strategies of PFP is variable. Further high quality research on which to inform physiotherapy practice is warranted for this troublesome musculoskeletal condition.

  12. Provision of medical student teaching in UK general practices: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Alex; Rosenthal, Joe; Al-Seaidy, Marwa; Gray, Denis Pereira; McKinley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly provided in general practice. To meet this demand, the English Department of Health recommends that 50% of all medical students should train for general practice after qualification. Currently 19% of medical students express general practice as their first career choice. Undergraduate exposure to general practice positively influences future career choice. Appropriate undergraduate exposure to general practice is therefore highly relevant to workforce planning Aim This study seeks to quantify current exposure of medical students to general practice and compare it with past provision and also with postgraduate provision. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire in the UK. Method A questionnaire regarding provision of undergraduate teaching was sent to the general practice teaching leads in all UK medical schools. Information was gathered on the amount of undergraduate teaching, how this was supported financially, and whether there was an integrated department of general practice. The data were then compared with results from previous studies of teaching provision. The provision of postgraduate teaching in general practice was also examined. Results General practice teaching for medical students increased from <1.0% of clinical teaching in 1968 to 13.0% by 2008; since then, the percentage has plateaued. The total amount of general practice teaching per student has fallen by 2 weeks since 2002. Medical schools providing financial data delivered 14.6% of the clinical curriculum and received 7.1% of clinical teaching funding. The number of departments of general practice has halved since 2002. Provision of postgraduate teaching has tripled since 2000. Conclusion Current levels of undergraduate teaching in general practice are too low to fulfil future workforce requirements and may be falling. Financial support for current teaching is disproportionately low and the mechanism counterproductive. Central intervention may be

  13. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers.

    PubMed

    Houdmont, J; Davis, S; Griffiths, A

    2016-06-01

    Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk of skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK. To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential strategies for improving sun safety in this occupational group. Postal delivery workers completed a questionnaire that collected data on occupational sun safety knowledge and practice in addition to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. One-way analysis of variances were applied to assess differences in knowledge and practice by these characteristics. A total of 1153 postal delivery workers completed the questionnaire, a 60% response rate. Thirty-three per cent reported receiving sun safety training within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents reported correct knowledge on three of the six domains and good practice on four of the six behavioural domains. However, only one-fifth of respondents reported wearing sunglasses and ensuring a plentiful intake of water. Knowledge and practice differed significantly according to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. There is a need to raise the profile of occupational skin cancer in this occupational group and to increase the priority given to occupational sun safety policies alongside targeted and tailored interventions, the effect of which can be evaluated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  14. Diabetes care provision in UK primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Gillian; Hrisos, Susan; Stamp, Elaine; Elovainio, Marko; Francis, Jill J; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hunter, Margaret; Johnston, Marie; Presseau, Justin; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care. Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices. 326/361 (90.3%) doctors, 163/186 (87.6%) nurses and 3591 patients (41.8%) returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise) more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42%) and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range) of 21% (3% to 39%) of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management. Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.

  15. Diabetes Care Provision in UK Primary Care Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, Gillian; Hrisos, Susan; Stamp, Elaine; Elovainio, Marko; Francis, Jill J.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hunter, Margaret; Johnston, Marie; Presseau, Justin; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care. Methods Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices. Results 326/361 (90.3%) doctors, 163/186 (87.6%) nurses and 3591 patients (41.8%) returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise) more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42%) and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients’ reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range) of 21% (3% to 39%) of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management. Conclusions Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation. PMID:22859997

  16. Delivering Communication Strategy Training for People with Aphasia: What Is Current Clinical Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Beeke, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Communication strategy training (CST) is a recognized part of UK speech and language therapists' (SLTs) role when working with a person with aphasia. Multiple CST interventions have been published but, to date, there are no published studies exploring clinical practice in this area. Aims: To investigate UK SLTs' current CST practices.…

  17. Teaching of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in UK medical schools: current status in 2009.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Lelia; Haq, Inam; Maxwell, Simon; Llewelyn, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Junior doctors feel poorly prepared by their training in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics and commonly make prescribing errors. Since 1993 the General Medical Council's guidance on undergraduate medical education 'Tomorrow's Doctors' has emphasized the integration of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics teaching within the medical curriculum. With the publication of a new version of Tomorrow's Doctors in 2009, medical schools will be further revising their Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics teaching. Although we know what the recommendations for undergraduate teaching of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics teaching are, there are no published data describing what is currently happening in UK medical schools. This paper describes the course structures, volume and range of teaching and assessment of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics in the UK in 2009. Our data provide a foundation for schools looking to revise the Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Teaching in the light of Tomorrow's Doctors 2009. To describe the current structure, delivery and assessment of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CPT) teaching in UK medical schools. An online questionnaire was distributed to the person with overall responsibility for CPT teaching at all UK medical schools in June 2009. Thirty of the 32 UK medical schools responded. 60% of schools have a CPT course although in 72% this was an integrated vertical theme. At 70% of schools pharmacologists have overall responsibility for CPT teaching (clinical 67%, non-clinical 33%); at 20% teaching is run by a non-specialist clinician and at 7% by a pharmacist. Teaching is commonly delivered by NHS clinicians (87%) and clinical pharmacists (80%) using lectures (90%) but additionally 50% of schools use e-Learning and 63% have a student formulary. CPT is assessed throughout the curriculum at many schools through written, practical examinations and course work. 90% of schools have specific CPT content in their

  18. Defibrillation during renal dialysis: a survey of UK practice and procedural recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bird, Scott; Petley, Graham W; Deakin, Charles D; Clewlow, Frank

    2007-06-01

    Defibrillation of patients connected to medical equipment that is not defibrillation proof risks ineffective defibrillation and harm to the operator as a result of aberrant electrical pathways taken by the defibrillation current. Many renal dialysis systems are not currently defibrillation proof. Although national and international safety standards caution against defibrillating under this circumstance, it appears to be an area of confusion that we have investigated in more detail. Thirty renal dialysis units across the UK were invited to participate in a telephone survey of current practice from 1 October 2004 to 1 October 2005. The Medical Healthcare Regulatory Agency and renal dialysis machine manufacturers were contacted for advice, and current safety standards were reviewed. Twenty-eight renal dialysis units completed the survey. Seven (25%) units would not disconnect patients from dialysis equipment during defibrillation, collectively reporting 14 patients who had required defibrillation during dialysis. Eighteen (64.3%) units would disconnect patients from dialysis equipment during defibrillation, collectively reporting 29 patients who had required defibrillation during dialysis. No complications were identified by this survey, through the MHRA or through a literature search. Defibrillation of patients while undergoing renal dialysis is common practice in the UK. Although no adverse events have been reported, this practice risks injury to the patient and clinical staff, and equipment damage if the dialysis equipment is not defibrillation proof. It is in breach of national and international safety standards and should not be practiced.

  19. Pharmacists' perceptions of their emerging general practice roles in UK primary care: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Jo; Sansom, Anna; Sims, Laura; Healey, Mark; Kingsland, Ellie; Campbell, John

    2017-09-01

    UK general practice is experiencing a workload crisis. Pharmacists are the third largest healthcare profession in the UK; however, their skills are a currently underutilised and potentially highly valuable resource for primary health care. This study forms part of the evaluation of an innovative training programme for pharmacists who are interested in extended roles in primary care, advocated by a UK collaborative '10-point GP workforce action plan'. To explore pharmacists' perceptions of primary care roles including the potential for greater integration of their profession into general practice. A qualitative interview study in UK primary care carried out between October 2015 and July 2016. Pharmacists were purposively sampled by level of experience, geographical location, and type of workplace. Two confidential semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted - one before and one after the training programme. A constant comparative, inductive approach to thematic analysis was used. Sixteen participants were interviewed. The themes related to: initial expectations of the general practice role, varying by participants' experience of primary care; the influence of the training course with respect to managing uncertainty, critical appraisal skills, and confidence for the role; and predictions for the future of this role. There is enthusiasm and willingness among pharmacists for new, extended roles in primary care, which could effectively relieve GP workload pressures. A definition of the role, with examples of the knowledge, skills, and attributes required, should be made available to pharmacists, primary care teams, and the public. Training should include clinical skills teaching, set in context through exposure to general practice, and delivered motivationally by primary care practitioners. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  20. Smartphone Applications for the Clinical Oncologist in UK Practice.

    PubMed

    Rozati, Hamoun; Shah, Sonya Pratik; Shah, Neha

    2015-06-01

    A number of medical smartphone applications have been developed to assist clinical oncology specialists. Concerns have arisen that the information provided may not be under sufficient scrutiny. This study aims to analyse the current applications available for clinical oncologists in the UK. Applications aimed specifically at physician clinical oncologists were searched for on the major smartphone operating systems: Apple iOS; Google Android; Microsoft Windows OS; and Blackberry OS. All applications were installed and analysed. The applications were scrutinised to assess the following information: cost; whether the information included was referenced; when the information was last updated; and whether they made any reference to UK guidelines. A novel rating score based on these criteria was applied to each application. Fifty applications were identified: 24 for Apple's iOS; 23 for Google's Android; 2 for Blackberry OS; and 1 for Windows OS. The categories of applications available were: drug reference; journal reference; learning; clinical calculators; decision support; guidelines; and dictionaries. Journal reference and guideline applications scored highly on our rating system. Drug reference application costs were prohibitive. Learning tools were poorly referenced and not up-to-date. Smartphones provide easy access to information. There are numerous applications devoted to oncology physicians, many of which are free and contain referenced, up-to-date data. The cost and quality of drug reference and learning applications have significant scope for improvement. A regulatory body is needed to ensure the presence of peer-reviewed, validated applications to ensure their reliability.

  1. Pharmacists’ perceptions of their emerging general practice roles in UK primary care: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, Jo; Sansom, Anna; Sims, Laura; Healey, Mark; Kingsland, Ellie; Campbell, John

    2017-01-01

    Background UK general practice is experiencing a workload crisis. Pharmacists are the third largest healthcare profession in the UK; however, their skills are a currently underutilised and potentially highly valuable resource for primary health care. This study forms part of the evaluation of an innovative training programme for pharmacists who are interested in extended roles in primary care, advocated by a UK collaborative ‘10-point GP workforce action plan’. Aim To explore pharmacists’ perceptions of primary care roles including the potential for greater integration of their profession into general practice. Design and setting A qualitative interview study in UK primary care carried out between October 2015 and July 2016. Method Pharmacists were purposively sampled by level of experience, geographical location, and type of workplace. Two confidential semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted — one before and one after the training programme. A constant comparative, inductive approach to thematic analysis was used. Results Sixteen participants were interviewed. The themes related to: initial expectations of the general practice role, varying by participants’ experience of primary care; the influence of the training course with respect to managing uncertainty, critical appraisal skills, and confidence for the role; and predictions for the future of this role. Conclusion There is enthusiasm and willingness among pharmacists for new, extended roles in primary care, which could effectively relieve GP workload pressures. A definition of the role, with examples of the knowledge, skills, and attributes required, should be made available to pharmacists, primary care teams, and the public. Training should include clinical skills teaching, set in context through exposure to general practice, and delivered motivationally by primary care practitioners. PMID:28673959

  2. Retrospection and Reflection: The Emerging Influence of an Institutional Professional Recognition Scheme on Professional Development and Academic Practice in a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Hendrik; Burden, Penny; Huet, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Raising the quality and profile of teaching and student learning is something universities across the UK are aspiring to achieve in order to maintain reputations. Currently, the UK Professional Standards Framework (UKPSF) provides a standard by which academic staff can gain professional recognition for their academic practice and many UK…

  3. Retrospection and Reflection: The Emerging Influence of an Institutional Professional Recognition Scheme on Professional Development and Academic Practice in a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Hendrik; Burden, Penny; Huet, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Raising the quality and profile of teaching and student learning is something universities across the UK are aspiring to achieve in order to maintain reputations. Currently, the UK Professional Standards Framework (UKPSF) provides a standard by which academic staff can gain professional recognition for their academic practice and many UK…

  4. Dietary management of urea cycle disorders: UK practice.

    PubMed

    Adam, S; Champion, H; Daly, A; Dawson, S; Dixon, M; Dunlop, C; Eardley, J; Evans, S; Ferguson, C; Jankowski, C; Lowry, S; MacDonald, A; Maritz, C; Micciche, A; Robertson, L; Stafford, J; Terry, A; Thom, R; van Wyk, K; Webster, D; White, F J; Wildgoose, J

    2012-08-01

    There is no published data describing UK dietary management of urea cycle disorders (UCD). The present study describes dietary practices in UK inherited metabolic disorder (IMD) centres. Cross-sectional data from 16 IMD centres were collected by a questionnaire describing the management of UCD patients on prescribed protein-restricted diets. One hundred and seventy-five patients [N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency, n = 3; carbamoyl phosphate synthase deficiency (CPS), n = 8; ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency (OTC), n = 75; citrullinaemia, n = 41; argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), n = 36; arginase deficiency, n = 12] were reported; 70% (n = 123) aged 0-16 years; 30% (n = 52) >16 years. Prescribed median protein intake decreased with age (0-6 months: 2 g kg(-1) day(-1); 7-12 months: 1.6 g kg(-1) day(-1); 1-10 years: 1.3 g kg(-1) day(-1); 11-16 years: 0.9 g kg(-1) day(-1) and >16 years: 0.8 g kg(-1) day(-1)) with little variation between disorders. Adult protein prescription ranged 0.4-1.2 g kg(-1) day(-1) (40-60 g day(-1)). In the previous 2 years, 30% (n = 53) were given essential amino acid supplements (EAAs) (CPS, n = 2; OTC, n = 20; citrullinaemia, n = 15; ASA, n = 7; arginase deficiency, n = 9). EAAs were prescribed for low plasma quantitative essential amino acids (n = 13 centres); inadequate natural protein intake (n = 11) and poor metabolic control (n = 9). From diagnosis, one centre prescribed EAAs for all patients and one centre for severe defects only. Only 3% (n = 6) were given branch chain amino acid supplements. Enteral feeding tubes were used by 25% (n = 44) for feeds and 3% (n = 6) for medications. Oral energy supplements were prescribed in 17% (n = 30) of cases. In the UK, protein restriction based on World Health Organization 'safe intakes of protein', is the principle dietary treatment for UCD. EAA supplements are prescribed mainly on clinical need. Multicentre collaborative research is required to define optimal dietary treatments. © 2012

  5. UK intussusception audit: a national survey of practice and audit of reduction rates.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Edward; Williams, Rhianydd; Allan, Rosemary; Okoye, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    To define current UK reduction practice and the reductions rates achieved. Electronic surveys were sent to radiologists at 26 UK centres. This assessed methods of reduction, equipment, personnel, and protocol usage. Standardized audit proforma were also sent to evaluate all reductions performed in 2011. Twenty-two of 26 centres (85%) replied. All used air enema under fluoroscopic guidance. Equipment was not standardized but could be broadly categorized into hand-pumped air-supply systems (seven centres) and pressurized air systems (15 centres). Seventeen centres followed a protocol based on British Society of Paediatric Radiologists (BSPR) guidelines. In 21 of the 22 centres a consultant paediatric radiologist led reductions and only 12 centres reported a surgeon being present. Three hundred and ten cases were reported across 22 centres. Cases per centre ranged from 0-31 (median 14). Reduction rates varied from 38-90% (median 71%). The overall perforation rate was 2.5%. Caseload did not significantly correlate with reduction rate, and there was no significant difference between the two types of equipment used. Median reduction rates were 15% higher in centres with a surgeon present at reduction (p < 0.05). Intussusception care in the UK lacks standardization of equipment and personnel involved. National reduction rates are lower than in current international literature. Improved standardization may lead to an improvement in reduction rates and a surgeon should always be present at reduction. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current management of necrotising otitis externa in the UK: survey of 221 UK otolaryngologists.

    PubMed

    Chawdhary, Gaurav; Pankhania, Miran; Douglas, Susan; Bottrill, Ian

    2017-08-01

    Necrotising otitis externa (NOE) is a rare infection causing skull base osteomyelitis. The evidence regarding NOE consists mostly of case series. Hence, there is a limited evidence base to guide decision-making. This survey aims to report the experience of 221 otolaryngologists in this condition. Internet survey administered to the membership of the British Association of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (ENT UK). Respondents' detailed replies on diagnosis, treatment and follow up are presented. One third of respondents reported increasing incidence of NOE. Over 80% diagnosed NOE based on pre-existing risk factors, severe pain, non-resolution of infection and CT scan. Most respondents managed NOE with intravenous antibiotics (90%) and blood sugar control (82%). There was less agreement in certain aspects of management including the role of surgery and the nature and duration of follow up. Our survey provides a picture of NOE management in the UK. While there is consensus in some aspects of NOE management, other aspects attract widely differing answers. This may reflect the lack of strong evidence in the literature. Future work should aim to address this.

  7. The challenges of communicating research evidence in practice: perspectives from UK health visitors and practice nurses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health practitioners play a pivotal role in providing patients with up-to-date evidence and health information. Evidence-based practice and patient-centred care are transforming the delivery of healthcare in the UK. Health practitioners are increasingly balancing the need to provide evidence-based information against that of facilitating patient choice, which may not always concur with the evidence base. There is limited research exploring how health practitioners working in the UK, and particularly those more autonomous practitioners such as health visitors and practice nurses working in community practice settings, negotiate this challenge. This research provides a descriptive account of how health visitors and practice nurses negotiate the challenges of communicating health information and research evidence in practice. Methods A total of eighteen in-depth telephone interviews were conducted in the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. The participants comprised nine health visitors and nine practice nurses, recruited via adverts on a nursing website, posters at a practitioner conference and through recommendation. Thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative method, was used to analyse the data. Results The data were grouped into three main themes: communicating evidence to the critically-minded patient; confidence in communicating evidence; and maintaining the integrity of the patient-practitioner relationship. These findings highlight some of the daily challenges that health visitors and practice nurses face with regard to the complex and dynamic nature of evidence and the changing attitudes and expectations of patients. The findings also highlight the tensions that exist between differing philosophies of evidence-based practice and patient-centred care, which can make communicating about evidence a daunting task. Conclusions If health practitioners are to be effective at communicating research evidence, we suggest that more research

  8. Staffing UK University Campuses Overseas: Lessons from MNE Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, John; Wood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that as their internal labor markets become more multinational in scope, UK universities may acquire similar staffing characteristics to commercial multinational enterprises (MNEs). Comparing evidence from four UK universities with several surveys of MNEs it concludes that, although there are broad similarities in the…

  9. Staffing UK University Campuses Overseas: Lessons from MNE Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, John; Wood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that as their internal labor markets become more multinational in scope, UK universities may acquire similar staffing characteristics to commercial multinational enterprises (MNEs). Comparing evidence from four UK universities with several surveys of MNEs it concludes that, although there are broad similarities in the…

  10. The current status of the UK-FMOS spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosh, Ian A.; Woodhouse, Guy F.; Froud, Tim; Dowell, Allan; Patel, Mukesh; Wallner, Mattias; Lewis, Ian J.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Holmes, Alan; Brooks, Barney; Band, Cyril; Bonfield, David G.; Murray, Graham J.; Robertson, David J.; Dipper, Nigel A.

    2004-09-01

    FMOS is a near-IR OH-suppressed multi-fibre fed spectrograph for the Subaru telescope. The spectrograph will accept 200 optical fibres from the ECHIDNA positioner system at the 30arcmin Prime focus of the telescope. We will describe the recent activities here in the UK in progressing the instrument from its conceptual phase through detailed design and into manufacture. A variety of technical areas will be described including: the opto-mechanical system design and construction, development of the HAWAII-II detector control system, the thermal system design & control and OH suppression techniques.

  11. Urethral Dilatation in Women: Urologists' Practice Patterns in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Masarani, M; Willis, RG

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Review of the literature reveals little evidence to prove the efficacy of urethral dilatation for adult women with various lower urinary tract complaints. We conducted a postal survey to ascertain the actual practice of urethral dilatation among urologists in the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire was mailed to 428 consultant urologists listed as full members of the British Association of Urological Surgeons. The questionnaire consisted of 8 items about urologists' perception of indications, efficacy, and the need for repeated dilatation and anaesthesia. RESULTS The questionnaire response rate was 42%. Although urethral stenosis was the most common indication (97%), the majority of urologists (69%) indicated that fewer than 25% of patients had evidence of stenosis. Overall, 61% of urologists performed dilatation 7 times or more during the last year and 55% believed that less than half of the patients experienced long-term improvement. CONCLUSIONS Despite the lack of strong evidence to support the use of urethral dilatation in women, many urologists continue to find it a useful tool in approaching women with lower urinary tract complaints. PMID:17002859

  12. Current experience and attitudes to biomedical scientist cut-up: results of an online survey of UK consultant histopathologists.

    PubMed

    Simmons, E J V; Sanders, D S A; Carr, R A

    2011-04-01

    To assess the current utilisation of biomedical scientist (BMS) surgical specimen cut-up in the UK and attitudes of consultant histopathologists to the practice. Email invitations were sent to all UK consultant histopathologists to participate in an online survey (SurveyMonkey) assessing attitudes to and utilisation of BMS surgical specimen cut-up. 463 individual replies were received (35% response rate) from 1320 invitations to participate, covering 181 UK histopathology departments. A majority of the respondents were either fully in favour of BMS cut-up (52.7%), or in favour but with some reservation (46.2%). Only five respondents (1.1%) were completely opposed to BMS cut-up. 267 (57.7%) respondents reported that their BMS staff loaded biopsies only. 148 (32%) reported BMS cut-up of more complex benign specimens, and 83 (17.9%) reported BMS handling of orientated skin specimens. Only 39 (8.4%) reported that BMS staff in their departments currently cut-up larger cancer resections. This survey is representative of current BMS cut-up practice in the UK. The majority of UK consultant histopathologists replying to this survey support BMS cut-up to some degree, but utilisation of BMS cut-up is rather limited and patchy at present. Cost, staffing constraints, perceived quality issues and individual consultant preferences are cited as reasons for limited uptake currently. Recognised benefits of promoting BMS cut-up include better use of consultant time, enhanced team working, BMS job satisfaction and career progression, and better adherence to standard operating procedures.

  13. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    PubMed

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  14. Air quality management: evolution of policy and practice in the UK as exemplified by the experience of English local government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, C. I.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Woodfield, N. K.

    The air quality management (AQM) framework in the UK is designed to be an effects-based solution to air pollutants currently affecting human health. The AQM process has been legislated through The Environment Act 1995, which required the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published. AQM practice and capability within local authorities has flourished since the publication of the NAQS in March 1997. This paper outlines the policy framework within which the UK operates, both at a domestic and European level, and reviews the air quality management process relating to current UK policy and EU policy. Data from questionnaire surveys are used to indicate the involvement of various sectors of local government in the air quality management process. These data indicate an increasing use of monitoring, and use of air dispersion modelling by English local authorities. Data relating to the management of air quality, for example, the existence and work of air quality groups, dissemination of information to the public and policy measures in place on a local scale to improve air quality, have also been reported. The UK NAQS has been reviewed in 1999 to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the socio-economic issues involved. The AQM process, as implemented by UK local authorities, provides an effective model for other European member states with regards to the implementation of the Air Quality Framework Directive. The future direction of air quality policy in the UK is also discussed.

  15. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  16. Variation in clinical coding lists in UK general practice: a barrier to consistent data entry?

    PubMed

    Tai, Tracy Waize; Anandarajah, Sobanna; Dhoul, Neil; de Lusignan, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Routinely collected general practice computer data are used for quality improvement; poor data quality including inconsistent coding can reduce their usefulness. To document the diversity of data entry systems currently in use in UK general practice and highlight possible implications for data quality. General practice volunteers provided screen shots of the clinical coding screen they would use to code a diagnosis or problem title in the clinical consultation. The six clinical conditions examined were: depression, cystitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sore throat, tired all the time, and myocardial infarction. We looked at the picking lists generated for these problem titles in EMIS, IPS, GPASS and iSOFT general practice clinical computer systems, using the Triset browser as a gold standard for comparison. A mean of 19.3 codes is offered in the picking list after entering a diagnosis or problem title. EMIS produced the longest picking lists and GPASS the shortest, with a mean number of choices of 35.2 and 12.7, respectively. Approximately three-quarters (73.5%) of codes are diagnoses, one-eighth (12.5%) symptom codes, and the remainder come from a range of Read chapters. There was no readily detectable consistent order in which codes were displayed. Velocity coding, whereby commonly-used codes are placed higher in the picking list, results in variation between practices even where they have the same brand of computer system. Current systems for clinical coding promote diversity rather than consistency of clinical coding. As the UK moves towards an integrated health IT system consistency of coding will become more important. A standardised, limited list of codes for primary care might help address this need.

  17. Nursing philosophy: A review of current pre registration curricula in the UK.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh-Franklin, Carolyn

    2016-02-01

    Nursing in the UK has been subject to criticism for failing to provide care and compassion in practice, with a series of reports highlighting inadequacies in care. This scrutiny provides nursing with an ideal opportunity to evaluate the underpinning philosophy of nursing practice, and for nurse educators to use this philosophy as the basis for programmes which can inculcate neophyte student nurses with a fundamental understanding of the profession, whilst providing other health care professionals and service users with a clear representation of professional nursing practice. The key word philosophy was used in a systematic stepwise descriptive content analysis of the programme specifications of 33 current undergraduate programme documents, leading to an undergraduate award and professional registration as a nurse. The word philosophy featured minimally in programme specification documents, with 12 (36%) documents including it. Its use was superficial in 3 documents and focused on educational philosophy in a further 3 documents. 2 programme specifications identified their philosophy as the NMC (2010) standards for pre-registration nurse education. 2 programme specifications articulated a philosophy specific to that programme and HEI, focusing on caring, and 2 made reference to underpinning philosophies present in nursing literature; the Relationship Centred Care Approach, and The Humanising Care Philosophy. The philosophy of nursing practice is not clearly articulated in pre-registration curricula. This failure to identify the fundamental nature of nursing is detrimental to the development of the profession, and given this lack of direction it is not surprising that some commentators feel nursing has lost its way. Nurse educators must review their current curricula to ensure that there is clear articulation of nursing's professional philosophical stance, and use this as the framework for pre-registration curricula to support the development of neophyte nursing

  18. Tuberculosis screening of migrants to low-burden nations: insights from evaluation of UK practice.

    PubMed

    Pareek, M; Abubakar, I; White, P J; Garnett, G P; Lalvani, A

    2011-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) primarily occurs in the foreign-born in European countries, such as the UK, where increasing notifications and the high proportion of foreign-born cases has refocused attention on immigrant (new entrant) screening. We investigated how UK primary care organisations (PCOs) screen new entrants and whether this differs according to TB burden in the PCOs (incidence < 20 or ≥ 20 cases per 100,000 per annum). An anonymous, 20-point questionnaire was sent to all 192 UK PCOs asking which new entrants are screened, who is screened for active TB/latent TB infection (LTBI) and the methods used. Descriptive analyses were undertaken. Categorical responses were compared using the Chi-squared test. 177 (92.2%) out of 192 PCOs responded; all undertook screening action in response to abnormal chest radiographs, but only 107 (60.4%) screened new entrants for LTBI. Few new entrants had active TB diagnosed (median 0.0%, interquartile range (IQR) 0.0-0.5%) but more were identified with LTBI (median 7.85%, IQR 4.30-13.50%). High-burden PCOs were significantly less likely to screen new entrants for LTBI (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.54; p<0.0001). Among PCOs screening for LTBI, there was substantial deviation from national guidance in selection of new entrant subgroups and screening method. Considerable heterogeneity and deviation from national guidance exist throughout the UK new entrant screening process, with high-burden regions undertaking the least screening. Forming an accurate picture of current front-line practice will help to inform future development of European new entrant screening policy.

  19. A national survey of practical airway training in UK anaesthetic departments. Time for a national policy?

    PubMed

    Lindkaer Jensen, N H; Cook, T M; Kelly, F E

    2016-11-01

    The Fourth National Audit Project (NAP4) recommended airway training for trainee and trained anaesthetists. As the skills required for management of airway emergencies differ from routine skills and these events are rare, practical training is likely to require training workshops. In 2013, we surveyed all UK National Health Service hospitals to examine the current practices regarding airway training workshops. We received responses from 206 hospitals (62%) covering all regions. Regarding airway workshops, 16% provide none and 51% only for trainees. Of those providing workshops, more than half are run less than annually. Workshop content varies widely, with several Difficult Airway Society (DAS) guideline techniques not taught or only infrequently. Reported barriers to training include lack of time and departmental or individual interest. Workshop-based airway training is variable in provision, frequency and content, and is often not prioritised by departments or individual trainers. It could be useful if guidance on workshop organisation, frequency and content was considered nationally.

  20. Current status of kilovoltage (kV) radiotherapy in the UK: installed equipment, clinical workload, physics quality control and radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Antony L; Pearson, Michael; Whittard, Paul; McHugh, Katie E; Eaton, David J

    2016-12-01

    To assess the status and practice of kilovoltage (kV) radiotherapy in the UK. 96% of the radiotherapy centres in the UK responded to a comprehensive survey. An analysis of the installed equipment base, patient numbers, clinical treatment sites, quality control (QC) testing and radiation dosimetry processes were undertaken. 73% of UK centres have at least one kV treatment unit, with 58 units installed across the UK. Although 35% of units are over 10 years old, 39% units have been installed in the last 5 years. Approximately 6000 patients are treated with kV units in the UK each year, the most common site (44%) being basal cell carcinoma. A benchmark of QC practice in the UK is presented, against which individual centres can compare their procedures, frequency of testing and acceptable tolerance values. We propose the use of internal "notification" and "suspension" levels for analysis. All surveyed centres were using recommended Codes of Practice for kV dosimetry in the UK; approximately the same number using in-air and in-water methodologies for medium energy, with two-thirds of all centres citing "clinical relevance" as the reason for choice of code. 64% of centres had hosted an external dosimetry audit within the last 3 years, with only one centre never being independently audited. The majority of centres use locally measured applicator factors and published backscatter factors for treatments. Monitor unit calculations are performed using software in only 36% of centres. A comprehensive review of current kV practice in the UK is presented. Advances in knowledge: Data and discussion on contemporary kV radiotherapy in the UK, with a particular focus on physics aspects.

  1. Norms and Values in UK Science Engagement Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric; Holliman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rhetorical shift from "deficit" to "dialogue" and "engagement" in UK policy and institutional discourse about science communication. Past efforts to reduce public scientific literacy deficits have been overshadowed by calls for dialogue between scientists, science communicators and…

  2. Norms and Values in UK Science Engagement Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric; Holliman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rhetorical shift from "deficit" to "dialogue" and "engagement" in UK policy and institutional discourse about science communication. Past efforts to reduce public scientific literacy deficits have been overshadowed by calls for dialogue between scientists, science communicators and…

  3. National survey and point prevalence study of sedation practice in UK critical care.

    PubMed

    Richards-Belle, Alvin; Canter, Ruth R; Power, G Sarah; Robinson, Emily J; Reschreiter, Henrik; Wunsch, Hannah; Harvey, Sheila E

    2016-10-27

    The present study was designed to (1) establish current sedation practice in UK critical care to inform evidence synthesis and potential future primary research and (2) to compare practice reported via a survey with actual practice assessed in a point prevalence study (PPS). UK adult general critical care units were invited to participate in a survey of current sedation practice, and a representative sample of units was invited to participate in a PPS of sedation practice at the patient level. Survey responses were compared with PPS data where both were available. Survey responses were received from 214 (91 %) of 235 eligible critical care units. Of these respondents, 57 % reported having a written sedation protocol, 94 % having a policy of daily sedation holds and 94 % using a sedation scale to assess depth of sedation. In the PPS, across units reporting a policy of daily sedation holds, a median of 50 % (IQR 33-75 %) of sedated patients were considered for a sedation hold. A median of 88 % (IQR 63-100 %) of patients were assessed using the same sedation scale as reported in the survey. Both the survey and the PPS indicated propofol as the preferred sedative and alfentanil, fentanyl and morphine as the preferred analgesics. In most of the PPS units, all patients had received the unit's reported first-choice sedative (median across units 100 %, IQR 64-100 %), and a median of 80 % (IQR 67-100 %) of patients had received the unit's reported first-choice analgesic. Most units (83 %) reported in the survey that sedatives are usually administered in combination with analgesics. Across units that participated in the PPS, 69 % of patients had received a combination of agents - most frequently propofol combined with either alfentanil or fentanyl. Clinical practice reported in the national survey did not accurately reflect actual clinical practice at the patient level observed in the PPS. Employing a mixed methods approach provided a more complete picture of

  4. Domestic violence: knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice of selected UK primary healthcare clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Jean; Rutterford, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Dunne, Danielle; Eldridge, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Feder, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Background Domestic violence affects one in four women and has significant health consequences. Women experiencing abuse identify doctors and other health professionals as potential sources of support. Primary care clinicians agree that domestic violence is a healthcare issue but have been reluctant to ask women if they are experiencing abuse. Aim To measure selected UK primary care clinicians’ current levels of knowledge, attitudes, and clinical skills in this area. Design and setting Prospective observational cohort in 48 general practices from Hackney in London and Bristol, UK. Method Administration of the Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), comprising five sections: responder profile, background (perceived preparation and knowledge), actual knowledge, opinions, and practice issues. Results Two hundred and seventy-two (59%) clinicians responded. Minimal previous domestic violence training was reported by participants. Clinicians only had basic knowledge about domestic violence but expressed a positive attitude towards engaging with women experiencing abuse. Many clinicians felt poorly prepared to ask relevant questions about domestic violence or to make appropriate referrals if abuse was disclosed. Forty per cent of participants never or seldom asked about abuse when a woman presented with injuries. Eighty per cent said that they did not have an adequate knowledge of local domestic violence resources. GPs were better prepared and more knowledgeable than practice nurses; they also identified a higher number of domestic violence cases. Conclusion Primary care clinicians’ attitudes towards women experiencing domestic violence are generally positive but they only have basic knowledge of the area. Both GPs and practice nurses need more comprehensive training on assessment and intervention, including the availability of local domestic violence services. PMID:22947586

  5. Experience of contractual change in UK general practice: a qualitative study of salaried GPs

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; McDonald, Ruth; Harrison, Stephen; Sanders, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background General practice in the UK underwent major change in 2004, with the introduction of new contracts and a significant element of pay for performance. Although salaried GPs form an increasing proportion of the general practice workforce, little is known of their experiences. Aim To explore the views and experiences of salaried GPs working in English general practice. Design and setting Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in 17 practices across England, between July 2007 and September 2009. Method Interviews were conducted with 23 salaried GPs. A topic guide included questions on motivations for a career in general practice, descriptions of their daily working environment and duties, practice relationships, and future aspirations. Results The new ability to opt out of out-of-hours responsibilities was deemed positive for the profession but not a major driver for choosing medical speciality. Views regarding the impact of the Quality and Outcomes Framework were ambivalent. Differences in pay were regarded as largely reflective of differences in responsibility between salaried GPs and principals. Most participants reported conducting varied work in collaborative practices. Participants held varying career aspirations. Conclusion Salaried GPs' working experiences were dependent upon personal aspirations and local context. Most salaried GPs were reportedly content with their current position but many also had aspirations of eventually attaining GP principal status. The current lack of available partnerships threatens to undo recent positive workforce progress and may lead to deep dissatisfaction within the profession and a future workforce crisis. Further large-scale quantitative work is required to assess the satisfaction and future expectations of those in salaried posts. PMID:22520916

  6. Has publication of the results of the ORACLE Children Study changed practice in the UK?

    PubMed

    Kenyon, S; Pike, K; Jones, D; Brocklehurst, P; Marlow, N; Salt, A; Taylor, D

    2010-10-01

      To investigate whether publication of the results of the ORACLE Children's Study, a 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE trial, changed practice with regard to the routine prescription of antibiotics to women with preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour (intact membranes).   A comparative questionnaire survey of clinical practice in November 2007 (before publication) and March 2009 (after publication).   Lead obstetricians for labour wards of all maternity units in the UK.   Self-administered questionnaires requested information about the routine prescription of antibiotics to women with either preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour (intact membranes).   Change in practice for prescription of antibiotics.   The response rate was 166/214 (78%) in 2007 and 158/209 (76%) in 2009. In total, 120 maternity units responded on both occasions. For women with preterm rupture of membranes, 162/214 (98%) in 2007 and 151/158 (96%) in 2009 maternity units reported that they prescribed antibiotics, with the majority using erythromycin (98%). For women with spontaneous preterm labour (intact membranes), 35/166 (21%) in 2007 and 25/158 (16%) in 2009 maternity units reported that they routinely prescribed antibiotics. The findings from units who responded on both occasions are similar.   There has been little change in the reported prescription of antibiotics to women with either preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour following publication of the ORACLE Children's Study. This suggests that current practice may require updated guidance.

  7. [Telemedicine in current nursing practices].

    PubMed

    Simon, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The first priority telemedicine programme focused, from 2011, on five areas, with the aim of guaranteeing equal access to care to everybody across a healthcare region. Experiments were financed by public authorities. These practices are now integrated into the organisation of healthcare. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Variations in Eastern bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci) feeding practices in UK zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Wright, D J; Omed, H M; Bishop, C M; Fidgett, A L

    2011-01-01

    The feeding strategy of the Eastern bongo in the wild is unusual, poorly understood, and few captive feeding recommendations are currently available to zoos. To assess the current state of nutritional husbandry of this rare antelope, eight UK zoos were surveyed. A nutritional husbandry questionnaire was completed and bongos at each zoo were visually assessed by body condition scoring (BCS). Representative samples of the forage and browse consumed by bongos at each zoo were analyzed for nutrient composition using standard agricultural techniques. Significant differences in bongo body condition were found, indicating that zoo husbandry practices are sufficiently varied to have identifiable impacts on the physical condition of the animals. The results highlight a disparity in feeding regimes and diet quality, with significant differences found in forage and browse nutrient compositions and in vitro digestibility. Most forage samples were of a low nutritional quality. Browse provision was found to be largely opportunistic and limited in most zoos. The provision of energy-rich produce was also found to be unnecessary in maintaining a bongo herd at an ideal mean BCS. This survey provides baseline data which may be useful in establishing "good practice" standards for Eastern bongo captive nutrition and highlights several areas requiring further research.

  9. Long-term benzodiazepine and Z-drugs use in the UK: a survey of general practice.

    PubMed

    Davies, James; Rae, Todd C; Montagu, Luke

    2017-09-01

    Current British National Formulary (BNF) guidelines state that benzodiazepines and zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon, commonly known as Z-drugs (BZD), be prescribed for no more than 4 weeks, although anecdotal data suggest that many patients are prescribed BZDs for much longer. As there are no recent, evidence-based estimates of long-term (>12 months) BZD use in the UK, the scale of this potential problem is unknown. To produce the first reliable, evidence-based estimate of long-term BZD use in the UK. Estimates of UK long-term BZD use were projected from data obtained from a survey conducted in 2014-2015 by the Bridge Project, a prescribed-drug withdrawal support charity in the North of England (Bradford). Percentages of long-term users of BZD were derived from the survey, by sampling primary care GP surgeries with around 100 000 registered patients, and these were applied to UK-wide NHS patient numbers. The data were filtered to exclude the very young and old, and those with other health issues. The mean percentage of registered patients prescribed BZDs for more than a year in the survey sample is 0.69% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54 to 0.84). Applying this value to national patient numbers yields a mean projection of 296 929 (95% CI = 232 553 to 361 305) long-term users of BZD in the UK. The data also suggest that as many as 119 165 of these patients may be willing to accept prescribed drug dependency withdrawal services. More than a quarter of a million people in the UK are likely to be taking highly dependency-forming hypnotic medication far beyond the recommended time scales. As there is evidence that long-term use of BZDs causes adverse physiological and neurological effects, and protracted withdrawal (with associated complications), this represents a serious public health problem. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  10. Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer in UK: current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Hebbar, Madhusoodhana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the literature and report the various minimally invasive methods used to treat gastric cancer in the UK and compare it with worldwide practice. Published randomised studies, non-randomised studies and case series reporting the use of minimal invasive approach to treat gastric cancer were retrieved from the search of standard medical electronic databases and their outcomes were highlighted suggesting their effectiveness. Several randomised, controlled trials and meta-analyses have proven the clinical and oncological safety of the laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Similarly, robot-assisted gastrectomy, EMR (endoscopic mucosal resection) and ESD (endoscopic sub-mucosal dissection) have also been proven feasible and safe to treat gastric cancer of various stages in prospective and retrospective comparative studies. However, UK based studies on minimally invasive surgery to treat gastric cancer is scarce and the paucity of trials led to uncertain outcomes. Laparoscopic gastrectomy, robot-assisted gastrectomy, EMR and ESD are feasible procedures in terms of clinical and oncological safety but mainly being practiced in Asian countries with high prevalence of stomach cancer. The UK based practice is still small and limited but the introduction of MIGOCS and STOMACH trial might help to widen the application of this technique. PMID:28616600

  11. Providing patient care through community pharmacies in the UK: policy, practice, and research.

    PubMed

    Noyce, Peter R

    2007-05-01

    To describe the provision of patient services through community pharmacies in the UK, with particular reference to England, and to explore the research evidence and policy developments for enhancing the contribution of community pharmacy to primary care and public health. In the UK, National Health Service (NHS) pharmaceutical services are delivered under contract by privately owned community pharmacies. In England, a new 3 tier structure for pharmaceutical services was introduced in 2005 comprising essential, advanced, and enhanced-level services. All NHS pharmacies must deliver 7 essential pharmaceutical services and provide evidence that they meet the requirements of a comprehensive quality assurance framework. In the first year of the contract, around 40% of pharmacies were accredited to undertake medicine use reviews, the first advanced-level service to be implemented. Meanwhile, up to 25% of pharmacies provide a variety of enhanced-level services; the most common of these is supervised administration of methadone as well as support programs for patients quitting smoking. New legislation is being introduced that will accomplish the following: allow pharmacists to acquire independent prescribing rights, require pharmacy technicians to be licensed, necessitate that both pharmacists and pharmacy technicians periodically demonstrate their continuing qualification to practice, and introduce the concept of the "responsible pharmacist" to the operation of community pharmacies. Community pharmacy is now being recognized by the government as a mainstream contributor to primary care and public health. The current priority is to integrate services provided through community pharmacies into programs provided by other primary care professionals, through strengthening information technology and contractual arrangements. While major changes to the regulation of the pharmacy workforce are occurring, the quality management of community pharmacy services merits further

  12. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    PubMed

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Business Education: A Portrait of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Business Education--a portrait of current practice" is one in a series of portraits by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE), depicting current practice in key aspects of the Scottish curriculum. The portrait series is a recent initiative by HMIE, flowing from the "Improving Scottish Education" (ISE) report. It is…

  14. Manufacture and use of nanomaterials: current status in the UK and global trends.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R J; Chaudhry, M Q; Boxall, A B A; Hull, M

    2006-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the production and use of nanomaterials (NMs), particularly in the UK. Currently, relatively few companies in the UK are identifiable as NM manufacturers, the main emphasis being the bulk markets in metals and metal oxides, and some niche markets such as carbon nanotubes and quantum dots. NM manufacturing in the UK does not reflect the global emphasis on fullerenes, nanotubes and fibres. Some assumptions have been made about the types of NM that are likely to be imported into the UK, which currently include fullerenes, modified fullerenes and other carbon-based NMs including nanotubes. Many university departments, spin-offs and private companies have developed processes for the manufacture of NMs but may only be producing small quantities for research and development (R&D) purposes. However, some have the potential to scale up to produce large quantities. The nanotechnology industry in the UK has strong R&D backup from universities and related institutions. This review has covered R&D trends at such institutions, and appropriate information has been added to a searchable database. While several companies are including NMs in their products, only a few (e.g. manufacturers of paints, coatings, cosmetics, catalysts, polymer composites) are using nanoparticles (NPs) in any significant quantities. However, this situation is likely to change rapidly. There is a need to collect more information about exposure to NPs in both manufacturing and user scenarios. As the market grows, and as manufacturers switch from the micro- to the nanoscale, the potential for exposure will increase. More research is required to quantify any risks to workers and consumers.

  15. Understanding neonatal jaundice: UK practice and international profile.

    PubMed

    Shortland, David B; Hussey, Marun; Chowdhury, Ashoka Dey

    2008-07-01

    Over the last 25 years there have been considerable advances in the treatment and technologies used in the care of newborn infants. Most of these advances are related to the care of the premature infants and there have been few changes in the management of conditions commonly seen in term infants. Neonatal jaundice is one of the commonest neonatal disorders and has been recognized since early history. Early neonatal jaundice is usually caused by the physiological destruction of red blood cells in the infant and its importance lies in the ability of the bilirubin pigment so produced to cross the blood brain barrier resulting in neurotoxicity. Prolonged neonatal jaundice (after 14 days of age) may be an indication of an underlying liver disorder. The approach to neonatal jaundice has remained largely unchanged over the last two to three decades. We continue to rely on visual inspection to assess the severity of early neonatal jaundice. We have technology that is effective in reducing the level of bilirubinaemia but in the UK there is no clear consensus as to the level at which jaundice should be treated. We do not have a standardized approach to the management of prolonged jaundice and there is potential for infants with significant liver problems to be diagnosed at a relatively late stage. Some countries (for example the US) have professional bodies who have introduced guidelines to ensure a standardized approach to the jaundice infant. We have little information about neonatal jaundice treatment in other parts of the developing world.

  16. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Amutha Rani, D.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Deegan, D.; Cheeseman, C.R.

    2008-11-15

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  17. Benchmarking of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis practice with ENT.UK guidelines.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ali S

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to benchmark our guidelines of prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in ENT surgical population against ENT.UK guidelines, and also to encourage healthcare providers to utilize benchmarking as an effective method of improving performance. The study design is prospective descriptive analysis. The setting of this study is tertiary referral centre (Assir Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia). In this study, we are benchmarking our practice guidelines of the prevention of VTE in the ENT surgical population against that of ENT.UK guidelines to mitigate any gaps. ENT guidelines 2010 were downloaded from the ENT.UK Website. Our guidelines were compared with the possibilities that either our performance meets or fall short of ENT.UK guidelines. Immediate corrective actions will take place if there is quality chasm between the two guidelines. ENT.UK guidelines are evidence-based and updated which may serve as role-model for adoption and benchmarking. Our guidelines were accordingly amended to contain all factors required in providing a quality service to ENT surgical patients. While not given appropriate attention, benchmarking is a useful tool in improving quality of health care. It allows learning from others' practices and experiences, and works towards closing any quality gaps. In addition, benchmarking clinical outcomes is critical for quality improvement and informing decisions concerning service provision. It is recommended to be included on the list of quality improvement methods of healthcare services.

  18. Lecturers' Attitudes to Inclusive Teaching Practice at a UK University: Will Staff "Resistance" Hinder Implementation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the UK are required, by law, to make "anticipatory" reasonable adjustments for students with disabilities. Inclusive teaching practice, if adopted across the sector, would ensure that the needs of students with disabilities are considered and provided for, before they even arrive on campus. This paper…

  19. Lecturers' Attitudes to Inclusive Teaching Practice at a UK University: Will Staff "Resistance" Hinder Implementation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the UK are required, by law, to make "anticipatory" reasonable adjustments for students with disabilities. Inclusive teaching practice, if adopted across the sector, would ensure that the needs of students with disabilities are considered and provided for, before they even arrive on campus. This paper…

  20. Evaluation, or Just Data Collection? An Exploration of the Evaluation Practice of Selected UK Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the evaluation practices of environmental educators. Questionnaires and discussion groups with a convenience sample of UK-based practitioners were used to uncover their evaluation methods. Although many report that they are evaluating regularly, this is mainly monitoring numbers of participants or an assessment of enjoyment.…

  1. Mark My Words: The Role of Assessment Criteria in UK Higher Education Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Peter; Orr, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to illuminate the gap between UK policy and practice in relation to the use of criteria for allocating grades. It critiques criterion-referenced grading from three perspectives. Twelve lecturers from two universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded two written assignments. The study found that assessors made…

  2. Routes to Qualified Status: Practices and Trends among UK Professional Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Stan

    2009-01-01

    In the UK fully qualified status in professional occupations is normally awarded by a professional association or registration body. Both the requirements and the routes for qualifying vary between professions, although the majority include an academic component combined with or followed by a period of assessed practice. In recent years there have…

  3. Evaluation, or Just Data Collection? An Exploration of the Evaluation Practice of Selected UK Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the evaluation practices of environmental educators. Questionnaires and discussion groups with a convenience sample of UK-based practitioners were used to uncover their evaluation methods. Although many report that they are evaluating regularly, this is mainly monitoring numbers of participants or an assessment of enjoyment.…

  4. The Quality and Outcomes Framework: Body commodification in UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Norman, Armando H; Russell, Andrew J; Merli, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    The UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is the largest pay-for-performance scheme in the world. This ethnographic study explored how QOF's monetary logic influences the approach to healthcare in UK general practice. From August 2013 to April 2014, we researched two UK general practice surgeries and one general practice training programme. These environments provided the opportunity for studying various spaces such as QOF meetings, consultation rooms, QOF recoding sessions, and the collection of computer-screen images depicting how patients' biomarkers are evaluated and costed through software systems. QOF as a biomedical technology has led to the commodification of patients and their bodies. This complex phenomenon breaks down into three main themes: commodification of patients, QOF as currency, and valuing commodities. Despite the ostensible aim of QOF being to improve healthcare in general practice, it is accompanied by a body commodification process. The interface between patients and care providers has been commodified, with QOF's pricing mechanism and fragmentation of care provision performing an important role in animating the UK economy.

  5. Gypsy, Roma and Traveller Pupils in Schools in the UK: Inclusion and "Good Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Myers, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines inclusionary processes and examples of "good practice" in primary and secondary schools for Gypsy, Roma and Traveller pupils in one inner London Borough in the UK. It will explore the role of the Traveller Education Service (TES) and argue that the support provided by the TES to schools is essential for the…

  6. Broken Voices or a Broken Curriculum? The Impact of Research on UK School Choral Practice with Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Work such as that of John Cooksey on boys' changing voices has influenced choral practice in the USA and in certain UK youth choirs, but has hitherto had little impact in UK schools where many teachers continue to believe that boys' voices "break". Different practices are found across the independent and maintained sectors of secondary…

  7. Language Practices and Language Management in a UK Yemeni Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gibson Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Through observation, questionnaires and, particularly, ethnographic interviews with parents, pupils, teachers and community organisers associated with a Yemeni complementary school, this paper develops a portrait of language repertoires, practices and preferences in a Yemeni diasporic community in a northern English city. Also investigated are the…

  8. Language Practices and Language Management in a UK Yemeni Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gibson Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Through observation, questionnaires and, particularly, ethnographic interviews with parents, pupils, teachers and community organisers associated with a Yemeni complementary school, this paper develops a portrait of language repertoires, practices and preferences in a Yemeni diasporic community in a northern English city. Also investigated are the…

  9. Integrating Radiology and Anatomy Teaching in Medical Education in the UK--The Evidence, Current Trends, and Future Scope.

    PubMed

    Heptonstall, N B; Ali, T; Mankad, K

    2016-04-01

    This review article presents the current evidence of the importance of integrating radiology and anatomy in medical education in the UK, a recommendation by a number of key anatomy, education, and radiology organizations. Current evidence highlights that on average only 5% of total teaching time in medical education is dedicated to radiology. Often, radiology teaching does not adequately fulfill students' learning needs and potentially leaves them underprepared for medical practice. Benefits of integrating radiology and anatomy include improved clinical application of anatomy, an increase in student's interest in anatomy, and ultimately improved radiological interpretation. Various modalities exist for the integration of radiology and anatomy, facilitated by the vast portability of radiological images. It appears that combining radiological resources with traditional anatomy teaching methodology in a blended approach is most beneficial.

  10. Current and future perspectives on lumbar degenerative disc disease: a UK survey exploring specialist multidisciplinary clinical opinion

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD) being significantly associated with non-specific low back pain and effective treatment remaining elusive, specialist multidisciplinary clinical stakeholder opinion remains unexplored. The present study examines the views of such experts. Design A reliable and valid electronic survey was designed to establish trends using theoretical constructs relating to current assessment and management practices. Clinicians from the Society of Back Pain Research (SBPR) UK were invited to take part. Quantitative data were collated and coded using Bristol Online Surveys (BOS) software, and content analysis was used to systematically code and categorise qualitative data. Setting Specialist multidisciplinary spinal interest group in the UK. Participants 38/141 clinically active, multidisciplinary SBPR members with specialist spinal interest participated. Among them, 84% had >9 years postgraduate clinical experience. Interventions None. Outcome measures Frequency distributions were used to establish general trends in quantitative data. Qualitative responses were coded and categorised in relation to each theme and percentage responses were calculated. Results LDDD symptom recurrence, in the absence of psychosocial influence, was associated with physical signs of joint stiffness (26%), weakness (17%) and joint hypermobility (6%), while physical factors (21%) and the ability to adapt (11%) were postulated as reasons why some experience pain and others do not. No one management strategy was supported exclusively or with consensus. Regarding effective modalities, there was no significant difference between allied health professional and medic responses (p=0.1–0.8). The future of LDDD care was expressed in terms of improvements in patient communication (35%), patient education (38%) and treatment stratification (24%). Conclusions Results suggest that multidisciplinary expert spinal clinicians appear to follow UK

  11. A questionnaire study on parasite control practices on UK breeding Thoroughbred studs.

    PubMed

    Relf, V E; Morgan, E R; Hodgkinson, J E; Matthews, J B

    2012-07-01

    Improved education of veterinarians and equine owners/managers is essential in implementing parasite control strategies that are less reliant on chemicals. This questionnaire study, conducted on 61 UK Thoroughbred (TB) establishments during 2009 and 2010, was designed to obtain an understanding of current helminth control practices on studs. To our knowledge, this is the first occasion that statements obtained from TB studs via questionnaire have been supported by statistical analysis. Despite many respondents indicating high levels of concern regarding anthelmintic resistance, 56% of these establishments that received visiting equines co-grazed these animals with permanent stock and <74% administered anthelmintics prior to integration. In the 12 months preceding the study, most respondents administered frequent macrocyclic lactone (ML) treatments, with none appearing to leave any animals in groups untreated at each administration. Indiscriminate whole group treatments with MLs and movement of animals to 'clean grazing' post treatment (reported by >25% of respondents), indicates that many stud owners/managers are not aware of the strong risk factors for the development of anthelmintic resistance. Few studs had conducted faecal egg count (FEC) analysis in the past and only 22% indicated that they considered this form of analysis beneficial in determining anthelmintic choice. The challenge now is to convince stud owners/managers to deviate from their current practices to control strategies that are more likely to preserve anthelmintic efficacy. Veterinarians need to get more involved in implementing these control strategies, with better emphasis placed on the role of diagnostic tests in facilitating targeted treatments and in investigating anthelmintic sensitivity in the associated nematode populations. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  12. The management of otitis externa in UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Pabla, L; Jindal, M; Latif, K

    2012-03-01

    Acute otitis externa is common and provides a heavy workload for general practitioners. We aim to determine the first-line treatment used by general practitioners in the management of otitis externa and subsequent second-line treatment in a hospital ENT clinic. In addition, this study aims to ascertain whether local and national guidelines are being followed appropriately. A prospective observational study on the management of otitis externa in consecutive patients referred to an ENT emergency clinic was undertaken. Data were collected and analysed on symptoms, initial management by general practitioners, findings and treatment in the ENT clinic. A total of 106 patients were studied. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation to clinic was 13 days; 42% of patients received no treatment by their GP prior to referral to the ENT emergency clinic. Only 14% of patients received topical antibiotics alone, whilst 44% received oral antibiotics, either alone or in conjunction with topical antibiotics by their GP. Of the 106 patients, 86% received topical antibiotics in the ENT emergency clinic and oral antibiotics were reserved for those presenting with complicated acute otitis externa. Topical antibiotics are associated with a decrease in disease persistence, whilst oral antibiotics are associated with an increase. However, general practitioners are prescribing oral antibiotics more often than required. There are few regional guidelines and no explicit national guidelines on the management of acute otitis externa for GPs to refer to. We suggest the implementation of national guidelines to aid clinical practice.

  13. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  14. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  15. Current american practice in color measurement.

    PubMed

    Billmeyer, F W

    1969-04-01

    Current Aimerienn practice in color measurement is reviewed from the standpoint of instrumentation practice, measurement concepts, and computational methods. Instrumentation practice is described for spectrophotometers, abridged spectrophotometers, and tristimulus colorimeters. Measurement variables discussed include photometric and wavelength scales, standards and standardization, illuminating and viewing geometry, and instrument sources simulating standard illuminants. Computation-methods practiced for obtaining color coordinates and color differences are discussed. Topics indirectly related to the measurement step, such as the basis of colorimetry, color mixing laws, and computer color matching, are specifically excluded from this paper.

  16. UK: the current state of regulation of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Walker, L A; Budd, S

    2002-03-01

    There is no legislation that restricts the practice of CAM in the UK apart from the practice of chiropractic and osteopathy and limits on advertising the treatments of certain conditions such as cancer and tuberculosis. The UK government has increasingly recognised the need for comprehensive regulation of CAM, though it abandoned its original plan for a single overarching regulatory body. Initiatives to examine and hasten the process of regulation have included setting up a central, well-recognised charitable body to facilitate progress for individual professions, and an authoritative survey of the existing professional organisations. One pathway open to individual professions is statutory self-regulation, which requires a single governing body, a systematic corpus of knowledge, recognised training courses and demonstrated efficacy. The other pathway is voluntary self-regulation. Chiropractic and osteopathy have adopted statutory self-regulation, though this has proved expensive for individual members of these professions. A recent House of Lords report on CAM has recommended that the herbal medicine and acupuncture professions should also develop a system of statutory regulation. Other professions, such as aromatherapy, are in the process of establishing single professional bodies as a first step towards self-regulation. Among the issues that remain to be resolved is the relationship between the CAM professions and statutory registered practitioners who also practise CAM.

  17. Physical health indicators in major mental illness: analysis of QOF data across UK general practice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julie Langan; Lowrie, Richard; McConnachie, Alex; McLean, Gary; Mair, Frances; Mercer, Stewart W; Smith, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Background The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) has specific targets for body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure recording in major mental illness (MMI), diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although aspects of MMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and related psychoses) are incentivised, barriers to care may occur. Aim To compare payment, population achievement, and exception rates for blood pressure and BMI recording in MMI relative to diabetes and CKD across the UK. Design and setting Analysis of 2012/2013 QOF data from 9731 UK general practices 2 years after the introduction of the mental health, BMI, and blood pressure QOF indicators. Method Payment, exception, and population achievement rates for the MMI and CKD blood pressure indicators and the MMI and diabetes BMI indicators were calculated and compared. Results UK payment and population achievement rates for BMI recording for MMI were significantly lower than for diabetes (payment: 92.7% versus 95.5% and population achievement: 84.0% versus 92.5%, P<0.001) and exception rates were higher (8.1% versus 2.0%, P<0.001). For blood pressure recording, UK payment and population achievement rates were significantly lower for MMI than for CKD (94.1% versus 97.8% and 87.0% versus 97.1%, P<0.001), while exception rate was higher (6.5% versus 0.0%, P<0.001). This was observed for all countries. Compared with England, Northern Ireland had higher population achievement rates for both mental health indicators, whereas Scotland and Wales had lower rates. There were no cross-jurisdiction differences for CKD and diabetes. Conclusion Differences in payment, exception, and population achievement rates for blood pressure and BMI recording for MMI relative to CKD and diabetes were observed across the UK. These findings suggest potential inequalities in the monitoring of physical health in MMI within the UK primary care system. PMID:25267051

  18. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in undergraduate medical education in the UK: current status.

    PubMed Central

    Walley, T; Bligh, J; Orme, M; Breckenridge, A

    1994-01-01

    1. Medical undergraduate education is currently undergoing major changes in the UK in response to calls for the development of a core curriculum. Teaching in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics will also change to meet these demands. A postal survey was conducted to assess the current status of teaching in these subjects. 2. A questionnaire based on previous similar surveys conducted elsewhere was sent to departments or individuals in 27 medical schools in the UK; 22 (81%) replied. 3. Departmental priorities were defined as (in order): clinical research, undergraduate teaching, basic scientific research and clinical service provision. No change in these priorities in the future was foreseen by respondents. 4. Teaching methods were for the most part traditional, with the lecture as the most widely used and important technique. Specific clinical teaching was conducted by some and was considered very important by them. Teaching by problem solving was much less common. 5. Respondents were asked for free text comments; many of the remarks suggested dissatisfaction with the resources and time currently available for teaching in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. Some expressed significant concerns that their teaching commitment would be reduced further by the development of the core curriculum. PMID:8186059

  19. "Teamwork" or "Working as a Team"? The Theory and Practice of Top Team Working in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodfield, Steve; Kennie, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the theory and practice of teamwork in "top management teams" in UK higher education institutions. It is informed by some of the key findings from a recent two-year research project sponsored by the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education that investigated the different ways in which UK higher education…

  20. "Teamwork" or "Working as a Team"? The Theory and Practice of Top Team Working in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodfield, Steve; Kennie, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the theory and practice of teamwork in "top management teams" in UK higher education institutions. It is informed by some of the key findings from a recent two-year research project sponsored by the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education that investigated the different ways in which UK higher education…

  1. Perceived future career prospects in general practice: quantitative results from questionnaire surveys of UK doctors

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background There are more studies of current job satisfaction among GPs than of their views about their future career prospects, although both are relevant to commitment to careers in general practice. Aim To report on the views of GPs compared with clinicians in other specialties about their future career prospects. Design and setting Questionnaire surveys were sent to UK medical doctors who graduated in selected years between 1974 and 2008. Method Questionnaires were sent to the doctors at different times after graduation, ranging from 3 to 24 years. Results Based on the latest survey of each graduation year of the 20 940 responders, 66.2% of GPs and 74.2% of hospital doctors were positive about their prospects and 9.7% and 8.3%, respectively, were negative. However, with increasing time since graduation and increasing levels of seniority, GPs became less positive about their prospects; by contrast, over time, surgeons became more positive. Three to 5 years after graduation, 86.3% of those training in general practice were positive about their prospects compared with 52.9% of surgical trainees: in surveys conducted 12–24 years after graduation, 60.2% of GPs and 76.6% of surgeons were positive about their prospects. Conclusion GPs held broadly positive views of their career prospects, as did other doctors. However, there was an increase in negativity with increasing time since graduation that was not seen in hospital doctors. Research into the causes of this negativity and policy measures to ameliorate it would contribute to the continued commitment of GPs and may help to reduce attrition. PMID:27578813

  2. Variable implementation of good practice recommendations for the assessment and management of UK children with neurodisability.

    PubMed

    Gray, L; Gibbs, J; Jolleff, N; Williams, J; McConachie, H; Parr, J R

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether UK child development teams (CDTs) have implemented good practice recommendations for the co-ordinated assessment and support of children with neurodisability and to explore some of the factors associated with variations in good practice implementation. Surveys were sent to every UK CDT in 2009/2010. Responses about CDT provision and ways of working were compared with good practice recommendations from national policy documents and professional organizations. The extent to which CDTs in England and Wales met 11 selected good practice recommendations was scored; teams in Scotland and Northern Ireland were given a score out of 9 to reflect the optional use of the common assessment framework and early support materials in these countries. Responses were received from 225/240 (94%) UK CDTs. Thirty-seven per cent of CDTs in England and Wales had implemented nine or more of the 11 recommendations. Fifty-nine per cent of teams in Scotland and 78% of teams in Northern Ireland met between six and nine recommendations of good working practice. Higher levels of implementation of recommendations were found when the CDT had a Child Development Centre base and for teams who had received increased funding in the 5 years preceding the survey. There was considerable variability in the degree to which CDTs implemented good practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of children with neurodisability. Evidence about child and parent satisfaction, and the effectiveness of CDT practices and provision, is required, so policymakers, healthcare commissioners and clinicians can provide the most appropriate services to children with neurodisability and their families. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fever management: Evidence vs current practice.

    PubMed

    El-Radhi, A Sahib Mehdi

    2012-12-08

    Fever is a very common complaint in children and is the single most common non-trauma-related reason for a visit to the emergency department. Parents are concerned about fever and it's potential complications. The biological value of fever (i.e., whether it is beneficial or harmful) is disputed and it is being vigorously treated with the belief of preventing complications such as brain injury and febrile seizures. The practice of alternating antipyretics has become widespread at home and on paediatric wards without supporting scientific evidence. There is still a significant contrast between the current concept and practice, and the scientific evidence. Why is that the case in such a common complaint like fever The article will discuss the significant contrast between the current concepts and practice of fever management on one hand, and the scientific evidence against such concepts and practice.

  4. Transoesophageal echocardiography before DC cardioversion: a survey of clinical practice in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Nikhil; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Munns, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) can be used to expedite DC cardioversion (DCCV) in the absence of adequate anticoagulation. There are no guidelines for the management of sedation or general anaesthetic. We performed a survey of NHS echocardiography departments to determine UK practice. Responses were received from 95 (50%) of 189 centres, and TOE-guided DCCV was performed in 81 centres. The numbers were <10 a year in 41 (50%), 10 – 50 in 31 (38%), 50 – 100 in 8 (10%) and >100 in 4 (5%) centres. Sedation for TOE was a usual practice in 67 (80%) centres but often temporally disconnected from DCCV due to logistical reasons. TOE under general anaesthetic was performed in 35 (43%) centres and as the usual method in 16 (20%). The patient was in the supine position with endotracheal intubation in 20 (57%) of centres, but without any form of airway protection while supine in 5 (14%). There is variability in practice across centres in the UK, in part due to limitations to services in most centres but also because of an absence of UK guidelines. The development of national standards may address this and aid in the development of local business cases to extend services. PMID:27249808

  5. Dental consultations in UK general practice and antibiotic prescribing rates: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cope, Anwen L; Chestnutt, Ivor G; Wood, Fiona; Francis, Nick A

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of consulting for dental problems in general medical practice, and antibiotic prescribing associated with these consultations, is poorly described. To describe consultation rates and antibiotic use for dental problems in UK general medical practice, and explore factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for dental conditions. A retrospective cohort study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a database of general practice patient records in the UK. All dental consultations between 2004 and 2013 were identified. The main outcome was the prescription of an antibiotic during a dental consultation. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with antibiotic prescription. In all, 288 169 dental consultations were included in the cohort. The average rate of dental consultations was 6.06 consultations per 1000 patient-years. Rates of dental consultation decreased from 6.84 consultations per 1000 patient-years in 2008, to 4.23 consultations per 1000 patient-years in 2013. Consultation rates were higher among females than males and highest in patients aged 20-29 years. An antibiotic was prescribed in 57.1% of consultations. Significant predictors (P<0.001) of antibiotic prescribing included: patient middle age, male sex, and previous consultations for tooth-related problems. Antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed during consultations in December (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13 to 1.24, P<0.001, reference month: June) and on a Monday (OR 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.13, P<0.001) or a Friday (OR 1.15, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.18, P<0.001, reference day: Wednesday). Consultation rates for dental problems in UK general practice are relatively low but more than half result in the prescription of an antibiotic. This raises concerns about patient morbidity and contributions to antimicrobial resistance. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  6. The current cost of angina pectoris to the National Health Service in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, S; Murphy, N; Walker, A; McGuire, A; McMurray, J J V

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the cost of angina pectoris to the UK National Health Service (NHS) in the year 2000. Methods: Calculation of the cost of hospital admissions, revascularisation procedures, hospital outpatient consultations, general practice (GP) consultations, and prescribed drug treatment. Results: 634 000 individuals (1.1% of the UK population) consulted GPs 2.35 million times, costing £60.5 million. They required 16.0 million prescriptions (cost £80.7 million) and 254 000 hospital outpatient referrals (cost £30.4 million). There were 149 000 hospital admissions, 117 000 coronary angiograms, 21 400 coronary artery bypass operations, 17 700 percutaneous coronary interventions, and 516 000 outpatient visits, at a cost of £208.4 million, £69.9 million, £106.2 million, £60.7 million, and £52.2 million, respectively. The direct cost of angina was therefore £669 million (1.3% of total NHS expenditure), with hospital bed occupancy and procedures accounting for 32% and 35% of this total, respectively. Conclusions: Angina is a common and costly public health problem. It consumed over 1% of all NHS expenditure in the year 2000, mainly because of hospital bed occupancy and revascularisation procedures. This is likely to be a conservative estimate of its true cost. PMID:12860855

  7. Specialist practice for UK community mental health nurses: the 1998--99 survey of course leaders.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, B; Burnard, P; Edwards, D; Turnbull, J

    2001-08-01

    Surveys of the leaders of the UK's post-qualifying education courses for community mental health nurses have taken place, on an annual basis, for over 10 years. In this paper, findings from the survey undertaken in the 1998--99 academic year are reported. These findings include: that most course leaders do not personally engage in clinical practice; that interprofessional education takes place at a minority of course centres, and that course philosophies and aims are characterised by an emphasis on both outcomes (in terms of, for example, skills acquisition, knowledge development and the ability to engage in reflective practice), and process (adult learning).

  8. Teaching Cultural Diversity: Current Status in U.K., U.S., and Canadian Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Reitmanova, Sylvia; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions. PMID:20352513

  9. Teaching cultural diversity: current status in U.K., U.S., and Canadian medical schools.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Nisha; Reitmanova, Sylvia; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions.

  10. How Advertising History Helps Explain Current Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranco, Leonard W.

    Students majoring in advertising can benefit from a study of that field in its historical context because such study helps them to understand current practices and to foresee future developments. One model of teaching advertising history within a required course about advertising and society begins with some basic definitions of the advertising…

  11. Current Practices in Resident Assistant Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Virginia Albaneso

    2016-01-01

    Developing resident assistant (RA) training is a challenge for most housing and residence life staff. Grounded in the author's doctoral research on the curricular design of RA training programs, this study summarizes current practices in three types of RA training programs--preservice training, in-service training, and academic courses--and…

  12. Current Practices in Resident Assistant Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Virginia Albaneso

    2016-01-01

    Developing resident assistant (RA) training is a challenge for most housing and residence life staff. Grounded in the author's doctoral research on the curricular design of RA training programs, this study summarizes current practices in three types of RA training programs--preservice training, in-service training, and academic courses--and…

  13. Thymomas: Review of Current Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszek, Sandra; Wigle, Dennis A.; Keshavjee, Shaf; Fischer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Thymomas are the most common tumors of the mediastinum. The introduction of multimodality treatment strategies, as well as novel approaches to the diagnosis of these tumors, has led to changes in the clinical management of thymomas. Here we review the literature for current clinical practice in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of thymomas. PMID:19463649

  14. CURRENT PRACTICES IN QSAR DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Practices in QSAR Development and Applications

    Although it is commonly assumed that the structure and properties of a single chemical determines its activity in a particular biological system, it is only through study of how biological activity varies with changes...

  15. CURRENT PRACTICES IN QSAR DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Practices in QSAR Development and Applications

    Although it is commonly assumed that the structure and properties of a single chemical determines its activity in a particular biological system, it is only through study of how biological activity varies with changes...

  16. THC:CBD in Daily Practice: Available Data from UK, Germany and Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar

    2016-01-01

    From the time Sativex (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray first became available in European Union countries in 2010 for the management of treatment-resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity, data from daily practice have been collected through various projects. A retrospective registry study and a prospective safety study of THC:CBD oromucosal spray are reported. The most recent analysis of a retrospective registry established in the United Kingdom (UK), Germany and Switzerland, which collected safety data on more than 900 patients, has indicated a positive risk-benefit profile for THC:CBD oromucosal spray during long-term use. Long-term continuation rates were 68% (mean follow-up time 1 year) and the mean dose was 5.4 sprays/day. No new safety concerns were identified, and adverse events of special interest for a cannabis-based medicine were limited. The UK registry has since been closed but remains open in Germany and Switzerland. A prospective safety study undertaken in Spain involved 207 patients from 13 specialized MS centres who had been prescribed THC:CBD oromucosal spray. The findings aligned closely with the UK/German/Swiss registry data in terms of 1-year continuation rates (64.7%), mean daily dose (6.6 sprays/day) and safety profile, including no evidence of addiction, abuse or misuse. The homogeneity between these observational studies supports the interest in THC:CBD oromucosal spray for management of MS spasticity in daily practice. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Percutaneous coronary intervention in the UK: recommendations for good practice 2015

    PubMed Central

    Banning, Adrian P; Baumbach, Andreas; Blackman, Dan; Curzen, Nick; Devadathan, Sen; Fraser, Douglas; Ludman, Peter; Norell, Micheal; Muir, Dougie; Nolan, James; Redwood, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 35 years, there has been dramatic progress in the technology and applicability of percutaneous techniques to treat obstructive coronary heart disease. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has a considerable evidence base and it is firmly established as the most common procedure used in the invasive treatment of patients with coronary heart disease in the UK. This set of guidelines aims to address specifically issues relating to PCI and not the growing subspecialty of structural heart disease intervention. It is not intended to provide a review of the entire evidence base for coronary intervention. The evidence base relating to PCI is extensively reviewed in international guidelines and the British Cardiovascular Intervention society endorses these guidelines and their updates. The guidelines presented here focus on issues pertinent to practice within the UK and set out a recommended template to ensure optimal delivery of patient care. PMID:26041756

  18. Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Stephen JW; Douglas, Ian; Rawlins, Michael D; Wexler, Nancy S; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The prevalence of Huntington's disease (HD) in the UK is uncertain. Recently, it has been suggested that the prevalence may be substantially greater than previously reported. This study was undertaken to estimate the overall UK prevalence in adults diagnosed with HD, using data from primary care. Methods The electronic medical records of patients aged 21 years or more, with recorded diagnoses of HD, were retrieved from the UK's General Practice Research Database. Prevalence was estimated from the number of persons with recorded diagnoses of HD, on 1 July each year, between 1990 and 2010. This number was divided by the total number of persons registered with participating general practices on that same date. These data were also used to estimate both age specific prevalence and prevalence in various regions of the UK. Results A total of 1136 patients diagnosed with HD, aged 21 years or more, were identified from the database. The estimated prevalence (expressed per 100 000 population) rose from 5.4 (95% CI 3.8 to 7.5) in 1990 to 12.3 (95% CI 11.2 to 13.5) in 2010. Although an increased prevalence was observed within every age group, the most dramatic was in older patients. Age specific prevalence was highest in the 51–60 year age range (15.8 95% CI 9.0 to 22.3). The prevalence of adult HD was lowest in the London region (5.4 (95% CI 3.0 to 8.9)) and highest in the North East of England (18.3 (95% CI 8.6 to 34.6)) and Scotland (16.1 (95% CI 10.8 to 22.9)). Conclusions The prevalence of diagnosed HD is clearly substantially higher in the UK than suggested from previous studies. By extrapolation to the UK as a whole, it is estimated that there are more than 5700 people, aged 21 years or more, with HD. There has also been a surprising doubling of the HD population between 1990 and 2010. Many factors may have caused this increase, including more accurate diagnoses, better and more available therapies and an improved life expectancy

  19. Investigation into the dosage form attributes of currently UK licensed cardiovascular and Parkinson's disease drug products.

    PubMed

    Hanning, S M; Muhamed, J; Orlu-Gul, M

    2015-02-01

    Globally, there is a continuous rise in the older population (over 65 years), particularly in developed countries. As many diseases are age-related, older adults represent a highly heterogeneous cohort. This presents a major challenge for both the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this research was to attract attention towards the appropriateness of geriatric formulations by investigating the dosage form attributes of currently UK licensed cardiovascular and Parkinson's disease drug products. Medication available in the UK for cardiovascular disorders and Parkinson's disease were screened and the available formulations, packaging and patient information leaflets of these medicines were analysed, with the goal of raising awareness of the need to cater for elderly patients with increasing difficulty in managing their medication. It emerged that although cardiovascular disorders and Parkinson's disease are more prevalent in older people, many treatment options have not been optimised for this cohort. In particular, older patient centred dosage forms, specific dosing requirements, excipients, patient-friendly packaging and easy-to-follow patient information were highlighted as areas to be considered in order to optimise health outcomes in the ageing population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Performance of small general practices under the UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Tim; Campbell, Stephen; Fullwood, Catherine; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Roland, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Small general practices are often perceived to provide worse care than larger practices. Aim To describe the comparative performance of small practices on the UK's pay-for-performance scheme, the Quality and Outcomes Framework. Design of study Longitudinal analysis (2004–2005 to 2006–2007) of quality scores for 48 clinical activities. Setting Family practices in England (n = 7502). Method Comparison of performance of practices by list size, in terms of points scored in the pay-for-performance scheme, reported achievement rates, and population achievement rates (which allow for patients excluded from the scheme). Results In the first year of the pay-for-performance scheme, the smallest practices (those with fewer than 2000 patients) had the lowest median reported achievement rates, achieving the clinical targets for 83.8% of eligible patients. Performance generally improved for practices of all sizes over time, but the smallest practices improved at the fastest rate, and by year 3 had the highest median reported achievement rates (91.5%). This improvement was not achieved by additional exception reporting. There was more variation in performance among small practices than larger ones: practices with fewer than 3000 patients (20.1% of all practices in year 3), represented 46.7% of the highest-achieving 5% of practices and 45.1% of the lowest-achieving 5% of practices. Conclusion Small practices were represented among both the best and the worst practices in terms of achievement of clinical quality targets. The effect of the pay-for-performance scheme appears to have been to reduce variation in performance, and to reduce the difference between large and small practices. PMID:20849683

  1. Training in clinical forensic medicine in the UK--perceptions of current regulatory standards.

    PubMed

    Stark, Margaret M; Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-08-01

    As clinical forensic medicine (CFM) is not currently recognised as a speciality in the UK there are no nationally agreed mandatory standards for training forensic physicians in either general forensic (GFM) or sexual offence medicine (SOM). The General Medical Council (GMC), the medical regulator in the UK, has issued clear standards for training in all specialities recommending that "trainees must be supported to acquire the necessary skills and experience through induction, effective educational supervision, an appropriate workload and time to learn". In order to evaluate the current situation in the field of clinical forensic medicine, doctors who have recently (within the last two years) started working in the field "trainees" (n = 38), and trainers (n = 61) with responsibility for clinical and educational supervision of new trainees, were surveyed by questionnaire to gather their perceptions of how the relevant GMC standards are being met in initial on-the-job training. Telephone interviews were performed with eleven doctors working as clinical or medical directors to determine their views. It is clear that currently the quality of training in CFM is sub-standard and inconsistent and that the published standards, as to the minimum requirement for training that must be met by post-graduate medical and training providers at all levels, are not being met. The Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) needs to set explicit minimum standards which will comply with the regulator and work to pilot credentialing for forensic physicians. A number of recommendations are made for urgent FFLM development.

  2. Preventing childhood obesity during infancy in UK primary care: a mixed-methods study of HCPs' knowledge, beliefs and practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs) approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses in relation to identifying infants at risk of developing childhood obesity. Method Survey of UK HCPs (GPs, practice nurses, health visitors, nursery, community and children's nurses). HCPs (n = 116) rated their confidence in providing infant feeding advice and completed the Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10). Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 12 GPs and 6 practice nurses were audio recorded, taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results GPs were less confident about giving advice about infant feeding than health visitors (p = 0.001) and nursery nurses (p = 0.009) but more knowledgeable about the health risks of obesity (p < 0.001) than nurses (p = 0.009). HCPs who were consulted more often about feeding were less knowledgeable about the risks associated with obesity (r = -0.34, n = 114, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between HCPs' ratings of confidence in their advice and their knowledge of the obesity risk. Six main themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Attribution of childhood obesity to family environment, 2) Infant feeding advice as the health visitor's role, 3) Professional reliance on anecdotal or experiential knowledge about infant feeding, 4) Difficulties with recognition of, or lack of concern for, infants "at risk" of becoming obese, 5) Prioritising relationship with parent over best practice in infant feeding and 6) Lack of shared understanding for dealing with early years

  3. The Current Use of Online Services in U.K. Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Allan; Akeroyd, John

    This update of a survey taken by the authors in April 1978 on the use of online services in British academic libraries (Online Review; v3 n2 p195-204 1979) concentrates on the following areas: (1) general pattern of use; (2) current arguments for charging users for online services; (3) current academic library practice on charging; (4) specific…

  4. Currently available medical engineering degrees in the UK. Part 1: Undergraduate degrees.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T

    2009-05-01

    This paper reviews mechanical-engineering-based medical engineering degrees which are currently provided at undergraduate level in the UK. At present there are 14 undergraduate degree programmes in medical engineering, offered by the University of Bath, University of Birmingham, University of Bradford, Cardiff University, University of Hull, Imperial College London, University of Leeds, University of Nottingham, University of Oxford, Queen Mary University of London, University of Sheffield, University of Southampton, University of Surrey, and Swansea University. All these undergraduate courses are delivered on a full-time basis, both 3 year BEng and 4 year MEng degrees. Half of the 14 degree courses share a core first 2 years with a mechanical engineering stream. The other seven programmes include medical engineering modules earlier in their degrees. Within the courses, a very wide range of medical-engineering-related modules are offered, although more common modules include biomaterials, biomechanics, and anatomy and physiology.

  5. Current loop signal conditioning: Practical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a variety of practical application circuits based on the current loop signal conditioning paradigm. Equations defining the circuit response are also provided. The constant current loop is a fundamental signal conditioning circuit concept that can be implemented in a variety of configurations for resistance-based transducers, such as strain gages and resistance temperature detectors. The circuit features signal conditioning outputs which are unaffected by extremely large variations in lead wire resistance, direct current frequency response, and inherent linearity with respect to resistance change. Sensitivity of this circuit is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit. Electrical output is zero for resistance change equals zero. The same excitation and output sense wires can serve multiple transducers. More application arrangements are possible with constant current loop signal conditioning than with the Wheatstone bridge.

  6. A comparison of sustainability theory with UK and European airports policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Upham, P

    2001-11-01

    There are three main theoretical difficulties involved in relating sustainability to aviation, and which a research agenda for sustainable aviation needs to address. The first is uncertainty regarding the critical thresholds of global environmental systems. The second is a lack of protocols for allocating permissible environmental consumption shares to, and hence targets for, individual enterprises or sectors. The third is differing value judgements of what natural features should be sustained. For the time being, these difficulties preclude determination of the degree of sustainability or unsustainability of any individual airport with respect to global environmental systems. Nevertheless, at this stage it can at least be said that since most economic activity has an adverse environmental impact, airports with higher throughputs of material and people will tend to be less sustainable than smaller-scale airports given similar technologies and regulatory compliance. This is theoretically supported and illustrated with waste arising as an indicator at reviewed airports. Despite governmental policies of sustainable mobility, there is a disjunction between EU and UK policy on airports and individual airport practice, and environmental sustainability theory. In the UK and EU, airport practice and governmental policy is to mitigate the impacts of aviation, but not at the expense of its aviation growth. This mitigation practice is summarised for the reviewed airports and presented in a framework that accounts for the suggested, interim approach to sustainability assessment.

  7. The modernisation of general practice in the UK: 1980 to 1995 and beyond. Part I.

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, S.

    1996-01-01

    The UK is unusual in providing universal free healthcare in which access to specialists is largely controlled by general practitioners with 24-hour responsibility, throughout the year, for a defined list of patients of all ages. It is generally considered that this gatekeeper function has contributed to the relatively low cost of the National Health Service, but major changes in the organisation and clinical role of general practitioners have occurred, culminating in a new contract that aims to re-orientate general practice towards health promotion, disease prevention and the management of chronic disease. The implications of these changes are discussed. PMID:8733525

  8. Whither British general practice after the 2004 GMS contract? Stories and realities of change in four UK general practices.

    PubMed

    Huby, Guro; Guthrie, Bruce; Grant, Suzanne; Watkins, Francis; Checkland, Kath; McDonald, Ruth; Davies, Huw

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide answers to two questions: what has been the impact of nGMS on practice organisation and teamwork; and how do general practice staff perceive the impact? The article is based on comparative in-depth case studies of four UK practices. There was a discrepancy between changes observed and the way practice staff described the impact of the contract. Similar patterns of organisational change were apparent in all practices. Decision-making became concentrated in fewer hands. Formally or informally constituted "elite" multidisciplinary groups monitored and controlled colleagues' behaviour for maximum performance and remuneration. This convergence of organisational form was not reflected in the dominant "story" each practice constructed about its unique ethos and style. The "stories" also failed to detect negative consequences to the practice flowing from its adaptation to the contract. The paper highlights how collective "sensemaking" in practices may fail to detect and address key organisational consequences from the nGMS.

  9. Understanding general practice: a conceptual framework developed from case studies in the UK NHS.

    PubMed

    Checkland, Kath

    2007-01-01

    General practice in the UK is undergoing a period of rapid and profound change. Traditionally, research into the effects of change on general practice has tended to regard GPs as individuals or as members of a professional group. To understand the impact of change, general practices should also be considered as organisations. To use the organisational studies literature to build a conceptual framework of general practice organisations, and to test and develop this empirically using case studies of change in practice. This study used the implementation of National Service Frameworks (NSFs) and the new General Medical Services (GMS) contract as incidents of change. In-depth, qualitative case studies. The design was iterative: each case study was followed by a review of the theoretical ideas. The final conceptual framework was the result of the dynamic interplay between theory and empirical evidence. Five general practices in England, selected using purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews with all clinical and managerial personnel in each practice, participant and nonparticipant observation, and examination of documents. A conceptual framework was developed that can be used to understand how and why practices respond to change. This framework enabled understanding of observed reactions to the introduction of NSFs and the new GMS contract. Important factors for generating responses to change included the story that the practice members told about their practice, beliefs about what counted as legitimate work, the role played by the manager, and previous experiences of change. Viewing general practices as small organisations has generated insights into factors that influence responses to change. Change tends to occur from the bottom up and is determined by beliefs about organisational reality. The conceptual framework suggests some questions that can be asked of practices to explain this internal reality.

  10. Public health argument to retain current UK national controls for tick and tapeworms under the Pet Travel Scheme.

    PubMed

    Gover, L; Kirkbride, H; Morgan, D

    2011-02-01

    At present, the European Council is debating whether the current national controls under the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS), which aims to prevent the introduction of rabies and tapeworms or live ticks and their associated diseases into the United Kingdom (UK), should be harmonized amongst European Union (EU) Member States. There is a strong case to support the retention of control measures on human health grounds. Although many are aware of the implications of rabies infection, few realize the risk to the UK population if current tick and tapeworm controls under PETS were to be removed. If this were to occur, there is a risk that a number of diseases of human health importance may be introduced and become established in the UK. Such diseases include alveolar echinococcosis, tick borne encephalitis, tularaemia and Mediterranean spotted fever; all of which are found in other EU Member States but do not occur in the UK. These four diseases are responsible for a significant burden of disease in Europe, and current national controls under PETS have been highly effective in so far preventing their introduction into the UK.

  11. Diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in infancy - a UK primary care practical guide.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina; Brown, Trevor; Shah, Neil; Walsh, Joanne; Fox, Adam T

    2013-07-08

    The UK NICE guideline on the Diagnosis and Assessment of Food Allergy in Children and Young People was published in 2011, highlighting the important role of primary care physicians, dietitians, nurses and other community based health care professionals in the diagnosis and assessment of IgE and non-IgE-mediated food allergies in children. The guideline suggests that those with suspected IgE-mediated disease and those suspected to suffer from severe non-IgE-mediated disease are referred on to secondary or tertiary level care. What is evident from this guideline is that the responsibility for the diagnostic food challenge, ongoing management and determining of tolerance to cow's milk in children with less severe non-IgE-mediated food allergies is ultimately that of the primary care/community based health care staff, but this discussion fell outside of the current NICE guideline. Some clinical members of the guideline development group (CV, JW, ATF, TB) therefore felt that there was a particular need to extend this into a more practical guideline for cow's milk allergy. This subset of the guideline development group with the additional expertise of a paediatric gastroenterologist (NS) therefore aimed to produce a UK Primary Care Guideline for the initial clinical recognition of all forms of cow's milk allergy and the ongoing management of those with non-severe non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in the form of algorithms. These algorithms will be discussed in this review paper, drawing on guidance primarily from the UK NICE guideline, but also from the DRACMA guidelines, ESPGHAN guidelines, Australian guidelines and the US NIAID guidelines.

  12. Re-licensing of general practitioners using the current UK revalidation proposals: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Rodger; Coomber, J; Thistlethwaite, J E

    2011-12-01

    Objective To explore the views of general practitioners (GPs) on the feasibility of collecting supporting information for the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) revalidation portfolio and mapping of this evidence to the General Medical Practice framework for proposed UK medical re-licensing. Design Cross sectional study with a questionnaire. Setting One inner city and one mixed urban/rural primary care organisation in the West Midlands, England and one rural primary care organisation in Wales. Participants 51/69 GPs who submitted a revalidation portfolio from November 2009 to February 2010. Results The majority of GPs considered the majority of work based supporting information was feasible to collect within a 5 year revalidation cycle; most concerns were expressed about providing evidence for extended practice, learning credits, and patient satisfaction and colleague feedback surveys (59%, 63%, 72%, and 77%, respectively, of GPs considered it feasible to collect this evidence) due to workload time constraints and lack of automatic access to evidence from others, which differed by GP work role. Two-thirds of participants (65%) stated that the submission of a portfolio of evidence was a feasible component of GP revalidation, reporting reservations on the appropriateness of patient and colleague feedback surveys and extended practice (55%, 57%, and 59% respectively) to provide objective evidence. GPs requested further clarity on the evidence mapping process. Conclusion Overall, GPs reported a positive response to the RCGP revalidation proposals. Concerns were focused on collecting the newer types of supporting information and the ability of GPs non-principals to collect this evidence. GP revalidation training and preparation is required.

  13. Duration of immunity (DOI) and booster vaccination--dealing with the issue at practice level in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hill, R James

    2006-10-05

    The presentation offers a UK veterinary practitioners viewpoint on issues of DOI and booster vaccination with reference to both dog and cat vaccines. The current use of vaccines and issues surrounding their use are discussed, including motivations for and against vaccinating in a climate of reduced fear of disease, and increased suspicion of vaccines. Attitudes to extended DOI and routine booster vaccinations are explored, and specific disease and prevention issues concerning leptospirosis in particular are presented. The strategy and tactics of implementation of extended DOI vaccines at general practice level are discussed based on the author's own experiences, and thoughts offered on how vaccine manufacturers might support the process at local and national levels, as well as communicating a positive message for continued routine vaccination of dogs and cats, and the advantages that extended DOI offers.

  14. Carotid Endarterectomy: Current Concepts and Practice Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sibu P.; Saha, Subhajit; Vyas, Krishna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke is the number one cause of disability and third leading cause of death among adults in the United States. A major cause of stroke is carotid artery stenosis (CAS) caused by atherosclerotic plaques. Randomized trials have varying results regarding the equivalence and perioperative complication rates of stents versus carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the management of CAS. Objectives We review the evidence for the current management of CAS and describe the current concepts and practice patterns of CEA. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed to identify relevant studies regarding CEA and stenting for the management of CAS. Results The introduction of CAS has led to a decrease in the percentage of CEA and an increase in the number of CAS procedures performed in the context of all revascularization procedures. However, the efficacy of stents in patients with symptomatic CAS remains unclear because of varying results among randomized trials, but the perioperative complication rates exceed those found after CEA. Conclusions Vascular surgeons are uniquely positioned to treat carotid artery disease through medical therapy, CEA, and stenting. Although data from randomized trials differ, it is important for surgeons to make clinical decisions based on the patient. We believe that CAS can be adopted with low complication rate in a selected subgroup of patients, but CEA should remain the standard of care. This current evidence should be incorporated into practice of the modern vascular surgeon. PMID:26417192

  15. The teaching of professional attitudes within UK medical schools: Reported difficulties and good practice.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Anne E; Adshead, Lesley E; Higgs, Roger H

    2006-11-01

    The demonstration of appropriate attitudinal behaviour is crucial in the professional development of doctors. This study explores the experiences of UK medical schools in developing and assessing the behaviour associated with the attitudes of undergraduate medical students. A qualitative in-depth interview study was based on a questionnaire survey of all UK medical schools. Six heads of medical schools or their nominated representatives were interviewed. Outcome measures were the perceptions and experiences of developing and assessing appropriate attitudes and behaviour in their undergraduate students. Aspects of the hidden curriculum, especially the negative role modelling encountered during clinical practice, were seen to undermine the attitudinal messages of the formal curriculum. Some participants believed that students could still qualify as doctors despite having inappropriate attitudes or behaviour. Others felt certain that this was now unlikely in their school, and this confidence seemed to be backed up with the knowledge that strategies, systems and structures were in place to detect and act upon poor behaviour. The conviction that it is right to assess students on their attitudinal behaviour does not yet appear to be held consistently across all schools and we suggest that this may reflect some fundamental tensions arising from differing views about the essential elements of good medical practice, tensions that are also shaping the hidden curriculum.

  16. Learning from Somaliland? Transferability of learning from volunteering to national health service practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Tillson, Esther; van Wees, Sibylle Herzig; McGowan, Charlotte; Franklin, Hannah; Jones, Helena; Bogue, Patrick; Aliabadi, Shirin; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-03-22

    Capacity building partnerships between healthcare institutions have the potential to benefit both partners particularly in staff development. Previous research suggests that volunteering can contribute to professional development but there is little evidence on how learning is acquired, the barriers and facilitators to learning in this context or the process of translation of learning to the home environment. Volunteers from a healthcare partnership between the UK and Somaliland reported learning in communication, interdisciplinary working, teaching, management, leadership and service development. This learning came from observing familiar practices in unfamiliar environments; alternative solutions to familiar problems; learning about Somali culture; opportunities to assume higher levels of responsibility and new professional relationships. There was variability in the extent of translation to NHS practice. Time and support available for reflection and mentoring were important facilitators of this process. The professional development outcomes documented in this study came directly from the experience of volunteering. Experiential learning theory suggests that this requires a complex process of critical reflection and new knowledge generation, testing and translation for use in new contexts. This process benefits from identification of learning as an important element of volunteering and support for reflection and the translation translation of learning to UK contexts. We suggest that missed opportunities for volunteer learning will remain until the volunteering process is overtly framed as part of continuing professional development.

  17. Religious slaughter: evaluation of current practices in selected countries.

    PubMed

    Velarde, A; Rodriguez, P; Dalmau, A; Fuentes, C; Llonch, P; von Holleben, K V; Anil, M H; Lambooij, J B; Pleiter, H; Yesildere, T; Cenci-Goga, B T

    2014-01-01

    As part of the project "Religious slaughter (DIALREL): improving knowledge and expertise through dialogue and debate on issues of welfare, legislation and socio-economic aspects", this paper discusses an evaluation of current practices during Halal and Shechita slaughter in cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. During religious slaughter, animals are killed with and without stunning by a transverse incision across the neck that is cutting the skin, muscles (brachiocephalic, sternocephalic, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid), trachea, esophagus, carotid arteries, jugular veins and the major, superficial and deep nerves of the cervical plexus. In this report, the restraint methods, stunning, neck cutting, exsanguination, slaughter techniques and postcut handling in the abattoir were assessed for religious slaughter. Information about the procedures used during religious slaughter in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, Turkey and Australia was collected by means of spot visits to abattoirs. To standardize the information gathered during the spot visits three guidelines were designed, one for each species, and translated into the national languages of the countries involved. The document included questions on the handling and restraint methods (stunning, neck cutting/exsanguination/slaughter techniques and postcut handling performed under religious practices) and for pain and distress of the animal during the restraint, neck cutting and induction to death in each abattoir. Results showed differences in the time from restraining to stun and to cut in the neck cutting procedures and in the time from cut to death. © 2013.

  18. Faculty Development in Teaching and Learning: The UK Framework and Current Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbert, Paul; Semler, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Following the publication of a recent report, commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted by Staff and Educational Developers Association, this short paper considers the HEA UK Professional Standards Framework in the UK Higher Education Sector, in the context of recent and continuing debates about how best to support faculty…

  19. Current GI endoscope disinfection and QA practices.

    PubMed

    Moses, Frank M; Lee, Jennifer S

    2004-01-01

    High-level disinfection (HLD) of GI endoscopes is readily achieved when published guidelines are observed. Contamination is linked to breakdowns in accepted procedure. However, there is no recognized method of verifying adequacy of endoscope reprocessing in routine practice and no data regarding current quality assurance (QA) practice. Prior reports have demonstrated a wide variation in routine clinical practice of GI endoscopy HLD. The goal of this study was to determine current practice at regional endoscopy centers with regard to endoscope cleaning and HLD, maintenance, and QA practice. An anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire was mailed to 367 SGNA members in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, Maryland, and District of Columbia and completed by 230 (63%). The majority of responders were hospital-based and 59% of the units performed over 3000 procedures per year. After use the endoscope was hand-carried or transported in a dry container (97%) to a separate cleaning room (85%) for HLD by technicians (40%). Wide variations existed in manual step procedures including use of disposable (50%) brushes and number of times channel brushed: once (21%), twice (35%), or three to five times (37%). Soaking duration in disinfectant (70% gluteraldehyde) was for <10 min (8%), 10-20 min (35%), 20-30 min (38%), 30-40 min (7%), and >40 min (3%). Sixty-seven percent had an active unit infection control (IC) service and 98% had a QA program. Monitoring of cleaning effectiveness was by visual inspection (50%) and culturing endoscopes (17%). Culture was done weekly (1%) and practice variations were noted in manual cleaning and in soaking time during automated HLD in this community

  20. Assessing governance theory and practice in health-care organizations: a survey of UK hospices.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Naomi; Benson, Lawrence; Boyd, Alan; Girling, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    This paper sets out a theoretical framework for analyzing board governance, and describes an empirical study of corporate governance practices in a subset of non-profit organizations (hospices in the UK). It examines how practices in hospice governance compare with what is known about effective board working. We found that key strengths of hospice boards included a strong focus on the mission and the finances of the organizations, and common weaknesses included a lack of involvement in strategic matters and a lack of confidence, and some nervousness about challenging the organization on the quality of clinical care. Finally, the paper offers suggestions for theoretical development particularly in relation to board governance in non-profit organizations. It develops an engagement theory for boards which comprises a triadic proposition of high challenge, high support and strong grip.

  1. The fear factor of risk - clinical governance and midwifery talk and practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Scamell, Mandie

    2016-07-01

    Through the critical application of social theory, this paper will scrutinise how the operations of risk management help to constitute midwives׳ understandings of childbirth in a particular way. Drawing from rich ethnographic data, collected in the southeast of England, the paper presents empirical evidence to critically explore how institutional concerns around risk and risk management impact upon the way midwives can legitimately imagine and manage labour and childbirth. Observational field notes, transcribed interviews with various midwives, along with material culture in the form of documentary evidence will be used to explore the unintended consequences of clinical governance and its risk management technologies. Through this analysis the fear factor of risk in midwifery talk and practice will be introduced to provide an insight into how risk management impacts midwifery practice in the UK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. "Does RE Work?" An Analysis of the Aims, Practices and Models of Effectiveness of Religious Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundie, David

    2010-01-01

    Possibly the largest qualitative study in RE policy and practice in many years, the AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society project "Does RE work? An analysis of the aims, practices and models of effectiveness in religious education in the UK", headed by the University of Glasgow, seeks to map the complex processes of curriculum formation as…

  3. "Does RE Work?" An Analysis of the Aims, Practices and Models of Effectiveness of Religious Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundie, David

    2010-01-01

    Possibly the largest qualitative study in RE policy and practice in many years, the AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society project "Does RE work? An analysis of the aims, practices and models of effectiveness in religious education in the UK", headed by the University of Glasgow, seeks to map the complex processes of curriculum formation as…

  4. Refitting of the UKPDS 68 risk equations to contemporary routine clinical practice data in the UK.

    PubMed

    McEwan, P; Bennett, H; Ward, T; Bergenheim, K

    2015-02-01

    Economic evaluations of new diabetes therapies rely heavily upon the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) equations for prediction of cardiovascular events; however, concerns persist regarding their relevance to current clinical practice and appropriate use in populations other than newly diagnosed patients. This study refits the UKPDS 68 event equations, using contemporary data describing low- and intermediate-risk patients. Anonymized patient data describing demographics, risk factors and incidence of cardiovascular and microvascular events were extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database over the 10-year period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. Following multiple imputation of missing values, accelerated failure-time Weibull regression equations were refitted to produce new coefficients for each risk group. Discriminatory performance was assessed and compared with both UKPDS 68 and UKPDS 82 risk equations, and the implication of coefficient choice within an economic evaluation was assessed using the Cardiff type 2 diabetes model. When applied to patient-level data, the three sets of coefficients (UKPDS, THIN low-risk and intermediate-risk) lead to fairly consistent predictions of the 5-year risk of events. Exceptions include lower predicted rates of myocardial infarction and higher rates of ischaemic heart disease, congestive heart failure and end-stage renal disease with both sets of revised THIN coefficients compared with UKPDS. Over a modelled lifetime, the coefficients derived from the low-risk data predict fewer total cardiovascular events compared with UKPDS, while those from the intermediate-risk data predict a greater number. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves demonstrated a marginal improvement in the discriminatory performance of the refitted equations. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with dapagliflozin versus sulphonylurea in addition to metformin changed from £7,708 to £7

  5. A survey of surgical draping practices in small-animal practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Delisser, P J; Sinnett, D E; Parsons, K J; Friend, E J

    2012-09-29

    Veterinary practices in the United Kingdom were surveyed to compare their surgical draping practices with Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) accreditation tier and other surgery-related factors. Using descriptive statistics and logistic or ordinal regression analysis (where appropriate), the relationships between draping material and accreditation tier and other surgery-related factors were assessed. Procedures were categorised as short or long. Two hundred and sixty-nine surveys were completed. Reusable drapes were used in 66 per cent of practices. Antibiotics were administered routinely in 38 per cent of short and 93 per cent of long procedures. Practices accredited as a Veterinary Hospital (VH) were 6.3-7.2 (short and long surgeries, respectively) times more likely to use disposable drapes, when compared with non-accredited practices. Use of dedicated surgical attire, draping the whole animal/table, and routine antibiotic usage were also positively correlated with disposable drape usage. Fifty-one per cent of practices rated infection rate as most important when choosing drape material. 'Best practice' techniques are associated with lower importance given to infection rate, and higher importance given to financial cost, when choosing drape material. Disposable drape use correlates with RCVS accreditation and with other aspects of surgical technique. Importance ratings awarded correlate with best practice procedures. Clinical relevance 'Best practice' draping procedures, that are not governed by RCVS accreditation scheme, are also more frequently performed in accredited VHs.

  6. Science or practice? UK undergraduate experiences and attitudes to the MPharm degree.

    PubMed

    Jesson, Jill Karen; Langley, Chris A; Wilson, Keith A; Hatfield, Katie

    2006-10-01

    The debate surrounding the science/practice balance in the teaching of undergraduate pharmacy has been played out in the professional literature for years. The objective of this work was to explore the attitudes of pharmacy undergraduates on the practice-science debate. The study was undertaken as part of a national study of teaching, learning and assessment methods in United Kingdom (UK) schools of pharmacy. Six focus groups were carried out. The sample was 44 volunteer students from nine UK schools of pharmacy, representing all 4 years of the MPharm programme. Groups were tape recorded and transcribed. Analysis of the transcripts was theme based by topic. Qualitative data on student attitudes and experiences. Most students thought that there was too strong an emphasis placed on the science components of the course in the early part of their studies. Later in the course they realised that the majority of the science was necessary; it just had not been apparent to them at the time. There were strongly held attitudes across all 4 years that it would be beneficial to include more practice-related material at the beginning of their studies. This would be beneficial for three reasons: to make the course more interesting, to aid in the contextualisation of the science component and to assist the students in any early placement or vacational work. Internationally, changes to the role of the pharmacist from a traditional supply function to a more clinical role has resulted in differing educational needs for the pharmacist of the future. Pharmacy will remain a degree built on a strong scientific background, but students advise that the contextualisation and sequencing of material within the degree could make a considerable improvement to their learning. Consulting students helps us to understand the teaching, learning and assessment experience better by giving insights into ways of improving the delivery. In the case of the UK, there are legislative changes impending which

  7. Improvement in the management of gout is vital and overdue: an audit from a UK primary care medical practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gout is estimated to affect 1.4% of adults in the UK. Appropriate and timely management is essential to reduce the risk of further flares, complications, and to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The British Society for Rheumatology and British Health Professionals in Rheumatology (BSR/BHPR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) have published guidance regarding the management of gout, thereby providing standards against which performance can be measured. This audit was designed to assess the extent to which patients diagnosed with gout in one primary care medical practice in North Staffordshire, UK, are managed in accordance with current best practice guidelines, and to identify strategies for improvement where appropriate. Methods Audit criteria were derived from the EULAR and BSR/BHPR guidelines; standards were set arbitrarily, but with consideration of patient comorbidity and other factors which may influence concordance. An electronic search of the practice records was performed to identify adults with a diagnosis of gout. Medical record review with a descriptive analysis was undertaken to assess the extent to which medical management adhered to the predefined standards. Results Of the total ≥18 year-old practice population (n = 8686), 305 (3%) patient records included a diagnosis of gout. Of these, 74% (n = 226) had an electronic record of serum uric acid (SUA), and 11% (n = 34) and 53% (n = 162) a measure of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ever and serum glucose since diagnosis respectively. 34% (n = 105) of patients had ever taken urate-lowering therapy with 25% (n = 77) currently prescribed this at the time of data extraction. Dose adjustment and monitoring of treatment according to SUA was found to be inadequate. Provision of lifestyle advice and consideration of comorbidities was also lacking. Conclusions The primary care management of gout in this practice was not concordant with national

  8. Characterisation of antimicrobial usage in cats and dogs attending UK primary care companion animal veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Buckland, E L; O'Neill, D; Summers, J; Mateus, A; Church, D; Redmond, L; Brodbelt, D

    2016-11-12

    There is scant evidence describing antimicrobial (AM) usage in companion animal primary care veterinary practices in the UK. The use of AMs in dogs and cats was quantified using data extracted from 374 veterinary practices participating in VetCompass. The frequency and quantity of systemic antibiotic usage was described.Overall, 25 per cent of 963,463 dogs and 21 per cent of 594,812 cats seen at veterinary practices received at least one AM over a two-year period (2012-2014) and 42 per cent of these animals were given repeated AMs. The main agents used were aminopenicillin types and cephalosporins. Of the AM events, 60 per cent in dogs and 81 per cent in cats were AMs classified as critically important (CIAs) to human health by the World Health Organisation. CIAs of highest importance (fluoroquinolones, macrolides, third-generation cephalosporins) accounted for just over 6 per cent and 34 per cent of AMs in dogs and cats, respectively. The total quantity of AMs used within the study population was estimated to be 1473 kg for dogs and 58 kg for cats.This study has identified a high frequency of AM usage in companion animal practice and for certain agents classified as of critical importance in human medicine. The study highlights the usefulness of veterinary practice electronic health records for studying AM usage. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Andrew R; Rushworth, Gordon F; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin remains the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in cardiac patients. However, if a patient is allergic to aspirin and dual anti-platelet therapy is indicated - such as with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), then there is no clear guidance. One possibility is aspirin desensitization. A variety of protocols exist for the rapid desensitization of patients with aspirin allergy. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge and practice regarding aspirin desensitization in the UK. We conducted a UK wide survey of all UK 116 PCI centers and obtained complete responses from 40 (35.4%) centers. Of these, just 7 (17.5%) centers had previously desensitised patients; 29 (87.9%) centers suggested a lack of a local protocol prevented them from desensitizing, with 10 (30.3%) unsure of how to conduct desensitization. Only 5 (12.5%) centers had a local policy for aspirin desensitization although 25 (64.1%) units had a clinical strategy for dealing with aspirin allergy; the majority (72%) giving higher doses of thienopyridine class drugs. In the UK, there appears to be no consistent approach to patients with aspirin allergy. Patients undergoing PCI benefit from dual anti-platelet therapy (including aspirin), and aspirin desensitization in those with known allergy may facilitate this. Sustained effort should be placed on encouraging UK centers to use desensitization as a treatment modality prior to PCI rather than avoiding aspirin altogether.

  10. Clinical roles in clinical biochemistry: a national survey of practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Sirazum M; Williams, Emma L; Barnes, Sophie C; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Tan, Tricia M; Cegla, Jaimini

    2017-05-01

    Background Using an online survey, we collected data to present a picture of how clinical authorization is performed in the UK. Methods A 21-question survey was uploaded to www.surveymonkey.com , and responses were invited via the mail base of the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The questionnaire examined the intensity and function of the duty biochemist role and how different types of authorization are used to handle and release results. Results Of 70 responses received, 60 were suitable for analysis. Responses were received from every region of the UK. A typical duty biochemist shift started on average at 8:50, and finished at 17:25. The mean duration was 8 h 58 min. Clinical scientists are the most abundantly represented group on duty biochemist rotas. Higher banded clinical scientists and chemical pathologists covered out-of-hours shifts. Results were handled differently depending on the level of abnormality and the requesting area. Normal results tended to be released either directly from the analyser or after technical then autoauthorization (90%). A greater preference for clinical authorization was seen for abnormal and critical results originating from outpatients (49% and 69%, respectively) or general practice (51% and 71%) than for inpatients (33% and 53%) or A&E (25% and 37%). Conclusions The handling and authorization of biochemistry results varies greatly between laboratories. The role is clearly heterogeneous in the UK. Guidance from the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Royal College of Pathologists may help to clarify the essential roles of the duty biochemist.

  11. Oncological screening for Bilateral Breast Reduction: a survey of practice variations in UK Breast and Plastics surgeons 2009.

    PubMed

    Hennedige, Anusha A; Kong, Tze Yean; Gandhi, Ashu

    2011-07-01

    Bilateral Breast Reduction (BBR) is a common procedure performed by Breast and Plastic surgeons in the UK. No consensus exists regarding preoperative screening for malignancy or for selective criteria for such screening. Preoperative BBR screening practices among UK Breast and Plastic surgeons are unknown. Ascertain the preoperative and postoperative BBR screening practices of UK Breast and Plastic surgeons. A questionnaire was posted to all 434 Breast and 335 Plastic surgeons in the UK. All results were analysed with relevant statistical methods. 64% of Breast surgeons and 72% of Plastic surgeons responded. 40% of Breast surgeons and 91% of Plastic surgeons perform BBR. Routine radiological screening: 92% Breast 41% Plastic (p < 0.05). Routine breast examination prior to BBR: 98% Breast 91% Plastic. Routine histology for BBR specimens: 96% Breast 90% Plastic. Selective screening of patients aged 30-40 years old: Breast 38% Plastic 10%. Selective screening of patients aged 40-50: Breast 78%, Plastic 53%. Selective screening of patients with strong family history of breast cancer: Breast 72%, Plastic 91%. Selective screening of patients with previous breast cancer: Breast 77%, Plastic 93%. There are significant differences in practice between UK Breast surgeons and Plastic surgeons in preoperative oncological screening for BBR. The large discrepancy in preoperative radiological screening, reflects a ubiquitous pro-screening ideology among Breast surgeons not prevalent among Plastic surgeons. These results will provoke debate towards the direction of consensus to ultimately reflect best practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Current and future delivery of diagnostic electron microscopy in the UK: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    de Haro, Tracey; Furness, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) remains essential to delivering several specialist areas of diagnosis, especially the interpretation of native renal biopsies. However, there is anecdotal evidence of EM units struggling to survive, for a variety of reasons. The authors sought to obtain objective evidence of the extent and the causes of this problem. An online survey was undertaken of Fellows of the Royal College of Pathologists who use EM in diagnosis. A significant number of EM units anticipate having to close and hence outsource their EM work in the coming years. Yet most existing units are working to full capacity and would be unable to take on the substantial amounts of extra work implied by other units outsourcing their needs. Equipment and staffing are identified by most EM units as the major barriers to growth and are also the main reasons cited for units facing potential closure. In the current financial climate it seems unlikely that units will be willing to make the large investment in equipment and staff needed to take on extra work, unless they can be reasonably confident of an acceptable financial return as a result of increased external referral rates. The case is thus made for a degree of national coordination of the future provision of this specialist service, possibly through the National Commissioning Group or the new National Commissioning Board. Without this, the future of diagnostic EM services in the UK is uncertain. Its failure would pose a threat to good patient care.

  13. A comparison of two psychological screening methods currently used for inpatients in a UK burns service.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Laura; Tew, Victoria; Rai, Lovedeep

    2017-08-01

    Various types of psychological screening are currently used in the UK to identify burn patients who are experiencing psychological distress and may need additional support and intervention during their hospital admission. This audit compared two types of psychological screening in 40 burn inpatients. One screening method was an unpublished questionnaire designed to explore multiple areas of potential distress for those who have experienced burns. The other method was an indirect psychological screen via discussions within multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings where a Clinical Psychologist was present to guide and prompt psychological discussions. Data was collected between November 2012 and September 2016. Results suggested that both screening methods were similar in identifying patients who benefit from more formal psychological assessment. Indeed, statistical analysis reported no difference between the two screening methods (N=40, p=.424, two-tailed). In conclusion, measuring distress in burns inpatients using a burns-specific questionnaire and psychological discussions within MDT meetings are similar in their ability to identify patients in need of more thorough psychological assessment. However, both screening methods identified patients who were in need of psychological input when the other did not. This suggests that psychological screening of burns inpatients, and the psychological difficulties that they can present with, is complex. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods of screening are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Current research on food contact materials undertaken by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Castle, L; Jickells, S M; Sharman, M

    1994-01-01

    Recent research funded by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in the area of migration from food contact materials is reviewed and set within a framework of surveillance; evaluation of new technology; support of current regulations; and anticipation of future controls. Recent surveillance projects monitoring foods for migration of monomeric plasticizers (in particular di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate), polymeric additives and mineral hydrocarbons are highlighted. Development of high temperature testing conditions for food contact materials has been carried out in support of regulations and proposals are made for the control of susceptors by analysis of release of volatiles. Migration of benzophenone from the printing ink of a paper board sleeve during microwave heating of a pre-cooked meal is described as a recent example of a migration situation that would not easily have been anticipated. Finally, the approach being adopted for investigating paper and board food contact materials for inorganic constituents, for volatile organic and for solvent-extractable organic components is outlined as an example of work being carried out in anticipation of future regulatory controls.

  15. Impact of socioeconomic deprivation on maternal perinatal mental illnesses presenting to UK general practice

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Lu; Gibson, Jack E; West, Joe; Fiaschi, Linda; Oates, Margaret R; Tata, Laila J

    2012-01-01

    Background Although maternal perinatal mental illnesses commonly present to and are primarily treated in general practice, few population-based estimates of this burden exist, and the most affected socioeconomic groups of pregnant women remain unclear. Aim To provide estimates of maternal depression, anxiety and serious mental illness (SMI) in UK general practice and quantify impacts of socioeconomic deprivation. Design and setting Cross-sectional analysis of prospectively recorded general practice records from a UK-wide database. Method A pregnancy ending in live birth was randomly selected for every woman of childbearing age, 1994–2009. Prevalence and diagnostic overlap of mental illnesses were calculated using a combination of medical diagnoses and psychotropic drug prescriptions. Socioeconomic deprivation was assessed using multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for calendar period and pregnancy history. Results Among 116 457 women, 5.1% presented with antenatal depression and 13.3% with postnatal depression. Equivalent figures for anxiety were 2.6% and 3.7% and for SMI 1/1000 and 2/1000 women. Socioeconomic deprivation increased the risk of all mental illnesses, although this was more marked in older women. Those age 35–45 years in the most deprived group had 2.63 times the odds of antenatal depression (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22 to 3.13) compared with the least deprived; in women aged 15–25 years the increased odds associated with deprivation was more modest (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.70). Similar patterns were found for anxiety and SMI. Conclusion Strong socioeconomic inequalities in perinatal mental illness persist with increasing maternal age. Targeting detection and effective interventions to high-risk women may reduce inequity and avoid substantial psychiatric morbidity. PMID:23265226

  16. Risk of cholestatic liver disease associated with flucloxacillin and flucloxacillin prescribing habits in the UK: Cohort study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Russmann, Stefan; Kaye, James A; Jick, Susan S; Jick, Hershel

    2005-01-01

    Aims To provide additional quantification of the risk of flucloxacillin-related liver disease and to describe time trends in flucloxacillin prescribing in the UK. Methods This was a cohort study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. We identified patients with a first-time prescription for flucloxacillin or, for comparison, oxytetracycline from 1992 to 2002 and cases who developed clinically documented cholestatic liver disease of uncertain origin after first-time use of these drugs. We also determined the annual frequency of first-time use of flucloxacillin from 1991 to 2000. Results We identified 283 097 and 131 189 first-time users of flucloxacillin and oxytetracycline, respectively. The risk of cholestatic liver disease per 100 000 first-time users was 8.5 (95% CI 5.4, 12.6) in the 1–45 days and 1.8 (95% CI 0.6, 4.1) in the 46–90 days after starting flucloxacillin, and 0.8 (95% CI 0.02, 4.3) in the 1–45 days after starting oxytetracycline. The frequency of first-time use of flucloxacillin remained stable between 1991 and 2000. Conclusions Flucloxacillin is now established as an important cause of cholestatic liver disease. Warnings about the risk have not had an impact on prescribing practices in the UK, where it remains the predominantly prescribed antistaphylococcal oral antibiotic. This situation in the UK is in sharp contrast to regulatory actions and changes in prescribing habits in Australia after identification of the risk of cholestasis associated with flucloxacillin, and to the predominant use of the alternative drug dicloxacillin in the USA. PMID:15963097

  17. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolic disease. Analyses of the UK General Practice Research Database and the UK Mediplus database.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R D; Lawrenson, R A; Todd, J C; Williams, T J; MacRae, K

    1999-01-01

    The results of three independent studies of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) and oral contraceptives are reviewed together with two further cohort/case-control studies which we conducted using the MediPlus and General Practice Research Database (GPRD) databases. These latter studies jointly involved 395 cases and uniquely examined the association between VTE and individual combined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations. The two studies yielded very similar results. Crude incidence rates for idiopathic VTE of 4.6 and 3.8 were found per 10,000 exposed woman-years (EWY), in the MediPlus and GPRD studies respectively. Incidence rates increased markedly with age, and in both databases the rates amongst users of levonorgestrel products were lower than those amongst users of desogestrel and gestodene products. A case fatality rate of 3% and a mortality rate of 10 per million EWY were estimated. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for confounding variables and different COC formulations. Both database studies indicated an excess of current smokers and women with high body mass indices amongst cases. There were significantly more cases with asthma in the GPRD study and cases who had been using their COC for less than a year. No statistically significant differences between COC formulations were found in the analyses where controls were matched to cases by practice and year of birth in both the MediPlus and GPRD studies. In the GPRD study we also ran a study where controls were matched by practice and within 5 year age bands. In this study the OR were consistently higher for the newer or 'third generation' products than when controls were matched by year of birth. However only the acne formulation/OC containing cyproterone acetate and 35 microg ethinyloestradiol yielded a significant OR of 2.3. It may be concluded that improvements in prescribing are paramount as the results strongly indicate that overweight women and those who smoke are at a greater risk of VTE. Further

  18. Evaluating Hub and Spoke models of practice learning in Scotland, UK: a multiple case study approach.

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, Michelle; Conlon, Margaret; Banks, Debbie

    2012-10-01

    Most of UK students' practice learning experience is based on a rotational placement model which often leads to students lacking confidence and feeling anxious about the complexities of the care environment. To evaluate the impact of Hub and Spoke model(s) of clinical practice placement across geographically diverse locations, with a particular focus on enhancing the student practice learning experience. Multiple case study design. Comprised undergraduate student nurses from Adult, Learning Disability and Mental Health programmes from 3 Scottish Schools of Nursing. A mixed methods approach which included quantitative and qualitative date tools. All three Hub and Spoke models shared two broad findings: 1) In the three Hub and Spoke models detailed in this paper, there is a continuum of student led learning which supports the process with opportunities for individual students to be positively innovative and creative in their learning approaches. Depth of learning was achieved in two ways; a) the method in which Hub placements are organised, managed and structured and, b) the depth of empathy and sensitivity to the individual at the centre of the care. 2) Placement capacity is increased: The classification of placements is reviewed to produce broader categories, Engagement of mentors/enhanced student/mentor relationship. Practice Learning must be seen as an academic endeavour that promotes deep, meaningful, person-centred learning rather than superficial, compartmentalised placement-centred learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison of Spectacles Purchased Online and in UK Optometry Practice.

    PubMed

    Alderson, Alison J; Green, Alison; Whitaker, David; Scally, Andrew J; Elliott, David B

    2016-10-01

    To compare spectacles bought online with spectacles from optometry practices. Thirty-three participants consisting of single vision spectacle wearers with either a low (N = 12, mean age 34 ± 14 years) or high prescription (N = 11, mean age 28 ± 9 years) and 10 presbyopic participants (mean age 59 ± 4 years) wearing progressive addition lenses (PALs) purchased 154 pairs of spectacles online and 154 from UK optometry practices. The spectacles were compared via participant-reported preference, acceptability, and safety; the assessment of lens, frame, and fit quality; and the accuracy of the lens prescriptions to international standard ISO 21987:2009. Participants preferred the practice spectacles (median ranking 4th, IQR 1-6) more than online (6th, IQR 4-8; Mann-Whitney U = 7345, p < 0.001) and practice PALs (median ranking 2nd, IQR 1-4) were particularly preferred (online 6.5th, IQR 4-9, Mann-Whitney U = 455, p < 0.001). Of those deemed unacceptable and unsafe, significantly more were bought online (unacceptable: online 43/154 vs. practice 15/154, Fisher's exact p = 0.0001; unsafe: online 14/154 vs. practice 5/154, Fisher's exact p = 0.03). Participants preferred spectacles from optometry practice rather than those bought online, despite lens quality and prescription accuracy being similar. A greater number of online spectacles were deemed unsafe or unacceptable because of poor spectacle frame fit, poor cosmetic appearance, and inaccurate optical centration. This seems particularly pertinent to PAL lenses, which are known to increase falls risk. Recommendations are made to improve both forms of spectacle provision.

  20. Current challenges in European oncology pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Hoppe-Tichy, Torsten

    2010-03-01

    The demand for pharmacy cancer services is expected to at least double over the next 10 years, as the population ages and new treatments are introduced. Safe and efficient handling of cytotoxic products minimises risks to staff and reduces medication errors. To identify and describe strategies for coping safely and effectively with heavier workloads in the hospital oncology pharmacy, currently and in the future. The PubMed database was searched for literature on approaches to safe handling of antineoplastic agents and to decreasing medication errors in the hospital pharmacy. Articles that were judged to be of prime importance to the hospital oncologist were reviewed. These safety concepts are put into the context of contemporary hospital oncology pharmacy practice through discussion of key issues, including increased demand, the role of the pharmacist in determining the hospital formulary, and growth in patient preferences for oral chemotherapy. Recommendations on best practices are also provided, based on relevant literature and author experience. Efficient, safe hospital pharmacy operations can be aided by capacity planning, dose banding, and knowledge of novel products and procedures that can reduce risks to health while increasing the number of patients who are safely treated. Consideration may also be given to the economic role of oncology pharmacists in formulary development.

  1. Informed consent for epidural analgesia in labour: a survey of UK practice.

    PubMed

    Middle, J V; Wee, M Y K

    2009-02-01

    Anaesthetists are legally obliged to obtain informed consent before performing regional analgesia in labour. A postal survey of consultant-led UK anaesthetic units was performed in September 2007 to assess practice regarding obtaining informed consent before inserting an epidural, and documentation of the risks discussed. The response rate was 72% (161/223). There was great variation between units regarding which risks women were informed about and the likely incidence of that risk. One hundred and twenty-three respondents out of 157 providing an epidural service (78%) supported a national standardised information card endorsed by the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association, with all the benefits and risks stated, to be shown to all women before consenting to an epidural in labour.

  2. Current CFD Practices in Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    The quest for sustained space exploration will require the development of advanced launch vehicles, and efficient and reliable operating systems. Development of launch vehicles via test-fail-fix approach is very expensive and time consuming. For decision making, modeling and simulation (M&S) has played increasingly important roles in many aspects of launch vehicle development. It is therefore essential to develop and maintain most advanced M&S capability. More specifically computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been providing critical data for developing launch vehicles complementing expensive testing. During the past three decades CFD capability has increased remarkably along with advances in computer hardware and computing technology. However, most of the fundamental CFD capability in launch vehicle applications is derived from the past advances. Specific gaps in the solution procedures are being filled primarily through "piggy backed" efforts.on various projects while solving today's problems. Therefore, some of the advanced capabilities are not readily available for various new tasks, and mission-support problems are often analyzed using ad hoc approaches. The current report is intended to present our view on state-of-the-art (SOA) in CFD and its shortcomings in support of space transport vehicle development. Best practices in solving current issues will be discussed using examples from ascending launch vehicles. Some of the pacing will be discussed in conjunction with these examples.

  3. Rotator cuff rehabilitation: current theories and practice.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Jeffrey D; Gowda, Ashok L; Wiater, Brett; Wiater, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    A fully functioning, painless shoulder joint is essential to maintain a healthy, normal quality of life. Disease of the rotator cuff tendons (RCTs) is a common issue that affects the population, increasing with age, and can lead to significant disability and social and health costs. RCT injuries can affect younger, healthy patients and the elderly alike, and may be the result of trauma or occur as a result of chronic degeneration. They can be acutely painful, limited to certain activities or completely asymptomatic and incidental findings. A wide variety of treatment options exists ranging from conservative local and systemic pain modalities, to surgical fixation. Regardless of management ultimately chosen, physiotherapy of the RCT, rotator cuff muscles and surrounding shoulder girdle plays an essential role in proper treatment. Length of treatment, types of therapy and timing may vary if therapy is definitive care or part of a postoperative protocol. Allowing time for adequate RCT healing must always be considered when implementing ROM and strengthening after surgery. With current rehabilitation methods, patients with all spectrums of RCT pathology can improve their function, pain and quality of life. This manuscript reviews current theories and practice involving rehabilitation for RCT injuries.

  4. Aphasia: Current Concepts in Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Donna C.; Niparko, John K.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging contribute to a new insights regarding brain-behavior relationships and expand understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Modern concepts of the functional neuroanatomy of language invoke rich and complex models of language comprehension and expression, such as dual stream networks. Increasingly, aphasia is seen as a disruption of cognitive processes underlying language. Rehabilitation of aphasia incorporates evidence based and person-centered approaches. Novel techniques, such as methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, are just beginning to be explored. In this review, we discuss the historical context of the foundations of neuroscientific approaches to language. We sample the emergent theoretical models of the neural substrates of language and cognitive processes underlying aphasia that contribute to more refined and nuanced concepts of language. Current concepts of aphasia rehabilitation are reviewed, including the promising role of cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy and changes in therapeutic approaches based on principles of neuroplasticity and evidence-based/person-centered practice to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:24904925

  5. Contemporary dental practice in the UK in 2008: aspects of direct restorations, endodontics and bleaching.

    PubMed

    Brunton, P A; Burke, F J T; Sharif, M O; Creanor, S; Hosey, M T; Mannocci, F; Wilson, N H F

    2012-01-27

    To investigate, by postal questionnaire, aspects of the selection and use of direct restorative materials, endodontic techniques and approaches to bleaching by general dental practitioners in the UK, and to compare and contrast the findings with those of a related study reported in 2004. A questionnaire comprising 18 questions, each of a number of elements, was sent to 1,000 general dental practitioners in the UK, selected at random from the Dentists Register. Non-responders were sent a second copy of the questionnaire after a period of four weeks had elapsed. A total of 662 useable responses were returned, giving a response rate of 66%. Key findings included: dental amalgam was found to be the most commonly used material in the restoration of occlusoproximal cavities in premolar (59% of respondents) and molar teeth (75% of respondents); glass-ionomer cements and related materials were applied extensively in the restoration of deciduous molars (81% of respondents) and for the luting of indirect restorations (67% of respondents); the use of rubber dam was limited, in particular as an adjunct to procedures in operative dentistry (18% of respondents); relatively few respondents used preformed stainless steel crowns, and among the users only occasionally in the restoration of deciduous molars (23%); and bleaching, predominantly home-based (nightguard) vital bleaching (81% of respondents) was widely practised. It is concluded that, for the practitioners surveyed, factors other than best available evidence influenced various aspects of the use of direct restorative materials and the clinical practice of endodontics. As a consequence, many of the features of general dental practice revealed in the process of the investigation were at variance with teaching in dental schools. Bleaching, in particular home-based (nightguard), vital bleaching, was provided by >80% of respondents, indicating widespread interest among patients in enhanced dental attractiveness.

  6. Randomised trial of two approaches to screening for atrial fibrillation in UK general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Stephen; Mant, David

    2002-01-01

    majority (53/65 [82%]) atrial fibrillation had been previously recorded somewhere on their medical record. If the nurse used any irregularity of the pulse as the screening criterion, the sensitivity of screening was 91% and the specificity was 74%; sensitivity fell to 54% but specificity increased to 98% if the criterion used was continuous irregularity. CONCLUSIONS: Nurse-led screening for atrial fibrillation in UK general practice is both feasible and effective and will identify a substantial number of patients who could benefit from antithrombotic therapy. Although the majority of patients detected at first screening could be identified by careful scrutiny of medical records, review of record summaries was insufficient in the practices involved in this study and screening may be a more cost-effective option. PMID:12014534

  7. Variation in assessment and standard setting practices across UK undergraduate medicine and the need for a benchmark

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The principal aim of this study is to provide an account of variation in UK undergraduate medical assessment styles and corresponding standard setting approaches with a view to highlighting the importance of a UK national licensing exam in recognizing a common standard. Methods Using a secure online survey system, response data were collected during the period 13 - 30 January 2014 from selected specialists in medical education assessment, who served as representatives for their respective medical schools. Results Assessment styles and corresponding choices of standard setting methods vary markedly across UK medical schools. While there is considerable consensus on the application of compensatory approaches, individual schools display their own nuances through use of hybrid assessment and standard setting styles, uptake of less popular standard setting techniques and divided views on norm referencing. Conclusions The extent of variation in assessment and standard setting practices across UK medical schools validates the concern that there is a lack of evidence that UK medical students achieve a common standard on graduation. A national licensing exam is therefore a viable option for benchmarking the performance of all UK undergraduate medical students. PMID:26520472

  8. Myelography complications and current practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Sandow, Bruce A; Donnal, John F

    2005-09-01

    Relatively few data are available in the literature on postmyelography complications. Also, no consensus exists on the need to screen myelography patients for use of potentially epileptogenic drugs, metformin, and aspirin or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or to routinely check prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT). We designed a Web-based survey to obtain information on myelography complications and current practice patterns. An e-mailing was sent to 2,296 members of the American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR), requesting their participation in a survey, and 351 responses (15%) were received. The survey included questions on the number of myelography examinations performed and the number of seizures and other complications observed in myelography patients; questions on screening for potentially epileptogenic drugs, metformin, and aspirin or other NSAIDs; and a question on checking PT and PTT. Most responding ASNR members (88%) reported no postmyelography seizures, and 82% observed no other significant complications in the past 5 years. A majority of practitioners (63%) screens patients for potentially epileptogenic drugs, 63% of respondents do not advise patients to discontinue metformin use after myelography, 58% do not advise patients to discontinue aspirin or other NSAIDs, and 73% do not routinely check PT and PTT. Myelography is generally safe, with a low risk of seizures, contrast reactions, and other significant complications. The results of this study show that a majority of practitioners screens patients for use of potentially epileptogenic drugs, but a majority does not require patients to discontinue use of metformin and aspirin or other NSAIDs, nor do they routinely check PT and PTT before the procedure. These common practice patterns are considered to be appropriate for the safe and efficient performance of myelography.

  9. Written Assessment and Feedback Practices in Postgraduate Taught Courses in the UK: Staff and International Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillen Solano, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In recent years UK universities have attracted an increasing number of international students. Their socialisation into different academic practices greatly depends on their ability to write in English since writing is the main way in which students demonstrate their learning at university. This paper looks into the widely-shared view that tutor…

  10. Globalisation and Education: A Review of Conflicting Perspectives and their Effect on Policy and Professional Practice in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Many disparate groups have written about the effects of globalisation on education. Some have promoted its benefits; others have warned against its ill-effects. This paper is an attempt at coalescing and juxtaposing the respective arguments as they relate to schooling policy and practice in the UK. The growing international pressures of…

  11. Globalisation and Education: A Review of Conflicting Perspectives and their Effect on Policy and Professional Practice in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Many disparate groups have written about the effects of globalisation on education. Some have promoted its benefits; others have warned against its ill-effects. This paper is an attempt at coalescing and juxtaposing the respective arguments as they relate to schooling policy and practice in the UK. The growing international pressures of…

  12. Module Technology: Current Practice and Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2010-10-05

    PV modules must provide mechanical support for the cells, protect the world from the voltages inside, protect the cells, diodes and interconnects from the weather outside, couple as much light as possible into the PV cells and minimize the temperature increase of the cells. The package must continue to serve these functions for at least 25 years as that is the typical module warranty period today. Furthermore the package must do all this for as low a cost as possible since the key to large scale PV growth is a reduction in cost while retaining excellent module reliability and durability. This paper will review current module construction practices for both crystalline silicon and thin film PV with emphasis on explaining why the present designs and materials have been selected. Possible long term issues with today's designs and materials will be discussed. Several proposed solutions to these issues will be presented, highlighting the research efforts that will be necessary in order to verify that they can cost effectively solve the identified issues.

  13. 21 CFR 225.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 225.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS General Provisions § 225.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) Section 501(a)(2)(B) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  14. 21 CFR 110.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 110.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD General Provisions § 110.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria...

  15. 21 CFR 226.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 226.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES General Provisions § 226.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria in §§ 226.10 through 226.115,...

  16. 21 CFR 226.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 226.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES General Provisions § 226.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria in §§ 226.10 through 226.115,...

  17. 21 CFR 110.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 110.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD General Provisions § 110.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria...

  18. 21 CFR 225.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 225.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS General Provisions § 225.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) Section 501(a)(2)(B) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  19. 21 CFR 226.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 226.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES General Provisions § 226.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria in §§ 226.10 through 226.115,...

  20. 21 CFR 225.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 225.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS General Provisions § 225.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) Section 501(a)(2)(B) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  1. 21 CFR 226.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 226.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES General Provisions § 226.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria in §§ 226.10 through 226.115,...

  2. 21 CFR 225.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 225.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS General Provisions § 225.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) Section 501(a)(2)(B) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  3. 21 CFR 226.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 226.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES General Provisions § 226.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria in §§ 226.10 through 226.115,...

  4. 21 CFR 110.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 110.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD General Provisions § 110.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria...

  5. 21 CFR 110.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 110.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD General Provisions § 110.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria...

  6. 21 CFR 110.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 110.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD General Provisions § 110.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria...

  7. 21 CFR 225.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 225.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS General Provisions § 225.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) Section 501(a)(2)(B) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  8. Current challenges in palliative care provision for heart failure in the UK: a survey on the perspectives of palliative care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, Mun Hong; Rose, Gabrielle; Cheung, Chi-Chi; Thomas, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Palliative care (PC) in heart failure (HF) is beneficial and recommended in international HF guidelines. However, there is a perception that PC is underutilised in HF in the UK. This exploratory study aims to investigate, from a PC perspective, this perceived underutilisation and identify problems with current practice that may impact on the provision of PC in HF throughout the UK. Methods A prospective survey was electronically sent to PC doctors and nurses via the UK Association for Palliative Medicine and adult PC teams listed in the UK Hospice directory. Results We received 499 responses (42%—PC consultants). Although PC provision for patients with HF was widespread, burden on PC services was low (47% received less than 10 referrals annually). While PC was acknowledged to have a role in end-stage HF, there were differing views about the optimal model of care. Levels of interdisciplinary collaboration (58%) and mutual education (36%) were low. There were frequent reports that end-of-life matters were not addressed by cardiology prior to PC referral. Moreover, 24% of respondents experienced difficulties with implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. Conclusions Low HF referrals despite widespread availability of PC services and insufficient efforts by cardiology to address PC issues may contribute to the perception that PC is underutilised in HF. The challenges facing PC and HF identified here need to be further investigated and addressed. These findings will hopefully promote awareness of PC issues in HF and encourage debate on how to improve PC support for this population. PMID:25628893

  9. Recognising Kawasaki disease in UK primary care: a descriptive study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    PubMed

    Moore, Abigail; Harnden, Anthony; Mayon-White, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood illness that can present non-specifically, making it a diagnostic challenge. The clinical presentation of Kawasaki disease has not been previously described in primary care. To describe how children with an eventual diagnosis of Kawasaki disease initially present to primary care in the UK. The Clinical Practice Research Datalink was used to find cases coded as Kawasaki disease. Hospital Episode Statistics, hospital admissions, and hospital outpatient attendances were used to identify the children with a convincing diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. Questionnaires and a request for copies of relevant hospital summaries, discharge letters, and reports were sent to GPs of the 104 children with a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease between 2007 and 2011. Most children presented with few clinical features typical of Kawasaki disease. Of those with just one feature, a fever or a polymorphous rash were the most common. By the time that most children were admitted to hospital they had a more recognisable syndrome, with three or more clinical features diagnostic of Kawasaki disease. Most GPs did not consider Kawasaki disease among their differential diagnoses, but some GPs did suspect that the child's illness was unusual. The study highlighted the difficulty of early diagnosis, with most children having a non-specific presentation to primary care. GPs are encouraged to implement good safety netting, and to keep Kawasaki disease in mind when children present with fever and rashes. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  10. Prepared for practice? Law teaching and assessment in UK medical schools.

    PubMed

    Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy

    2010-11-01

    A revised core curriculum for medical ethics and law in UK medical schools has been published. The General Medical Council requires medical graduates to understand law and ethics and behave in accordance with ethical and legal principles. A parallel policy agenda emphasises accountability, the development of professionalism and patient safety. Given the renewed focus on teaching and learning law alongside medical ethics and the development of professional identity, this survey aimed to identify how medical schools are responding to the preparation of medical students for practice in the future. Questions were asked about the location, content and methods of teaching and assessment of law in undergraduate medical education. Examples of course documentation were requested to illustrate the approaches being taken. A 76% response rate was achieved. Most responding schools integrate law teaching with medical ethics, emphasising both the acquisition of knowledge and its application in a clinical context. Teaching, learning and assessment of law in clinical attachments is much less formalised than that in non-clinical education. Coverage of recommended topic areas varies, raising questions about the degree to which students can embed their knowledge and skills in actual practice. More positively, teaching does not rely on single individuals and clear descriptions were offered for problem-based and small group case-based learning. Further research is required to explore whether there are optimum ways of ensuring that legal knowledge, and skills in its use, form part of the development of professionalism among doctors in training.

  11. Pituitary metastases: current practice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Habu, Mika; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hirofumi; Yasuda, Soichiro; Nagatomo, Yasushi; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Kawagishi, Jun; Tatewaki, Koshi; Yunoue, Shunji; Campos, Francia; Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Shimatsu, Akira; Teramoto, Akira; Arita, Kazunori

    2015-10-01

    With advancement of cancer treatment and development of neuroimaging techniques, contemporary clinical pictures of pituitary metastases (PMs) must have changed from past reports. The goal of this paper was to elucidate the clinical features of PMs and current clinical practice related to those lesions. In this retrospective study, questionnaires were sent to 87 physicians who had treated PMs in Japan. Between 1995 and 2010, 201 patients with PMs were treated by the participating physicians. The diagnosis of PM was histologically verified in 69 patients (34.3%). In the other 132 patients (65.7%), the PM was diagnosed by their physicians based on neuroimaging findings and clinical courses. The most frequent primary tumor was lung (36.8%), followed by breast (22.9%) and kidney (7.0%) cancer. The average interval between diagnosis of primary cancer and detection of PM was 2.8 ± 3.9 (SD) years. Major symptoms at diagnosis were visual disturbance in 30.3%, diabetes insipidus in 27.4%, fatigue in 25.4%, headache in 20.4%, and double vision in 17.4%. Major neuroimaging features were mass lesion in the pituitary stalk (63.3%), constriction of tumor at the diaphragmatic hiatus (44.7%), hypothalamic mass lesion (17.4%), and hyperintensity in the optic tract (11.4%). Surgical treatment was performed in 26.9% of patients, and 74.6% had radiation therapy; 80.0% of patients who underwent radiotherapy had stereotactic radiotherapy. The median survival time was 12.9 months in total. Contributing factors for good prognosis calculated by Cox proportional hazard analysis were younger age, late metastasis to the pituitary gland, smaller PM size, and radiation therapy. The Kaplan-Meier survival was significantly better in patients with breast cancer and renal cell cancer than in those with lung cancer. At the time of this writing, approximately 60% (120/201) of PMs had been treated by stereotactic radiation therapy in Japan. The median survival time was much longer than that reported

  12. Current management practices and interventions prioritised as part of a nationwide mastitis control plan

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, A. J.; Breen, J. E.; Hudson, C. D.; Green, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to report performance and management data taken from a sample of UK dairy farms that have participated in the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board Dairy Mastitis Control Plan (DMCP) and to identify important mastitis prevention practices that are not currently widely implemented. A total of 234 UK dairy herds were included in the study from which farm management and udder health data were collected. Herds were grouped according to their mastitis epidemiology and could be classed as (i) environmental dry period (EDP) (i.e. environmental pathogen with majority of infections being acquired during the dry period), (ii) environmental lactation (EL), (iii) contagious dry period (CDP) or (iv) contagious lactation (CL). The results of this study showed that many mastitis-related management practices that are generally considered to be important were not widely performed. A better understanding of those practices not widely adopted by UK dairy farmers at present may aid practitioners in identifying and overcoming potential barriers to improved mastitis control. PMID:26966249

  13. Going E-Only: A Feasible Option in the Current UK Journals Marketplace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Provides a case study of the acquisitions processes that were necessary when Cardiff University's School of Engineering made a decision to subscribe to electronic-only versions of journals where such subscriptions were less expensive than the print equivalent. In doing so, addresses issues of electronic subscriptions management in UK academic…

  14. Technology and Special Needs Provision in the UK: Is Current Law Satisfactory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariyawasam, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the government has issued legislation on disability discrimination (the UK "Disability Discrimination Act" 2005) that is silent on the issue of access to technology for those adults and minors with special needs/disabilities either in the classroom or out of the classroom. At the same time, commercial legislation from Europe…

  15. The Engineering and Science Institutions in the UK: Changes, Ambiguities and Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evetts, Julia; Jefferies, Derek

    2005-01-01

    The role and performance of the engineering and scientific institutions in the UK have been undergoing gradual change in response to external, State and global influences. Consequently, the institutions are having to adapt and in the process of doing so the traditional balance between learned society and qualifying association activities is now in…

  16. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study.

    PubMed

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-11-03

    To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Ethnographic case study. Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as "exceptions" by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge. Clinicians were often unaware of this input and it did not feature in policy

  17. Arts on prescription: a review of practice in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Bungay, Hilary; Clift, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The current levels of psychosocial distress in society are significant, as evidenced by the number of prescribed antidepressants and the numbers of working days lost as a result of stress and anxiety. There is a growing body of evidence that active involvement in creative activities provides a wide range of benefits, including the promotion of well-being, quality of life, health and social capital. In the U.K. there are currently a number of projects operating that offer Arts on Prescription for people experiencing mental health problems and social isolation. The purpose of such schemes is not to replace conventional therapies but rather to act as an adjunct, helping people in their recovery through creativity and increasing social engagement. Although the schemes are varied in their approaches and settings, the common theme is that there is a referral process and creative activities take place in the community facilitated by artists rather than therapists. This paper explores whether such schemes can be part of the solution to the current challenge of mental ill-health, and looks at the evidence supporting the value of such schemes which may influence government, funders and healthcare professionals to implement Arts on Prescription more widely.

  18. A survey of UK prescribers' experience of, and opinions on, anthelmintic prescribing practices for livestock and equines.

    PubMed

    Easton, Stephanie; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine practices, attitudes and experiences of UK prescribers of anthelmintics for horses and livestock. A questionnaire was sent by direct email to groups licenced to prescribe these medicines. These were veterinarians, Suitably Qualified Persons (SQPs, registered with the Animal Medicines Training Regulatory Authority) and veterinary pharmacists. The survey was also advertised through social media. It comprised questions relating to demographics, training experiences, current prescribing practices, as well as personal opinions on anthelmintic selection, diagnostics and anthelmintic resistance. A total of 193 veterinarians and 326 SQPs were included in final analysis. Pharmacists were excluded from detailed analysis due to the low numbers that responded (n=3). The results indicated that SQP participants were more likely to receive post-certification parasitology training than the veterinarians, and that both channels consulted similar sources for information about helminths and their control (paper articles in journals, online sources). The SQP participants stated a higher frequency of face-to-face interactions with clients/customers (96.1%) than the veterinarians (76.4%), who stated a higher frequency of telephone interactions (55.1% and 73.5%, respectively). Veterinarians were more likely to state that there were specific factors that limited interactions with their clients (54.1%) than SQPs (19.6%), such as competition from other suppliers. SQP participants considered a wider range of factors as important when deciding on which anthelmintic to recommend (i.e. knowledge of specific parasites, knowledge of specific anthelmintics, discussion of measures to avoid anthelmintic resistance and time to talk with clients/customers); however, the veterinarian participants were more likely to consider the results of diagnostic tests. While discussions about anthelmintic resistance were stated with similar frequency in both groups, less

  19. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-04-15

    To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Systematic literature review. 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  20. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  1. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  2. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  3. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  4. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  5. Characteristics and practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine retail shops in London, UK: A cross-sectional study using an observational approach.

    PubMed

    Teng, Lida; Shaw, Debbie; Barnes, Joanne

    2015-09-15

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a popular form of ethnomedicine in the UK, and is accessed by Western, Chinese and other ethnic groups. The current regulatory regime does not effectively protect the public against poor-quality and unsafe TCMs. Understanding ethnopharmacological information on how TCM is promoted and practiced may help to inform initiatives aimed at ensuring the safe use of TCMs in the UK, and put laboratory-based ethnopharmacological investigations of TCMs in a broader context. This study aimed to examine the characteristics and practices of TCM retail outlets in London, UK, and to identify factors relevant to the safe use of TCM in the UK. TCM retail outlets ('shops') in London, UK, were identified using a systematic approach. A structured questionnaire including questions on shop business type was used to recruit participant shops. Shops consenting to participate were visited within six weeks of providing consent. A piloted semi-structured questionnaire on shop characteristics was used for data collection following observation. The British National Formulary 53 was used to classify medical conditions/uses for TCMs promoted in the shops. Data were stored and analysed using MS Access 2003, MS Excel 2003 and SPSS 13. In total, 54 TCM shops in London were identified, of which 94% offered TCM consultations with a TCM practitioner. Detailed characteristics were described within 35/50 shops that gave consent to observing their premises. Most shops labelled and displayed over 150 Chinese Materia Medica (CMMs; crude materials, particularly herbs) for dispensing after consultations with a TCM practitioner. Medical conditions/uses and Patent Chinese Medicines (PCMs) were commonly promoted. In total, 794 occurrences of 205 different medical conditions/uses (median=32, QL=19, QU=48) were identified. These conditions/uses most commonly related to the following therapeutic systems: central nervous system (160/794, 20.2%); musculoskeletal and joint disease

  6. Marvellous to mediocre: findings of national survey of UK practice and provision of care in pregnancies after stillbirth or neonatal death.

    PubMed

    Mills, T A; Ricklesford, C; Heazell, A E P; Cooke, A; Lavender, T

    2016-05-06

    Pregnancy after stillbirth or neonatal death is an emotionally challenging life-event for women and adequate emotional support during pregnancy should be considered an essential component of quality maternity care. There is a lack of evidence surrounding the role of UK maternity services in meeting womens' emotional and psychological needs in subsequent pregnancies. This study aimed to gain an overview of current UK practice and womens' experiences of care in pregnancy after the death of a baby. Online cross-sectional surveys, including open and closed questions, were completed on behalf of 138 United Kingdom (UK) Maternity Units and by 547 women who had experience of UK maternity care in pregnancy after the death of a baby. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively using SPSS software. Open textual responses were managed manually and analysed using the framework method. Variable provision of care and support in subsequent pregnancies was identified from maternity unit responses. A minority had specific written guidance to support care delivery, with a focus on antenatal surveillance and monitoring for complications through increased consultant involvement and technological surveillance (ultrasound/cardiotocography). Availability of specialist services and professionals with specific skills to provide emotional and psychological support was patchy. There was a lack of evaluation/dissemination of developments and innovative practice. Responses across all UK regions demonstrated that women engaged early with maternity care and placed high value on professionals as a source of emotional support. Many women were positive about their care, but a significant minority reported negative experiences. Four common themes summarised womens' perceptions of the most important influences on quality and areas for development: sensitive communication and conduct of staff, appropriate organisation and delivery of services, increased monitoring and surveillance and perception of

  7. Management of hip fractures in older people in Beijing: a retrospective audit and comparison with evidence-based guidelines and practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Tian, M; Gong, X; Rath, S; Wei, J; Yan, L L; Lamb, S E; Lindley, R I; Sherrington, C; Willett, K; Norton, R

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high burden of hip fracture in China, there is limited information on its management. This study investigated the management of hip fractures in a Beijing tertiary hospital and compared practice with that in 180 hospitals in the UK. The findings show a significant gap exists between the countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if the management of older people with hip fractures in a Beijing tertiary hospital is comparable with the UK best practice guidelines for hip fracture management and the UK National Hip Fracture Database 2012, obtained from 180 hospitals. A retrospective audit was undertaken in a large tertiary care hospital in Beijing. Data were compared with the National Hip Fracture Database 2012 collected in 180 hospitals in the UK on the proportion of patients managed according to the UK Blue Book standards. Sixty-six percent of patients were admitted to an orthopaedic ward within 24 h of fracture, while 100 % of patients in the UK were admitted to an orthopaedic ward within 24 h of arrival to an accident and emergency department. Only 8 % of patients received surgery within 48 h of admission compared with 83 % in the UK; 10 % received no surgery compared with 2.5 % in the UK; and 27 % received orthogeriatrician assessment compared with 70 % in the UK. New pressure ulcers developed in 2 % of patients compared with 3.7 % of those in the UK; whereas, 0.3 % of patients were assessed for osteoporosis treatment and 3.8 % received falls assessment, and comparable figures for the UK were 94 and 92 %, respectively. Significant gaps exist in hip fracture management in the Beijing hospital compared with the best practice achieved in 180 UK hospitals, highlighting the need to implement and evaluate proactive strategies to increase the uptake of best practice hip fracture care in China.

  8. Positive trends in paediatric renal biopsy service provision in the UK: a national survey and re-audit of paediatric renal biopsy practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Asheeta; Campion-Smith, Joanna; Hayes, Wesley; Deal, Jane E; Gilbert, Rodney D; Inward, Carole; Judd, Brian A; Krishnan, Rajesh G; Marks, Stephen D; O'Brien, Catherine; Shenoy, Mohan; Sinha, Manish D; Tse, Yincent; Tyerman, Kay; Mallik, Meeta; Hussain, Farida

    2016-04-01

    Paediatric renal biopsy standards introduced in the UK in 2010 were intended to reduce variation and improve practice. A concurrent national drive was aimed at building robust paediatric nephrology networks to ensure services cater for the needs of the family and minimise time away from home. We aimed to identify current national practice since these changes on behalf of the British Association for Paediatric Nephrology. All UK paediatric nephrology centres were invited to complete a survey of their biopsy practice, including advance preparation. From 1 January to 30 June 2012, a national prospective audit of renal biopsies was undertaken at participating centres comparing practice with the British Association for Paediatric Nephrology (BAPN) standards and audit results from 2005. Survey results from 11 centres demonstrated increased use of pre-procedure information leaflets (63.6 % vs 45.5 %, P = 0.39) and play preparation (90.9 % vs 9.1 %, P = 0.0001). Audit of 331 biopsies showed a move towards day-case procedures (49.5 % vs 32.9 %, P = 0.17) and reduced major complications (4.5 % vs 10.4 %, P = 0.002). Biopsies with 18-gauge needles had significantly higher mean pass rates (3.2 vs 2.3, P = 0.0008) and major complications (15.3 % vs 3.3 %, P = 0.0015) compared with 16-gauge needles. Percutaneous renal biopsy remains a safe procedure in children, thus improving family-centered service provision in the UK.

  9. Landscape of current and emerging cell therapy clinical trials in the UK: current status, comparison to global trends and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle; Green, Emma; Sharpe, Michaela; Herbert, Chris; Hyllner, Johan; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Cell Therapy Clinical Trial and Preclinical Research databases have been established by the Cell Therapy Catapult to document current and future cell therapy clinical trials in the UK. We identified 41 ongoing trials in April 2014, an increase of seven trials from April 2013. In addition, we identified 45 late-stage preclinical research projects. The majority of the clinical trials are early phase, primarily led by academic groups. The leading therapeutic areas are cancer, cardiology and neurology. The trends in the UK are also seen globally. As the field matures, more later phase and commercial studies will emerge and the challenges will likely evolve into how to manufacture sufficient cell quantities, manage complex logistics for multi-center trials and control cost.

  10. Impact of omalizumab on treatment of severe allergic asthma in UK clinical practice: a UK multicentre observational study (the APEX II study)

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Robert M; Saralaya, Dinesh; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Masoli, Matthew; Clifton, Ian; Mansur, Adel H; Hacking, Victoria; McLain-Smith, Susan; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the impact of omalizumab on asthma management in patients treated as part of normal clinical practice in the UK National Health Service (NHS). Design A non-interventional, mixed methodology study, combining retrospective and prospective data collection for 12 months pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab initiation, respectively. Setting Data were collected in 22 UK NHS centres, including specialist centres and district general hospitals in the UK. Participants 258 adult patients (aged ≥16 years; 65% women) with severe persistent allergic asthma treated with omalizumab were recruited, of whom 218 (84.5%) completed the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was change in mean daily dose of oral corticosteroids (OCS) between the 12-month pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab initiation periods. A priori secondary outcome measures included response to treatment, changes in OCS dosing, asthma exacerbations, lung function, employment/education, patient-reported outcomes and hospital resource utilisation. Results The response rate to omalizumab at 16 weeks was 82.4%. Comparing pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab periods, the mean (95% CIs) daily dose of OCS decreased by 1.61 (−2.41 to −0.80) mg/patient/day (p<0.001) and hospital exacerbations decreased by 0.97 (−1.19 to −0.75) exacerbations/patient (p<0.001). Compared with baseline, lung function, assessed by percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s, improved by 4.5 (2.7 to 6.3)% at 16 weeks (p<0.001; maintained at 12 months) and patient quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire) improved by 1.38 (1.18 to 1.58) points at 16 weeks (p<0.001, maintained at 12 months). 21/162 patients with complete employment data gained employment and 6 patients lost employment in the 12-month post-omalizumab period. The mean number of A&E visits, inpatient hospitalisations, outpatient visits (excluding for omalizumab) and number of bed days

  11. The current provision of community-based teaching in UK medical schools: an online survey and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. Design and data sources An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Study selection Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Results Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors’ knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Conclusions Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for ‘Tomorrow's Doctors’, a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. Strengths and limitations of this study This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed

  12. The current provision of community-based teaching in UK medical schools: an online survey and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors' knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for 'Tomorrow's Doctors', a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed in a consistent and comprehensive way. However, a weakness is that data from the online survey was obtained from

  13. The management of Convulsive Refractory Status Epilepticus in adults in the UK: No consistency in practice and little access to continuous EEG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mitesh; Bagary, Manny; McCorry, Dougall

    2015-01-01

    Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE) is a common neurological emergency with patients presenting with prolonged epileptic activity. Sub-optimal management is coupled with high morbidity and mortality. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring is considered essential by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the management of Convulsive Refractory Status Epilepticus (CRSE). The aim of this research was to determine current clinical practice in the management of CRSE amongst adults in intensive care units (ICU) in the UK and establish if the use of a standardised protocol requires re-enforcement within trusts. 75 randomly selected UK NHS Trusts were contacted and asked to complete a questionnaire in addition to providing their protocol for CRSE management in ICU. 55 (73%) trusts responded. While 31 (56% of responders) had a protocol available in ICU for early stages of CSE, just 21 (38%) trusts had specific guidelines if CRSE occurred. Only 23 (42%) trusts involved neurologists at any stage of management and just 18 (33%) have access to continuous EEG monitoring. This study identifies significant inconsistency in the management of CSE in ICU's across the UK. A minority of ICU units have a protocol for CRSE or access to continuous EEG monitoring despite it being considered fundamental for management and supported by NICE guidance. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying critical success factors for designing selection processes into postgraduate specialty training: the case of UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Plint, Simon; Patterson, Fiona

    2010-06-01

    The UK national recruitment process into general practice training has been developed over several years, with incremental introduction of stages which have been piloted and validated. Previously independent processes, which encouraged multiple applications and produced inconsistent outcomes, have been replaced by a robust national process which has high reliability and predictive validity, and is perceived to be fair by candidates and allocates applicants equitably across the country. Best selection practice involves a job analysis which identifies required competencies, then designs reliable assessment methods to measure them, and over the long term ensures that the process has predictive validity against future performance. The general practitioner recruitment process introduced machine markable short listing assessments for the first time in the UK postgraduate recruitment context, and also adopted selection centre workplace simulations. The key success factors have been identified as corporate commitment to the goal of a national process, with gradual convergence maintaining locus of control rather than the imposition of change without perceived legitimate authority.

  15. Meeting the healthcare needs of transgender people within the armed forces: putting UK military policy into practice.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Dean; New, Chris; Coetzee, Rik; Bickerstaffe, Paul

    2016-12-01

    To explain how the healthcare needs of transgender personnel are met within the United Kingdom Armed Forces. It may be that when transgender people disclose their gender preference that they are at increased risk of social exclusion. The United Kingdom Armed Forces has an inclusive organisational policy for the recruitment and management of transgender personnel. This is a position paper about how the healthcare needs of transgender military personnel are met by the United Kingdom Armed Forces. United Kingdom Armed Forces policy was placed into context by reviewing current research, discussing medical terminology and describing the policy. This was followed by an account of how UK AF policy is applied in practice. Where armed forces had an inclusive policy for the management of transgender personnel, there seemed to be little cause for secrecy and zero tolerance of discrimination when compared to nations where this was not the case. Medical terminology has changed to reflect a more inclusive, less stigmatising use of language. The United Kingdom Armed Forces policy has been described as progressive and inclusive. The application of this policy in practice may be dependent upon strong leadership and training. The wider United Kingdom Armed Forces seems capable of adopting a pragmatic and flexible approach to meeting the healthcare needs of transgender personnel. The United Kingdom Armed Forces value diversity within their workforce and have a progressive, inclusive policy for the recruitment and management of transgender personnel. When supporting a transgender military person, healthcare professionals, civilian organisations and military line managers should consider referring to United Kingdom Armed Forces policy as early as possible. Other military and uniformed services may wish to examine the United Kingdom Armed Forces exemplar in order to consider the applicability within their own organisational setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Perioperative temperature control: Survey on current practices.

    PubMed

    Brogly, N; Alsina, E; de Celis, I; Huercio, I; Dominguez, A; Gilsanz, F

    2016-04-01

    Prevention of perioperative hypothermia decreases morbidity and mortality, as well as hospital costs. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of implementation of protocols in 3 tertiary Spanish University Hospitals. A survey among anaesthesiologists assessed estimated importance and clinical practice in terms of prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Results were compared depending on their experience. P<.05 was considered significant. A total of 116 anaesthesiologists answered the survey, of whom 48 (41.3%) were residents, 32 (27.6%) were staff with less than 10 years of experience, and 36 (31.1%) staff with 10 years or more of experience, In a 0-10 importance scale, prevention of hypothermia was scored 7.49±1,79, with no difference between groups (P=.58). Younger staff were more concerned of the end surgery temperature than other colleagues (P=.02). The most usual practice was a combination warming the intravenous fluids and an electric blanket (55%). Only 20% of the anaesthesiologists monitored temperature intra-operatively, even though 75% considered it an important parameter. No unit had a written protocol for prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Despite the absence of prevention protocols, the anaesthesiologists were aware of the importance maintaining a normal peri-operative temperature, but this awareness is still not enough to influence their perioperative management to diagnose and prevent hypothermia. A harmonisation of practice at local, regional and national level could improve this practice in the future. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Goal setting practice in services delivering community-based stroke rehabilitation: a United Kingdom (UK) wide survey.

    PubMed

    Scobbie, Lesley; Duncan, Edward A; Brady, Marian C; Wyke, Sally

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nature of services providing community-based stroke rehabilitation across the UK, and goal setting practice used within them, to inform evaluation of a goal setting and action planning (G-AP) framework. We designed, piloted and electronically distributed a survey to health professionals working in community-based stroke rehabilitation settings across the UK. We optimised recruitment using a multi-faceted strategy. Responses were analysed from 437 services. Services size, composition and input was highly variable; however, most were multi-disciplinary (82%; n = 335/407) and provided input to a mixed diagnostic group of patients (71%; n = 312/437). Ninety one percent of services (n = 358/395) reported setting goals with "all" or "most" stroke survivors. Seventeen percent (n = 65/380) reported that no methods were used to guide goal setting practice; 47% (n = 148/315) reported use of informal methods only. Goal setting practice varied, e.g. 98% of services (n = 362/369) reported routinely asking patients about goal priorities; 39% (n = 141/360) reported routinely providing patients with a copy of their goals. Goal setting is embedded within community-based stroke rehabilitation; however, practice varies and is potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to inform optimal practice. Evaluation design will take account of the diverse service models that exist. Implications for Rehabilitation Community-based stroke rehabilitation services across the UK are diverse and tend to see a mixed diagnostic group of patients. Goal setting is implemented routinely within community-based stroke rehabilitation services; however, practice is variable and potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to assess its effectiveness in practice.

  18. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: Current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research. PMID:24114263

  19. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon; Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research.

  20. Improving medication safety in UK care homes: challenges and current perspective.

    PubMed

    Fahrni, Mathumalar Loganathan; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Rawaf, Salman; Majeed, Azeem

    2014-02-01

    In the UK, there are policy and regulatory concerns regarding the governance of care homes and healthcare provision within these homes. From a public health perspective, these issues can pose significant challenges to the provision of safe and quality medication use services to care home residents. The objective of this paper is to highlight an important and neglected issue for the growing population of institutionalized older adults. We reviewed relevant literature for the years 2000 to present and identified recent efforts undertaken to improve medication safety standards in UK care homes. We consider the limitations and reasons for the National Health Service's restricted role and lack of leadership in providing medical services for this institutionalized population. The efforts taken by the Department of Health and other healthcare authorities targeting medication safety in care homes are also highlighted. In order to improve the quality of healthcare, specifically in areas related to medication safety and quality use of medicines, interventions need to be taken by the national government and similarly by local authorities and NHS commissioners.

  1. Inter-professional work based learning within an MSc in Advanced Practice: lessons from one UK higher education programme.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Lynne; Beaton, Susan

    2010-09-01

    This paper will describe the implementation of inter-professional work based education (IPE) in one postgraduate Advanced Practitioner programme in the UK. The concept of Advanced Practice has developed as a response of a number of drivers including change in junior doctor training; government policy and increasing demands on the central government funded UK health service (the NHS). The programme was commissioned by the then greater Manchester Strategic Health Authority (now NHS North West) to meet service needs. The educational philosophy underpinning the MSc Advanced Practice (health and social care) provided by the University of Salford is IPE linked to work based learning. The process of work based learning (WBL) and inter-professional learning underpinning the programme will be discussed in relation to feedback from university staff, Advanced Practitioner (AP) students and employer feedback taken from programme and module evaluations. We argue that IPE at this level facilitates a greater understanding of the connectivity between professionals working in the health care system in the UK; a better understanding of the skills and knowledge base of colleagues; more inter-professional working and appropriate referrals in the work place. This has raised the profile of Advanced Practice (AP) in the region and ultimately resulted in better patient care with more effective and efficient use of resources (Acton Shapiro, 2006, 2008).

  2. Chronic kidney disease in dogs in UK veterinary practices: prevalence, risk factors, and survival.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D G; Elliott, J; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs varies widely (0.05-3.74%). Identified risk factors include advancing age, specific breeds, small body size, and periodontal disease. To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors associated with CKD diagnosis and survival in dogs. Purebred dogs were hypothesized to have higher CKD risk and poorer survival characteristics than crossbred dogs. A merged clinical database of 107,214 dogs attending 89 UK veterinary practices over a 2-year period (January 2010-December 2011). A longitudinal study design estimated the apparent prevalence (AP) whereas the true prevalence (TP) was estimated using Bayesian analysis. A nested case-control study design evaluated risk factors. Survival analysis used the Kaplan-Meier survival curve method and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. The CKD AP was 0.21% (95% CI: 0.19-0.24%) and TP was 0.37% (95% posterior credibility interval 0.02-1.44%). Significant risk factors included increasing age, being insured, and certain breeds (Cocker Spaniel, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel). Cardiac disease was a significant comorbid disorder. Significant clinical signs included halitosis, weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, urinary incontinence, vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea. The median survival time from diagnosis was 226 days (95% CI 112-326 days). International Renal Interest Society stage and blood urea nitrogen concentration at diagnosis were significantly associated with hazard of death due to CKD. Chronic kidney disease compromises dog welfare. Increased awareness of CKD risk factors and association of blood biochemistry results with survival time should facilitate diagnosis and optimize case management to improve animal survival and welfare. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Current and future use of point-of-care tests in primary care: an international survey in Australia, Belgium, The Netherlands, the UK and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Howick, Jeremy; Cals, Jochen W L; Jones, Caroline; Price, Christopher P; Plüddemann, Annette; Heneghan, Carl; Berger, Marjolein Y; Buntinx, Frank; Hickner, John; Pace, Wilson; Badrick, Tony; Van den Bruel, Ann; Laurence, Caroline; van Weert, Henk C; van Severen, Evie; Parrella, Adriana; Thompson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the growing number of point-of-care (POC) tests available, little research has assessed primary care clinician need for such tests. We therefore aimed to determine which POC tests they actually use or would like to use (if not currently available in their practice). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Primary care in Australia, Belgium (Flanders region only), the Netherlands, the UK and the USA. Participants Primary care doctors (general practitioners, family physicians). Main measures We asked respondents to (1) identify conditions for which a POC test could help inform diagnosis, (2) from a list of tests provided: evaluate which POC tests they currently use (and how frequently) and (3) determine which tests (from that same list) they would like to use in the future (and how frequently). Results 2770 primary care clinicians across five countries responded. Respondents in all countries wanted POC tests to help them diagnose acute conditions (infections, acute cardiac disease, pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis), and some chronic conditions (diabetes, anaemia). Based on the list of POC tests provided, the most common tests currently used were: urine pregnancy, urine leucocytes or nitrite and blood glucose. The most commonly reported tests respondents expressed a wish to use in the future were: D-dimer, troponin and chlamydia. The UK and the USA reported a higher actual and desired use for POC tests than Australia, Belgium and the Netherlands. Our limited data suggest (but do not confirm) representativeness. Conclusions Primary care clinicians in all five countries expressed a desire for POC tests to help them diagnose a range of acute and chronic conditions. Rates of current reported use and desired future use were generally high for a small selection of POC tests, but varied across countries. Future research is warranted to explore how specific POC tests might improve primary care. PMID:25107438

  4. Population based epidemiology of ankle sprains attending accident and emergency units in the West Midlands of England, and a survey of UK practice for severe ankle sprains

    PubMed Central

    Bridgman, S; Clement, D; Downing, A; Walley, G; Phair, I; Maffulli, N

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the incidence of ankle sprains and severe ankle sprains attending accident and emergency (A&E) units; to describe current practice for severe ankle sprains in A&E units in the United Kingdom. Methods: Crude age and sex specific incidence rates were calculated for four health districts from cases ascertained from data on seven A&E clinical information systems. Case records of patients with ankle sprains at an A&E unit in another health district were audited and the proportion of severe ankle sprains calculated. UK A&E units were surveyed about their usual treatment of patients with severe ankle sprains. Results: The estimate of the crude incidence rate of ankle sprains was a minimum of 52.7 per 10 000, rising to 60.9 (95% CI 59.4 to 62.4) when figures were adjusted for the proportion of patients without a diagnostic code (13.7%). There were important age-sex differences with unadjusted rates observed from 127.8 per 10 000 (CI 115.5 to 140.0) in girls aged 10–14 years to 8.2 (CI 4.2 to 12.3) in men aged 70–74 years. As 14% of ankle sprains attending A&E were classed as severe, this would equate to 42 000 severe ankle sprains per year in the UK. In the UK wide survey, there was a response rate of 79% (211 of 266). Among the responders, Tubigrip was used routinely in 55%, below knee casts in 3%, and braces in 2%. Boots were not used routinely in any unit. Conclusion: While there is considerable variation in severe ankle sprain management in UK A&E units, most are treated with the minimal mechanical support of Tubigrip. PMID:14623833

  5. School travel mode, parenting practices and physical activity among UK Year 5 and 6 children.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Davies, Ben; Banfield, Kathryn; Fox, Kenneth R; Thompson, Janice L; Cooper, Ashley R; Montgomery, Alan A

    2014-04-16

    School travel mode and parenting practices have been associated with children's physical activity (PA). The current study sought to examine whether PA parenting practices differ by school travel mode and whether school travel mode and PA parenting practices are associated with PA. 469 children (aged 9-11) wore accelerometers from which mean weekday and after-school (3.30 to 8.30 pm) minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and counts per minute (CPM) were derived. Mode of travel to and from school (passive vs. active) and PA parenting practices (maternal and paternal logistic support and modelling behaviour) were child-reported. Children engaged in an average of 59.7 minutes of MVPA per weekday. Active travel to school by girls was associated with 5.9 more minutes of MVPA per day compared with those who travelled to school passively (p = 0.004). After-school CPM and MVPA did not differ by school travel mode. There was no evidence that physical activity parenting practices were associated with school travel mode. For girls, encouraging active travel to school is likely to be important for overall PA. Further formative research may be warranted to understand how both parental logistic support and active travel decisions are operationalized in families as a means of understanding how to promote increased PA among pre-adolescent children.

  6. School travel mode, parenting practices and physical activity among UK Year 5 and 6 children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background School travel mode and parenting practices have been associated with children’s physical activity (PA). The current study sought to examine whether PA parenting practices differ by school travel mode and whether school travel mode and PA parenting practices are associated with PA. Methods 469 children (aged 9-11) wore accelerometers from which mean weekday and after-school (3.30 to 8.30 pm) minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and counts per minute (CPM) were derived. Mode of travel to and from school (passive vs. active) and PA parenting practices (maternal and paternal logistic support and modelling behaviour) were child-reported. Results Children engaged in an average of 59.7 minutes of MVPA per weekday. Active travel to school by girls was associated with 5.9 more minutes of MVPA per day compared with those who travelled to school passively (p = 0.004). After-school CPM and MVPA did not differ by school travel mode. There was no evidence that physical activity parenting practices were associated with school travel mode. Conclusions For girls, encouraging active travel to school is likely to be important for overall PA. Further formative research may be warranted to understand how both parental logistic support and active travel decisions are operationalized in families as a means of understanding how to promote increased PA among pre-adolescent children. PMID:24739338

  7. What does standard rehabilitation practice after total hip replacement in the UK entail? results of a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence of prolonged poor function in patients following total hip replacement (THR). Studies of progressive resistance training (PRT) interventions to improve function are often compared to ‘standard’ practice which is not well defined. This study aimed to investigate ‘standard’ rehabilitation care in the UK after total hip replacement (THR) as well as determine whether PRT was part of ‘standard’ care. Methods After ethical approval, questionnaire item development about rehabilitation practice was guided by a focus group interview (after informed consent) with physiotherapists (n = 4; >5 years post-qualification) who regularly treated THR patients. An online questionnaire investigating the exercises prescribed and rehabilitation practice following THR was developed and sent to physiotherapists working in hospitals in the UK. The survey was performed from January to May 2011. The survey results were analysed (frequency (%) of responses) focusing on the exercises the physiotherapists considered important, as well as their use of PRT in prescribed regimes. Results 106 responses were obtained from physiotherapists in the UK. The survey respondents considered that the most important muscles to target in all phases of rehabilitation were the hip abductors (62.2%), followed by the quadriceps (16.9%), and other muscles (21%). Exercise type prescribed revealed no consensus, with weight bearing (42%), functional (45%) and Bed-based/Bridging/Postural exercises (13%) favoured. 83.7% were able to define the basis of progressive resistance training (PRT), but only 33% prescribed it. Conclusions Standard physiotherapy rehabilitation in the UK after THR is variable, and appears to rarely include PRT. This may be a factor in prolonged poor function in some patients after this common operation. PMID:23496875

  8. Do men consult less than women? An analysis of routinely collected UK general practice data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; Hunt, Kate; Nazareth, Irwin; Freemantle, Nick; Petersen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether gender differences in primary care consultation rates (1) vary by age and deprivation status and (2) diminish when consultation for reproductive reasons or common underlying morbidities are accounted for. Design Cross-sectional study of a cohort of patients registered with general practice. Setting UK primary care. Subjects Patients (1 869 149 men and 1 916 898 women) registered with 446 eligible practices in 2010. Primary outcome measures Primary care consultation rate. Results This study analyses routinely collected primary care consultation data. The crude consultation rate was 32% lower in men than women. The magnitude of gender difference varied across the life course, and there was no ‘excess’ female consulting in early and later life. The greatest gender gap in primary care consultations was seen among those aged between 16 and 60 years. Gender differences in consulting were higher in people from more deprived areas than among those from more affluent areas. Accounting for reproductive-related consultations diminished but did not eradicate the gender gap. However, consultation rates in men and women who had comparable underlying morbidities (as assessed by receipt of medication) were similar; men in receipt of antidepressant medication were only 8% less likely to consult than women in receipt of antidepressant medication (relative risk (RR) 0.916, 95% CI 0.913 to 0.918), and men in receipt of medication to treat cardiovascular disease were just 5% less likely to consult (RR=0.950, 95% CI 0.948 to 0.952) than women receiving similar medication. These small gender differences diminished further, particularly for depression (RR=0.950, 95% CI 0.947 to 0.953), after also taking account of reproductive consultations. Conclusions Overall gender differences in consulting are most marked between the ages of 16 and 60 years; these differences are only partially accounted for by consultations for reproductive reasons

  9. Assessment and management of the communication difficulties of children with cerebral palsy: a UK survey of SLT practice

    PubMed Central

    Mary Watson, Rose; Pennington, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication difficulties are common in cerebral palsy (CP) and are frequently associated with motor, intellectual and sensory impairments. Speech and language therapy research comprises single-case experimental design and small group studies, limiting evidence-based intervention and possibly exacerbating variation in practice. Aims To describe the assessment and intervention practices of speech–language therapist (SLTs) in the UK in their management of communication difficulties associated with CP in childhood. Methods & Procedures An online survey of the assessments and interventions employed by UK SLTs working with children and young people with CP was conducted. The survey was publicized via NHS trusts, the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) and private practice associations using a variety of social media. The survey was open from 5 December 2011 to 30 January 2012. Outcomes & Results Two hundred and sixty-five UK SLTs who worked with children and young people with CP in England (n = 199), Wales (n = 13), Scotland (n = 36) and Northern Ireland (n = 17) completed the survey. SLTs reported using a wide variety of published, standardized tests, but most commonly reported assessing oromotor function, speech, receptive and expressive language, and communication skills by observation or using assessment schedules they had developed themselves. The most highly prioritized areas for intervention were: dysphagia, alternative and augmentative (AAC)/interaction and receptive language. SLTs reported using a wide variety of techniques to address difficulties in speech, language and communication. Some interventions used have no supporting evidence. Many SLTs felt unable to estimate the hours of therapy per year children and young people with CP and communication disorders received from their service. Conclusions & Implications The assessment and management of communication difficulties associated with CP in childhood varies widely in the

  10. Assessment and management of the communication difficulties of children with cerebral palsy: a UK survey of SLT practice.

    PubMed

    Watson, Rose Mary; Pennington, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Communication difficulties are common in cerebral palsy (CP) and are frequently associated with motor, intellectual and sensory impairments. Speech and language therapy research comprises single-case experimental design and small group studies, limiting evidence-based intervention and possibly exacerbating variation in practice. To describe the assessment and intervention practices of speech-language therapist (SLTs) in the UK in their management of communication difficulties associated with CP in childhood. An online survey of the assessments and interventions employed by UK SLTs working with children and young people with CP was conducted. The survey was publicized via NHS trusts, the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) and private practice associations using a variety of social media. The survey was open from 5 December 2011 to 30 January 2012. Two hundred and sixty-five UK SLTs who worked with children and young people with CP in England (n = 199), Wales (n = 13), Scotland (n = 36) and Northern Ireland (n = 17) completed the survey. SLTs reported using a wide variety of published, standardized tests, but most commonly reported assessing oromotor function, speech, receptive and expressive language, and communication skills by observation or using assessment schedules they had developed themselves. The most highly prioritized areas for intervention were: dysphagia, alternative and augmentative (AAC)/interaction and receptive language. SLTs reported using a wide variety of techniques to address difficulties in speech, language and communication. Some interventions used have no supporting evidence. Many SLTs felt unable to estimate the hours of therapy per year children and young people with CP and communication disorders received from their service. The assessment and management of communication difficulties associated with CP in childhood varies widely in the UK. Lack of standard assessment practices prevents comparisons across time or

  11. Management of tinnitus in English NHS audiology departments: an evaluation of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Derek J; Gander, Phillip E; Collins, Luke; Smith, Sandra; Hall, Deborah A

    2012-01-01

    Rationale, aim and objective In 2009, the UK Department of Health formalized recommended National Health Service practices for the management of tinnitus from primary care onwards. It is timely therefore to evaluate the perceived practicality, utility and impact of those guidelines in the context of current practice. Methods We surveyed current practice by posting a 36-item questionnaire to all audiology and hearing therapy staff that we were able to identify as being involved in tinnitus patient care in England. Results In total, 138 out of 351 clinicians responded (39% response rate). The findings indicate a consensus opinion that management should be tailored to individual symptom profiles but that there is little standardization of assessment procedures or tools in use. Conclusions While the lack of standardized practice might provide flexibility to meet local demand, it has drawbacks. It makes it difficult to ascertain key standards of best practice, it complicates the process of clinical audit, it implies unequal patient access to care, and it limits the implementation of translational research outcomes. We recommend that core elements of practice should be standardized, including use of a validated tinnitus questionnaires and an agreed pathway for decision making to better understand the rationale for management strategies offered. PMID:21087449

  12. Management of tinnitus in English NHS audiology departments: an evaluation of current practice.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Derek J; Gander, Phillip E; Collins, Luke; Smith, Sandra; Hall, Deborah A

    2012-04-01

    In 2009, the UK Department of Health formalized recommended National Health Service practices for the management of tinnitus from primary care onwards. It is timely therefore to evaluate the perceived practicality, utility and impact of those guidelines in the context of current practice. We surveyed current practice by posting a 36-item questionnaire to all audiology and hearing therapy staff that we were able to identify as being involved in tinnitus patient care in England. In total, 138 out of 351 clinicians responded (39% response rate). The findings indicate a consensus opinion that management should be tailored to individual symptom profiles but that there is little standardization of assessment procedures or tools in use. While the lack of standardized practice might provide flexibility to meet local demand, it has drawbacks. It makes it difficult to ascertain key standards of best practice, it complicates the process of clinical audit, it implies unequal patient access to care, and it limits the implementation of translational research outcomes. We recommend that core elements of practice should be standardized, including use of a validated tinnitus questionnaires and an agreed pathway for decision making to better understand the rationale for management strategies offered. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Science: A Portrait of Current Practice in Scottish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Science: A portrait of current practice" is part of a series of portraits by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) which builds on the messages of the "Improving Scottish Education" report. This portrait reviews the extent to which current practice in science is successfully promoting the four capacities of Curriculum…

  14. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  15. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  16. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  17. 21 CFR 113.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 113.5 Section 113.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONTAINERS General Provisions § 113.5 Current good manufacturing practice. The criteria in §§ 113.10,...

  18. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  19. 21 CFR 113.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 113.5 Section 113.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONTAINERS General Provisions § 113.5 Current good manufacturing practice. The criteria in §§ 113.10,...

  20. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  1. 21 CFR 113.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 113.5 Section 113.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONTAINERS General Provisions § 113.5 Current good manufacturing practice. The criteria in §§ 113.10,...

  2. 21 CFR 113.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 113.5 Section 113.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONTAINERS General Provisions § 113.5 Current good manufacturing practice. The criteria in §§ 113.10,...

  3. 21 CFR 113.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 113.5 Section 113.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONTAINERS General Provisions § 113.5 Current good manufacturing practice. The criteria in §§ 113.10,...

  4. Technical Education: A Portrait of Current Practice in Scottish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Technical Education--a portrait of current practice" is one in a series of portraits by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE), illustrating current practice in key aspects of the Scottish curriculum. The portrait series is a recent initiative by HMIE, flowing from the "Improving Scottish Education" (ISE) report. It is…

  5. VOC Control: Current practices and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, E.C.; Mukhopadhyay, N. )

    1993-07-01

    One of the most formidable challenges posed by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) is the search for efficient and economical control strategies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are precursors to ground-level ozone, a major component in the formation of smog. Under the CAAA, thousands of currently unregulated sources will be required to reduce or eliminate VOC emissions. In addition, sources that are currently regulated may seek to evaluate alternative VOC control strategies to meet stricter regulatory requirements such as the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements in Title III of the CAAA. Because of the increasing attention being given to VOC control, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers' (AIChE) Center for Waste Reduction Technologies (CWRT) initiated a study of VOC control technologies and regulatory initiatives. A key objective of the project was to identify and describe existing VOC control technologies and air regulations, as well as emerging technologies and forthcoming regulations. That work is the basis for this article.

  6. Five-year clinical evaluation of zirconia-based bridges in patients in UK general dental practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J T; Crisp, R J; Cowan, A J; Lamb, J; Thompson, O; Tulloch, N

    2013-11-01

    This study reported the results at 5 years of fixed-fixed all-ceramic bridges, constructed in a yttria oxide stabilized tetragonal zirconium oxide polycrystal (Y-TZP) substructure, placed in adult patients in UK general dental practices. Four UK general dental practitioners recruited patients who required fixed bridgework and, after obtaining informed written consent, appropriate clinical and radiographic assessments were completed. The teeth were prepared and bridges constructed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Each bridge was reviewed annually within 3 months of the anniversary of its placement by a calibrated examiner, together with the clinician who had placed the restoration, using modified USPHS criteria. Of the 41 bridges originally placed, 33 bridges were examined at 5 years. All Y-TZP frameworks were intact and no bridge retainers had debonded. Eight chipping fractures in the veneering ceramic were noted over the 5-year period. In five cases the patients were unaware of these and these cases were polished. Of the remaining three cases, in one a repair was attempted but was unsuccessful, but the bridge remained in satisfactory service. However, in the case involving a chipping fracture of the mesial-incisal angle of a central incisor, it was considered that replacement of the bridge was necessary. 97% (n=32) of the 33 Lava Y-TZP fixed-fixed bridges, evaluated in patients attending UK general dental practices, were found to be performing satisfactorily. The use of Y-TZP frameworks holds promise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. UK and Italian EIA systems: A comparative study on management practice and performance in the construction industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, Andrea; Howard, Robert; Geneletti, Davide; Ferrari, Simone

    2012-04-15

    This study evaluates and contrasts the management practice and the performance that characterise Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) in Italy and in the UK. The methodology relies on the investigation of six carefully selected case studies, critically reviewed by referring to EIA and project design information, as well as collecting the opinion of key project participants. The study focuses on the construction industry and on specific key sectors like infrastructure for transport and renewable energy and commercial and tourism development. A main term of reference for the analyses has been established by critically reviewing international literature so as to outline common good practice, requirements for the enhancement of sustainability principles and typically incurred drawbacks. The proposed approach enhances transfer of knowledge and of experiences between the analyzed contexts and allows the provision of guidelines for practitioners. Distinctive differences between the UK and the Italian EIA systems have been detected for pivotal phases and elements of EIA, like screening, scoping, analysis of alternatives and of potential impacts, definition of mitigation strategies, review, decision making, public participation and follow up. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Italian and the UK Environmental Impact Assessment systems are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The research is centred on the construction industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Issues and shortcomings are analysed by investigating six case studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of EIA with sustainability principles is appraised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer General guidelines are provided to assist practitioners in the two national contexts.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY: CURRENT PRACTICES

    PubMed Central

    FLORES, Carolina Aita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of obesity on a global scale has alarmed health institutions, the general population and professionals involved in its treatment. Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and lasting alternative for weight reduction and improved general health. In this context and as part of a multidisciplinary team, psychologists are responsible for the preoperative psychological assessment of bariatric candidates. Aim To investigate how psychological assessments are occurring, including the identification of utilized resources; factors that are addressed; the duration of the process; existing protocols; and to evaluate the importance of this practice. Method A systematic review of national and international literature, through PubMed and Scielo's databases, using "psychological assessment", "obesity" and "surgery", as keywords. Conclusion There is an agreement about the main factors that should be investigated during the preoperative assessment, as well as the main contraindications for the surgical procedure. The importance of the psychological assessment is well established in the field of bariatric surgery. However, this area needs a standard protocol to guide the mental health professionals that deal with bariatric patients. PMID:25409969

  9. Psychological assessment for bariatric surgery: current practices.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carolina Aita

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity on a global scale has alarmed health institutions, the general population and professionals involved in its treatment. Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and lasting alternative for weight reduction and improved general health. In this context and as part of a multidisciplinary team, psychologists are responsible for the preoperative psychological assessment of bariatric candidates. To investigate how psychological assessments are occurring, including the identification of utilized resources; factors that are addressed; the duration of the process; existing protocols; and to evaluate the importance of this practice. A systematic review of national and international literature, through PubMed and Scielo's databases, using "psychological assessment", "obesity" and "surgery", as keywords. There is an agreement about the main factors that should be investigated during the preoperative assessment, as well as the main contraindications for the surgical procedure. The importance of the psychological assessment is well established in the field of bariatric surgery. However, this area needs a standard protocol to guide the mental health professionals that deal with bariatric patients.

  10. Medial thighplasty: Current concepts and practices.

    PubMed

    Bertheuil, N; Carloni, R; De Runz, A; Herlin, C; Girard, P; Watier, E; Chaput, B

    2016-02-01

    Medial thighplasty, also known as medial thigh lift, is a procedure that has been carried out for five decades. The original "Lewis" technique has undergone many changes, and thereby been rendered widely available to plastic surgeons. Given the increasingly high number of surgical reconstructions after massive weight loss, this technique is now an integral part of a surgeon's therapeutic arsenal as he strives to meet the evolving demands of patients. The objective of this article, which is based on a comprehensive review of the literature, is to summarize current knowledge on medial thighplasty and thereby allow plastic surgeons to adopt the operating technique best suited to the deformations presented by their patients and to the overall context. The different techniques, outcomes and complications are successively discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.

  12. The current status of diabetes professional educational standards and competencies in the UK--a position statement from the Diabetes UK Healthcare Professional Education Competency Framework Task and Finish Group.

    PubMed

    Walsh, N; George, S; Priest, L; Deakin, T; Vanterpool, G; Karet, B; Simmons, D

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes is a significant health concern, both in the UK and globally. Management can be complex, often requiring high levels of knowledge and skills in order to provide high-quality and safe care. The provision of good, safe, quality care lies within the foundations of healthcare education, continuing professional development and evidence-based practice, which are inseparable and part of a continuum during the career of any health professional. Sound education provides the launch pad for effective clinical management and positive patient experiences. This position paper reviews and discusses work undertaken by a Working Group under the auspices of Diabetes UK with the remit of considering all health professional educational issues for people delivering care to people with diabetes. This work has scoped the availability of education for those within the healthcare system who may directly or indirectly encounter people with diabetes and reviews alignment to existing competency frameworks within the UK's National Health Service.

  13. Prescription rates of adrenaline auto-injectors for children in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Lavanya; Cummins, Carole; Ryan, Ronan; Marshall, Tom; Roberts, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Adrenaline auto-injectors (AAI) should be provided to individuals considered to be at high risk of anaphylaxis. There is some evidence that the rate of AAI prescription is increasing, but the true extent has not been previously quantified. To estimate the trends in annual GP-issued prescriptions for AAI among UK children between 2000 and 2012. Retrospective cohort study using data from primary care practices that contributed to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Children and young people aged between 0-17 years of age with a prescription for AAIs were identified, and annual AAI device prescription rates were estimated using Stata (version 12). A total of 1.06 million UK children were identified, providing 5.1 million person years of follow-up data. Overall, 23 837 children were deemed high risk by their GPs, and were prescribed 98 737 AAI devices. This equates to 4.67 children (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.66 to 4.69), and 19.4 (95% CI = 19.2 to 19.5) devices per 1000 person years. Between 2000 and 2012, there has been a 355% increase in the number of children prescribed devices, and a 506% increase in the total number of AAI devices prescribed per 1000 person years in the UK. The number of devices issued per high-risk child during this period has also increased by 33%. The number of children being prescribed AAI devices and the number of devices being prescribed in UK primary care between 2000 and 2012 has significantly increased. A discussion to promote rational prescribing of AAIs in the NHS is needed. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  14. Perinatal death investigations: What is current practice?

    PubMed

    Nijkamp, J W; Sebire, N J; Bouman, K; Korteweg, F J; Erwich, J J H M; Gordijn, S J

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal death (PD) is a devastating obstetric complication. Determination of cause of death helps in understanding why and how it occurs, and it is an indispensable aid to parents wanting to understand why their baby died and to determine the recurrence risk and management in subsequent pregnancy. Consequently, a perinatal death requires adequate diagnostic investigation. An important first step in the analysis of PD is to identify the case circumstances, including relevant details regarding maternal history, obstetric history and current pregnancy (complications are evaluated and recorded). In the next step, placental examination is suggested in all cases, together with molecular cytogenetic evaluation and fetal autopsy. Investigation for fetal-maternal hemorrhage by Kleihauer is also recommended as standard. In cases where parents do not consent to autopsy, alternative approaches such as minimally invasive postmortem examination, postmortem magnetic resonance imaging, and fetal photographs are good alternatives. After all investigations have been performed it is important to combine findings from the clinical review and investigations together, to identify the most probable cause of death and counsel the parents regarding their loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

    2006-05-25

    This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development.

  16. Verbal autopsy: current practices and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Soleman, Nadia; Chandramohan, Daniel; Shibuya, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Cause-of-death data derived from verbal autopsy (VA) are increasingly used for health planning, priority setting, monitoring and evaluation in countries with incomplete or no vital registration systems. In some regions of the world it is the only method available to obtain estimates on the distribution of causes of death. Currently, the VA method is routinely used at over 35 sites, mainly in Africa and Asia. In this paper, we present an overview of the VA process and the results of a review of VA tools and operating procedures used at demographic surveillance sites and sample vital registration systems. We asked for information from 36 field sites about field-operating procedures and reviewed 18 verbal autopsy questionnaires and 10 cause-of-death lists used in 13 countries. The format and content of VA questionnaires, field-operating procedures, cause-of-death lists and the procedures to derive causes of death from VA process varied substantially among sites. We discuss the consequences of using varied methods and conclude that the VA tools and procedures must be standardized and reliable in order to make accurate national and international comparisons of VA data. We also highlight further steps needed in the development of a standard VA process. PMID:16583084

  17. Variation in the provision and practice of implant-based breast reconstruction in the UK: Results from the iBRA national practice questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Mylvaganam, Senthurun; Conroy, Elizabeth; Williamson, Paula R; Barnes, Nicola L P; Cutress, Ramsey I; Gardiner, Matthew D; Jain, Abhilash; Skillman, Joanna M; Thrush, Steven; Whisker, Lisa J; Blazeby, Jane M; Potter, Shelley; Holcombe, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of biological and synthetic meshes has revolutionised the practice of implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) but evidence for effectiveness is lacking. The iBRA (implant Breast Reconstruction evAluation) study is a national trainee-led project that aims to explore the practice and outcomes of IBBR to inform the design of a future trial. We report the results of the iBRA National Practice Questionnaire (NPQ) which aimed to comprehensively describe the provision and practice of IBBR across the UK. A questionnaire investigating local practice and service provision of IBBR developed by the iBRA Steering Group was completed by trainee and consultant leads at breast and plastic surgical units across the UK. Summary data for each survey item were calculated and variation between centres and overall provision of care examined. 81 units within 79 NHS-hospitals completed the questionnaire. Units offered a range of reconstructive techniques, with IBBR accounting for 70% (IQR:50-80%) of participating units' immediate procedures. Units on average were staffed by 2.5 breast surgeons (IQR:2.0-3.0) and 2.0 plastic surgeons (IQR:1.0-3.0) performing 35 IBBR cases per year (IQR:20-50). Variation was demonstrated in the provision of novel different techniques for IBBR especially the use of biological (n = 62) and synthetic (n = 25) meshes and in patient selection for these procedures. The iBRA-NPQ has demonstrated marked variation in the provision and practice of IBBR in the UK. The prospective audit phase of the iBRA study will determine the safety and effectiveness of different approaches to IBBR and allow evidence-based best practice to be explored. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrotherapy in burn care: a survey of hydrotherapy practices in the UK and Ireland and literature review.

    PubMed

    Langschmidt, Jenna; Caine, Paul L; Wearn, Christopher M; Bamford, Amy; Wilson, Yvonne T; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2014-08-01

    Hydrotherapy is widely used in burns management however there are risks associated with its use, in particular cross-infection. Data regarding indications and techniques in common use is deficient. This study aimed to investigate hydrotherapy practices in the UK and Ireland. A survey of the hydrotherapy practice of major burn care providers was performed by e mail and where necessary, follow up telephone contact. The survey included 28 burn care providers. 27 reported using hydrotherapy. Only 11 (41%) had defined indication criteria with 4 (15%) implementing a specific protocol. Variations in hydrotherapy practice were seen. Hydrotherapy is used nationwide, however considerable variation in practice exists. One area worthy of further consideration is the need for appropriate standards of infection control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Reference dosimetry on TomoTherapy: an addendum to the 1990 UK MV dosimetry code of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. J.; Aspradakis, M. M.; Byrne, J. P.; Chalmers, G.; Duane, S.; Rogers, J.; Thomas, R. A. S.; Tudor, G. S. J.; Twyman, N.

    2014-03-01

    The current UK code of practice for high-energy photon therapy dosimetry (Lillicrap et al 1990 Phys. Med. Biol. 35 1355-60) gives instructions for measuring absorbed dose to water under reference conditions for megavoltage photons. The reference conditions and the index used to specify beam quality require that a machine be able to set a 10 cm × 10 cm field at the point of measurement. TomoTherapy machines have a maximum collimator setting of 5 cm × 40 cm at a source to axis distance of 85 cm, making it impossible for users of these machines to follow the code. This addendum addresses the specification of reference irradiation geometries, the choice of ionization chambers and the determination of dosimetry corrections, the derivation of absorbed dose to water calibration factors and choice of appropriate chamber correction factors, for carrying out reference dosimetry measurements on TomoTherapy machines. The preferred secondary standard chamber remains the NE2611 chamber, which with its associated secondary standard electrometer, is calibrated at the NPL through the standard calibration service for MV photon beams produced on linear accelerators with conventional flattening filters. Procedures are given for the derivation of a beam quality index specific to the TomoTherapy beam that can be used in the determination of a calibration coefficient for the secondary standard chamber from its calibration certificate provided by the NPL. The recommended method of transfer from secondary standard to field instrument is in a static beam, at a depth of 5 cm, by sequential substitution or by simultaneous side by side irradiation in either a water phantom or a water-equivalent solid phantom. Guidance is given on the use of a field instrument in reference fields.

  20. Current Practice of Ophthalmic Anesthesia in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adekoya, Bola J; Onakoya, Adeola O; Balogun, Bola G; Oworu, Olugbemisola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the current techniques of ophthalmic anesthesia in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey among Nigerian ophthalmology delegates attending the 36th Annual Scientific Congress of the Ophthalmology Society of Nigeria. Self administered and anonymous questionnaires were used and data were collected to include details of the institution, preferred local anesthesia techniques, the grade of doctor who administers the local anesthesia, complications, preferred facial block techniques (if given separately), and type of premedication (if used). Results: Out of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 81 forms were completed (response rate 67.5%). Out of the 74 who indicated their grade, 49 (66.2%) were consultants, 22 (29.7%) were trainees, and 3 (7.1%) were ophthalmic medical officers. For cataract surgery, peribulbar anesthesia was performed by 49.1% of the respondents, followed by retrobulbar anesthesia (39.7%). Others techniques used were topical anesthesia (5.2%), subtenon anesthesia (4.3%), subconjunctival anesthesia (2.6%), and intracameral anesthesia (0.9%). For glaucoma surgery, 47.2% of the respondents use peribulbar anesthesia, 32.1% use retrobulbar anesthesia, 9.4% used general anesthesia, and 6.6% used subconjunctival anesthesia. Among the trainees, 57.8% routinely perform retrobulbar anesthesia while 55.6% routinely perform peribulbar anesthesia. At least one complication from retrobulbar anesthesia within 12 months prior to the audit was reported by 25.9% of the respondents. Similarly, 16.1% of the respondents had experienced complications from peribulbar anesthesia within the same time period. Retrobulbar hemorrhage is the most common complication experienced with both peribulbar and retrobulbar anesthesia. Conclusion: Presently, the most common technique of local anesthesia for an ophthalmic procedure in Nigeria is peribulbar anesthesia, followed by retrobulbar anesthesia. Twelve months prior to the study, 25.9% of the

  1. Telehealth: current practices and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Yadin B.

    1996-02-01

    When we review the positive impact that the integration of ostensibly independent patient-care services have on the efficient management of quality care, education, and collaborative research, it is not surprising that telehealth deployment is on the rise. The forces that drive this phenomenon include: the need to manage the entire disease episode; the desire for wider geographically-distributed quality health care; the escalation of customer expectations; globalization of healthcare and its support services; an increase in patient and provider convenience; and the acceptance of the present technological community. At the Telehealth Center at the Texas Children's Hospital, current classifications of clinical applications are listed: (1) initial urgent evaluation of patients, (2) triage decisions and pretransfer arrangements, (3) medical and surgical follow-up and medication review, (4) consultation for primary care encounters, (5) real-time subspecialty care consultation and planning, (6) management of chronic diseases and conditions, (7) extended diagnostic work-ups, (8) review of diagnostic images, and (9) preventive medicine and patient education. The delivery of such services is associated with challenges and opportunities. As we move forward from limited data processing to an integrated communication system, from centralized main frame functions to personalized and location-independent workstations, and from hospitals to clinics and homecare, an increase in the minimum features provided by the equipment and the communication systems must accompany the widening variety of clinical applications. Future expansion of telehealth systems stands to revolutionize the delivery of services to the benefits of providers' networks, our economy, and patients through integration.

  2. Current attitudes to breast reconstruction surgery for women at risk of post-mastectomy radiotherapy: A survey of UK breast surgeons.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, Paula J; Gandhi, Ashu; Kirwan, Cliona C; Jain, Yogesh; Harvey, James R

    2015-08-01

    Decision-making for women requiring reconstruction and post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) includes oncological safety, cosmesis, patient choice, potential delay/interference with adjuvant treatment and surgeon/oncologist preference. This study aimed to quantitatively assess surgeons' attitudes and perceptions about reconstructive options in this setting, and to ascertain if surgical volume influenced advice given. A questionnaire was sent to surgical members of the UK Association of Breast Surgery (ABS) in March-June 2014. The questionnaire elicited information on surgeon volume, reconstructive practice and drivers influencing decision-making. Response rate was 42% (148/355), representing 71% of UK breast units. Delayed breast reconstruction (DBR) was offered more commonly than immediate implant, delayed-immediate or immediate autologous reconstruction (p < 0.05). Cosmesis was thought to be equivalent between IBR and DBR by 15% of surgeons, and 26% believe IBR and DBR offer similar Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Surgeon volume had no effect on reconstruction choice. Common decision-making drivers included negative effects of radiotherapy upon reconstructive and cosmetic outcome. The majority of surgeons (77%) believe the current evidence base is insufficient to guide decision-making. Despite surgeons believing that cosmesis and quality of life are not equivalent between IBR and DBR, DBR remains the commonest approach to this difficult clinical scenario. Surgeons perceive they are using a variety of newer techniques such as Delayed-Immediate Reconstruction and Acellular Dermal Matrices to try to ameliorate the effects of PMRT. This survey demonstrates that there is wide variation in reported surgical practice in this difficult setting. There is widespread acknowledgement of the lack of evidence to guide decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prescribing and dispensing for drug misusers in primary care: current practice in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Matheson, C; Bond, C M; Hickey, F

    1999-08-01

    Substitute prescribing has increased in Scotland, as in the rest of the UK. Both GPs and pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in service provision for drug misusers, but anecdotal evidence has suggested considerable variation in prescribing and dispensing practice. We aimed to gain baseline data on (i) current prescribing practice by medical practitioners and drug agencies, (ii) dispensing practice by community pharmacists across Scotland for the management of drug misuse and (iii) variations in practice between health boards. A structured questionnaire was posted to all community pharmacies in Scotland (n = 1142), in order to gather information on prescribing from prescriptions held at the time of the survey and information on current dispensing practice in managing drug misusers. The response rate was 79%. Sixty-one per cent of pharmacists were currently dispensing drugs for the management of drug misuse. The most frequently prescribed drug was methadone, dispensed by 46% of pharmacists, followed by diazepam (37%), dihydrocodeine (26%) and temazepam (25%). Sixty-five per cent of methadone prescriptions were dispensed daily on request from the prescriber. Of the 3387 people receiving a methadone prescription, 32.9% had to consume their daily dose on the pharmacy premises under a pharmacist's supervision. Nineteen per cent of pharmacies currently provided a service to supervise the consumption of methadone by clients and a further 14% were prepared to but had no current demand. The proportion of prescriptions requiring supervision of methadone consumption varied considerably between health board areas. Methadone is the most widely prescribed drug for drug misuse across Scotland, but there is considerable variation between health board areas in how prescribing is managed. Prescribing practice should be revised locally, in a process involving GPs and pharmacists. Pharmacists have an important role in preventing drug misuse in primary care, but need further

  4. Spatio-temporal elements of articulation work in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety in UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Suzanne; Mesman, Jessica; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Prescribing is the most common healthcare intervention, and is both beneficial and risky. An important source of risk in UK general practice is the management of 'repeat prescriptions', which are typically requested from and issued by non-clinically trained reception staff with only intermittent reauthorisation by a clinical prescriber. This paper ethnographically examines the formal and informal work employed by GPs and receptionists to safely conduct repeat prescribing work in primary care using Strauss's (1985, 1988, 1993) concept of 'articulation work' across eight UK general practices. The analytical lens of articulation work provided an investigative framing to contextually map the informal, invisible resources of resilience and strength employed by practice team members in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety, where risk and vulnerability were continually relocated across space and time. In particular, the paper makes visible the micro-level competencies and collaborative practices that were routinely employed by both GPs and receptionists across different socio-cultural contexts, with informal, cross-hierarchical communication usually considered more effective than the formal structures of communication that existed (e.g. protocols). While GPs held formal prescribing authority, this paper also examines the key role of receptionists in both the initiation and safe coordination of the repeat prescribing routine.

  5. Using Applied Behaviour Analysis as Standard Practice in a UK Special Needs School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Denise; Hoerger, Marguerite; Philpott, Hannah; Jones, Elin Walker; Hughes, J. Carl; Morgan, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how applied behaviour analysis can be implemented effectively and affordably in a maintained special needs school in the UK. Behaviour analysts collaborate with classroom teachers to provide early intensive behaviour education for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and function based behavioural…

  6. Policy Enactments in the UK Secondary School: Examining Policy, Practice and School Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Annette; Maguire, Meg; Ball, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt in an ongoing research study of the policy environments in four UK secondary schools to examine policy enactment, where "enactment" refers to an understanding that policies are interpreted and "translated" by diverse policy actors in the school environment, rather than simply implemented. The…

  7. Middle Managers in UK Higher Education Conceptualising Experiences in Support of Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birds, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of reflexivity in supporting middle managers in understanding and facilitating large-scale change management projects in their organisations. Utilising an example from a UK university, it is argued that the development of a conceptual model to fit local circumstances enables deeper understanding and better informed…

  8. Middle Managers in UK Higher Education Conceptualising Experiences in Support of Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birds, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of reflexivity in supporting middle managers in understanding and facilitating large-scale change management projects in their organisations. Utilising an example from a UK university, it is argued that the development of a conceptual model to fit local circumstances enables deeper understanding and better informed…

  9. Recruiting Teachers Online: Marketing Strategies and Information Dissemination Practices of UK-Based Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian; Books, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A review of the websites of 43 UK-based agencies that are recruiting teachers in South Africa and other countries finds that important information about what to expect often is missing. An analysis of the marketing strategies shows that agencies overall are promising schools thorough vetting of candidates and low fees, are promising prospective…

  10. The Creative Countryside: Policy and Practice in the UK Rural Cultural Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David; Jayne, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores emerging policymaking and research into rural creative industries, drawing on a case study from the county of Shropshire in the UK. It begins with a critique of existing creative industries policy, which is argued to focus almost exclusively on the urban as the site of creative work. The paper highlights an emerging body of…

  11. Policy Enactments in the UK Secondary School: Examining Policy, Practice and School Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Annette; Maguire, Meg; Ball, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt in an ongoing research study of the policy environments in four UK secondary schools to examine policy enactment, where "enactment" refers to an understanding that policies are interpreted and "translated" by diverse policy actors in the school environment, rather than simply implemented. The…

  12. Using Applied Behaviour Analysis as Standard Practice in a UK Special Needs School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Denise; Hoerger, Marguerite; Philpott, Hannah; Jones, Elin Walker; Hughes, J. Carl; Morgan, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how applied behaviour analysis can be implemented effectively and affordably in a maintained special needs school in the UK. Behaviour analysts collaborate with classroom teachers to provide early intensive behaviour education for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and function based behavioural…

  13. Recruiting Teachers Online: Marketing Strategies and Information Dissemination Practices of UK-Based Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian; Books, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A review of the websites of 43 UK-based agencies that are recruiting teachers in South Africa and other countries finds that important information about what to expect often is missing. An analysis of the marketing strategies shows that agencies overall are promising schools thorough vetting of candidates and low fees, are promising prospective…

  14. The Search for next Practice: A UK Approach to Innovation in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the Labor Government in the UK established an Innovation Unit, within government, to support practitioner-led innovation in schools. Two considerations led to this action. First, there was an increasing sense that amidst the plethora of national strategies and change programs, an important element was in danger of being lost: the…

  15. The Creative Countryside: Policy and Practice in the UK Rural Cultural Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David; Jayne, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores emerging policymaking and research into rural creative industries, drawing on a case study from the county of Shropshire in the UK. It begins with a critique of existing creative industries policy, which is argued to focus almost exclusively on the urban as the site of creative work. The paper highlights an emerging body of…

  16. Hospital passports, patient safety and person-centred care: A review of documents currently used for people with intellectual disabilities in the UK.

    PubMed

    Northway, Ruth; Rees, Stacey; Davies, Michelle; Williams, Sharon

    2017-09-07

    To review hospital passports currently in use for people with intellectual disabilities in the UK and to make recommendations for practice. Hospital passports have been introduced internationally to address communication barriers that may limit access to appropriate health care for people with intellectual disabilities. They are viewed as promoting patient safety and person-centred care but their format may vary, they are not always used appropriately, and hence, their effectiveness may be limited. Qualitative content analysis. Sixty hospital passports in use in the UK were reviewed against a coding frame by two members of the research team. Areas of interest included key patient and primary care information, support network details, consent and capacity, support required in relation to activities of daily living, length of the document and completion details. Results were entered into Excel. Considerable variation was found between documents in terms of terminology, length and format. Most included information regarding communication and support needs although some omitted important information such as allergies, risk assessment and need for reasonable adjustments. Considerable variation exists between current hospital passports, which may limit their effectiveness: key information required may not be included and/or it may not be easy to locate. Greater standardisation of documents is required, but this process should include input from all key stakeholders. Internationally nurses provide care for people with intellectual disabilities and others with communication difficulties. Hospital passports are one way of enhancing safety and person-centred care, need to be accessed and used as a basis for care planning. However, variation in format may limit this effectiveness and nurses should work with others to develop a more standardised approach, which better meets the needs of all stakeholders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of hypercalcemia of malignancy among pediatric cancer patients in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database

    PubMed Central

    Jick, Susan; Li, Lin; Gastanaga, Victor M; Liede, Alexander; Hernandez, Rohini K

    2017-01-01

    Background The reported proportion of cancer patients who experience hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) is low, particularly in the pediatric population, ranging between <1% and 5%. HCM can be observed with any type of tumor in children and occurs most commonly with leukemia. While HCM is a potentially fatal condition, the prevalence of HCM is not well understood in pediatric cancer patients. Methods Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified pediatric cancer patients with recorded corrected serum calcium (CSC) from 2003 through 2014. Hypercalcemic patients (CSC ≥10.8 mg/dL) were classified into 4 CSC levels. We estimated the annual prevalence of HCM using Byar’s method. Results Among 517 pediatric cancer patients, leukemia, lymphoma, and brain tumors were the most frequent cancer types. The prevalence of HCM overall (grade 1 or higher) ranged from 0.24% to 0.81% between 2003 and 2014. There were too few cases to compare prevalence by type of cancer. Conclusion We provide the first systematic analysis using a UK population-based data source to estimate the number of pediatric cancer patients affected with HCM by grade. Our findings showed that the prevalence of pediatric HCM was very low (0.24%–0.81%) over the 12-year study period, which is consistent with previous study of adult cancer patients in the UK (0.20%–0.67%). PMID:28670142

  18. Comparability of the age and sex distribution of the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and the total Dutch population.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Roy G P J; Gallagher, Arlene M; Herrett, Emily; Masclee, Ad A M; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G; de Vries, Frank

    2016-12-01

    The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is increasingly being used by Dutch researchers in epidemiology and pharmacoepidemiology. It is however unclear if the UK CPRD is representative of the Dutch population and whether study results would apply to the Dutch population. Therefore, as first step, our objective was to compare the age and sex distribution of the CPRD with the total Dutch population. As a measure of representativeness, the age and sex distribution of the UK CPRD were visually and numerically compared with Dutch census data from the StatLine database of the Dutch National Bureau of Statistics in 2011. The age distribution of men and women in the CPRD population was comparable to the Dutch male and female population. Differences of more than 10% only occurred in older age categories (75+ in men and 80+ in women). Results from observational studies that have used CPRD data are applicable to the Dutch population, and a useful resource for decision making in the Netherlands. Nevertheless, differences in drug exposure likelihood between countries should be kept in mind, as these could still cause variations in the actual population studied, thereby decreasing its generalizability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Health promotion by communities and in communities: current issues for research and practice.

    PubMed

    South, Jane

    2014-11-01

    This paper explores contemporary issues around community-based health promotion in the light of international health policies reaffirming the central role of community action within broader efforts to achieve health equity. Adopting a system-level approach poses challenges for current health promotion practice and evaluation, particularly where there is a shift in emphasis from small-scale community health projects towards mainstream community programmes, capable of engaging widely across diverse populations. Drawing on research with community members carried out by the Centre for Health Promotion Research, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, the paper re-examines assumptions about the nature of interventions within community settings, and what participation means from a lay perspective. Key research issues for community-based health promotion are highlighted. The paper concludes by proposing that community-based interventions need to be reframed, if the dual challenges of citizen involvement and evidence based practice are to be met. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice.

    PubMed

    Luft, Joseph R; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H

    2014-07-01

    While crystallization historically predates crystallography, it is a critical step for the crystallographic process. The rich history of crystallization and how that history influences current practices is described. The tremendous impact of crystallization screens on the field is discussed.

  1. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  2. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  3. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  4. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  5. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  6. A summarized discussion of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    In light of recent events and discussions of compounding pharmacy, it is important to discuss and understand the purpose of good manufacturing practices. This article provides a summary of the current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations which were established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  7. Sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Marian C; Dillon, Barry; Hamann, Lawrence G; Hughes, Gregory J; Kopach, Michael E; Peterson, Emily A; Pourashraf, Mehrnaz; Raheem, Izzat; Richardson, Paul; Richter, Daniel; Sneddon, Helen F

    2013-08-08

    The medicinal chemistry subgroup of the American Chemical Society's Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable (ACS GCI PR) offers a perspective on the current state of environmentally sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry with the aim of sharing best practices more widely and highlighting some potential future developments.

  8. Evaluating Teaching: A Guide to Current Thinking and Best Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James, Ed.

    This guide presents current research and thinking about teacher evaluation and combines that research with practice. Chapters contain illustrations and examples to make a research-practice connection and present a comprehensive approach to designing, implementing, and monitoring quality teacher-evaluation systems. Chapters include: (1) "Improving…

  9. Current Practices in the Delivery of Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify current practices for the delivery of exercise physiology content at the undergraduate level. An anonymous 22-item survey was sent to instructors of exercise physiology to collect information concerning the structure of course offerings and instructional practices. One hundred ten instructors responded to…

  10. Current Practices in the Delivery of Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify current practices for the delivery of exercise physiology content at the undergraduate level. An anonymous 22-item survey was sent to instructors of exercise physiology to collect information concerning the structure of course offerings and instructional practices. One hundred ten instructors responded to…

  11. Using Technology in Undergraduate Admission: Current Practices and Future Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindbeck, Robin; Fodrey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices and future plans for using technology in admission practices at four-year colleges and universities. This study collected data through an online survey. The survey was largely quantitative but also included several qualitative questions, and focused on 12 broad categories of…

  12. Developing best practice for fungal specimen management: audit of UK microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lasseter, G; Palmer, M; Morgan, J; Watts, J; Yoxall, H; Kibbler, C; McNulty, C

    2011-01-01

    This study represents an audit of microbiology laboratories in the UK to ascertain whether they are aware of, or follow, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) National Standard Methods Standard Operating Procedure (NSM SOP) for the investigation of dermatological specimens for superficial mycoses, or use a locally adapted version. A questionnaire audit was distributed to 179 NHS microbiology laboratories throughout England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The NSM SOP was followed by 92% of laboratories for the microscopy of dermatological samples; light microscopy/ KOH digestion was used by 63% and fluorescence microscopy/KOH digestion by 29% of laboratories. Preliminary reports post-microscopy were issued by 98% of laboratories, with 93% issuing reports within 48 hours. Adherence to the NSM SOP guidelines for culture was low; only 34% of laboratories incubated microscopy-negative specimens for the recommended 14 days, while approximately 60% incubated microscopy-positive specimens for 21 days. The culture medium recommended by the NSM SOP was used in 82% of laboratories. Comments were added to culture reports by 51% of laboratories; most were added manually and comments varied between laboratories. Nail samples were the most common sample received from primary care, followed by skin and hair. These results show no significant difference in the rate of microscopy positives versus culture positives. Microscopy and culture are the easiest and cheapest methods available to UK laboratories for the investigation of suspected superficial fungal infections. Although most laboratories included in this audit claimed to follow the NSM SOP for microscopy and culture, these results show that the techniques used vary throughout the UK. To maximise the service provided to primary care, UK laboratories should use standardise methods based on the NSM SOP.

  13. Radiotherapy dosimetry audit: three decades of improving standards and accuracy in UK clinical practice and trials

    PubMed Central

    Aird, Edwin GA; Bolton, Steve; Miles, Elizabeth A; Nisbet, Andrew; Snaith, Julia AD; Thomas, Russell AS; Venables, Karen; Thwaites, David I

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetry audit plays an important role in the development and safety of radiotherapy. National and large scale audits are able to set, maintain and improve standards, as well as having the potential to identify issues which may cause harm to patients. They can support implementation of complex techniques and can facilitate awareness and understanding of any issues which may exist by benchmarking centres with similar equipment. This review examines the development of dosimetry audit in the UK over the past 30 years, including the involvement of the UK in international audits. A summary of audit results is given, with an overview of methodologies employed and lessons learnt. Recent and forthcoming more complex audits are considered, with a focus on future needs including the arrival of proton therapy in the UK and other advanced techniques such as four-dimensional radiotherapy delivery and verification, stereotactic radiotherapy and MR linear accelerators. The work of the main quality assurance and auditing bodies is discussed, including how they are working together to streamline audit and to ensure that all radiotherapy centres are involved. Undertaking regular external audit motivates centres to modernize and develop techniques and provides assurance, not only that radiotherapy is planned and delivered accurately but also that the patient dose delivered is as prescribed. PMID:26329469

  14. Radiotherapy dosimetry audit: three decades of improving standards and accuracy in UK clinical practice and trials.

    PubMed

    Clark, Catharine H; Aird, Edwin G A; Bolton, Steve; Miles, Elizabeth A; Nisbet, Andrew; Snaith, Julia A D; Thomas, Russell A S; Venables, Karen; Thwaites, David I

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetry audit plays an important role in the development and safety of radiotherapy. National and large scale audits are able to set, maintain and improve standards, as well as having the potential to identify issues which may cause harm to patients. They can support implementation of complex techniques and can facilitate awareness and understanding of any issues which may exist by benchmarking centres with similar equipment. This review examines the development of dosimetry audit in the UK over the past 30 years, including the involvement of the UK in international audits. A summary of audit results is given, with an overview of methodologies employed and lessons learnt. Recent and forthcoming more complex audits are considered, with a focus on future needs including the arrival of proton therapy in the UK and other advanced techniques such as four-dimensional radiotherapy delivery and verification, stereotactic radiotherapy and MR linear accelerators. The work of the main quality assurance and auditing bodies is discussed, including how they are working together to streamline audit and to ensure that all radiotherapy centres are involved. Undertaking regular external audit motivates centres to modernize and develop techniques and provides assurance, not only that radiotherapy is planned and delivered accurately but also that the patient dose delivered is as prescribed.

  15. The Practicalities of Crowdsourcing: Lessons from the Tea Bag Index - UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duddigan, Sarah; Alexander, Paul; Shaw, Liz; Collins, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The Tea Bag Index -UK is a collaborative project between the University of Reading and the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), working with members of the gardening community as citizen scientists. This project aims to quantify how decomposition varies across the country, and whether decomposition is influenced by how gardeners manage their soil, particularly with respect to the application of compost. Launched in 2015 as part of a PhD project, the Tea Bag Index- UK project asks willing volunteers to bury tea bags in their gardens, as part of a large scale, litter bag style decomposition rate study. Over 450 sets of tea bags have been dispatched to participants, across the length and breadth of the UK. The group was largely recruited via social media, magazine articles and public engagement events and active discourse was undertaken with these citizen scientists using Facebook, Twitter and regular email communication. In order to run a successful crowdsourcing citizen science project there are number of stages that need to be considered including (but not limited to): planning; launch and recruitment; communications; and feedback. Throughout a project of this nature an understanding of the motivations of your volunteers is vital. Reflecting on these motivations while publicising the project, and communicating regularly with its participants is incredibly important for a successful project.

  16. Proportion of pet cats registered with a veterinary practice and factors influencing registration in the UK.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jane K; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    Registration of a cat with a veterinary practice is likely to be a critical factor for access to key preventative medicine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data in the United Kingdom on the registration status of cats and potential explanatory variables. These data were also used to identify potential sources of bias associated with selecting controls from veterinary registered populations of cats due to differences between registered and unregistered cats. Cat owners reported that 13.6% (84/616) of their cats had not been registered with a veterinary practice since living at their current address. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that unregistered cats were significantly more likely than registered cats to be entire, to have not been vaccinated within the previous year, to be living in households in Northern Ireland and in households with an annual income <£10,000.(1) Whilst the neuter status and the vaccination status of the cat are likely to result from non-registration, the household location and annual income are factors that can be used to inform future interventions designed to increase the proportion of veterinary registered cats.

  17. The Current State of Sustainability in Bioscience Laboratories: A Statistical Examination of a UK Tertiary Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hazel A.; Ironside, Joseph E.; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to identify the current barriers to sustainability in the bioscience laboratory setting and to determine which mechanisms are likely to increase sustainable behaviours in this specialised environment. Design/methodology/approach: The study gathers qualitative data from a sample of laboratory researchers presently…

  18. The Current State of Sustainability in Bioscience Laboratories: A Statistical Examination of a UK Tertiary Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hazel A.; Ironside, Joseph E.; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to identify the current barriers to sustainability in the bioscience laboratory setting and to determine which mechanisms are likely to increase sustainable behaviours in this specialised environment. Design/methodology/approach: The study gathers qualitative data from a sample of laboratory researchers presently…

  19. Diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy in infancy - a UK primary care practical guide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The UK NICE guideline on the Diagnosis and Assessment of Food Allergy in Children and Young People was published in 2011, highlighting the important role of primary care physicians, dietitians, nurses and other community based health care professionals in the diagnosis and assessment of IgE and non-IgE-mediated food allergies in children. The guideline suggests that those with suspected IgE-mediated disease and those suspected to suffer from severe non-IgE-mediated disease are referred on to secondary or tertiary level care. What is evident from this guideline is that the responsibility for the diagnostic food challenge, ongoing management and determining of tolerance to cow’s milk in children with less severe non-IgE-mediated food allergies is ultimately that of the primary care/community based health care staff, but this discussion fell outside of the current NICE guideline. Some clinical members of the guideline development group (CV, JW, ATF, TB) therefore felt that there was a particular need to extend this into a more practical guideline for cow’s milk allergy. This subset of the guideline development group with the additional expertise of a paediatric gastroenterologist (NS) therefore aimed to produce a UK Primary Care Guideline for the initial clinical recognition of all forms of cow’s milk allergy and the ongoing management of those with non-severe non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy in the form of algorithms. These algorithms will be discussed in this review paper, drawing on guidance primarily from the UK NICE guideline, but also from the DRACMA guidelines, ESPGHAN guidelines, Australian guidelines and the US NIAID guidelines. PMID:23835522

  20. Placebo use in the UK: a qualitative study exploring GPs' views on placebo effects in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Felicity L; Howick, Jeremy; Heneghan, Carl; Stevens, Sarah; Hobbs, F D Richard; Lewith, George

    2014-06-01

    Surveys show GPs use placebos in clinical practice and reported prevalence rates vary widely. To explore GPs' perspectives on clinical uses of placebos. A web-based survey of 783 UK GPs' use of placebos in clinical practice. Qualitative descriptive analysis of written responses ('comments') to three open-ended questions. Comments were classified into three categories: (i) defining placebos and their effects in general practice; (ii) ethical, societal and regulatory issues faced by doctors and (iii) reasons why a doctor might use placebos and placebo effects in clinical practice. GPs typically defined placebos as lacking something, be that adverse or beneficial effects, known mechanism of action and/or scientific evidence. Some GPs defined placebos positively as having potential to benefit patients, primarily through psychological mechanisms. GPs described a broad array of possible harms and benefits of placebo prescribing, reflecting fundamental bioethical principles, at the level of the individual, the doctor-patient relationship, the National Health Service and society. While some GPs were adamant that there was no place for placebos in clinical practice, others focused on the clinically beneficial effects of placebos in primary care. This study has elucidated specific costs, benefits and ethical barriers to placebo use as perceived by a large sample of UK GPs. Stand-alone qualitative work would provide a more in-depth understanding of GPs' views. Continuing education and professional guidance could help GPs update and contextualize their understanding of placebos and their clinical effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. 21 CFR 114.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 114.5 Section 114.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS General Provisions § 114.5 Current good...

  2. 21 CFR 114.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 114.5 Section 114.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS General Provisions § 114.5 Current good...

  3. 21 CFR 114.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 114.5 Section 114.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS General Provisions § 114.5 Current good...

  4. 21 CFR 114.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 114.5 Section 114.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS General Provisions § 114.5 Current good...

  5. 21 CFR 114.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 114.5 Section 114.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS General Provisions § 114.5 Current good...

  6. New Migrants in the UK: Education, Training and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillimore, Jenny; Goodson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study of the education, training and employment of asylum seekers and refugees in the UK is based on the academic and policy literature and empirical data from five major studies. It sets out the political context to seeking asylum in the UK, explores current policy and practice regarding the education, training and employment of new migrants…

  7. Evaluation of the impact of current antismoking advice in the UK on women with planned pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Acharya, G; Jauniaux, E; Sathia, Leena; Griffin, M; Morgan, H

    2002-09-01

    Smoking during pregnancy (active or passive) is associated with increased health risks to the unborn child. Current policy on antismoking advice for pregnant women in the United Kingdom is based essentially on written information by means of leaflets given to them at the first antenatal visit. We evaluated the impact of this policy on the smoking habits of pregnant women. A sample of 180 women with planned pregnancies attending antenatal clinics at two teaching hospitals in North London was recruited over a 6-month period. All women were provided with the current antismoking counselling at their first visit at the end of the first trimester and asked to fill in a questionnaire around mid-gestation. The study population included 117 (65%) women who did not currently smoke (non-smokers) and 63 (35%) who were active smokers at the beginning of their pregnancy. Thirty-nine non-smokers were found to be passive smokers. Three women took up smoking during pregnancy. Among the smokers, 53 (84.1%) women made no change in their smoking behaviour during pregnancy, seven (11.1%) reduced their cigarette consumption and only three (4.8%) gave up smoking during the first half of pregnancy. None of the partners changed their smoking habits. All women were aware that smoking in pregnancy could be deleterious to their health and that of their fetus. Despite awareness of dangers of smoking, the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women remains very high after the first antenatal visit and the current antismoking policy based essentially on leaflets is not effective. Health-care professionals should spend more time to inform women adequately about the dangers of smoking and help them to quit before pregnancy.

  8. Use of cefovecin in a UK population of cats attending first-opinion practices as recorded in electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara; Black, Vicki; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Radford, Alan; Hibbert, Angie; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The objective was to use electronic health records to describe the use of cefovecin (Convenia; Zoetis UK), a third-generation long-acting injectable antimicrobial, in a UK population of cats attending first-opinion practices, and to compare the use of Convenia with the licensed uses described on the UK Convenia datasheet. Methods Data were obtained as an Excel database from the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network for all feline consultations containing the word Convenia and/or cefovecin from 1 September 2012 to 23 September 2013 inclusive. Entries were classified according to body system treated, confirmation or suspicion of an abscess, evidence of microbiological evaluation being performed, any concurrent therapies given and whether any reason was given for use of Convenia over alternative antimicrobials. Data were exported to IBM SPSS Statistics and descriptive analysis performed. Results In total, 1148 entries were analysed. The most common body system treated was skin in 553 (48.2%) entries, then urinary (n = 157; 13.7%) and respiratory (n = 112; 9.8%). Microbiological evaluation was recorded in 193 (16.8%) entries, with visible purulent material most commonly cited (in 147 [12.8%] entries). A reason for prescribing Convenia over alternative antimicrobials was given in 138 (12.0%) entries; the most cited was an inability to orally medicate the cat in 77 (55.8%) of these entries. Excluding 131 entries where no body system or multiple body systems were described, the use of Convenia complied with a licensed use in the UK datasheet in 710 (69.8%) of 1017 entries. Conclusions and relevance Most administrations were licensed uses; however, most entries did not describe any microbiological evaluation, or a reason for prescribing Convenia over alternative antimicrobials. Further education of the public and the veterinary profession is needed to promote antimicrobial stewardship in the UK. Health records provide a valuable tool with which to monitor

  9. Prioritizing areas for quality marker development in children in UK general practice: extending the use of the nominal group technique.

    PubMed

    Gill, Peter J; Hewitson, Paul; Peile, Ed; Harnden, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    There is a deficiency in the ability to measure the quality of care of children in primary care and there is no professional consensus in UK general practice regarding which quality markers should be used. To prioritize clinical areas on which to focus quality marker development in paediatric primary care and to describe the challenges in generating professional consensus. We convened an expert panel of GPs with a special interest in child health and using the nominal group technique (NGT), a well-established structured, multistep facilitated group meeting technique, we generated consensus around the key clinical areas to focus quality marker development. Twelve GPs participated in the expert panel. The eight items agreed by panellists as most important were early recognition of serious illness, whole practice involvement in safeguarding, health promotion, mental health, evidence-based management of common conditions, child and carer friendliness and safe and cost-effective prescribing. Panel members struggled to balance the broad clinical areas while attempting to focus on specific areas that are important. The main challenges included managing panel uncertainty, effective organization, presentation of items for review and group inclination to 'include everything'. This is the first consensus study of UK GPs to identify key areas to target quality marker development in children. By using the NGT, we have highlighted front-line health care professionals' priorities to improve the quality of care of children and identified the benefits and challenges of developing consensus in a broad topic area.

  10. Paediatric rheumatology practice in the UK benchmarked against the British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology/Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Alliance Standards of Care for juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kavirayani, Akhila; Foster, Helen E

    2013-12-01

    To describe current clinical practice against the BSPAR/ARMA Standards of Care (SOCs) for children and young people (CYP) with incident JIA. Ten UK paediatric rheumatology centres (including all current centres nationally accredited for paediatric rheumatology higher specialist training) participated in a retrospective case notes review using a pretested pro forma based on the SOC. Data collected per centre included clinical service configuration and the initial clinical care for a minimum of 30 consecutive new patients seen within the previous 2 years and followed up for at least 6 months. A total of 428 CYP with JIA (median age 11 years, range 1-21 years) were included, with complete data available for 73% (311/428). Against the key SOCs, 41% (175/428) were assessed ≤10 weeks from symptom onset, 60% (186/311) ≤4 weeks from referral, 26% (81/311) had eye screening at ≤6 weeks, 83% (282/341) had joint injections at ≤6 weeks, 59% (184/311) were assessed by a nurse specialist at ≤4 weeks and 45% (141/311) were assessed by a physiotherapist at ≤8 weeks. A median of 6% of patients per centre participated in clinical trials. All centres had access to eye screening and prescribed biologic therapies. All had access to a nurse specialist and physiotherapist. Most had access to an occupational therapist (8/10), psychologist (8/10), joint injection lists (general anaesthesia/inhaled analgesia) (9/10) and designated transitional care clinics (7/10). This first description of UK clinical practice in paediatric rheumatology benchmarked against the BSPAR/ARMA SOCs demonstrates variable clinical service delivery. Considerable delay in access to specialist care is evident and this needs to be addressed in order to improve clinical outcomes.

  11. Preliminary Evidence That Yoga Practice Progressively Improves Mood and Decreases Stress in a Sample of UK Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brazil, Inti A.; Farias, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In the first randomized controlled trial of yoga on UK prisoners, we previously showed that yoga practice was associated with improved mental wellbeing and cognition. Here, we aimed to assess how class attendance, self-practice, and demographic factors were related to outcome amongst prisoners enrolled in the 10-week yoga intervention. Methods. The data of 55 participants (52 male, 3 female) who completed a 10-week yoga course were analysed. Changes in pre- and postyoga measures of affect, perceived stress, and psychological symptoms were entered into linear regression analyses with bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap confidence intervals. Class attendance, self-practice, demographic variables, and baseline psychometric variables were included as regressors. Results. Participants who attended more yoga classes and those who engaged in frequent (5 times or more) self-practice reported significantly greater decreases in perceived stress. Decreases in negative affect were also significantly related to high frequency self-practice and greater class attendance at a near-significant level. Age was positively correlated with yoga class attendance, and higher levels of education were associated with greater decreases in negative affect. Conclusions. Our results suggest that there may be progressive beneficial effects of yoga within prison populations and point to subpopulations who may benefit the most from this practice. PMID:26294928

  12. Good practice recommendations for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in adults in the UK: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Ann L N; Seaton, R Andrew; Cooper, Mike A; Hedderwick, Sara; Goodall, Vicky; Reed, Corienne; Sanderson, Frances; Nathwani, Dilip

    2012-05-01

    These good practice recommendations for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) are an update to a previous consensus statement on OPAT in the UK published in 1998. They are based on previous national and international guidelines, but have been further developed through an extensive consultation process, and are underpinned by evidence from published literature on OPAT. They provide pragmatic guidance on the development and delivery of OPAT services, looking at all aspects of service design, care delivery, outcome monitoring and quality assurance, with the aim of ensuring that OPAT services provide high-quality, low-risk care, whatever the healthcare setting. They will provide a useful resource for teams developing new services, as well as a practical set of quality indicators for existing services.

  13. Five Year Clinical Evaluation of Restorations Placed in a Low Shrinkage Stress Composite in UK General Dental Practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell J; James, Ali; Mackenzie, Louis; Thompson, Owen; Pal, A; Sands, Peter; Palin, William M

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates the five year clinical evaluation of restorations formed in a low shrinkage stress resin composite material (3M ESPE Filtek Silorane, Seefeld, Germany) and placed in the general dental practices of five members of the PREP Panel, a group of UK practice-based researchers. Results indicated satisfactory performance of the material under evaluation, other than for marginal staining, which affected 60% of the restorations evaluated after five years, albeit with less than 10% of the circumference of the restorations being affected. The low shrinkage stress material, Filtek Silorane™, demonstrated good clinical performance in the majority of parameters which were assessed at five years. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  14. A viewpoint on the current status of UK orthodontic education and the challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K; Spencer, J

    2015-02-16

    In this paper we will provide our personal viewpoint on the current provision of orthodontic education and discuss the need for further developments. This will include training relevant to the following: (i) student dentists, (ii) specialists, and (iii) general practitioners: particularly those who wish to develop an interest in orthodontics. We will attempt to take into account the many changes in methods of delivery of care, the changing demands of the public for high quality treatment and the influence of the curricula produced by the General Dental Council (GDC).

  15. Epidemiology of alcohol dependence in UK primary care: Results from a large observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Alison K.; Ashcroft, Darren M.; van Staa, Tjeerd P.; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the incidence and annual presentation rates of alcohol dependence in general practice in the UK, and examine age-, gender-, socioeconomic-, and region-specific variation. We conducted a retrospective 'open' cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), an anonymised primary care database. Prior to data extraction, a case definition for alcohol dependence in CPRD was established using 47 Read codes, which included primary alcohol dependence and consequences of alcohol dependence. Directly standardised rates for incidence and annual presentation were calculated for each year between 1990 and 2013. Rates were compared by gender, age, UK home nation, and practice-level Index of Multiple Deprivation. The directly standardised annual incidence rates were 8.3 and 3.7 per 10,000 male and female patients, respectively. The estimated annual rates of presentation per 10,000 were 17.1 for males and 7.6 for females. Female to male rate ratios were: 0.40 (95% CI: 0.39–0.41) for incident cases; and 0.37 (95% CI: 0.36–0.39) for annual presentation. Rates were highest in those aged 35–54 for both measures and across genders, and lowest in those aged over 75 years. With England as the reference nation, Northern Ireland and Scotland had significantly higher rates for both measures. Patients from the most deprived areas had the highest incidence and annual presentation rates. There is unequal distribution of patients with severe alcohol dependence across population subgroups in general practice. Given the health and economic burden associated with dependent drinking, these data will be useful in informing future public health initiatives. PMID:28362848

  16. Voice rest after vocal fold surgery: current practice and evidence.

    PubMed

    Coombs, A C; Carswell, A J; Tierney, P A

    2013-08-01

    Voice rest is commonly recommended after vocal fold surgery, but there is a lack of evidence base and no standard protocol. The aim of this study was to establish common practice regarding voice rest following vocal fold surgery. An online survey was circulated via e-mail invitation to members of the ENT UK Expert Panel between October and November 2011. The survey revealed that 86.5 per cent of respondents agreed that 'complete voice rest' means no sound production at all, but there was variability in how 'relative voice rest' was defined. There was no dominant type of voice rest routinely recommended after surgery for laryngeal papillomatosis or intermediate pathologies. There was considerable variability in the duration of voice rest recommended, with no statistically significant, most popular response (except for malignant lesions). Surgeons with less than 10 years of experience were more likely to recommend fewer days of voice rest. There is a lack of consistency in advice given to patients after vocal fold surgery, in terms of both type and length of voice rest. This may arise from an absence of robust evidence on which to base practice.

  17. Risk of tuberculosis in patients with diabetes: population based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    PubMed

    Pealing, Louise; Wing, Kevin; Mathur, Rohini; Prieto-Merino, David; Smeeth, Liam; Moore, David A J

    2015-06-05

    Previous cohort studies demonstrate diabetes as a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) disease. Public Health England has identified improved TB control as a priority area and has proposed a primary care-based screening program for latent TB. We investigated the association between diabetes and risk of tuberculosis in a UK General Practice cohort in order to identify potential high-risk groups appropriate for latent TB screening. Using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink we constructed a cohort of patients with incident diabetes. We included 222,731 patients with diabetes diagnosed from 1990-2013 and 1,218,616 controls without diabetes at index date who were matched for age, sex and general practice. The effect of diabetes was explored using a Poisson analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, body mass index, socioeconomic status, alcohol intake and smoking. We explored the effects of age, diabetes duration and severity. The effects of diabetes on risk of incident TB were explored across strata of chronic disease care defined by cholesterol and blood pressure measurement and influenza vaccination rates. During just under 7 million person-years of follow-up, 969 cases of TB were identified. The incidence of TB was higher amongst patients with diabetes compared with the unexposed group: 16.2 and 13.5 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders the association between diabetes and TB remained (adjusted RR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.01 to 1.67, P = 0.04). There was no evidence that age, time since diagnosis and severity of diabetes affected the association between diabetes and TB. Diabetes patients with the lowest and highest rates of chronic disease management had a higher risk of TB (P <0.001 for all comparisons). Diabetes as an independent risk factor is associated with only a modest overall increased risk of TB in our UK General Practice cohort and is unlikely to be sufficient cause to screen for latent TB. Across

  18. Use of randomisation in clinical trials: a survey of UK practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In healthcare research the randomised controlled trial is seen as the gold standard because it ensures selection bias is minimised. However, there is uncertainty as to which is the most preferred method of randomisation in any given setting and to what extent more complex methods are actually being implemented in the field. Methods In this paper we describe the results of a survey of UK academics and publicly funded researchers to examine the extent of the use of various methods of randomisation in clinical trials. Results Trialists reported using simple randomisation, permuted blocks and stratification more often than more complex methods such as minimisation. Most trialists believed that simple randomisation is suitable for larger trials but there is a high probability of possible imbalance between treatment groups in small trials. It was thought that groups should be balanced at baseline to avoid imbalance and help face-validity. However, very few respondents considered that more complex methods offer any advantages. Conclusions This paper demonstrates that for most UK trialists the preferred method of randomisation is using permuted blocks of varying random length within strata. This method eliminates the problem of predictability while maintaining balance across combinations of factors. If the number of prognostic factors is large, then minimisation can be used to provide treatment balance as well as balance over these factors. However, only those factors known to affect outcome should be considered. PMID:23101457

  19. The impact on histopathology practice of new human tissue legislation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Underwood, J C E

    2006-09-01

    The undisclosed or unauthorized retention of tissue from autopsies in the UK and elsewhere has caused considerable public concern and much distress to some families. Histopathologists involved in these cases have also been discomfited. These events have exposed deficiencies in prevailing legislation, principally in the Human Tissue Act 1961 and the Coroners Rules 1984. New human tissue legislation comes into force in the UK in September 2006. The Human Tissue Act 2004 and the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006 make it unlawful to remove, store and use tissue from the dead without appropriate authority. The Human Tissue Act 2004, which does not apply in Scotland, also prohibits the removal, storage and use of tissue from living individuals for purposes specified in the Act unless appropriate consent has been obtained. The Coroners (Amendment) Rules 2005, which came into force in June 2005, introduced new arrangements for dealing with the retention of tissue from bodies undergoing coroner's autopsies. This new legislative regime is intended to create a climate in which pathologists, patients and the public can have confidence that tissue is used appropriately and, when necessary, with proper authority or valid consent. However, other than in Scotland, there may be unintended consequences arising from restrictions on archiving, for audit and diagnostic review, tissue samples from coronial autopsies.

  20. Does the current regulation of assisted reproductive techniques in the UK safeguard animal welfare?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive medicine is one of the fastest-developing fields of veterinary medicine, Regulation of veterinary assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is currently divided between the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (1986); the Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966, and the Animal Welfare Act (2006). None of those pieces of legislation was purpose designed to protect the welfare of animals undergoing ARTs, either directly or by determining which veterinary ART procedures may or may not be performed. Consequently, due to the lack of reference to such procedures, the welfare protection aims of the legislation are sometimes ambiguous. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether the aims of the legislation are being fulfilled, but, in the opinion of this author, the legislation is anyway inadequate in scope, most particularly because it fails to provide a reporting function. It is unclear whether all or any veterinary ART procedures being undertaken on post-natal animals are associated with suffering. Some ARTs may cause discomfort, stress or pain: study or review of the welfare effects of these would be valuable. Any future review of the legislation regulating veterinary ARTs, be that an overall review or a review of one of the relevant statutes (for example the VSA), should take into account the interface between research and clinical medicine; the potentially welfare-compromising gaps between the Acts; the need to introduce reporting functions in order to build an evidence base, and the issue of veterinary specialisation and whether specialised techniques should be carried out only by those with specialist post-graduate qualifications.

  1. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  2. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  3. Costs associated with treatment of chronic low back pain: an analysis of the UK General Practice Research Database.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jihyung; Reed, Catherine; Novick, Diego; Happich, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective cohort study of health care costs associated with the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the United Kingdom. To assess 12-month health care costs associated with the treatment of CLBP, using the UK General Practice Research Database. CLBP is a common health problem. Data were obtained from the General Practice Research Database, a computerized database of UK primary care patient data. Patients with CLBP were identified for the study period (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2009) using diagnostic records and pain relief prescriptions (n = 64,167), and 1:1 matched to patients without CLBP (n = 52,986) on the basis of age, sex, and general practitioner's practice. Index date was defined as the first date of CLBP record; the same index date was assigned to matched controls. Multivariate analyses were performed to compare resource use costs (2009 values) in the 12 months after the index date between patients with and without CLBP. A sensitivity analysis was carried out with a more stringent definition for the control group by excluding a broad range of pain conditions. Total health care costs for patients with CLBP were double those of the matched controls (£1074 vs. £516; P < 0.05). Of the cost difference, 58.8% was accounted for by general practitioner's consultations, 22.3% by referrals to secondary care, and the rest by pain relief medications. The sensitivity analysis revealed an even greater cost difference between the 2 groups (£1052 vs. £304; P < 0.05). Because of the use of a retrospective administrative claims database, this study is subject to selection bias between study cohorts, misidentification of comorbidities, and an inability to confirm adherence to therapy or assess indirect costs and costs of over-the-counter medications. Our findings confirm the substantial economic burden of CLBP, even with direct costs only.

  4. Midwifery Practice and Education: Current Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Walker, Deborah; Lannen, Barbara; Rossie, Debra

    2014-05-31

    Midwifery clinical practice and education has changed significantly since Mary Breckinridge first introduced nurse-midwives to the United States in 1925. This article discusses current challenges in midwifery clinical practice and education and proposes possible solutions. Midwifery clinical challenges include restrictive legislation and business-related barriers, including but not limited to physician supervision restrictions, prescriptive authority, out-of-hospital birth legislation, and third party reimbursement. Educational challenges highlighted include the current healthcare climate's influence on midwifery education, the contribution of clinical sites and preceptors, and the benefits of midwifery education.

  5. The Legal Implications of Student Use of Social Networking Sites in the UK and US: Current Concerns and Lessons for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Mark R.; Lee, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative snapshot of the current state of the law in the US and UK with respect to potential liability of university and college students for use (and misuse) of social networking sites. It reviews the limited case law on this topic, highlights the differences in the two nations' laws of defamation and the various possible…

  6. The Legal Implications of Student Use of Social Networking Sites in the UK and US: Current Concerns and Lessons for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Mark R.; Lee, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative snapshot of the current state of the law in the US and UK with respect to potential liability of university and college students for use (and misuse) of social networking sites. It reviews the limited case law on this topic, highlights the differences in the two nations' laws of defamation and the various possible…

  7. Brain stem death testing after thiopental use:A survey of UK neuro critical care practice.

    PubMed

    Pratt, O W; Bowles, B; Protheroe, R T

    2006-11-01

    A postal survey was conducted to determine how thiopental is used in UK neurosurgery critical care units. Thirty units were contacted and 26 replied. Thiopental is used in 23 units. The majority (60%) of these units govern the use of thiopental with protocols or guidelines and 74% use cerebral monitoring to guide dosage. When patients have had thiopental, 20 units delay brain stem testing, two will not perform tests and one unit incorporates cerebral angiography into their protocol. Twelve units use serum thiopental assays in their brain stem testing procedures, but there is wide variation in the interpretation of the results. We found inconsistency and confusion surrounding brain stem testing in this patient group, raising the possibility of misdiagnosis of brain stem death.

  8. The Impact of Oscillatory Currents and Stratification on Turbulent Dissipation in the Marginally Stratified Celtic Sea, U.K.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanacchi, M.; Hosegood, P. J.; Torres, R.

    2016-02-01

    We present full water column observations of turbulence microstructure, associated water properties and current velocities during eight tidal cycles at a marginally stratified shelf sea front in the southern Celtic Sea, U.K. The aim of the fieldwork, conducted at two sites (depth: 35m & 65m) in spring and late summer of 2012 and during both spring and neap tides, was to investigate the effect of stratification on the phase-dependent properties of turbulent dissipation within an oscillatory tidal regime. The results of this study demonstrate that, as opposed to tidal fronts that are governed by competition between restratification and mixing arising from tidal friction alone, second-order mixing processes are of importance in regulating the mixing regime in marginally stratified frontal regions. Dissipation profiles showed strong tidal asymmetry between the flood and ebb tides. Bottom boundary layer (BBL) growth was strongly limited by stratification both during the weakly stratified spring regime (N2max = 3×10-5 s-2) and more pronounced during the strongly stratified summer regime (N2max = 2×10-4 s-2). In accordance with numerical simulations of a stratified flow under an oscillatory current, stratification did not substantially affect dissipation rates within the BBL ( 10-5 Wkg-1) but strongly supressed them above, forming regions of the lowest dissipation rates in the water column ( 10-9 Wkg-1). Furthermore, a phase lag between maximum dissipation rates and currents was observed to increase with the strength of the stratification. Analysis of the Richardson number reveal a weak dependence of dissipation on local shear instability based on an assessment of the MacKinnon & Gregg scaling for mixing in stably stratified conditions. In addition to the modulation of bottom mixing due to the effects of stratification, we examine the tidal-phase dependence of surface mixed layer deepening associated with the opposing orientation of surface forcing versus tidal flow.

  9. Using an improved understanding of current climate variability to develop increased drought resilience in UK irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, I.; Rey Vicario, D.

    2016-12-01

    Improving community preparedness for climate change can be supported by developing resilience to past events, focused on those changes of particular relevance (such as floods and droughts). However, communities' perceptions of impacts and risk can be influenced by an incomplete appreciation of historical baseline climate variability. This can arise from a number of factors including individual's age, access to long term data records and availability of local knowledge. For example, the most significant recent drought in the UK occurred in 1976/77 but does it represent the worst drought that did occur (or could have occurred) without climate change? We focus on the east of England where most irrigated agriculture is located and where many local farmers interviewed were either not in business then or have an incomplete memory of the impacts of the drought. This paper describes a comparison of an annual agroclimatic indicator closely linked to irrigation demand (maximum Potential Soil Moisture Deficit) calculated from three sources of long term observational and simulated historical weather data with recent data. These long term datasets include gridded measured / calculated datasets of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration; a dynamically downscaled 20th Century Re-analysis dataset, and two Regional Climate Model ensemble datasets (FutureFlows and the MaRIUS event set) which each provide between 110 and 3000 years of baseline weather. The comparison shows that the long term datasets provide a wider characterisation of current climate variability and affect the perception of current drought frequency and severity. The paper will show that using a more comprehensive understanding of current climate variability and drought risk as a basis for adapting irrigated systems to droughts can provide substantial increased resilience to (uncertain) climate change.

  10. Survey of UK imaging practice for the investigation of pulmonary embolism in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, L; Gleeson, F; Mackillop, L; Mutch, S; Beale, A

    2017-08-01

    To determine the utilisation of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung scintigraphy in the UK, and to assess their diagnostic qualities in the investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnancy. Data were collected via electronic questionnaire in the UK from 24 sites. Data on the choice of imaging technique, radiation dose, technical adequacy, weeks' gestation, presenting symptoms, and further management of patients with indeterminate imaging were collected. The sample represented a population of 15.5 million and showed wide variation in the probability of investigation of suspected PE with rates per live birth of 0.06-2.2%. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were imaged and there were 48 positive scans, an incidence of 0.038%. Of the 269 CTPAs performed, 5.9% were positive, 8.9% were technically inadequate. Of the 769 scintigraphy scans performed, 3.8% were positive and 9.1% were indeterminate; 63% of positive scans were in the third trimester. Most inadequate/indeterminate scans were in the third trimester. The calculated typical radiation dose to the breast and fetus from CTPA ranged from 14 to 2 mGy and 0.02 to 0.002mGy, respectively, and approximately 0.28 and 0.2 mGy, respectively, from scintigraphy. The incidence of PE in this population was extremely low and the number of indeterminate or inadequate scans was comparable. This suggests choice of imaging should be made based upon availability and radiation exposure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. UK prescribing practices as proxy markers of unmet need in allergic rhinitis: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Price, David B; Scadding, Glenis; Bachert, Claus; Saleh, Hesham; Nasser, Shuaib; Carter, Victoria; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Durieux, Alice M S; Ryan, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Little data on UK prescribing patterns and treatment effectiveness for allergic rhinitis (AR) are available. We quantified unmet pharmacologic needs in AR by assessing AR treatment effectiveness based on the prescribing behaviour of UK general practitioners (GP) during two consecutive pollen seasons (2009 and 2010). We conducted a retrospective observational study with the data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database. We assessed diagnoses and prescription data for patients with a recorded diagnosis of rhinitis who took rhinitis medication during the study period. We assessed the data from 25,069 patients in 2009 and 22,381 patients in 2010. Monotherapy was the initial prescription of the season for 67% of patients with seasonal AR (SAR) and 77% of patients with nonseasonal upper airways disease (NSUAD), for both years. Initial oral antihistamine (OAH) or intranasal corticosteroid (INS) monotherapy proved insufficient for >20% of SAR and >37% of NSUAD patients. Multiple therapy was the initial prescription for 33% of SAR and 23% of NSUAD in both years, rising to 45% and >50% by season end, respectively. For NSUAD, dual-therapy prescriptions doubled and triple-therapy prescriptions almost tripled during both seasons. Many patients revisited their GP regardless of initial prescription. Initial OAH or INS monotherapy provides insufficient symptom control for many AR patients. GPs often prescribe multiple therapies at the start of the season, with co-prescription becoming more common as the season progresses. However, patients prescribed multiple therapies frequently revisit their GP, presumably to adjust treatment. These data suggest the need for more effective AR treatment and management strategies. PMID:27334893

  12. Modelling study to estimate the health burden of foodborne diseases: cases, general practice consultations and hospitalisations in the UK, 2009.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah J; Larose, Tricia L; Adak, Goutam K; Evans, Meirion R; Tam, Clarence C

    2016-09-13

    To generate estimates of the burden of UK-acquired foodborne disease accounting for uncertainty. A modelling study combining data from national public health surveillance systems for laboratory-confirmed infectious intestinal disease (IID) and outbreaks of foodborne disease and 2 prospective, population-based studies of IID in the community. The underlying data sets covered the time period 1993-2008. We used Monte Carlo simulation and a Bayesian approach, using a systematic review to generate Bayesian priors. We calculated point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI). UK, 2009. Pathogen-specific estimates of the number of cases, general practice (GP) consultations and hospitalisations for foodborne disease in the UK in 2009. Bayesian approaches gave slightly more conservative estimates of overall health burden (∼511 000 cases vs 566 000 cases). Campylobacter is the most common foodborne pathogen, causing 280 400 (95% CrI 182 503-435 693) food-related cases and 38 860 (95% CrI 27 160-55 610) GP consultations annually. Despite this, there are only around 562 (95% CrI 189-1330) food-related hospital admissions due to Campylobacter, reflecting relatively low disease severity. Salmonella causes the largest number of hospitalisations, an estimated 2490 admissions (95% CrI 607-9631), closely followed by Escherichia coli O157 with 2233 admissions (95% CrI 170-32 159). Other common causes of foodborne disease include Clostridium perfringens, with an estimated 79 570 cases annually (95% CrI 30 700-211 298) and norovirus with 74 100 cases (95% CrI 61 150-89 660). Other viruses and protozoa ranked much lower as causes of foodborne disease. The 3 models yielded similar estimates of the burden of foodborne illness in the UK and show that continued reductions in Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli O157, C. perfringens and norovirus are needed to mitigate the impact of foodborne disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  13. Modelling study to estimate the health burden of foodborne diseases: cases, general practice consultations and hospitalisations in the UK, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Larose, Tricia L; Adak, Goutam K; Evans, Meirion R; Tam, Clarence C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To generate estimates of the burden of UK-acquired foodborne disease accounting for uncertainty. Design A modelling study combining data from national public health surveillance systems for laboratory-confirmed infectious intestinal disease (IID) and outbreaks of foodborne disease and 2 prospective, population-based studies of IID in the community. The underlying data sets covered the time period 1993–2008. We used Monte Carlo simulation and a Bayesian approach, using a systematic review to generate Bayesian priors. We calculated point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI). Setting UK, 2009. Outcome measures Pathogen-specific estimates of the number of cases, general practice (GP) consultations and hospitalisations for foodborne disease in the UK in 2009. Results Bayesian approaches gave slightly more conservative estimates of overall health burden (∼511 000 cases vs 566 000 cases). Campylobacter is the most common foodborne pathogen, causing 280 400 (95% CrI 182 503–435 693) food-related cases and 38 860 (95% CrI 27 160–55 610) GP consultations annually. Despite this, there are only around 562 (95% CrI 189–1330) food-related hospital admissions due to Campylobacter, reflecting relatively low disease severity. Salmonella causes the largest number of hospitalisations, an estimated 2490 admissions (95% CrI 607–9631), closely followed by Escherichia coli O157 with 2233 admissions (95% CrI 170–32 159). Other common causes of foodborne disease include Clostridium perfringens, with an estimated 79 570 cases annually (95% CrI 30 700–211 298) and norovirus with 74 100 cases (95% CrI 61 150–89 660). Other viruses and protozoa ranked much lower as causes of foodborne disease. Conclusions The 3 models yielded similar estimates of the burden of foodborne illness in the UK and show that continued reductions in Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli O157, C. perfringens and norovirus are needed to mitigate the impact of

  14. Labelling of electronic cigarettes: regulations and current practice

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Federico; Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Barton, Stephen J; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2017-01-01

    Background Over the past decade e-cigarettes have established themselves in the global market. E-cigarettes triggered much interest in relation to their content and efficacy as smoking cessation tools, but less attention has been paid to users and environmental safety warnings and guidance. Several regulations have been introduced to promote their safe handling and disposal. From May 2016, liquids and cartridges will be regulated by European Community Directives (ECDs) 2001/83/EC and 93/42/EEC, or 2014/40/EU if marketed as tobacco-related products. Currently, manufacturers and distributors must abide by the Chemical (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009 (CHIP) or Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulations (CLP), the latter replacing CHIP in June 2015. Objective In this work, the compliance of marketed e-liquids and e-cigarettes with current European Union and UK legislations is assessed. Results E-liquids and e-cigarettes (21 and 9 brands, respectively) were evaluated. Evidence of non-compliance was found in relation to the CHIP/CLP toxic (13%) and environmental (37%) pictograms, tactile warning (23%), nominal amount of solution (30%), supplier contact telephone number and address (40%). None of the evaluated e-cigarettes displayed information on the correct disposal/recycling of batteries in line with the ECD 2006/66/EC. Conclusions More stringent enforcement of regulations is needed to ensure not only the user's safety and awareness, but also the safeguarding of the environment. PMID:26790924

  15. Practical Support from Fathers and Grandmothers Is Associated with Lower Levels of Breastfeeding in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Emmott, Emily H; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Mothers face trade-offs between infant care and subsistence/economic activities. In traditional populations, allomothers such as fathers and grandmothers support mothers with young infants, allowing them to reduce labour activities and focus on breastfeeding. Similarly, the positive impact of social support on breastfeeding has been highlighted in developed populations. However, these studies have generally focused on emotional support from fathers, peers and healthcare professionals. Given the availability of formula milk in developed populations, an evolutionary anthropological perspective highlights that practical support, unlike emotional support, may have negative associations with breastfeeding by enabling substitution of maternal care. Other kin, mainly grandmothers, may also be important allomothers influencing maternal breastfeeding levels. Here we explore the associations between different types of social support mothers receive from fathers/grandmothers and breastfeeding in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. We find frequent grandmother contact and father's parenting involvement are both associated with lower levels of breastfeeding, suggesting a negative relationship between practical support and breastfeeding. In contrast, father presence, potentially capturing emotional support, is associated with greater breastfeeding initiation. Our findings suggest that practical support and emotional support functions differently, and practical support may not encourage breastfeeding in developed populations.

  16. Ethical issues of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: current practice among emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Marco, C A; Bessman, E S; Schoenfeld, C N; Kelen, G D

    1997-09-01

    To determine current practice and attitudes among emergency physicians (EPs) regarding the initiation and termination of CPR. An anonymous survey was mailed to randomly selected EPs. Main outcome measures included respondents' answers to questions regarding outcome of resuscitation, and current practice regarding initiation, continuation, and termination of resuscitation for victims of cardiopulmonary arrest. The 1,252 respondents were from all 50 states, a variety of practice settings, and varying board certification. Most (78%) respondents honor legal advance directives regarding resuscitation. Few (7%) follow unofficial documents, or verbal reports of advance directives (6%). Many (62%) make decisions regarding resuscitation because of fear of litigation or criticism. A majority (55%) have recently attempted numerous resuscitations despite expectations that such efforts would be futile. Most respondents indicated that ideally, legal concerns should not influence physician practice regarding resuscitation (78%), but that in the current environment, legal concerns do influence practice (94%). Most EPs attempt to resuscitate patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, regardless of futility, except in cases where a legal advance directive is available. Many EPs' decisions regarding resuscitation are based on concerns of litigation and criticism, rather than their professional judgment of medical benefit or futility. Compliance with patients' wishes regarding resuscitation is low unless a legal advance directive is present. Possible solutions to these problems may include standardized guidelines for the initiation and termination of CPR, tort reform, and additional public education regarding resuscitation and advance directives.

  17. Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Joseph R.; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    While crystallization historically predates crystallography, it is a critical step for the crystallographic process. The rich history of crystallization and how that history influences current practices is described. The tremendous impact of crystallization screens on the field is discussed. PMID:25005076

  18. Current Best Practices in Learning Disabilities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpel, Thomas P.; Sharoni, Varda

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the current state of practice in the diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities (LD) in Israel. Through an examination of the cultural, historical, and demographic background of the country ("deep structures"), we show how a fragmented society has developed; it segregates different ethnicities and social…

  19. The Current Teacher Education Programs in Ethiopia: Reflection on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekonnen, Geberew Tulu

    2017-01-01

    This study threw light on the current practice of Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching Program at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The study focused on the enrolment, graduation and attrition proportion of Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching candidates in the year 2011 and 2015. The 2011 and 2015 academic years have been purposively selected because the…

  20. Narrative, Poststructuralism, and Social Justice: Current Practices in Narrative Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of current practice in narrative therapy with a focus on how it is attractive and useful for therapists who wish to work for social justice. The authors describe narrative therapy's roots in poststructuralist philosophy and social science. They illustrate its major theoretical constructs, including the "narrative metaphor,"…

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Neurobiology and Current Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ryan A.; Robins, Diana L.; Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews recent research related to the neurobiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) an provides an empirical analysis of current assessment practices. Data were collected through a survey of 117 school psychologists. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale…

  2. Current Practice of Thermoregulation During the Transport of Combat Wounded

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Current Practice of Thermoregulation During the Transport of Combat Wounded Michael Nesbitt, DSc, PA-C, Paul Allen, DSc, PA-C, Alec...S267– S274. 7. Gentilello LM. Advances in the management of hypothermia. Surg Clin North Am. 1995;75:243–256. 8. Holcomb J. The 2004 fitts lecture

  3. Current Practice and Infrastructures for Campus Centers of Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Marshall; Saltmarsh, John

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current practice and essential infrastructure of campus community engagement centers in their efforts to establish and advance community engagement as part of the college experience. The authors identified key characteristics and the prevalence of activities of community engagement centers at engaged campuses…

  4. Mobile Libraries, Design and Construction: A Survey of Current Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, C. R.; And Others

    Forty-one country libraries in Wales, Scotland and England were surveyed in 1970 in an attempt to establish current practice in the design and construction of mobile libraries. This report is the first step of the Branch and Mobile Libraries Group of the Library Association to establish standards for mobile library design and construction. The…

  5. Serving Wounded Warriors: Current Practices in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Mary Lee; Miller, Wayne K., II

    2009-01-01

    From September to October 2009 the Association on Higher Education and Disabilities (AHEAD) invited anonymous voluntary responses from 2,500 members and affiliates to complete a 29-question online survey on current practices in postsecondary education for serving veterans with disabilities (wounded warriors). Two hundred and thirty seven complete…

  6. Current Issues and Their Implications for Practical Nursing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National League for Nursing, New York, NY. Dept. of Practical Nursing Programs.

    Papers on "Current Issues and Their Implications for Practical Nurse Programs" included in the document were authored by Margaret McLaughlin, Ruth B. Edelson, and Kenneth G. Skaggs. Summaries of presentations by Robert M. Morgan and Helen K. Powers are also included. (JK)

  7. Exploring Current Arts Practice in Kindergartens and Preparatory Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The arts are an important area of development for young children in their early years. By engaging with arts activities, young children are able to use their senses to explore the world. This paper reports on current arts practice in two kindergartens and two preparatory classrooms in Queensland, Australia. All sites are located in neighbouring…

  8. Narrative, Poststructuralism, and Social Justice: Current Practices in Narrative Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of current practice in narrative therapy with a focus on how it is attractive and useful for therapists who wish to work for social justice. The authors describe narrative therapy's roots in poststructuralist philosophy and social science. They illustrate its major theoretical constructs, including the "narrative metaphor,"…

  9. Clinical Supervision of Substance Abuse Counselors: Current and Preferred Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbreth, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a national survey of substance abuse counselors (N=134) to learn their current and preferred supervision practices. Results suggests that substance abuse counselor are receiving supervision similar to other counselors. No preference was indicated for the sex of the supervisor, nor for the 12-step recovery experience. Counselors did…

  10. Exploring Current Arts Practice in Kindergartens and Preparatory Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The arts are an important area of development for young children in their early years. By engaging with arts activities, young children are able to use their senses to explore the world. This paper reports on current arts practice in two kindergartens and two preparatory classrooms in Queensland, Australia. All sites are located in neighbouring…

  11. Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone or levonorgestrel: nested case-control study based on UK General Practice Research Database.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Lianne; Sharples, Katrina; Hernandez, Rohini K; Jick, Susan S

    2011-04-21

    To examine the risk of non-fatal idiopathic venous thromboembolism in current users of a combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone, relative to current users of preparations containing levonorgestrel. Nested case-control study. UK General Practice Research Database. Women aged 15-44 years without major risk factors for venous thromboembolism who started a new episode of use of an oral contraceptive containing 30 µg oestrogen in combination with either drospirenone or levonorgestrel between May 2002 and September 2009. Cases were women with a first diagnosis of venous thromboembolism; up to four controls, matched by age, duration of recorded information, and general practice, were randomly selected for each case. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals estimated with conditional logistic regression; age adjusted incidence rate ratio estimated with Poisson regression. 61 cases of idiopathic venous thromboembolism and 215 matched controls were identified. In the case-control analysis, current use of the drospirenone contraceptive was associated with a threefold higher risk of non-fatal idiopathic venous thromboembolism compared with levonorgestrel use; the odds ratio adjusted for body mass index was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 7.6). Subanalyses suggested that referral, diagnostic, first time user, duration of use, and switching biases were unlikely explanations for this finding. The crude incidence rate was 23.0 (95% confidence interval 13.4 to 36.9) per 100,000 woman years in current users of drospirenone and 9.1 (6.6 to 12.2) per 100,000 woman years in current users of levonorgestrel oral contraceptives. The age adjusted incidence rate ratio was 2.7 (1.5 to 4.7). These findings contribute to emerging evidence that the combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone carries a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than do formulations containing levonorgestrel.

  12. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  13. Survey of UK Speech and Language Therapists' Assessment and Treatment Practices for People with Progressive Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Jessica; Bloch, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dysarthria knowledge is predominantly impairment-based. As a result, speech and language therapists (SLTs) have traditionally adopted impairment-focused management practices. However, guidance for best practice suggests that SLTs should consider the client holistically, including the impact of dysarthria beyond the impairment. Aims: To…

  14. Survey of UK Speech and Language Therapists' Assessment and Treatment Practices for People with Progressive Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Jessica; Bloch, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dysarthria knowledge is predominantly impairment-based. As a result, speech and language therapists (SLTs) have traditionally adopted impairment-focused management practices. However, guidance for best practice suggests that SLTs should consider the client holistically, including the impact of dysarthria beyond the impairment. Aims: To…

  15. Biosciences in nurse education: is the curriculum fit for practice? Lecturers' views and recommendations from across the UK.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Vanessa; Ashelford, Sarah; Fell, Patricia; Goacher, Penelope J

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to review the biosciences component of preregistration nursing programmes in higher education institutions across the UK through the experiences and perceptions of lecturers involved in nursing education. Studies suggest that some qualified nurses lack confidence in explaining the bio-scientific rationale for their clinical practice. Biosciences can be difficult to understand and integrate into clinical decision-making and require protected time within preregistration nurse education. In the absence of explicit national guidelines, it is unclear as to the depth and extent biosciences are taught across different institutions and the level achieved at the point of registration. A survey approach was adopted to generate quantitative and qualitative feedback. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire seeking the experiences and views of lecturers involved in teaching biosciences to nursing students across the UK. Data received from 10 institutions were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Lecturers reported that the hours of taught biosciences ranged from 20-113 hours, principally within the first year. This represents between 0·4-2·4% of time within a preregistration nursing programme (4600 hours). Large group lectures predominate, supplemented by smaller group or practical work, and online materials. The biosciences are assessed specifically in half the institutions surveyed and as part of integrated assessments in the rest. In relation to student feedback, all respondents stated that students consistently requested more time and greater priority for biosciences in their programme. This survey suggests that the number of hours spent teaching biosciences is minimal and varies widely between higher education institutions. All respondents expressed concern about the challenges of teaching difficult bio-scientific concepts to large groups in such a limited time and called for greater clarity in national

  16. Access to complementary medicine in general practice: survey in one UK health authority.

    PubMed

    Wearn, A M; Greenfield, S M

    1998-09-01

    Complementary therapy (CT) has become increasingly popular with the general public and interest from the health professions has been rising. There has been no study focusing on the pattern of availability of CT within urban and inner-city general practice. We aimed to describe the prevalence and pattern of access to complementary therapy in this setting, identifying the characteristics of practices offering CT and the perceived barriers to service provision. We sent a postal questionnaire to all 254 general practices on the Birmingham Family Health Services Authority list. Practices were asked whether they offered any access to CTs, how services were organized and which therapies were available and to identify any barriers to provision. 175 practices (68.9%) responded. Half of the practices offered access to CT. Of these, half offered an in-house service, usually provided by the doctor (81.8%). Of GPs practising therapies themselves, 58% began in or after 1990. Seventeen separate therapies were offered, most commonly acupuncture, osteopathy, chiropractic, hypnotherapy and homoeopathy. Practices significantly more likely to offer access to CT were of larger list size and training or teaching practices. They were equally likely to be fundholders or non-fundholders. Practices offering an in-house service tended to be fundholding, training and of larger list size. Finance was perceived as the major barrier. In the area studied, many patients now have some access to CT within primary care, often within their own practice. In the main, therapies offered are the 'medically acceptable face' of complementary medicine.

  17. Contemporary chiropractic practice in the UK: a field study of a chiropractor and his patients in a suburban chiropractic clinic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two recent surveys of chiropractors in Great Britain suggest that there are discrepancies between chiropractic practice as defined in regulatory guidelines and day-to-day chiropractic clinical practice and there is in general a paucity of information regarding the characteristics of contemporary chiropractic practice in the United Kingdom. This field study describes the daily practice of a contemporary British UK-trained chiropractor. Methods The fieldwork took place during the spring and summer of 2008 when the author spent one day per week observing consultations and interviewing patients in a chiropractic clinic. The chiropractor was subjected to interviews on two occasions. The author also registered as a patient. Field notes were taken by the author, interviews were recorded and the transcripts were corrected and analysed by the author. Results A total of 25 patients took part in the study. The interaction that took place between patients and staff in reception could be considered as a prelude to consultation facilitating the transformation from individual to patient and back to individual. Coupled with the continuous physical contact between the chiropractor and each patient there was a substantial amount of verbal and non-verbal communication throughout treatment visits. The patients presented with predominantly musculo-skeletal pain and the majority had consulted the chiropractor as a result of recommendations from others in their close social environment. The majority of the interviewed patients had either an inaccurate or at best rudimentary understanding of the mechanisms of chiropractic treatment. A few of the interviewed patients indicated that they had at first experienced concerns about the nature of chiropractic treatment or getting undressed. The author was able to gain some insight into how the chiropractor's experiences, opinions and beliefs had shaped his approach to chiropractic treatment and how this formed the basis of his clinical

  18. Staff and Student Perceptions of English Language Policies and Practices in "International" Universities: A UK Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Wingate, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a small qualitative study which aimed to gain an understanding of how lecturers and international students perceive the English language policies and practices at their institutions. The findings show that most participants perceive current policies and practices as unfair. However, there were discrepancies in lecturers' and…

  19. Urine drug testing: current recommendations and best practices.

    PubMed

    Owen, Graves T; Burton, Allen W; Schade, Cristy M; Passik, Steve

    2012-07-01

    The precise role of urine drug testing (UDT) in the practice of pain medicine is currently being defined. Confusion exists as to best practices, and even to what constitutes standard of care. A member survey by our state pain society revealed variability in practice and a lack of consensus. The authors sought to further clarify the importance of routine UDT as an important part of an overall treatment plan that includes chronic opioid prescribing. Further, we wish to clarify best practices based on consensus and data where available. A 20-item membership survey was sent to Texas Pain Society members. A group of chronic pain experts from the Texas Pain Society undertook an effort to review the best practices in the literature. The rationale for current UDT practices is clarified, with risk management strategies outlined, and recommendations for UDT outlined in detail. A detailed insight into the limitations of point-of-care (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, test cups, test strips) versus the more sensitive and specific laboratory methods is provided. Our membership survey was of a limited sample size in one geographic area in the United States and may not represent national patterns. Finally, there is limited data as to the efficacy of UDT practices in improving compliance and curtailing overall medication misuse. UDT must be done routinely as part of an overall best practice program in order to prescribe chronic opioid therapy. This program may include risk stratification; baseline and periodic UDT; behavioral monitoring; and prescription monitoring programs as the best available tools to monitor chronic opioid compliance.

  20. Is the current standard of care leading to cost-effective outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes requiring insulin? A long-term health economic analysis for the UK.

    PubMed

    Valentine, W J; Curtis, B H; Pollock, R F; Van Brunt, K; Paczkowski, R; Brändle, M; Boye, K S; Kendall, D M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the analysis was to investigate whether insulin intensification, based on the use of intensive insulin regimens as recommended by the current standard of care in routine clinical practice, would be cost-effective for patients with type 2 diabetes in the UK. Clinical data were derived from a retrospective analysis of 3185 patients with type 2 diabetes on basal insulin in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) general practice database. In total, 48% (614 patients) intensified insulin therapy, defined by adding bolus or premix insulin to a basal regimen, which was associated with a reduction in HbA1c and an increase in body mass index. Projections of clinical outcomes and costs (2011 GBP) over patients' lifetimes were made using a recently validated type 2 diabetes model. Immediate insulin intensification was associated with improvements in life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy and time to onset of complications versus no intensification or delaying intensification by 2, 4, 6, or 8 years. Direct costs were higher with the insulin intensification strategy (due to the acquisition costs of insulin). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for insulin intensification were GBP 32,560, GBP 35,187, GBP 40,006, GBP 48,187 and GBP 55,431 per QALY gained versus delaying intensification 2, 4, 6 and 8 years, and no intensification, respectively. Although associated with improved clinical outcomes, insulin intensification as practiced in the UK has a relatively high cost per QALY and may not lead to cost-effective outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes as currently defined by UK cost-effectiveness thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Routine mortality monitoring for detecting mass murder in UK general practice: test of effectiveness using modelling.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Bruce; Love, Tom; Kaye, Rebecca; MacLeod, Margaret; Chalmers, Jim

    2008-05-01

    The Shipman Inquiry recommended mortality rate monitoring if it could be 'shown to be workable' in detecting a future mass murderer in general practice. To examine the effectiveness of cumulative sum (CUSUM) charts, cross-sectional Shewhart charts, and exponentially-weighted, moving-average control charts in mortality monitoring at practice level. Analysis of Scottish routine general practice data combined with estimation of control chart effectiveness in detecting a 'murderer' in a simulated dataset. Practice stability was calculated from routine data to determine feasible lengths of monitoring. A simulated dataset of 405,000 'patients' was created, registered with 75 'practices' whose underlying mortality rates varied with the same distribution as case-mix-adjusted mortality in all Scottish practices. The sensitivity of each chart to detect five and 10 excess deaths was examined in repeated simulations. The sensitivity of control charts to excess deaths in simulated data, and the number of alarm signals when control charts were applied to routine data were estimated. Practice instability limited the length of monitoring and modelling was consequently restricted to a 3-year period. Monitoring mortality over 3 years, CUSUM charts were most sensitive but only reliably achieved >50% successful detection for 10 excess deaths per year and generated multiple false alarms (>15%). At best, mortality monitoring can act as a backstop to detect a particularly prolific serial killer when other means of detection have failed. Policy should focus on changes likely to improve detection of individual murders, such as reform of death certification and the coroner system.

  2. Good practice recommendations for paediatric outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (p-OPAT) in the UK: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay; Abrahamson, Ed; Goldring, Stephen; Green, Helen; Wickens, Hayley; Laundy, Matt

    2015-02-01

    There is compelling evidence to support the rationale for managing children on intravenous antimicrobial therapy at home whenever possible, including parent and patient satisfaction, psychological well-being, return to school/employment, reductions in healthcare-associated infection and cost savings. As a joint collaboration between the BSAC and the British Paediatric Allergy, Immunity and Infection Group, we have developed good practice recommendations to highlight good clinical practice and governance within paediatric outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (p-OPAT) services across the UK. These guidelines provide a practical approach for safely delivering a p-OPAT service in both secondary care and tertiary care settings, in terms of the roles and responsibilities of members of the p-OPAT team, the structure required to deliver the service, identifying patients and pathologies that are suitable for p-OPAT, ensuring appropriate vascular access, antimicrobial choice and delivery and the clinical governance aspects of delivering a p-OPAT service. The process of writing a business case to support the introduction of a p-OPAT service is also addressed.

  3. Consensus best practice pathway of the UK Systemic Sclerosis Study group: management of cardiac disease in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bissell, Lesley-Anne; Anderson, Marina; Burgess, Malcolm; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Coghlan, Gerry; Dumitru, Raluca B; Graham, Lee; Ong, Voon; Pauling, John D; Plein, Sven; Schlosshan, Dominik; Woolfson, Peter; Buch, Maya H

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac disease in SSc can manifest in various ways and is associated with a poor prognosis. There is little evidence on how best to detect and manage cardiac disease in SSc. Our objective was to produce an expert consensus best practice pathway for the management of cardiac disease in SSc. The UK Systemic Sclerosis Study Group set up several working groups to develop a number of consensus best practice pathways for the management of SSc-specific complications, including cardiac disease. A multidisciplinary task force was convened. The guidelines were partly informed by a comprehensive literature review. A best practice pathway for cardiac disease (with a focus on primary cardiac disease) in SSc is presented, including approaches for early detection and standard pharmacological and device therapies. Due to the benefits, shared care and a multidisciplinary approach are recommended. A future research agenda has been formulated in response to the relative lack of understanding of the natural history of primary cardiac disease that was highlighted by the initiative. The physician should be alert to the possibility of cardiac disease in SSc; it is best managed within a multidisciplinary team including both rheumatologists and cardiologists. This pathway provides a reference for all physicians managing patients with SSc.

  4. Opinions and practices of veterinarians and dairy farmers towards herd health management in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Wapenaar, W

    2012-04-28

    The objective was to compare farm veterinary surgeons' and dairy farmers' opinions on herd health plans and herd health and production management with the aim of discovering and better understanding the differences. Two comparable questionnaires, one for farm veterinarians and one for dairy farmers, were distributed throughout the UK. While listing the 'major roles' of the veterinarian on the farm, veterinarians considered 'optimising milk production', 'decreasing overall cost' and 'being an independent adviser' as important roles, but these were not seem to be perceived as such by the farmers. In addition, when presenting themselves to clients, veterinarians seemed to favour the 'friend of the farmer' approach; a much smaller proportion of farmers seemed to prefer this approach. The majority of farm respondents (98 of 121; 81 per cent) valued the discussions with their veterinarian, and it was apparent from the relatively small proportion of veterinarians instigating a discussion on farm (33 of 125; 26 per cent) that there is the opportunity for a more proactive approach from veterinarians. The study underlines that 'demonstrating cost-effectiveness' is still a main concern for veterinarians and farmers and identifies areas that can be improved by more training and effective communication.

  5. Soft governance, restratification and the 2004 general medical services contract: the case of UK primary care organisations and general practice teams.

    PubMed

    Grant, Suzanne; Ring, Adele; Gabbay, Mark; Guthrie, Bruce; McLean, Gary; Mair, Frances S; Watt, Graham; Heaney, David; O'Donnell, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In the UK National Health Service, primary care organisation (PCO) managers have traditionally relied on the soft leadership of general practitioners based on professional self-regulation rather than direct managerial control. The 2004 general medical services contract (nGMS) represented a significant break from this arrangement by introducing new performance management mechanisms for PCO managers to measure and improve general practice work. This article examines the impact of nGMS on the governance of UK general practice by PCO managers through a qualitative analysis of data from an empirical study in four UK PCOs and eight general practices, drawing on Hood's four-part governance framework. Two hybrids emerged: (i) PCO managers emphasised a hybrid of oversight, competition (comptrol) and peer-based mutuality by granting increased support, guidance and autonomy to compliant practices; and (ii) practices emphasised a broad acceptance of increased PCO oversight of clinical work that incorporated a restratified elite of general practice clinical peers at both PCO and practice levels. Given the increased international focus on the quality, safety and efficiency in primary care, a key issue for PCOs and practices will be to achieve an effective, contextually appropriate balance between the counterposing governance mechanisms of peer-led mutuality and externally led comptrol.

  6. Digitally Controllable Current Amplifier and Current Conveyors in Practical Application of Controllable Frequency Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Josef; Jerabek, Jan; Langhammer, Lukas; Sotner, Roman; Dvorak, Jan; Panek, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the simulations results in comparison with the measured results of the practical realization of the multifunctional second order frequency filter with a Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier (DACA) and two Dual-Output Controllable Current Conveyors (CCCII +/-). This filter is designed for use in current mode. The filter was designed of the single input multiple outputs (SIMO) type, therefore it has only one input and three outputs with individual filtering functions. DACA element used in a newly proposed circuit is present in form of an integrated chip and the current conveyors are implemented using the Universal Current Conveyor (UCC) chip with designation UCC-N1B. Proposed frequency filter enables independent control of the pole frequency using parameters of two current conveyors and also independent control of the quality factor by change of a current gain of DACA.

  7. Asthma in children: gaps between current management and best practice.

    PubMed

    Haby, M M; Powell, C V E; Oberklaid, F; Waters, E B; Robertson, C F

    2002-06-01

    To determine the extent to which steps three to six of the Australian six-step asthma management plan are being implemented in the community and to identify barriers to the adoption of best practice asthma management. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the Royal Children's Hospital and Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne. Two hundred and thirty-one 2-5-year old children who visited the emergency department for asthma were enrolled in the study. Main outcome measures were frequency of asthma management practices and barriers, as measured by parent-completed questionnaire. Gaps: 51% of parents do not feel they have enough information about asthma triggers, more than 60% of children with persistent or frequent episodic asthma are not using regular preventive medication, 48% do not have a written action plan, 39% have not had their asthma reviewed in the last 6 months, and 38% of parents do not feel that they have enough information about their child's asthma. Areas where current practice was close to best practice: 83% of doctors had talked to parents about what causes or 'triggers' their child's asthma, less than 1% of children are using puffers without a spacer, 83% of parents who had an action plan used it for the current visit to the emergency department. Large gaps still exist between current management and best practice in this group of emergency department attenders. Improvements in asthma management could be achieved if the child's asthma doctor requested review visits for asthma, provided an action plan and followed best practice in relation to asthma medications.

  8. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  9. Naturalness as an ethical stance: idea(l)s and practices of care in western herbal medicine in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An association of non-biomedical healthcare with appeals to nature and naturalness, and an invocation of a rhetoric of gentleness, goodness, purity and moral power has been noted previously, and some scholars argue that nature has taken on a meaning broadly opposed to the rational scientific order of modernity. Drawing on an ethnographic study of women's practice and use of western herbal medicine (WHM) in the UK, the intertwining of the perceived naturalness of WHM with distinct care practices points to a further avenue for exploration. To examine patients' and herbalists' discourses of the naturalness of WHM and associated idea(l)s and practices of care, understandings of nature and a feminist ethics of care are utilized as analytical frameworks. The analysis presented suggests that, through WHM, patients and herbalists become embedded in a complex spatio-temporal wholeness and web of care that intertwines past, present and future, self and others, and local and global concerns. In the emerging 'ordinary ethics of care', naturalness constitutes a sign of goodness and of a shared humanity within the organic world, while care, underpinned by idea(l)s of natural and holistic care practices, links human and non-human others. Thus, the naturalness of WHM, as perceived by some patients and herbalists, engages and blends with a continually unfolding field of relationships in the lifeworld(s), where care practices, caring relations and collective wellbeing may constitute an ethical stance that raises deeper questions about the significance of relationality, the values of care/caring and the mutual involvement of nature and human being(s).

  10. Practices used for recommending sickness certification by general practitioners: a conversation analytic study of UK primary care consultations.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Hannah C; Barnes, Rebecca K; Byng, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Existing research indicates that many patients and doctors find the process of negotiating sickness certification for time off work to be a difficult one. This study examined how patients and general practitioners (GPs) managed these negotiations in a sample of UK primary care consultations. The study made use of an existing dataset of audio-recorded consultations between 13 GPs and 506 unselected adult patients in five general practices in London. Forty-nine consultations included discussions for both initial and repeat sickness certification across a wide range of conditions. Here we report our findings on doctor practices for recommending, as opposed to patient practices for advocating for, sickness certification (n = 26 cases). All cases were transcribed in detail and analysed using conversation analytic methods. Four main communication practices were observed: (1) declarative statements of need for sickness certification; (2) 'do you need' offers for sickness certification; (3) 'do you want' offers for sickness certification; and (4) conditional 'If X, Y' offers for sickness certification. These different communication practices indexed doctor agency, doctor endorsement and patient entitlement to varying degrees. In the main, recommendations to patients presenting with biomedical problems or a repeat occurrence of a psychosocial problem displayed stronger doctor endorsement and patient entitlement. Contrastingly, recommendations to patients presenting with new psychosocial and biopsychosocial problems, displayed weaker endorsement and patient entitlement. This study offers new evidence to support the Parsonian argument that becoming sick involves entering a social role with special rights and obligations. Through documenting doctors' orientations to their gatekeeping role as well as patients' orientations to differential rights vis à vis legitimacy, we demonstrate the contrasting stances of doctors in situ when giving sick notes for biomedical problems as

  11. How good are we at implementing evidence to support the management of birth related perineal trauma? A UK wide survey of midwifery practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The accurate assessment and appropriate repair of birth related perineal trauma require high levels of skill and competency, with evidence based guideline recommendations available to inform UK midwifery practice. Implementation of guideline recommendations could reduce maternal morbidity associated with perineal trauma, which is commonly reported and persistent, with potential to deter women from a future vaginal birth. Despite evidence, limited attention is paid to this important aspect of midwifery practice. We wished to identify how midwives in the UK assessed and repaired perineal trauma and the extent to which practice reflected evidence based guidance. Findings would be used to inform the content of a large intervention study. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was completed. One thousand randomly selected midwives were accessed via the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) and sent a questionnaire. Study inclusion criteria included that the midwives were in clinical practice and undertook perineal assessment and management within their current role. Quantitative and qualitative data were collated. Associations between midwife characteristics and implementation of evidence based recommendations for perineal assessment and management were examined using chi-square tests of association. Results 405 midwives (40.5%) returned a questionnaire, 338 (83.5%) of whom met inclusion criteria. The majority worked in a consultant led unit (235, 69.5%) and over a third had been qualified for 20 years or longer (129, 38.2%). Compliance with evidence was poor. Few (6%) midwives used evidence based suturing methods to repair all layers of perineal trauma and only 58 (17.3%) performed rectal examination as part of routine perineal trauma assessment. Over half (192, 58.0%) did not suture all second degree tears. Feeling confident to assess perineal trauma all of the time was only reported by 116 (34.3%) midwives, with even fewer (73, 21.6%) feeling confident to

  12. Concierge and Second-Opinion Radiology: Review of Current Practices.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shehbaz; Bafana, Rounak; Halabi, Safwan S

    2016-01-01

    Radiology's core assets include the production, interpretation, and distribution of quality imaging studies. Second-opinion services and concierge practices in radiology aim to augment traditional services by providing patient-centered and physician-centered care, respectively. Patient centeredness enhances patients' understanding and comfort with their radiology tests and procedures and allows them to make better decisions about their health care. As the fee-for-service paradigm shifts to value-based care models, radiology practices have begun to diversify imaging service delivery and communication to coincide with the American College of Radiology Imaging 3.0 campaign. Physician-centered consultation allows for communication of evidence-based guidelines to assist referring physicians and other providers in making the most appropriate imaging or treatment decision for a specific clinical condition. There are disparate practice models and payment schema for the various second-opinion and concierge practices. This review article explores the current state and payment models of second-opinion and concierge practices in radiology. This review also includes a discussion on the benefits, roadblocks, and ethical issues that surround these novel types of practices. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multicentre prospective survey of SeHCAT provision and practice in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Janet; Coker, Bolaji; McMillan, Viktoria; Ofuya, Mercy; Lewis, Cornelius; Keevil, Stephen; Logan, Robert; McLaughlin, John; Reid, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Objective A clinical diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption (BAM) can be confirmed using SeHCAT (tauroselcholic (75selenium) acid), a radiolabelled synthetic bile acid. However, while BAM can be the cause of chronic diarrhoea, it is often overlooked as a potential diagnosis. Therefore, we investigated the use of SeHCAT for diagnosis of BAM in UK hospitals. Design A multicentre survey was conducted capturing centre and patient-level information detailing patient care-pathways, clinical history, SeHCAT results, treatment with bile acid sequestrants (BAS), and follow-up in clinics. Eligible data from 38 centres and 1036 patients were entered into a validated management system. Results SeHCAT protocol varied between centres, with no standardised patient positioning, and differing referral systems. Surveyed patients had a mean age of 50 years and predominantly women (65%). The mean SeHCAT retention score for all patients was 19% (95% CI 17.8% to 20.3%). However, this differed with suspected BAM type: type 1: 9% (95% CI 6.3% to 11.4%), type 2: 21% (95% CI 19.2% to 23.0%) and type 3: 22% (95% CI 19.6% to 24.2%). Centre-defined ‘abnormal’ and ‘borderline’ results represented over 50% of the survey population. BAS treatment was prescribed to only 73% of patients with abnormal results. Conclusions The study identified a lack of consistent cut-off/threshold values, with differing centre criteria for defining an ‘abnormal’ SeHCAT result. BAS prescription was not related in a simple way to the SeHCAT result, nor to the centre-defined result, highlighting a lack of clear patient care-pathways. There is a clear need for a future diagnostic accuracy study and a better understanding of optimal management pathways. PMID:27252882

  14. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy access by urologist or interventional radiologist: practice and outcomes in the UK.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James N; Withington, John; Fowler, Sarah; Finch, William J G; Burgess, Neil A; Irving, Stuart O; Glass, Jonathan; Wiseman, Oliver J

    2017-06-01

    To compare outcomes of urologist vs interventional radiologist (IR) access during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the contemporary UK setting. Data submitted to the British Association of Urological Surgeons PCNL data registry between 2009 and 2015 were analysed according to whether access was obtained by a urologist or an IR. We compared access success, number and type of tracts, and perceived and actual difficulty of access. Postoperative outcomes, including stone-free rates, lengths of hospital stay and complications, including transfusion rates, were also compared. Overall, percutaneous renal access was undertaken by an IR in 3453 of 5211 procedures (66.3%); this rate appeared stable over the entire study period for all categories of stone complexity and in cases where there was predicted or actual difficulty with access. Only 1% of procedures were abandoned because of failed access and this rate was identical in each group. IRs performed more multiple tract access procedures than urologists (6.8 vs 5.1%; P = 0.02), but had similar rates of supracostal punctures (8.2 vs 9.2%; P = 0.23). IRs used ultrasonograhpy more commonly than urologists to guide access (56.6% vs 21.7%, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in complication rates, lengths of hospital stay or stone-free rates. Our findings suggest that favourable PCNL outcomes may be expected where access is obtained by either a urologist or an IR, assuming that they have received the appropriate training and that they are skilled and proficient in the procedure. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Calcium channel blockers and cancer: a risk analysis using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Klungel, Olaf; Kurz, Xavier; de Groot, Mark C H; Maciel Afonso, Ana S; de Bruin, Marie L; Reynolds, Robert; Rossignol, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The evidence of an association between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and cancer is conflicting. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the risk of cancer (all, breast, prostate and colon cancers) in association with exposure to CCB. Methods This is a population-based cohort study in patients exposed to CCBs from across the UK, using two comparison cohorts: (1) patients with no exposure to CCB (non-CCB) matched on age and gender and (2) unmatched patients unexposed to CCB and at least one other antihypertensive (AHT) prescription. Cancer incidence rates computed in the exposed and the two unexposed groups were compared using HRs and 95% CIs obtained from multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results Overall, 150 750, 557 931 and 156 966 patients were included, respectively, in the CCB, non-CCB and AHT cohorts. Crude cancer incidence rates per 1000 person-years were 16.51, 15.75 and 10.62 for the three cohorts, respectively. Adjusted HRs (CI) for all cancers comparing CCB, non-CCB and AHT cohorts were 0.88 (0.86 to 0.89) and 1.01 (0.98 to 1.04), respectively. Compared to the AHT cohort, adjusted HRs (CI) for breast, prostate and colon cancer for the CCB cohort were 0.95 (0.87 to 1.04), 1.07 (0.98 to 1.16) and 0.89 (0.81 to 0.98), respectively. Analyses by duration of exposure to CCB did not show excess risk. Conclusions This large population-based study provides strong evidence that CCB use is not associated with an increased risk of cancer. The analyses yielded robust results across all types of cancer and different durations of exposure to CCBs. PMID:26747033

  16. University Knowledge Exchange (KE) Framework: Good Practice in Technology Transfer. Report to the UK Higher Education Sector and HEFCE by the McMillan Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As part of its commitment to keeping the UK at the leading edge as a global knowledge-based economy, the last Government asked the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in 2014 to develop a knowledge exchange (KE) performance framework that would secure effective practice in universities on key productive elements in the…

  17. The use of equipment and training practices and the prevalence of owner-reported ridden behaviour problems in UK leisure horses.

    PubMed

    Hockenhull, J; Creighton, E

    2013-01-01

    UK leisure horses are owned primarily for riding. Ridden behaviour problems may compromise the use of the horse in this role and lead to harsh redress or relinquishment of the horse. Despite the consequences of these problems little is known about their prevalence or the working lives of UK leisure horses. To generate data on the work undertaken by leisure horses, the equipment and training practices used with them and prevalence of ridden behaviour problems. An internet survey was used to generate horse-level data from a convenience sample of leisure horse carers. Respondents were asked to report on their practices in the week prior to the survey's completion to minimise recall bias. The survey was online for one year to allow for seasonal variation in practices. Data were collected on the tack and equipment used on the horse, the regularity that professional services (e.g. farriers) were used, type of training employed and frequency the owner reported that horse displayed 15 ridden behaviour problems. The survey generated data on 1326 individual horses. Data describing practices relating to the horse's working life are presented. Ridden behaviour problems were reported in 91% of horses in the week preceding data collection. Descriptive data on the working lives of UK leisure horses provides valuable baseline statistics for this largest section of the UK horse population. High prevalence of owner-reported ridden behaviour problems represents a concern in such leisure horses and may indicate significant rider safety and horse welfare concerns. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Undergraduate radiology teaching in a UK medical school: a systematic evaluation of current practice.

    PubMed

    Jacob, J; Paul, L; Hedges, W; Hutchison, P; Cameron, E; Matthews, D; Whiten, S; Driscoll, P

    2016-05-01

    To use the Royal College of Radiologists' Undergraduate Radiology Curriculum (RCR URC) as an innovative tool to review undergraduate radiology teaching and ensure it is comprehensive and balanced. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to audit and review radiology teaching for students in years 1-3. All radiological teaching on the course was mapped against the RCR URC learning outcomes. An online survey of students in year 3 (n=138) was conducted using Likert (1-5), multiple choice, and free-text questions. There were 954 instances of radiology teaching, with 70% occurring during lectures. Radiology teaching was mapped to 81 of the 96 RCR URC learning outcomes (84.4%). Forty-seven of 138 students responded to the survey. They expressed confidence in understanding what basic imaging entails (x=4.23) and the risks associated with various imaging techniques (x=4.34). They were also confident in chest radiograph interpretation (x=3.62), but were less confident understanding abdominal radiographs (x=2.87). In free-text comments, students requested more tutorial-type teaching and ultrasound instruction. The RCR URC is an effective tool for auditing undergraduate radiology teaching, and other medical schools may, therefore, benefit from using this method. This evaluation process incorporating audit and feedback has identified areas for curriculum development. These include incorporating ultrasound into teaching sessions, delivering more small-group teaching, and introducing clinical placements in radiology departments. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Specialization and the Current Practices of General Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Marquita R; Dodgion, Christopher M; Kwok, Alvin C; Hu, Yue-Yung; Havlena, Jeff A; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Kent, K Craig; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of specialization on the practice of general surgery has not been characterized. Our goal was to assess general surgeons’ operative practices to inform surgical education and workforce planning. Study Design We examined the practices of general surgeons identified in the 2008 State Inpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) for three US states. Operations were identified using ICD-9 and CPT codes linked to encrypted physician identifiers. For each surgeon, total operative volume and the percentage of practice comprised of their most common operation were calculated. Correlation was measured between general surgeons’ case volume and the number of other specialists in a health service area. Results There were 1,075 general surgeons who performed 240,510 operations in 2008. The mean operative volume for each surgeon was 224 annual procedures. General surgeons performed an average of 23 different types of operations. For the majority of general surgeons, their most common procedure comprised no more than 30% of total practice. The most common operations, ranked by the frequency that they appeared as general surgeons’ top procedure, included: cholecystectomy, colonoscopy, endoscopy, and skin excision. The proportion of general surgery practice comprised of endoscopic procedures inversely correlated with the number of gastroenterologists in the health service area (Rho = - 0.50, p = 0.005). Conclusions Despite trends toward specialization, the current practices of general surgeons remain heterogeneous. This indicates a continued demand for broad-based surgical education to allow future surgeons to tailor their practices to their environment. PMID:24210145

  20. Personal exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields during MRI procedures in clinical practice in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Batistatou, Evridiki; Mölter, Anna; Kromhout, Hans; van Tongeren, Martie; Crozier, Stuart; Schaap, Kristel; Gowland, Penny; Keevil, Stephen F; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background MRI has developed into one of the most important medical diagnostic imaging modalities, but it exposes staff to static magnetic fields (SMF) when present in the vicinity of the MR system, and to radiofrequency and switched gradient electromagnetic fields if they are present during image acquisition. We measured exposure to SMF and motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (TVMF) in MRI staff in clinical practice in the UK to enable extensive assessment of personal exposure levels and variability, which enables comparison to other countries. Methods 8 MRI facilities across National Health Service sites in England, Wales and Scotland were included, and staff randomly selected during the days when measurements were performed were invited to wear a personal MRI-compatible dosimeter and keep a diary to record all procedures and tasks performed during the measured shift. Results 98 participants, primarily radiographers (71%) but also other healthcare staff, anaesthetists and other medical staff were included, resulting in 149 measurements. Average geometric mean peak SMF and TVMF exposures were 448 mT (range 20–2891) and 1083 mT/s (9–12 355 mT/s), and were highest for radiographers (GM=559 mT and GM=734 mT/s). Time-weighted exposures to SMF and TVMF (GM=16 mT (range 5–64) and GM=14 mT/s (range 9–105)) and exposed-time-weighted exposures to SMF and TVMF (GM=27 mT (range 11–89) and GM=17 mT/s (range 9–124)) were overall relative low—primarily because staff were not in the MRI suite for most of their shifts—and did not differ significantly between occupations. Conclusions These results are comparable to the few data available from the UK but they differ from recent data collected in the Netherlands, indicating that UK staff are exposed for shorter periods but to higher levels. These data indicate that exposure to SMF and TVMF from MRI scanners cannot be extrapolated across countries. PMID:26675205

  1. Current good manufacturing practice for positron emission tomography drugs.

    PubMed

    2009-12-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing regulations on current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for positron emission tomography (PET) drugs. The regulations are intended to ensure that PET drugs meet the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) regarding safety, identity, strength, quality, and purity. In this final rule, we are establishing CGMP regulations for approved PET drugs. For investigational and research PET drugs, the final rule states that the requirement to follow CGMP may be met by complying with these regulations or by producing PET drugs in accordance with the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) general chapter on compounding PET radiopharmaceuticals. We are establishing these CGMP requirements for PET drugs under the provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, we are announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP)."

  2. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fry, C; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Design: Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Setting: Australia. Participants: Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Main measurements: Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Results: Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Conclusions: Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings. PMID:16131558

  3. Drug therapy for alcohol dependence in primary care in the UK: A Clinical Practice Research Datalink study

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Darren M.; Owens, Lynn; van Staa, Tjeerd P.; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate drug therapy for alcohol dependence in the 12 months after first diagnosis in UK primary care. Design Open cohort study. Setting General practices contributing data to the UK Clinical Practice Research Database. Participants 39,980 people with an incident diagnosis of alcohol dependence aged 16 years or older between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2013. Main outcome measure Use of pharmacotherapy (acamprosate, disulfiram, naltrexone, baclofen and topiramate) to promote abstinence from alcohol or reduce drinking to safe levels in the first 12 months after a recorded diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Findings Only 4,677 (11.7%) of the cohort received relevant pharmacotherapy in the 12 months following diagnosis. Of the 35,303 that did not receive pharmacotherapy, 3,255 (9.2%) received psychosocial support. The remaining 32,048 (80.2%) did not receive either mode of treatment in the first 12 months. Factors that independently reduced the likelihood of receiving pharmacotherapy included: being male (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.74; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.78); older (65-74 years: OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.49 to 0.77); being from a practice based in the most deprived quintile (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.64); and being located in Northern Ireland (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91). The median duration to initiation of pharmacotherapy was 0.80 months (95% CI 0.70 to 1.00) for acamprosate and 0.60 months (95% CI 0.43 to 0.73) for disulfiram. Persistence analysis for those receiving acamprosate and disulfiram revealed that many patients never received a repeat prescription; persistence at 6 months was 27.7% for acomprosate and 33.2% for disulfiram. The median duration of therapy was 2.10 months (95% CI 1.87 to 2.53) for acamprosate and 3.13 months (95% CI 2.77 to 3.36) for disulfiram. Conclusion Drug therapy to promote abstinence in alcohol dependent patients was low, with the majority of patients receiving no therapy, either psychological or pharmacological. When drug therapy was

  4. Nature and Quality of Antipsychotic Prescribing Practice in UK Psychiatry of Intellectual Disability Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, C.; Flynn, A.; Shingleton-Smith, A.; McIntyre, S.; Bhaumik, S.; Rasmussen, J.; Hardy, S.; Barnes, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotics are perceived to be over-used in the management of behavioural problems in people with an intellectual disability (ID). Published guidelines have set good practice standards for the use of these drugs for behavioural indications. We sought to identify the range of indications for which antipsychotic drugs are prescribed…

  5. Survey of the UK veterinary profession: common species and conditions nominated by veterinarians in practice.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Dean, R S; Robinson, N J; Massey, A; Brennan, M L

    2014-03-29

    The practice of evidence-based veterinary medicine involves the utilisation of scientific evidence for clinical decision making. To enable this, research topics pertinent to clinical practice need to be identified, and veterinary clinicians are best placed to do this. The main aim of this study was to describe the veterinary population, the common species and conditions veterinary clinicians nominated they saw in practice and how much information clinicians perceived was available in the literature for these. A questionnaire was distributed to all Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons registered veterinarians agreeing to be contacted for research purposes (n=14,532). A useable response rate of 33 per cent (4842/14,532) was achieved. The most commonly seen species reported by vets were dogs, cats and rabbits followed by equines and cattle. Overall, skin conditions were most commonly mentioned for small animals, musculoskeletal conditions for equines and reproduction conditions for production animals. Veterinary clinicians perceived there was a higher level of information available in the literature for conditions in dogs, cattle and equines and lower levels for rabbits and guinea pigs. The results from this study can be used to help define the research needs of the profession to aid the incorporation of evidence in veterinary practice.

  6. Health and Safety in Practical Science in Schools: A UK Perspective 2, Using Model Risk Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrows, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The previous article in this series explained the difference between hazard and risk. If the risk is too high, steps must be taken to reduce it to a sufficiently low level by adopting suitable protective control measures. If a practical activity in a science lesson has some risk associated with it then one way of reducing the risk might be to…

  7. "Cascades, Torrents & Drowning" in Information: Seeking Help in the Contemporary General Practitioner Practice in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Debbie; Santos, Patricia; Cook, John; Kerr, Micky

    2016-01-01

    This paper responds to the Alpine Rendez-Vous "crisis" in technology-enhanced learning. It takes a contested area of policy as well as a rapid change in the National Health Service, and documents the responses to "information overload" by a group of general practitioners practices in the North of England. Located between the…

  8. Nature and Quality of Antipsychotic Prescribing Practice in UK Psychiatry of Intellectual Disability Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, C.; Flynn, A.; Shingleton-Smith, A.; McIntyre, S.; Bhaumik, S.; Rasmussen, J.; Hardy, S.; Barnes, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotics are perceived to be over-used in the management of behavioural problems in people with an intellectual disability (ID). Published guidelines have set good practice standards for the use of these drugs for behavioural indications. We sought to identify the range of indications for which antipsychotic drugs are prescribed…

  9. "Cascades, Torrents & Drowning" in Information: Seeking Help in the Contemporary General Practitioner Practice in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Debbie; Santos, Patricia; Cook, John; Kerr, Micky

    2016-01-01

    This paper responds to the Alpine Rendez-Vous "crisis" in technology-enhanced learning. It takes a contested area of policy as well as a rapid change in the National Health Service, and documents the responses to "information overload" by a group of general practitioners practices in the North of England. Located between the…

  10. Antimicrobial usage in dogs and cats in first opinion veterinary practices in the UK.

    PubMed

    Mateus, A; Brodbelt, D C; Barber, N; Stärk, K D C

    2011-10-01

    To provide baseline data on patterns of antimicrobial usage in dogs and cats through the analysis of data stored in electronic practice management systems. Clinical data from 11 first opinion veterinary practices were extracted for the year 2007. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to assess the usage of antimicrobials. Widespread usage of systemic broad-spectrum antimicrobials was observed. Antimicrobials most frequently used in both species were potentiated amoxicillin (44·4% and 46.1% in cats and dogs, respectively) and amoxicillin (14·3% and 20·7%). Cephalexin (13·4%) and cefovecin (15·0%) were also commonly used in dogs and cats, respectively. Systemic critically important antimicrobials in human medicine were widely used in dogs (60·5%) and cats (82·7%). Topical antimicrobials used in both species included fusidic acid (48·4% and 54·8%), framycetin (20·4% and 13·4%), polymyxin B (12·6% and 9·3%) and neomycin (6·5% and 6·6%). Inappropriate usage of broad-spectrum antimicrobials may contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance and loss of efficacy of antimicrobials in veterinary settings. Data recorded in practice management systems were demonstrated to be a practical source for monitoring antimicrobial usage in pets. © 2011 Royal Veterinary College.

  11. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Results Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. Conclusions The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for

  12. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for reducing the impact of recurring errors in the

  13. Current practice of antibiotic prophylaxis during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Macano, Caw; Griffiths, E A; Vohra, R S

    2017-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Current guidelines do not recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite this, there is wide variation in antibiotic prophylaxis during cholecystectomy in population-based studies. The aim of this survey was to establish the current rationale for antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS A short questionnaire was designed and disseminated across collaborators for a population-based study investigating outcomes following cholecystectomy and via the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, Researchgate and Surginet membership. RESULTS Responses were received from 234 people; 50.9% had no written policy for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in elective cholecystectomy; 5.6% never used antibiotics, while 30.8% always did and 63.7% selectively used antibiotics. Contamination with bile, stones and pus were scenarios in which antibiotics were most commonly used in selective practices to reduce infective complications. Interestingly, 87% of respondents would be happy to participate in a trial investigating the effectiveness of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. CONCLUSIONS The disparity between current practice and guidelines appears to arise because of a lack of evidence to show that antibiotics reduce surgical site infection following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. This question needs to addressed before practice will change.

  14. Autoclave performance and operator knowledge of autoclave use in primary care: a survey of UK practices.

    PubMed

    Coulter, W A; Chew-Graham, C A; Cheung, S W; Burke, F J

    2001-07-01

    Changes in the delivery of health care have increased the demand for minor surgical and screening procedures in general practice. This has increased the risk of cross-infection with blood-borne viruses and the demand for sterile instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and training of medical personnel in England and Wales on aspects of autoclave use, and to test the effectiveness of their practice autoclaves. An anonymous postal questionnaire and autoclave performance survey using biological indicators was made of 700 general medical practitioners selected at random from FHSA lists from 12 Health Authorities in England and Wales. The overall response rate was 53.1% (N= 372) comprising 10% general practitioners and 90% practice nurses. Eighty-two percent of respondents used autoclaves with a mean age of 2.5 years, of which 91% had been serviced in the past year. While 35% of respondents made daily observation of gauges, 19% did not routinely monitor autoclave effectiveness. Six autoclaves failed to sterilize the spore test ampoules. Fourteen percent of respondents did not autoclave instruments after every patient. Only 33.1% reported wearing gloves during minor operations. Fifty five percent had training in cross-infection prevention. It was concluded that although there has been improvement in instrument decontamination procedures in general practice compared with previous surveys, further education of medical practitioners and practice nurses in the use of autoclaves and infection prevention and control is indicated. The failure of 2% of the autoclaves to kill spores suggests the need for increased monitoring of autoclave performance. Two-thirds of practitioners exposed themselves to increased risk of infection by carrying out minor surgery without the protection of gloves. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  15. E-portfolios and personalized learning: research in practice with two dyslexic learners in UK higher education.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Julie; Herrington, Margaret; McDonald, Tess; Rhodes, Amy

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyses the use of an e-portfolio system in contributing to the personalized learning of two dyslexic learners at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. The rationale for this research rests at the intersection of generic findings from e-portfolio (and wider e-learning) research and the still challenging project in higher education (HE) of creating inclusive curricula. A qualitative, ethnographic approach was employed in a piece of collaborative research between academic staff and dyslexic learners. Two retrospective learner narratives were constructed and then reviewed by all co-authors in terms of the 'personalized fit' which they allowed with dyslexic thinking, learning and writing experience. The findings suggest a potential refinement of the general pedagogical claims about e-portfolio-based learning when considering dyslexic learners and thence the value of an enhanced prioritization of e-portfolio learning practices within inclusive HE curricula. The review and analysis also allow a 'critical' discussion of the practical and theoretical issues arising within this work. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Aphasia rehabilitation in Australia: Current practices, challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rose, Miranda; Ferguson, Alison; Power, Emma; Togher, Leanne; Worrall, Linda

    2014-04-01

    This study reports on current aphasia rehabilitation practices of speech-language pathologists in Australia. A 30-item web-based survey targeted approaches to aphasia rehabilitation, education, discharge, follow-up practices, counselling, interventions to improve communication access, community aphasia support services, and challenges to practice. One hundred and eighty-eight surveys were completed representing ~33% of the potential target population, with 58.5% urban and 41.5% rural participants across all states and territories. Respondents reported embracing a wide variety of approaches to aphasia rehabilitation; however, significant challenges in providing aphasia management in acute and residential care were identified. Low levels of knowledge and confidence were reported for both culturally and linguistically diverse clients and discourse approaches. Group and intensive services were under-utilized and clinicians reported inflexible funding models as major barriers to implementation. Few clinicians work directly in the community to improve communicative access for people with aphasia. Despite the chronic nature of aphasia, follow-up practices are limited and client re-entry to services is restricted. Counselling is a high frequency practice in aphasia rehabilitation, but clinicians report being under-prepared for the role. Respondents repeatedly cited lack of resources (time, space, materials) as a major challenge to effective service provision. Collective advocacy is required to achieve system level changes.

  17. Relationships between lamb carcass quality traits measured by X-ray computed tomography and current UK hill sheep breeding goals.

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Conington, J; Bishop, S C; McLean, K A; Bünger, L; McLaren, A; Simm, G

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated between current UK hill sheep breeding goals and lamb carcass composition and muscularity traits derived using X-ray computed tomography (CT). To produce these estimates, a total of 648 lambs from two hill farms were CT scanned at weaning (ca 120 days of age), over 3 years, and total weights of carcass muscle (MUSC), fat (CFAT) and bone (BONE) and internal fat (IFAT) were predicted. Previously derived muscularity indices were also calculated for the hind leg (HLMI) and lumbar (LRMI) regions, to assess muscle shape. Data for current breeding goals (lamb performance and maternal traits) were also included from a total of 10 297 lamb records and 12 704 ewe records. Heritabilities were estimated for each trait and genetic and phenotypic correlations were calculated between each CT trait and other lamb or ewe traits. Moderate to high positive genetic correlations were found between CT-predicted tissue weights and breeding goals, which were also weights (lamb weaning weight, carcass weight, mature ewe weight, average weight of lambs reared by the ewe). CFAT was positively genetically correlated with ultrasound backfat depth at weaning (UFD) and subjective fatness grade at slaughter (MLCF), suggesting that carcass fat could be decreased using selection on any of these predictors. Ultrasound muscle depth at weaning (UMD) and subjective conformation score at slaughter (MLCC) had high genetic correlations with the muscularity indices (HLMI and LRMI), but correlations with MUSC were not significantly different from zero. This implies that selection to improve MLCC is likely to be increasing the 'roundness' of muscle shape in the high-priced carcass region, but having little impact on total lean meat yield. Correlations of CT traits with the other ewe traits (number of lambs weaned, number of lambs lost, longevity, fleece weight) were generally small or not significantly different from zero. The genetic parameters generated in this study can

  18. Current issues in dental practice management. Part 1. The importance of shared values.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Philip R H

    2003-04-01

    There can be few who would argue with the notion that the nature of dental practice in the United Kingdom has changed dramatically over the last couple of decades. A variety of factors, including new clinical techniques, growing consumerism, a much greater awareness of health-related and well-being issues in the public at large, as well as a marked deregulation within the dental profession, the development of vocational training and recently mandatory lifelong learning, the growing number of females working in the profession, and an increasing reluctance of young dentists to finance dental practices have all combined to create an environment which has enabled and encouraged a move away from traditional forms of dental care delivery. Instead, there has been considerable growth in independently-funded practice and a commensurate growth in the number of practices operating under a corporate body umbrella of one form or another. Currently there are 27 corporate bodies registered with the General Dental Council (GDC) with the likelihood of more in the future given the proposed GDC review. This will no doubt take into consideration European law, under which the restriction within the Dentist's Act on the number of corporate bodies is likely to be untenable. Although they still have only a small share of the dental market--with 4% of all dentists in the UK in 1999--they have expanded rapidly from a small base. The data available at the time the paper was written indicate that the global total of fees earned from dentistry in the UK in the financial year 2001/2002 was almost 3 billion Pounds, of which 1.9 billion Pounds (64%) came from NHS fees and 1.1 billion Pounds (36%) from private fees. Of this 1.9 billion Pounds received in NHS fees in 2001/2002, 0.55 billion Pounds were paid by patients who were not exempt from charges, bringing the total amount actually paid out of patients' pockets for dental treatment to 1.65 billion Pounds. Compare these figures with 1996

  19. Autoclave performance and practitioner knowledge of autoclave use: a survey of selected UK practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J; Coulter, W A; Cheung, S W; Palenik, C J

    1998-04-01

    It is essential that the dental surgery autoclave be tested regularly to ensure that it is operating at a temperature and pressure that will kill all microorganisms. The aims of this study were to investigate the knowledge of general dental practitioners on aspects of autoclave use, to examine their autoclaving routines, and to test the effectiveness of the sterilization cycle of their practice's autoclave. A 35-question questionnaire was distributed to 840 dental practitioners in the United Kingdom. They were also sent three spore test ampules with details of their function and instructions on their use. The practitioners were asked to use the spore test ampules in their own practice's autoclave and to return these for testing. Four hundred one questionnaires and associated spore test ampules were returned for analysis, a 47.7% response rate. Eight practice autoclaves (2.0%) failed to sterilize the spores. These practices were offered a retest following counseling. A total of 77.8% of respondents had received formal training in infection control. Of the 71.3% of respondents who stated that they check the performance of their autoclave routinely, 31.5% use a chemical strip every cycle, 17.5% use it once per day, and 30.4% use it once per week. However, only five respondents (1.2%) use a spore test; two of these respondents use it every cycle, one once per day, and two once per week. Further education of practitioners may be necessary to enhance their awareness of the need for routine checking of autoclave effectiveness.

  20. Service quality measurement: appointment systems in U.K. GP practices.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Martyna; Okane, James

    2011-01-01

    A recurring problem in the service quality literature is measurement--knowing which quality aspects should be measured and in what ways. This article aims to assess service quality measurement by focusing on general practice appointment systems. The authors use a case study, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews with stakeholders as well as data regarding appointment systems' temporal aspects. This study offers insights into service quality's subjective and context-dependent nature, as reflected in primary healthcare stakeholder perceptions and service quality's objective and quantifiable aspects, revealing its dynamic, process-based nature. The empirical approach to service quality measurement did not focus on all general practice service quality aspects, but instead focused on patient appointments with healthcare professionals. Broader applications to include other service quality aspects should be addressed by research. Using one approach, service operators could have a tool for obtaining a more complex and richer service quality picture, leading to a better understanding of the relationship between service delivery and its evaluations by different stakeholders. The service quality measurement method offers innovative insights into different theoretical abstractions, constructively challenges both measurement and service quality, whilst moving beyond managerial and user-based approaches, and is highly relevant to contemporary organisation practice.

  1. Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy: a survey of UK practice and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ahmed; Liu, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    To determine national trends in YAG laser capsulotomy practice in the NHS. A total of 300 consultants were randomly selected, based on a list from the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, to receive a postal questionnaire. It included 10 questions about YAG capsulotomy technique and postcapsulotomy management. A total of 158 (53%) replies were received; 132 (83.5%) questionnaires were completed correctly. Most consultants dilate the pupil prior to treatment (98.5%) and use contact lens (87.9%), with 63.5% reporting using contact lenses for more than one indication. Nearly half of the consultants used cruciate laser pattern (47.0%). Most aimed for capsulotomy size larger than undilated pupil size (64.4%). A total of 42.4% used postoperative steroid drops, 61.8% for 1 week. Half used postlaser intraocular pressure-lowering drops with the majority used as 1-stat dose (85.1%). A total of 60% are not reviewing cases. Cases reviewed are mostly seen by doctors, with 50% reviewed 1 month postlaser. Though commonly practiced, there is still considerable variation in YAG laser capsulotomy practice among NHS consultant ophthalmologists. Evidence-based guidelines are warranted to lessen any unnecessary complications.

  2. Patient use of blood pressure self-screening facilities in general practice waiting rooms: a qualitative study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice C; Grant, Sabrina; Greenfield, Sheila M; McManus, Richard J; Fleming, Susannah; Heneghan, Carl J; Hobbs, FD Richard; Ward, Alison M

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) self-screening, whereby members of the public have access to BP monitoring equipment outside of healthcare consultations, may increase the detection and treatment of hypertension. Currently in the UK such opportunities are largely confined to GP waiting rooms. Aim To investigate the reasons why people do or do not use BP self-screening facilities. Design and setting A cross-sectional, qualitative study in Oxfordshire, UK. Method Semi-structured interviews with members of the general public recruited using posters in GP surgeries and community locations were recorded, transcribed, and coded thematically. Results Of the 30 interviewees, 20% were hypertensive and almost half had self-screened. Those with no history of elevated readings had limited concern over their BP: self-screening filled the time waiting for their appointment or was done to help their doctor. Patients with hypertension self-screened to avoid the feelings they associated with ‘white coat syndrome’ and to introduce more control into the measurement process. Barriers to self-screening included a lack of awareness, uncertainty about technique, and worries over measuring BP in a public place. An unanticipated finding was that several interviewees preferred monitoring their BP in the waiting room than at home. Conclusion BP self-screening appeared acceptable to service users. Further promotion and education could increase awareness among non-users of the need for BP screening, the existence of self-screening facilities, and its ease of use. Waiting room monitors could provide an alternative for patients with hypertension who are unwilling or unable to monitor at home. PMID:28483823

  3. Current clinical practices in Aphasia Therapy in Finland: challenges in moving towards national best practice.

    PubMed

    Klippi, A; Sellman, J; Heikkinen, P; Laine, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discover and document the state of clinical practices for aphasia therapy in Finland and to gather information for developing national best practice. Two surveys were administered in Finland that explored current clinical practices in aphasia rehabilitation and the resources available to speech and language therapists (SLTs). We integrated and compared the results of these surveys. The results are based on the responses of the 88 (45 + 43) returned questionnaires from SLTs. Four principle themes were identified: planning the aphasia therapy, measures and assessment methods, current therapy service provision, and development suggestions and barriers to change. The results of this study showed considerable consistency in clinical practices among the respondents to the surveys. However, we noticed that there are some discrepancies between the recent research findings and present clinical practices. The findings from this study indicate that there are many challenges in clinical decision-making at the moment in Finland. The article helps clinicians to evaluate the practices they use and to execute justified modifications in order to implement more effective models of practice. It is evident that national best practice guidelines for aphasia therapy would support SLTs in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. How prepared are UK medical graduates for practice? A rapid review of the literature 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Lisa; Mann, Mala; John, Zoe; Panagoulas, Eleni; Bullock, Alison; Mattick, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Objective To understand how prepared UK medical graduates are for practice and the effectiveness of workplace transition interventions. Design A rapid review of the literature (registration #CRD42013005305). Data sources Nine major databases (and key websites) were searched in two timeframes (July–September 2013; updated May–June 2014): CINAHL, Embase, Educational Resources Information Centre, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Primary research or studies reporting UK medical graduates' preparedness between 2009 and 2014: manuscripts in English; all study types; participants who are final-year medical students, medical graduates, clinical educators, patients or NHS employers and all outcome measures. Data extraction At time 1, three researchers screened manuscripts (for duplicates, exclusion/inclusion criteria and quality). Remaining 81 manuscripts were coded. At time 2, one researcher repeated the process for 2013–2014 (adding six manuscripts). Data were analysed using a narrative synthesis and mapped against Tomorrow's Doctors (2009) graduate outcomes. Results Most studies comprised junior doctors' self-reports (65/87, 75%), few defined preparedness and a programmatic approach was lacking. Six themes were highlighted: individual skills/knowledge, interactional competence, systemic/technological competence, personal preparedness, demographic factors and transitional interventions. Graduates appear prepared for history taking, physical examinations and some clinical skills, but unprepared for other aspects, including prescribing, clinical reasoning/diagnoses, emergency management, multidisciplinary team-working, handover, error/safety incidents, understanding ethical/legal issues and ward environment familiarity. Shadowing and induction smooth transition into practice, but there is a paucity of evidence around assistantship efficacy

  5. How prepared are UK medical graduates for practice? A rapid review of the literature 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Monrouxe, Lynn V; Grundy, Lisa; Mann, Mala; John, Zoe; Panagoulas, Eleni; Bullock, Alison; Mattick, Karen

    2017-01-13

    To understand how prepared UK medical graduates are for practice and the effectiveness of workplace transition interventions. A rapid review of the literature (registration #CRD42013005305). Nine major databases (and key websites) were searched in two timeframes (July-September 2013; updated May-June 2014): CINAHL, Embase, Educational Resources Information Centre, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Primary research or studies reporting UK medical graduates' preparedness between 2009 and 2014: manuscripts in English; all study types; participants who are final-year medical students, medical graduates, clinical educators, patients or NHS employers and all outcome measures. At time 1, three researchers screened manuscripts (for duplicates, exclusion/inclusion criteria and quality). Remaining 81 manuscripts were coded. At time 2, one researcher repeated the process for 2013-2014 (adding six manuscripts). Data were analysed using a narrative synthesis and mapped against Tomorrow's Doctors (2009) graduate outcomes. Most studies comprised junior doctors' self-reports (65/87, 75%), few defined preparedness and a programmatic approach was lacking. Six themes were highlighted: individual skills/knowledge, interactional competence, systemic/technological competence, personal preparedness, demographic factors and transitional interventions. Graduates appear prepared for history taking, physical examinations and some clinical skills, but unprepared for other aspects, including prescribing, clinical reasoning/diagnoses, emergency management, multidisciplinary team-working, handover, error/safety incidents, understanding ethical/legal issues and ward environment familiarity. Shadowing and induction smooth transition into practice, but there is a paucity of evidence around assistantship efficacy. Educational interventions are needed to address areas of unpreparedness (eg, multidisciplinary team

  6. Leadership and the everyday practice of Consultant Radiographers in the UK: Transformational ideals and the generation of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Booth, L; Henwood, S; Miller, P K

    2017-05-01

    This paper outlines findings from a broader, two-year project investigating the role of Consultant Radiographers (CRs) in the UK, focussing specifically on the leadership aspect of that role. Using a qualitative-thematic approach, the leadership-related experiences of a purposive sample of six participating CRs are explored, alongside the systems through which they evaluated how successful they had been as leaders. It is evidenced that many of the ways in which participants describe their own leadership practice, particularly in the intra-team domain, is consistent with the precepts of the Transformational Leadership Model. For example, they highlight how they have asserted positive influence and encouraged collective action and decision-making. However, the experiential focus of the analysis reveals that in specific examples of practice, the transformational approach was not always seen as the most useful route to a productive outcome given constrictions on time and other resources within real professional environments. More 'direct' managerial approaches were sometimes deemed necessary, and at others leadership was reduced to simply 'solving other people's problems'. It was also found that the manner in which participants evaluated their own success as leaders was a practical concern, based in part upon having satisfied 'hard' institutional goals, but also on the more personal business of having affirmatively 'surprised' oneself, or a general sense of feeling trusted by colleagues. These findings may help support CRs in the business of real leadership, not least through better understanding how even apparently mundane outcomes can have significant impacts on professional self-efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Current practices regarding codeine administration among pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists.

    PubMed

    Cartabuke, Richard S; Tobias, Joseph D; Taghon, Thomas; Rice, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies have revealed a wide variation in the metabolism of codeine to its active metabolite, morphine. A particular subset of patients, known as ultrarapid metabolizers, possesses multiple copies of the CYP2D6 gene responsible for codeine metabolism. This has been linked to serious morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients leading to considerable debate regarding the use of codeine for analgesia in the pediatric population. The current study surveyed the current practice of codeine prescription in pediatric health care providers from a single tertiary care pediatric hospital. Of the 298 responders, 43.3% (129 of 298) continue to prescribe codeine for pain management in children. The vast majority of codeine prescribers were primary health care providers (89.1%). Most of the primary care practitioners were in office-based (42.6%) or hospital-based (45.7%) group practices. There was no significant difference in codeine use based on years of experience. Given the risks associated with this practice, increased education targeting this group appears warranted.

  8. Current Pediatric Tertiary Care Admission Practices Following Adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Heather C; McKee-Cole, Katherine M; Friedman, Norman R

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric adenotonsillectomy is a frequently performed procedure. Few studies have examined perioperative practice patterns for children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. To assess current group practice patterns associated with the perioperative care of children undergoing adenotonsillectomy for sleep-disordered breathing at tertiary care children's hospitals following the release of the 2011 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) clinical practice guidelines. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to the chiefs of 72 pediatric otolaryngology divisions at tertiary care children's hospitals in the United States and Canada from March 25 to April 16, 2014. Internet-based survey responses from the chiefs of pediatric otolaryngology at tertiary care children's hospitals in the United States and Canada, who responded regarding group, rather than individual, practices. Of the 72 surveys sent, 48 responses (67%) were received. Twenty-one respondents (44%) reported that their group has no official admission policy for children with sleep-disordered breathing. Seventy-three percent (29 of 40) reported using some measure of obesity as a criterion for postoperative admission. The AAO-HNS polysomnography criteria for severe obstructive sleep apnea were used by 40% of respondents (16 of 40) as admission criteria, whereas 15% (6 of 40) used the American Academy of Pediatrics criteria for severe obstructive sleep apnea. Seventy-three percent (29 of 40) reported requiring a child to be asleep while breathing room air without oxygen desaturation before discharge to home. An established minimum time for observation was reported by 43 of the respondents (90%). Institution size or volume of adenotonsillectomies performed did not affect the results. Many tertiary care children's hospitals in the United States do not have an official admission policy to guide adenotonsillectomy care. Even for institutions that do have an official admission policy, the policies

  9. Skill acquisition in tennis: research and current practice.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar; Crespo, Miguel; Lay, Brendan; Berry, Jason

    2007-02-01

    Common to most tennis players is the desire to improve performance. Equipped with the necessary motivation, these players can spend countless hours rehearsing tennis' skills under the guidance of a coach. Often, these practices feature repetitious hitting, with little consideration given to the actual context in which the game's skills are expressed. Alternatively, training sessions that amount to little more than poorly structured game-play, devoid of any specific goals or objectives, are also discernible. Either way, player learning and long-term performance are unlikely to be optimised. So, where tennis coaches have long relied on certain instructional approaches and types of practices to enhance player performance, their efficacy is uncertain. Indeed, a growing body of research suggests that players stand to benefit from the earlier introduction of variable and random practices and feedback that is more intrinsic in nature rather than time-honoured overly prescriptive coaching. This review considers contemporary skill acquisition research in relation to current tennis coaching practice.

  10. Bimodal Programming: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Siburt, Hannah W; Holmes, Alice E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical practice in approaches to bimodal programming in the United States. To be specific, if clinicians are recommending bimodal stimulation, who programs the hearing aid in the bimodal condition, and what method is used for programming the hearing aid? An 11-question online survey was created and sent via email to a comprehensive list of cochlear implant programming centers in the United States. The survey was sent to 360 recipients. Respondents in this study represented a diverse group of clinical settings (response rate: 26%). Results indicate little agreement about who programs the hearing aids, when they are programmed, and how they are programmed in the bimodal condition. Analysis of small versus large implant centers indicated small centers are less likely to add a device to the contralateral ear. Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear, there is inconsistency in the current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in the current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches.

  11. Core competencies for UK occupational health nurses: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, D; Demou, E; Kiran, S; Gaffney, M; Stevenson, M; Macdonald, E B

    2016-11-01

    Occupational health nurses (OHNs) play a pivotal role in the delivery of occupational health (OH) services. Specific competency guidance has been developed in a number of countries, including the UK. While it is acknowledged that UK OHN practice has evolved in recent years, there has been no formal research to capture these developments to ensure that training and curricula remain up-to-date and reflect current practice. To identify current priorities among UK OHNs of the competencies required for OH practice. A modified Delphi study undertaken among representative OHN networks in the UK. This formed part of a larger study including UK and international occupational physicians. The study was conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire based on available guidance on training competencies for OH practice, the published literature, expert panel reviews and conference discussions. Consensus among OHNs was high with 7 out of the 12 domains scoring 100% in rating. 'Good clinical care' was the principal domain ranked most important, followed by 'general principles of assessment & management of occupational hazards to health'. 'Research methods' and 'teaching & educational supervision' were considered least important. This study has established UK OHNs' current priorities on the competencies required for OH practice. The timing of this paper is opportune with the formal launch of the Faculty of Occupational Health Nursing planned in 2018 and should inform the development of competency requirements as part of the Faculty's goals for standard setting in OHN education and training.

  12. Current practices of the child neurologist in managing sports concussion.

    PubMed

    Broshek, Donna K; Samples, Hillary; Beard, Jennifer; Goodkin, Howard P

    2014-01-01

    Given the 2010 position statement issued by the American Academy of Neurology that neurologists be consulted on return-to-play decisions following a concussion, we surveyed members of the Child Neurology Society to asses clinical practice management of concussion among child neurologists. Among the 239 respondents, the majority continued to rely on the American Academy of Neurology's 1997 Practice Parameter to guide their decision-making process. Although the 2008 consensus statement from the Third International Conference on Concussion in Sport (Zurich Guidelines) is currently considered the most up-to-date guideline, few respondents relied exclusively on this guideline. More respondents who completed continuing medical education on concussion reported making clinical decisions based on the Zurich guidelines. The finding that child neurologists who completed continuing medical education had a greater familiarity with the more recently proposed consensus-based concussion guidelines supports the development of additional education in sports concussion at all levels of child neurology training.

  13. The Long and Winding Road: A Review of the Policy, Practice and Development of the Internationalisation of Higher Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humfrey, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is a key element in the evolving role and function of the UK higher education (HE) sector. Its perceived benefits are promoted widely and sought assiduously. It has come to be believed by many practitioners that internationalisation and the quest for quality and status in HE are synonymous. In the current phase of…

  14. Clinical value of stool culture in paediatric oncology patients: hospital evaluation and UK survey of practice.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, O; Cooke, R P D; Cunliffe, N A; Pizer, B

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a frequently occurring symptom in paediatric oncology patients. The role of routine testing for enteric bacteria in hospitalized patients with diarrhoea is considered limited, but the diagnostic value of testing in children with oncological conditions has not been reported. Therefore, we conducted a five-year retrospective service evaluation in our tertiary paediatric oncology unit together with a national survey of 21 centres to estimate the utility of stool cultures in oncology patients with diarrhoea and the national approach to testing. Our local survey demonstrated very low diagnostic yield using routine enteric stool cultures with only one sample out of 842 (0.1%) testing positive. The national survey demonstrated considerable variation in practice. There is little evidence to support the use of conventional stool culture for enteric bacteria in children with cancer in our centre. These findings should inform national testing policies.

  15. Principles of Lifeworld Led Public Health Practice in the UK and Sweden: Reducing Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, Ann; Norton, Liz; Aarts, Clara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of the lifeworld perspective in reducing inequalities in health and we explain how the public health practitioner can use this perspective to address public health issues with individuals and groups. We offer ideas for public health actions that are based on and deal with the lifeworld context of individual people or families. Each of the dimensions of the lifeworld temporality, spatiality, intersubjectivity, embodiment and mood are outlined and their significance explained in relation to health inequalities. Suggestions for action to reduce health inequalities are made and overall principles of lifeworld led public health practice are proposed by way of conclusion. The principles comprise understanding the community members' lifeworld view, understanding their view of their potential, offering resources and facilitating empowerment, and sharing lifeworld case studies and lobbying to influence local and national policy in relation to both the individual and communities. PMID:25642346

  16. Principles of Lifeworld Led Public Health Practice in the UK and Sweden: Reducing Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Ann; Norton, Liz; Aarts, Clara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of the lifeworld perspective in reducing inequalities in health and we explain how the public health practitioner can use this perspective to address public health issues with individuals and groups. We offer ideas for public health actions that are based on and deal with the lifeworld context of individual people or families. Each of the dimensions of the lifeworld temporality, spatiality, intersubjectivity, embodiment and mood are outlined and their significance explained in relation to health inequalities. Suggestions for action to reduce health inequalities are made and overall principles of lifeworld led public health practice are proposed by way of conclusion. The principles comprise understanding the community members' lifeworld view, understanding their view of their potential, offering resources and facilitating empowerment, and sharing lifeworld case studies and lobbying to influence local and national policy in relation to both the individual and communities.

  17. Fertility preservation in cancer survivors: a national survey of oncologists' current knowledge, practice and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E; Hill, E; Watson, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Around 1 in 10 of all cancer cases occur in adults of reproductive age. Cancer and its treatments can cause long-term effects, such as loss of fertility, which can lead to poor emotional adjustment. Unmet information needs are associated with higher levels of anxiety. US research suggests that many oncologists do not discuss fertility. Very little research exists about fertility information provision in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore current knowledge, practice and attitudes among oncologists in the United Kingdom regarding fertility preservation in patients of child-bearing age. Methods: A national online survey of 100 oncologists conducted online via medeconnect, a company which has exclusive access to the doctors.net.uk membership of GMC registered doctors. Results: Oncologists saw fertility preservation (FP) as mainly a women's issue, and yet only felt knowledgeable about sperm storage, not other methods of FP; 87% expressed a need for more information. Most reported discussing the impact of treatment on fertility with patients, but only 38% reported routinely providing patients with written information, and 1/3 reported they did not usually refer patients who had questions about fertility to a specialist fertility service. Twenty-three per cent had never consulted any FP guidelines. The main barriers to initiating discussions about FP were lack of time, lack of knowledge, perceived poor success rates of FP options, poor patient prognosis and, to a lesser extent, if the patient already had children, was single, or could not afford FP treatment. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest a deficiency in UK oncologist's knowledge about FP options and highlights that the provision of information to patients about FP may be sub-optimal. Oncologists may benefit from further education, and further research is required to establish if patients perceive a need for further information about FP options. PMID:23579214

  18. Time Transfer Techniques: Historical Overview, Current Practices and Future Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    Iiurrr .j. Klepcrynski Time St.r:r~cc rlcpurtrnent 0. 5. r.luvr_ll :)lrservutory Wusl-iington, 13, i:. 20390-5 100 A br ief i i istoricnl re vie^ r:jf...Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time ...DATES COVERED 00-00-1984 to 00-00-1984 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Time Transfer Techniques: Historical Overview, Current Practices and Future

  19. Current assessment practice, personality measurement, and rorschach usage by psychologists.

    PubMed

    Musewicz, John; Marczyk, Geoffrey; Knauss, Linda; York, David

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated current personality assessment practice and attitudes toward Rorschach (Exner, 2003) usage by 215 psychologists. We administered an Internet survey to members of the Society for Personality Assessment (SPA) and the American Psychological Association. Results were similar to those of past surveys, but the importance of using tests with strong psychometric properties was greater in this study. The majority of respondents reported using the Rorschach and supporting efforts to standardize and psychometrically validate the test. However, SPA members agreed more strongly than non-SPA members that the Rorschach is an effective test. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Implementing the 2-week wait rule for cancer referral in the UK: general practitioners' views and practices.

    PubMed

    Dodds, W; Morgan, M; Wolfe, C; Raju, K S

    2004-03-01

    The 2-week wait rule for cancer referrals became effective in December 2000 for all cancers treated by the National Health Service in the UK. Attainment of this target depends initially on appropriate and timely referral by general practitioners (GPs). General practitioners' views and referral practices under the 2-week wait rule were examined based on a postal survey of 508 GPs in an inner London area (65% response). Data on mode of referral indicated that 90% of GPs used the urgent suspected cancer form, although 38% also sent a letter with further information. General practitioners generally regarded the 2-week wait rule as working well in terms of improving patients' initial access, and 50% thought communication with the hospital had improved. However, 46% expressed some concerns, including problems arising from the different sets of forms required by local cancer networks, the lack of a dedicated referral form for breast cancer, and feelings of a loss of autonomy. General practitioners also acknowledged an element of over-referral under this rule due to the effects of clinical uncertainty and patient pressure and their concerns about increased waiting times for non-target referrals. The survey therefore indicates that GPs are generally positive about the 2-week wait rule but identified some problems of implementation including a need for standardized national cancer referral forms.

  1. Autopsy in Islam and current practice in Arab Muslim countries.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A

    2014-03-01

    Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. The challenge of risk characterization: current practice and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, G M; Cohen, J T; Graham, J D

    1993-01-01

    Risk characterization is perhaps the most important part of risk assessment. As currently practiced, risk characterizations do not convey the degree of uncertainty in a risk estimate to risk managers, Congress, the press, and the public. Here, we use a framework put forth by an ad hoc study group of industry and government scientists and academics to critique the risk characterizations contained in two risks assessments of gasoline vapor. After discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each assessment's risk characterization, we detail an alternative approach that conveys estimates in the form of a probability distribution. The distributional approach can make use of all relevant scientific data and knowledge, including alternative data sets and all plausible mechanistic theories of carcinogenesis. As a result, this approach facilitates better public health decisions than current risk characterization procedures. We discuss methodological issues, as well as strengths and weaknesses of the distributional approach. PMID:8020444

  3. Current laboratory practices in the diagnosis and management of haemophilia: a global assessment.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, S; Signer-Romero, K; Key, N S

    2015-07-01

    Haemophilia management is complicated by the extreme variability in laboratory practices. Lack of consistency or comparability in testing makes it difficult to establish diagnostic criteria or disease severity, and complicates response assessment. A global survey was conducted to document current practices. A 35-min survey was completed by 30 laboratory scientists in each of seven countries (France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, UK, USA; 210 in total); results were weighted by average country testing volume in haemophilia. Eighty-three per cent of participants reported participation in a Quality Assurance scheme. Ninety per cent reported using clotting tests in haemophilia A and 88% in haemophilia B (55% and 53% frequent use respectively). Sixty-eight per cent reported chromogenic assays were used in haemophilia A, with only 23% reporting frequent use, compared to only 11% reporting any use in haemophilia B. Twenty-nine separate activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) reagents were reported for haemophilia A and 27 aPTT reagents were reported for haemophilia B, with one-quarter or less obtaining reagents or kits from any single manufacturer. Fifty-four per cent run a calibration curve with every factor VIII (FVIII) assay. The mean number of plasma dilutions varied from 2 to 4 for FVIII assays and from 1 to 3 for FIX assays. Results indicate very low consistency in materials and practices used to test for factor activity in haemophilia. A number of responses suggest that some laboratory scientists' understanding of best practices or guidelines in haemophilia could be improved. More education and broader understanding is recommended regarding assay types, assay components, test material and instrument features and capabilities.

  4. Employees with mental health problems: Survey of U.K. employers' knowledge, attitudes and workplace practices.

    PubMed

    Brohan, Elaine; Henderson, Claire; Little, Kirsty; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether employers who have experience of hiring people with mental health problems differ significantly from those without such experience in terms of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding mental health in the workplace, and the concerns which they report about employing people with mental health problems. We also examine whether non-workplace social contact is associated with the above variables. A telephone survey was conducted with a randomly selected sample of British employers. The sample included a similar number of human resource managers and managers/executive employees in other roles. 502 employers took part. Having employed someone with a mental health problem was associated with closer non-workplace social contact. Those with experience of employing applicants with mental health problems had significant differences in knowledge (regarding the law), and behaviour (having a policy on hiring applicants with disabilities) but not in attitudes. Non-workplace social contact may be useful to consider in understanding hiring practices. The nature of social contact at work and possible lack of impact of this contact on employer attitudes and concerns warrants further study. Greater support is needed for employers to understand the law regarding mental health problems in the workplace.

  5. Survey of the frequency and perceived stressfulness of ethical dilemmas encountered in UK veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, C E M; McKeegan, D E F

    2012-01-07

    The scale of the ethical challenges faced by veterinary surgeons and their perceived stressful consequences were investigated via a short questionnaire, completed by 58 practising veterinary surgeons. Respondents were asked to report how frequently they faced ethical dilemmas, and to rate on a simple numerical scale (zero to 10) how stressful they found three common scenarios. Fifty seven per cent of respondents reported that they faced one to two dilemmas per week, while 34 per cent stated they typically faced three to five dilemmas per week. The three scenarios provided were all rated as highly stressful with 'client wishing to continue treatment despite poor animal welfare' rated as the most stressful (median 9). The female veterinary surgeons gave two of the scenarios significantly higher stress ratings than the male veterinary surgeons. Stress ratings were not influenced by number of years in practice (which ranged from one to more than 25 years). The results show that veterinary surgeons regularly face ethical dilemmas and that they find these stressful. This has implications for the wellbeing of veterinary surgeons and supports the case for increased provision of training and support, especially for those who entered the profession before undergraduate ethics teaching was widely available.

  6. Supporting pre-registration students in practice: A review of current ICT use.

    PubMed

    Ward, Rod; Moule, Pam

    2007-01-01

    It is unclear how current healthcare students based in the United Kingdom (UK) use information and communication technology (ICT) to support their learning and care delivery in practice environments. This position reflects the dearth of current empirical evidence that needs development in this rapidly changing field. Using focus group interviews involving 16 students from nursing and the allied health professions, to reflect the interprofessional nature of healthcare education, this research explored how students employ technology in placement settings. The students drew on networked resources for personal learning and gave examples of use to meet patient and user needs. Technology also provided a vehicle for communication with the University, though use was complicated by a number of issues. Access to computers and the Internet whilst in placement environments proved problematic for some, with the culture not seeming to support ICT use. Lack of time, attitudes towards computers and ICT skills also affected student engagement. These findings provide information to guide the development of ICT use in placement settings.

  7. Incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate use: Matched case–control study in the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Muller, Sara; Paskins, Zoe; Hider, Samantha L.; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Mallen, Christian D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oral bisphosphonates are the most commonly used drugs to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Acute pseudogout is anecdotally reported to occur following bisphosphonate initiation but empirical data are lacking. We investigated whether treatment with oral bisphosphonates is a risk factor for incident acute pseudogout. A matched case–control study was undertaken using data from the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Adults who consulted for incident acute pseudogout between 1987 and 2012 were each matched for gender, age at pseudogout diagnosis, and general practice to up to 4 control subjects without pseudogout. The exposure of interest was a prescription for an oral bisphosphonate issued within the 60-day period prior to the date of incident acute pseudogout. Associations between incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate prescription were examined using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for hyperparathyroidism, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemochromatosis, hypophosphatasia, and prescriptions for diuretics and oral corticosteroids. Two thousand eleven acute pseudogout cases were compared with 8013 matched controls without acute pseudogout (mean age [standard deviation] 72 years [14]; 52% male). One hundred twenty-three cases (6.1%) had received an oral bisphosphonate prescription in the 60-day exposure period compared with 305 controls (3.8%) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.69). This association was stronger in females (adjusted IRR 1.49; 95% CI 1.15–1.94) and was nonsignificant in males (0.83; 0.48–1.44). Incident acute pseudogout was associated with prescription of an oral bisphosphonate in the preceding 60 days. Prescribers should be aware of acute pseudogout as a possible side effect of bisphosphonate treatment. Further research is needed to explore the risks conferred by different bisphosphonates and the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:28328803

  8. Three-year evaluation of best practice guidelines for nematode control on commercial sheep farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Learmount, Jane; Stephens, Nathalie; Boughtflower, Valerie; Barrecheguren, Alba; Rickell, Kayleigh; Massei, Giovanna; Taylor, Mike

    2016-08-15

    Anthelmintics are commonly used on the majority of UK commercial sheep farms to reduce major economic losses associated with parasitic diseases. With increasing anthelmintic resistance worldwide, several countries have produced evidence-based, best practice guidelines with an example being the UK's Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) initiative. In 2012, a pilot study demonstrated that SCOPS-managed farms used fewer anthelmintic treatments than traditionally managed farms, with no impact on lamb productivity and worm burden. Building on these results, we collected data for three consecutive years (2012-2014) with the following aims: (1) To compare the effects of traditional and SCOPS-based parasite management on lamb productivity and worm burden; (2) To evaluate the effect of region and farm type on lamb productivity and worm burden; (3) To compare the frequency and patterns of use of anthelmintic treatment on traditional and SCOPS-managed farms. The study was carried out on 16 farms located in the North east and the South west of England and Wales. Lamb productivity was assessed by quantifying birth, mid-season and finish weights and calculating daily live-weight gains and time to finish in a cohort of 40-50 lambs on each farm. Five annual faecal egg counts were carried out on each farm to assess worm burden. No differences in lamb productivity and worm burdens were found between farms that adopted SCOPS guidelines and traditional farms across the three years. However, mean infection levels increased for both the SCOPS and the traditional groups. Lamb production was not significantly different for farm type and region but the effect of region on infection was significant. For both ewes and lambs, SCOPS farms carried out significantly fewer anthelmintic treatments per year, and used fewer anthelmintic doses/animal than traditional farms. The data suggest a trend to increasing use of anthelmintics in ewes on traditional but not on the SCOPS farms and a

  9. Trial Steering Committees in randomised controlled trials: A survey of registered clinical trials units to establish current practice and experiences.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Elizabeth J; Harman, Nicola L; Lane, J Athene; Lewis, Steff C; Murray, Gordon; Norrie, John; Sydes, Matt R; Gamble, Carrol

    2015-12-01

    The Medical Research Council Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice outlines a three-committee trial oversight structure--the day-to-day Trial Management Group, the Data Monitoring Committee and the Trial Steering Committee. In this model, the Trial Steering Committee is the executive committee that oversees the trial and considers the recommendations from the Data Monitoring Committee. There is yet to be in-depth consideration establishing the Trial Steering Committee's role and functionality. A survey to establish Trial Steering Committee's current practices, role and the use and opinion on the Medical Research Council guidelines was undertaken within UK Clinical Research Collaborative registered Clinical Trials Units. Completed surveys were obtained from 38 of 47 fully and partially registered Units. Individual items in the survey were analysed and reported spanning current Trial Steering Committee practices including its role, requirement and experience required for membership; methods to identify members; and meeting frequency. Terms (a document describing the committee's remit, objectives and functionality) were obtained and analysed from 21 of 33 Units with documents in place at their Unit. A total of 20 responders suggested aspects of the current Medical Research Council Guidelines that need improvement. We present the first survey reporting on practices within UK Clinical Research Collaborative registered Clinical Trials Units on the experience and remits of Trial Steering Committees. We have identified a widespread adoption of Medical Research Council Guidelines for Trial Steering Committees in the United Kingdom, but limitations in this existing provision have been identified that need to be addressed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. UK practice regarding reversal of vasectomy 2001-2010: relevance to best contemporary patient management.

    PubMed

    Grey, Benjamin R; Thompson, Andrew; Jenkins, Ben L D; Payne, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    Study Type - Practice trends (survey) Level of Evidence 2c What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Approximately 6% of men who have had a vasectomy subsequently decide to have it reversed. For such men there are various options available, including vasal reconstruction, surgical sperm retrieval with assisted reproductive techniques, use of donated sperm or adoption. The decision-making process with regard to the most appropriate management is challenging and the urologist requires both an intimate knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of each of the available options and the opportunity to counsel a couple appropriately. The study confirms that patient management after previous vasectomy is a complex process, demanding detailed knowledge about the availability and outcomes of alternatives to vasectomy reversal. It recommends that couples should not be seen by urologists with diverse interests but by those with appropriate knowledge of all of the factors influencing outcome and the available management options and their costs. Urologists should also have appropriate facilities to offer intra-operative demonstration of and, potentially, storage of sperm. To review the management of men presenting for reversal of vasectomy amongst consultant members of the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) between 2001 and 2010. • To make recommendations for contemporary practice. Three consecutive questionnaire-based surveys were undertaken by BAUS consultant members in 2001, 2005 and 2010. • Standard questionnaires were sent on each occasion asking urologists about their counselling of couples regarding options in achieving a conception, expectation of outcome from reconstructive surgery and the techniques of vaso-vasostomy used. • In 2005 additional information was obtained about the availability of fertility treatments and sub-specialization of the urologist and in 2010 about the eligibility criteria for in-vitro fertilization (IVF

  11. Presentation of SLE in UK primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Alison L; Davidson, Julie E; Molta, Charles T; Kan, Hong J; McHugh, Neil J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the presenting symptoms of SLE in primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Database (CPRD) and to calculate the time from symptom presentation to SLE diagnosis. Methods Incident cases of SLE were identified from the CPRD between 2000 and 2012. Presenting symptoms were identified from the medical records of cases in the 5 years before diagnosis and grouped using the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG) symptom domains. The time from the accumulation of one, two and three BILAG domains to SLE diagnosis was investigated, stratified by age at diagnosis (<30, 30–49 and ≥50 years). Results We identified 1426 incident cases (170 males and 1256 females) of SLE. The most frequently recorded symptoms and signs prior to diagnosis were musculoskeletal, mucocutaneous and neurological. The median time from first musculoskeletal symptom to SLE diagnosis was 26.4 months (IQR 9.3–43.6). There was a significant difference in the time to diagnosis (log rank p<0.01) when stratified by age and disease severity at baseline, with younger patients <30 years and those with severe disease having the shortest times and patients aged ≥50 years and those with mild disease having the longest (6.4 years (IQR 5.8–6.8)). Conclusions The time from symptom onset to SLE diagnosis is long, especially in older patients. SLE should be considered in patients presenting with flaring or chronic musculoskeletal, mucocutaneous and neurological symptoms. PMID:28243454

  12. Championing mental health at work: emerging practice from innovative projects in the UK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark; Tilford, Sylvia; Branney, Peter; Kinsella, Karina

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the value of participatory approaches within interventions aimed at promoting mental health and wellbeing in the workplace. Specifically the paper explores data from the thematic evaluation of the Mental Health and Employment project strand within the Altogether Better programme being implemented in England in the Yorkshire and Humber region, which was funded through the BIG Lottery and aimed to empower people across the region to lead better lives. The evaluation combined a systematic evidence review with semi-structured interviews across mental health and employment projects. Drawing on both evaluation elements, the paper examines the potential of workplace-based 'business champions' to facilitate organizational culture change within enterprises within a deprived regional socio-economic environment. First, the paper identifies key policy drivers for interventions around mental health and employment, summarizes evidence review findings and describes the range of activities within three projects. The role of the 'business champion' emerged as crucial to these interventions and therefore, secondly, the paper examines how champions' potential to make a difference depends on the work settings and their existing roles, skills and motivation. In particular, champions can proactively coordinate project strands, embed the project, encourage participation, raise awareness, encourage changes to work procedures and strengthen networks and partnerships. The paper explores how these processes can facilitate changes in organizational culture. Challenges of implementation are identified, including achieving leverage with senior management, handover of ownership to fellow employees, assessing impact and sustainability. Finally, implications for policy and practice are discussed, and conclusions drawn concerning the roles of champions within different workplace environments. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  13. Ear discharge in children presenting with acute otitis media: observational study from UK general practice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay; Ewings, Paul; Smith, Caroline; Thompson, Matthew; Harnden, Anthony; Mant, David

    2010-01-01

    Background National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance to treat otitis media in older children immediately with antibiotics only if they have ear discharge is based on limited evidence. Aim To determine the clinical significance and outcome of ear discharge in children with acute otitis media, in routine clinical practice. Design of study Observational cohort study of children with acute otitis media comparing those with and without ear discharge at presentation. Setting Primary care in East Somerset. Method Two hundred and fifty-six children aged 6 months to 10 years were recruited from primary care. Clinical features and other characteristics were recorded at presentation. Follow-up was undertaken at 2 weeks and 3 months. Results Children with otitis media who present with ear discharge are much more likely to be treated with antibiotics irrespective of age (adjusted odds ratio 15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3 to 66). Most with discharge have proven bacterial infection (58%, 95% CI = 42 to 72%). They have a more severe systemic illness, with higher axillary temperature (80% increase in odds of ear discharge for each additional degree centigrade, P = 0.02), pulse rate (9% increase in odds for each extra beat, P<0.001), and Yale score (mean 10.5 versus 9.0, P = 0.003). They may also have an increased likelihood of adverse outcome (adjusted odds ratio of pain at 1 week 2.9; further episodes of acute otitis media 3.3; hearing difficulty at 3 months 4.7; all P<0.10). Conclusion Ear discharge defines a group of children with otitis media who are sicker and may be at higher risk of adverse outcome. NICE guidance to treat them with antibiotics is supported. PMID:20132703

  14. Endocrinopathies: The current and changing perspectives in anesthesia practice

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    The gateways to advancements in medical fields have always been accessed through the coalition between various specialties. It is almost impossible for any specialty to make rapid strides of its own. However, the understanding of deeper perspectives of each specialty or super specialty is essential to take initiatives for the progress of the other specialty. Endocrinology and anesthesiology are two such examples which have made rapid progress in the last three decades. Somehow the interaction and relationship among these medical streams have been only scarcely studied. Diabetes and thyroid pathophysiologies have been the most researched endocrine disorders so far in anesthesia practice but even their management strategies have undergone significant metamorphosis over the last three decades. As such, anesthesia practice has been influenced vastly by these advancements in endocrinology. However, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between these two partially related specialties is considered to be an essential cornerstone for further progress in anesthesia and surgical sciences. The current review is an attempt to imbibe the current and the changing perspectives so as to make the understanding of the relationship between these two medical streams a little simple and clearer. PMID:26180760

  15. Are biosafety practices in anatomical laboratories sufficient? A survey of practices and review of current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ehdaivand, Shahrzad; Chapin, Kimberle C; Andrea, Sarah; Gnepp, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Biosafety practices in anatomical pathology laboratories are crucial to prevent unnecessary exposures to both chemical and biological agents. Regulatory and guidance agencies have general regulations and recommendations regarding anatomical pathology laboratory biosafety practices. This study aimed to determine if professionals' perceptions and actual practice mirror these guidelines. Current available regulations and recommendations for biosafety practices in anatomical pathology laboratories were reviewed and used to construct a brief, validated online survey distributed to anatomical pathology professionals. The survey was completed by 39 survey participants in pathology departments from diverse institutions. An average of 44% of respondents reported receiving inadequate biosafety training. At survey initiation, 61.5% of respondents felt that the risks of chemical and infectious disease exposures had been clearly explained to them; however, by completion of the survey, only 21% believed risks to be clearly explained. Respondents use a variety of personal protective equipment, yet only 60% would have been classified as meeting recommendations. Most respondents reported having a needle stick or cut (56.3%) or formalin exposure by splash or prolonged direct skin contact (62.5%). The survey indicated that there is a dire need for improved training in anatomical pathology biosafety as daily practices do not reflect current guidelines. In addition, improved training on exposure risks, including needle-stick injuries, personal protective equipment, and chemical hazards, is needed. Finally, the success of this training should be monitored locally as regulatory agency requirements do not seem to alter daily practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Current Practice Patterns for Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Tawse, Kirstin L; Jeng-Miller, Karen W; Baumal, Caroline R

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate current practice patterns for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and characterize factors influencing clinical decisions, a database of all ophthalmologists subspecializing in pediatrics and retina was compiled from membership directories of subspecialty societies and academic institutions in the United States. A web-based survey was emailed to these subspecialists to obtain information regarding demographics, treatment practices, and preferences in hypothetical clinical scenarios. From 2,977 retina and pediatric ophthalmology subspecialists surveyed, 302 self-reported as treating ROP, of whom 56% reported having performed intra-vitreal anti-VEGF injection for ROP. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection was the initial treatment for posterior type 1 high risk ROP preferred by the majority of surveyed ROP treaters, whereas 66% reported uncertainty regarding long-term side effects as the largest barrier to its use. Geographic practice location was associated with anti-VEGF use (P = .019). Anti-VEGF injection as ROP therapy was preferred in some scenarios in our sample. Concerns regarding potential anti-VEGF side effects warrant further investigation. Intravitreal anti-VEGF injection was chosen as the initial therapeutic option by the majority of ROP treatment providers for posterior type 1 ROP in this survey that assessed treatment preferences for a range of clinical scenarios. Uncertainty regarding long-term side effects was the largest reported barrier to use of anti-VEGF for ROP treatment. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:491-495.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Spurious claims for health-care products: an experimental approach to evaluating current UK legislation and its implementation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Leslie B; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The lay media, and especially the Internet, contain many misleading claims for health products which have previously been inadequately regulated by consumer law. This was an experimental interventional survey within a consumer health-care setting. Three health products were chosen on the basis of being widely available on the UK market and having no available evidence of effectiveness. Twelve volunteers submitted 39 complaints to Consumer Direct (UK portal for the regulator Trading Standards) regarding false health claims, and 36 complaints were followed up for a maximum of 4.8 months. The mean time from submission of complaints to Consumer Direct to acknowledgement by the relevant Trading Standards office was 13 days. There were no responses from Trading Standards for 22% of complaints. At the end of the study one supplier had amended their website following Trading Standards advice, but did not stop all health claims. Another stopped advertising their product on the Internet and the third continued the health claims unchanged. EU directive 2005/29/EC is largely ineffective in preventing misleading health claims for consumer products in the UK.

  18. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  19. Incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the UK 1990-2010: a descriptive study in the General Practice Research Database.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, I S; Morant, S V; Bloomfield, G A; MacDonald, T M; O'Riordan, J

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) by age and describe secular trends and geographic variations within the UK over the 20-year period between 1990 and 2010 and hence to provide updated information on the impact of MS throughout the UK. A descriptive study. The study was carried out in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), a primary care database representative of the UK population. Incidence and prevalence of MS per 100 000 population. Secular and geographical trends in incidence and prevalence of MS. The prevalence of MS recorded in GPRD increased by about 2.4% per year (95% CI 2.3% to 2.6%) reaching 285.8 per 100 000 in women (95% CI 278.7 to 293.1) and 113.1 per 100 000 in men (95% CI 108.6 to 117.7) by 2010. There was a consistent downward trend in incidence of MS reaching 11.52 per 100 000/year (95% CI 10.96 to 12.11) in women and 4.84 per 100 000/year (95% CI 4.54 to 5.16) in men by 2010. Peak incidence occurred between ages 40 and 50 years and maximum prevalence between ages 55 and 60 years. Women accounted for 72% of prevalent and 71% of incident cases. Scotland had the highest incidence and prevalence rates in the UK. We estimate that 126 669 people were living with MS in the UK in 2010 (203.4 per 100 000 population) and that 6003 new cases were diagnosed that year (9.64 per 100 000/year). There is an increasing population living longer with MS, which has important implications for resource allocation for MS in the UK.

  20. Understanding clinical prediction models as 'innovations': a mixed methods study in UK family practice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Benjamin; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Jaki, Thomas; Su, Ting-Li; Buchan, Iain; Sperrin, Matthew

    2016-08-09

    Well-designed clinical prediction models (CPMs) often out-perform clinicians at estimating probabilities of clinical outcomes, though their adoption by family physicians is variable. How family physicians interact with CPMs is poorly understood, therefore a better understanding and framing within a context-sensitive theoretical framework may improve CPM development and implementation. The aim of this study was to investigate why family physicians do or do not use CPMs, interpreting these findings within a theoretical framework to provide recommendations for the development and implementation of future CPMs. Mixed methods study in North West England that comprised an online survey and focus groups. One hundred thirty eight respondents completed the survey, which found the main perceived advantages to using CPMs were that they guided appropriate treatment (weighted rank [r] = 299; maximum r = 414 throughout), justified treatment decisions (r = 217), and incorporated a large body of evidence (r = 156). The most commonly reported barriers to using CPMs were lack of time (r = 163), irrelevance to some patients (r = 161), and poor integration with electronic health records (r = 147). Eighteen clinicians participated in two focus groups (i.e. nine in each), which revealed 13 interdependent themes affecting CPM use under three overarching domains: clinician factors, CPM factors and contextual factors. Themes were interdependent, indicating the tensions family physicians experience in providing evidence-based care for individual patients. The survey and focus groups showed that CPMs were valued when they supported clinical decision making and were robust. Barriers to their use related to their being time-consuming, difficult to use and not always adding value. Therefore, to be successful, CPMs should offer a relative advantage to current working, be easy to implement, be supported by training, policy and guidelines, and fit within the

  1. Health technology reassessment of non-drug technologies: current practices.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Laura; Noseworthy, Tom W; Zarrabi, Mahmood; Lorenzetti, Diane; Sutherland, Lloyd R; Clement, Fiona M

    2012-07-01

    Obsolescence is a natural phase of the lifecycle of health technologies. Given increasing cost of health expenditures worldwide, health organizations have little choice but to engage in health technology reassessment (HTR); a structured, evidence-based assessment of the medical, social, ethical, and economic effects of a technology, currently used within the healthcare system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. This research was completed to identify and summarize international HTR initiatives for non-drug technologies. A systematic review was performed using the terms disinvestment, obsolescence, obsolete technology, ineffective, reassessment, reinvestment, reallocation, program budgeting, and marginal analysis to search PubMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL until November 2011. Websites of organizations listed as members of INAHTA and HTAi were hand-searched for gray literature. Documents were excluded if they were unavailable in English, if the title/abstract was irrelevant to HTR, and/or if the document made no mention of current practices. All citations were screened in duplicate with disagreements resolved by consensus. Sixty full-text documents were reviewed and forty were included. One model for reassessment was identified; however, it has never been put into practice. Eight countries have some evidence of past or current work related to reassessment; seven have shown evidence of continued work in HTR. There is negligible focus on monitoring and implementation. HTR is in its infancy. Although health technology reassessments are being conducted, there is no standardized approach. Future work should focus on developing and piloting a comprehensive methodology for completing HTR.

  2. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Teaching musculoskeletal examination skills to UK medical students: A comparative survey of Rheumatology and Orthopaedic education practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Specialists in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics are frequently involved in undergraduate teaching of musculoskeletal (MSK) examination skills. Students often report that specialty-led teaching is inconsistent, confusing and bears little resemblance to the curricula. The Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine (GALS) is a MSK screening tool that provides a standardised approach to examination despite it being fraught with disapproval and low uptake. Recent studies would appear to support innovative instructional methods of engaging learners such as patient educators and interactive small group teaching. Methods This comparative cross-sectional survey evaluates the current state of undergraduate teaching in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics, including preferred teaching methods, attitudes towards GALS, and barriers to effective teaching. An electronic questionnaire was sent to specialist trainees and Consultants in the East and West Midlands region, representing 5 UK medical schools. Descriptive statistical data analysis was performed. Results There were 76 respondents representing 5 medical schools. There was a request for newer teaching methodologies to be used: multi-media computer-assisted learning (35.5%), audio-visual aids (31.6%), role-playing (19.7%), and social media (3.9%). It is evident that GALS is under-utilised with 50% of clinicians not using GALS in their teaching. Conclusions There is a genuine desire for clinical educators to improve their teaching ability, collaborate more with curriculum planners, and feel valued by institutions. There remains a call for implementing a standardised approach to MSK clinical teaching to supersede GALS. PMID:24678598

  4. Teaching musculoskeletal examination skills to UK medical students: a comparative survey of Rheumatology and Orthopaedic education practice.

    PubMed

    Blake, Tim

    2014-03-28

    Specialists in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics are frequently involved in undergraduate teaching of musculoskeletal (MSK) examination skills. Students often report that specialty-led teaching is inconsistent, confusing and bears little resemblance to the curricula. The Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine (GALS) is a MSK screening tool that provides a standardised approach to examination despite it being fraught with disapproval and low uptake. Recent studies would appear to support innovative instructional methods of engaging learners such as patient educators and interactive small group teaching. This comparative cross-sectional survey evaluates the current state of undergraduate teaching in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics, including preferred teaching methods, attitudes towards GALS, and barriers to effective teaching. An electronic questionnaire was sent to specialist trainees and Consultants in the East and West Midlands region, representing 5 UK medical schools. Descriptive statistical data analysis was performed. There were 76 respondents representing 5 medical schools. There was a request for newer teaching methodologies to be used: multi-media computer-assisted learning (35.5%), audio-visual aids (31.6%), role-playing (19.7%), and social media (3.9%). It is evident that GALS is under-utilised with 50% of clinicians not using GALS in their teaching. There is a genuine desire for clinical educators to improve their teaching ability, collaborate more with curriculum planners, and feel valued by institutions. There remains a call for implementing a standardised approach to MSK clinical teaching to supersede GALS.

  5. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  6. Current Clinical Practice Scenario of Osteoporosis Management in India

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Shailesh; Upashani, Tejas; Bhadauria, Jitendra; Patel, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Various osteoporosis guidelines are available for practice. Aim To understand the current clinical practice scenario from the perspective of Indian orthopaedicians, especially about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, approach to diagnosis and management and patient compliance patterns to long term treatment. Materials and Methods A pre-validated structured questionnaire containing questions (mostly objective, some open-ended) catering to various objectives of the study was circulated amongst orthopaedic surgeons across India by means of post/courier, after giving a brief overview of the study telephonically. Data was extracted from the completed questionnaires, and analysed using Microsoft Excel software. Results The questionnaire was filled by a total of 84 orthopaedicians throughout India. The prevalence of osteoporosis in India according to the orthopaedic surgeons was 38.4% and there was a female preponderance. Most of the respondents felt out of every 100 osteoporosis patients in India, less than 20 patients are actually diagnosed and treated for osteoporosis. The most common initial presenting feature of established osteoporosis cases was general symptoms. Most respondents preferred Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the initial investigation for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in a patient presenting with typical features. While most respondents preferred once-a-month oral over intravenous (IV) bisphosphonates, they agreed that IV administration had advantages such as lower gastrointestinal side effects and improved compliance. The average duration of therapy of oral bisphosphonates was the longest (27.04 months) among the other anti- osteoporosis therapies that they used. On an average, the patient compliance rate in osteoporosis management was around 64%. IV Zoledronic acid (ZA) and intranasal calcitonin were infrequently used than other anti- osteoporosis therapies. While concerns about cost and availability deterred more frequent

  7. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  8. Analgesics in cancer pain: current practice and beliefs.

    PubMed Central

    White, I. D.; Hoskin, P. J.; Hanks, G. W.; Bliss, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Prescribing practices for patients with cancer pain among populations of doctors in the United Kingdom have been assessed by means of a postal questionnaire. The results indicate that amongst the sample of doctors completing the questionnaire the basic principles of pain control in cancer appear to be understood. Regular oral morphine or diamorphine are most often chosen with the dose being determined mainly by the severity of pain with no arbitrary upper limit. Fears of addiction and respiratory depression, and a relatively long prognosis no longer appear to be major deterrents to the use of strong opioid analgesics. These data indicate considerable shifts in opinion in the doctors responding to the questionnaire and these results and their implications for current and future teaching about the management of cancer pain are discussed. PMID:1997105

  9. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  10. Technological adjuncts to enhance current psychotherapy practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Clough, Bonnie A; Casey, Leanne M

    2011-04-01

    Although there are several of reviews of technology in psychology, none to date has focused on technological adjuncts for improving traditional face to face therapy. However, examination of response, adherence, and dropout rates suggests there is considerable scope for improving traditional face to face services. The purpose of this paper was to examine technological adjuncts used to enhance psychotherapy practice. This review focused only on those technologies designed to supplement or enhance traditional therapy methods. Adjuncts designed to reduce direct therapist contact or change the medium of communication were not included. Adjuncts reviewed were mobile phones, personal digital assistants, biofeedback and virtual reality. Limitations in the current literature and directions for future research were identified and discussed. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the way in which adjunctive technologies may be incorporated into face to face therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The emergence of thanatology and current practice in death education.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; Testoni, Ines

    Thanatology is a recent field that contemplates death studies and employs an interdisciplinary approach to practice. This science emerged in a historical context marked by intense social, economic, and political changes that contributed to the concept of death being excluded from social life. This literature review aims to outline the history and evolution ofthanatology in Western society, delineating the contextual circumstances that led to its origin and drawing special attention to current works on death education. In our post-modern society, the call for studies in the field of thanatology appears to be increasing. However, although there have been significant contributions and promising research is underway, there are still many questions to be answered.

  12. Strength and conditioning in tennis: current research and practice.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar; Schneiker, Knut

    2008-06-01

    Virtually all professional tennis players are in continuous pursuit of enhanced performance. With the modern game becoming increasingly dynamic and tournament schedules no less demanding, the importance of physical fitness is well accepted. Indeed, most professional tennis players resource strength and conditioning specialists on a full- or part-time basis. As tennis play is characterised by intricate bio-energetics, planning specific strength and conditioning interventions represents a significant challenge for the specialist. Further, where game physiology and mechanics have been described extensively, critiques of the efficacy of different training initiatives are far less common. This review therefore considers the current scientific, tennis-specific fitness training evidence base in light of contemporary conditioning, and more particularly resistance training, practices.

  13. The state of ethical-legal oaths in UK medical practice today: Is it time to look at standardising?

    PubMed

    Atenstaedt, R L

    2016-12-01

    The taking of an ethical-legal oath is a "rite of passage" for many medical practitioners. A 1997 paper noted that half of medical schools in the UK administer an oath. I performed a survey of UK medical schools to see whether these are still used today. An electronic survey was sent to 31 UK medical schools, asking them whether the Hippocratic Oath (in any version) was taken by their medical students; non-respondents were followed up by telephone. Information was obtained from 21 UK medical schools, giving a response rate of 68% (21/31). A total of 18 (86%) institutions use an oath. Ethical-legal oaths are therefore taken in the vast majority of UK medical schools today. However, a great variety are used, and there are advantages in standardisation. My recommendation is that the Standard Medical Oath of the UK (SMOUK) is adopted by all medical schools, and that this is also taken regularly by doctors as part of revalidation.

  14. Challenges and Issues in the Evaluation of Teaching Quality: How Does it Affect Teachers' Professional Practice? A UK Perspective.

    PubMed

    Warman, Sheena M

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of higher education is undertaken for the purposes of ensuring accountability, accreditation, and improvement, all of which are highly relevant to veterinary teaching institutions in the current economic climate. If evaluation is to drive change, it needs to be able to influence teaching practice. This article reviews the literature relating to evaluation of teaching quality in higher education with a particular focus on teachers' professional practice. Student evaluation and peer observation of teaching are discussed as examples of widely used evaluation processes. These approaches clearly have the potential to influence teachers' practice. Institutions should strive to ensure the development of a supportive culture that prioritizes teaching quality while being aware of any potential consequences related to cost, faculty time, or negative emotional responses that might result from the use of different evaluation methods.

  15. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    M.A.Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix.

  16. Using stable isotope analysis to examine the effect of economic change on breastfeeding practices in Spitalfields, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Erika K; Humphrey, Louise T; Hedges, Robert E M

    2011-12-01

    Breastfeeding patterns were subject to a number of fads in 18th and 19th century Britain. Feeding infants by hand, rather than maternal breastfeeding or wet-nursing, became more prevalent among both the wealthy and poor. Substitute foods may have been a convenient alternative for mothers employed away from the household. This study used stable isotope ratio analysis to examine the weaning schedule in the 18th and 19th century skeletal assemblage from Spitalfields, London, UK. Analysis of 72 juvenile ribs revealed δ(15) N elevations of 2-3‰ above the adult mean for individuals up to the age of two, while elevations of 1-2‰ were observed in δ(13) C for the first year of life. This suggests that the introduction of solid foods took place before the end of the first year, and that breastfeeding had entirely ceased by 2 years of age. The age at death of many of these infants is known from historical records, and can be used to pinpoint the amount of time required for the breast milk signal to be observed in the stable isotope ratios of rib collagen. Results show that a δ(15) N elevation can be detected in the ribs of individuals who died as young as 5-6 weeks. Not all individuals at Spitalfields were breastfed, and there may not have been a single uniformly practiced weaning scheme. There is, however, more evidence for prolonged breastfeeding during the 19th century than the 18th century. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. GPs' views on the practice of physician-assisted suicide and their role in proposed UK legalisation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tariq; White, Patrick

    2009-11-01

    A bill to legalise assisted dying in the UK has been proposed in Parliament's House of Lords three times since 2003. The House of Lords Select Committee concluded in 2005 that 'the few attempts to understand the basis of doctors' views have shown equivocal data varying over time'. Fresh research was recommended to gain a fuller understanding of health sector views. To examine GPs' views of the practice of physician-assisted suicide as defined by the 2005/2006 House of Lords (Joffe) Bill and views of their role in the proposed legislation; and to explore the influences determining GPs' views on physician-assisted suicide. Qualitative interview study. Primary care in South London, England. Semi-structured interviews with GPs were conducted by a lead interviewer and analysed in a search for themes, using the framework approach. Thirteen GPs were interviewed. GPs who had not personally witnessed terminal suffering that could justify assisted dying were against the legislation. Some GPs felt their personal religious views, which regarded assisted dying as morally wrong, could not be the basis of a generalisable medical ethic for others. GPs who had witnessed a person's suffering that, in their opinion, justified physician-assisted suicide were in favour of legislative change. Some GPs felt a specialist referral pathway to provide assisted dying would help to ensure proper standards were met. GPs' views on physician-assisted suicide ranged from support to opposition, depending principally on their interpretation of their experience of patients' suffering at the end of life. The goal to lessen suffering of the terminally ill, and apprehensions about patients being harmed, were common to both groups. Respect for autonomy and the right of self-determination versus the need to protect vulnerable people from the potential for harm from social coercion were the dominant themes.

  18. GPs' views on the practice of physician-assisted suicide and their role in proposed UK legalisation: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tariq; White, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background A bill to legalise assisted dying in the UK has been proposed in Parliament's House of Lords three times since 2003. The House of Lords Select Committee concluded in 2005 that ‘the few attempts to understand the basis of doctors' views have shown equivocal data varying over time’. Fresh research was recommended to gain a fuller understanding of health sector views. Aim To examine GPs' views of the practice of physician-assisted suicide as defined by the 2005/2006 House of Lords (Joffe) Bill and views of their role in the proposed legislation; and to explore the influences determining GPs' views on physician-assisted suicide. Design of study Qualitative interview study. Setting Primary care in South London, England. Method Semi-structured interviews with GPs were conducted by a lead interviewer and analysed in a search for themes, using the framework approach. Results Thirteen GPs were interviewed. GPs who had not personally witnessed terminal suffering that could justify assisted dying were against the legislation. Some GPs felt their personal religious views, which regarded assisted dying as morally wrong, could not be the basis of a generalisable medical ethic for others. GPs who had witnessed a person's suffering that, in their opinion, justified physician-assisted suicide were in favour of legislative change. Some GPs felt a specialist referral pathway to provide assisted dying would help to ensure proper standards were met. Conclusion GPs' views on physician-assisted suicide ranged from support to opposition, depending principally on their interpretation of their experience of patients' suffering at the end of life. The goal to lessen suffering of the terminally ill, and apprehensions about patients being harmed, were common to both groups. Respect for autonomy and the right of self-determination versus the need to protect vulnerable people from the potential for harm from social coercion were the dominant themes. PMID:19861029

  19. Two year clinical evaluation of a low-shrink resin composite material in UK general dental practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell J; James, A; Mackenzie, L; Pal, A; Sands, P; Thompson, O; Palin, W M

    2011-07-01

    A novel resin composite system, Filtek Silorane (3M ESPE) with reduced polymerization shrinkage has recently been introduced. The resin contains an oxygen-containing ring molecule ('oxirane') and cures via a cationic ring-opening reaction rather than a linear chain reaction associated with conventional methacrylates and results in a volumetric shrinkage of ∼1%. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on a recently introduced resin composite material, Filtek Silorane, and evaluate the clinical outcome of restorations formed in this material. Filtek Silorane restorations were placed where indicated in loadbearing situations in the posterior teeth of patients attending five UK dental practices. These were evaluated, after two years, using modified USPHS criteria. A total of 100 restorations, of mean age 25.7 months, in 64 patients, were examined, comprised of 30 Class I and 70 Class II. All restorations were found to be present and intact, there was no secondary caries. Ninety-seven per cent of the restorations were rated optimal for anatomic form, 84% were rated optimal for marginal integrity, 77% were rated optimal for marginal discoloration, 99% were rated optimal for color match, and 93%% of the restorations were rated optimal for surface quality. No restoration was awarded a "fail" grade. No staining of the restoration surfaces was recorded and no patients complained of post-operative sensitivity. It is concluded that, within the limitations of the study, the two year assessment of 100 restorations placed in Filtek Silorane has indicated satisfactory clinical performance. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Understanding flucloxacillin prescribing trends and treatment non-response in UK primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Nick A.; Hood, Kerenza; Lyons, Ronan; Butler, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The volume of prescribed antibiotics is associated with antimicrobial resistance and, unlike most other antibiotic classes, flucloxacillin prescribing has increased. We aimed to describe UK primary care flucloxacillin prescribing and factors associated with subsequent antibiotic prescribing as a proxy for non-response. Patients and methods Clinical Practice Research Datalink patients with acute prescriptions for oral flucloxacillin between January 2004 and December 2013, prescription details, associated Read codes and patient demographics were identified. Monthly prescribing rates were plotted and logistic regression identified factors associated with having a subsequent antibiotic prescription within 28 days. Results 3 031 179 acute prescriptions for 1 667 431 patients were included. Average monthly prescription rates increased from 4.74 prescriptions per 1000 patient-months in 2004 to 5.74 (increase of 21.1%) in 2013. The highest prescribing rates and the largest increases in rates were seen in older adults (70+ years), but the overall increase in prescribing was not accounted for by an ageing population. Prescribing 500 mg tablets/capsules rather than 250 mg became more common. Children were frequently prescribed low doses and small volumes (5 day course) and prescribing declined for children, including for impetigo. Only 4.2% of new prescriptions involved co-prescription of another antibiotic. Age (<5 and ≥60 years), diagnosis of ‘cellulitis or abscess’ or no associated code, and 500 mg dose were associated with a subsequent antibiotic prescription, which occurred after 17.6% of first prescriptions. Conclusions There is a need to understand better the reasons for increased prescribing of flucloxacillin in primary care, optimal dosing (and the need to co-prescribe other antibiotics) and the reasons why one in five patients are prescribed a further antibiotic within 4 weeks. PMID:27090629

  1. Surfactant therapy: the current practice and the future trends

    PubMed Central

    Altirkawi, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of surfactant preparations used in the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a well known fact; however, many controversies remain. The debate over which surfactant to be used, when and what is the best mode of delivery is still raging. Currently, animal-derived surfactants are preferred and clearly recommended by various practice guidelines, but new synthetic surfactants containing peptides that mimic the action of surfactant proteins are emerging and they seem to have a comparable efficacy profile to the natural surfactants. It is hoped that with further improvements, they will outperform their natural counterparts in terms of reliability and cost-effectiveness. Early surfactant administration was shown to further reduce the risk of RDS and its complications. However, as nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is becoming increasingly the preferred first-line therapy for RDS, the less invasive approaches of respiratory support along with early selective surfactant administration (e.g. INSURE) appears to provide a better option. Although neonatal RDS is still the main indication of surfactant therapy, other pathological processes received considerable attention and major research has been dedicated to explore the role of surfactant in their management, Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and congenital pneumonia are two worthy examples. The most updated practice guidelines do recommend the use of endotracheal instillation as the preferred mode of surfactant delivery. However, aerosolization and other non-invasive methods are being investigated with some success; nonetheless, further improvements are very much in need. PMID:27493353

  2. Hip arthroscopy: evolution, current practice and future developments.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Emmet J; Khanduja, Vikas

    2012-06-01

    Arthroscopic examination and treatment is an ever-increasing part of modern orthopaedic practice in this age of minimally invasive surgery. Arthroscopic procedures have been widespread in surgery of the knee and the shoulder for many years; however, the hip until relatively recently, has been largely neglected. Even now hip arthroscopy is not widely available; this may be due to the complexity of the procedure, the requirement of specialist equipment and a reportedly long learning curve. On the other hand, it has gone through a period of rapid growth over the last decade and is being performed in large numbers routinely in some centres around the world. Hip arthroscopy now provides excellent visualisation of not only the articular surfaces of the hip joint but also of the peritrochanteric or extra-articular space around the hip. Pathology of both the femoral head and the acetabulum along with the soft tissues of the hip, namely the ligamentum teres, the acetabular labrum, the synovial folds and synovium, is readily diagnosed. Modern techniques provide therapeutic options for a myriad of conditions and allow modulation of pathological processes early. Additionally hip arthroscopy is a relatively safe procedure with few complications and contraindications. However, the key to good outcomes is in the careful selection of patients and meticulous surgical technique. The aim of this review is to bring the reader up to date with an overview of the evolution of arthroscopy of the hip, review the current practice and explore possible future developments.

  3. Cost analysis of laparoscopic gastric bypass practice using current Medicare reimbursement and practice costs.

    PubMed

    Madan, Atul K; Powelson, Jill E; Tichansky, David S

    2008-01-01

    We performed a formal cost analysis of a hypothetical bariatric practice consisting of a surgeon, dietitian, clinical coordinator/office manager, receptionist, and certified medical assistant to determine whether a bariatric practice would have a difficult time surviving financially with the current Medicare reimbursement. The number of possible cases was calculated for the 2005 calendar year. Most of the costs and assumptions were taken from an actual bariatric practice. The malpractice insurance premium (but not physician salary and benefits) was calculated into the practice cost. With a total of 231 days available for clinical work in 2005, 300 scheduled laparoscopic gastric bypasses could have been performed to allow for appropriate clinic time for new patient visits, postoperative visits, and annual visits. The total reimbursement from Medicare would have been $516,158, with most of the reimbursement coming from procedure fees ($407,063). The total practice cost would have been $444,592. Most of the costs were clinic staff salary and benefits ($207,065) and the malpractice premium ($55,150). The net difference of $71,566 was left to pay the salary and benefits of the bariatric surgeon. The low reimbursement of Medicare for laparoscopic gastric bypass threatens the financial viability of a bariatric surgery practice. With the increasing cost of malpractice and the threatened decrease in Medicare physician reimbursement, Medicare recipients could see a decrease in the number of bariatric surgeons offering them service.

  4. Child obesity prevention in primary health care: investigating practice nurse roles, attitudes and current practices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Alison; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Harris, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity affects approximately 20% of Australian pre-schoolers. The general practice nurse (PN) workforce has increased in recent years; however, little is known of PN capacity and potential to provide routine advice for the prevention of child obesity. This mixed methods pilot study aims to explore the current practices, attitudes, confidence and training needs of Australian PNs surrounding child obesity prevention in the general practice setting. PNs from three Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales were invited to complete a questionnaire investigating PN roles, attitudes and practices in preventive care with a focus on child obesity. A total of 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate 22%). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of PNs (n = 10). Questionnaire respondent demographics were similar to that of national PN data. PNs described preventive work as enjoyable despite some perceived barriers including lack of confidence. Number of years working in general practice did not appear to strongly influence nurses' perceived barriers. Seventy per cent of PNs were interested in being more involved in conducting child health checks in practice, and 85% expressed an interest in taking part in child obesity prevention training. Findings from this pilot study suggest that PNs are interested in prevention of child obesity despite barriers to practice and low confidence levels. More research is needed to determine the effect of training on PN confidence and behaviours in providing routine healthy life-style messages for the prevention of child obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. A survey of current practice with regard to oral care for children being treated for cancer.

    PubMed

    Glenny, A M; Gibson, F; Auld, E; Coulson, S; Clarkson, J E; Craig, J V; Eden, O B; Worthington, H V; Pizer, B

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the study was to establish current UK oral care practice for children with cancer. A telephone survey of all 22 United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) centres was undertaken. Nineteen (86%) of the centres reported using guidelines/protocols for mouth care. The use of routine preventive oral care therapies showed the greatest variation between centres. Four centres (18%) did not use any prophylactic oral care therapy other than basic oral hygiene, whereas seven (32%) routinely used a combination of three or more agents. Chlorhexidine was the most frequently administered prophylactic therapy (17/22 centres, 77%), followed by nystatin (11/22 centres, 50%). There was little variation in advice given to parents/patients on basic oral hygiene. Regarding dental check-ups, 9/22 centres (41%) recommended children to attend a hospital-linked dental clinic. Only at 8/22 centres (36%) did children undergo a dental check-up before commencing cancer treatment. The survey identified significant variation in preventive oral care therapies and dental check-ups at the UKCCSG centres. Attention needs to be given to establishing evidence based, effective strategies.

  6. Tonsillectomy among children with low baseline acute throat infection consultation rates in UK general practices: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Elizabeth; Watt, Hilary; Curcin, Vasa; Bottle, Alex; Sharland, Mike; Saxena, Sonia

    2015-02-03

    To investigate the effectiveness of tonsillectomy in reducing acute throat infection (ATI) consultation rates over 6 years' follow-up among children with low baseline ATI consultation rates. Retrospective cohort study. UK general practices from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Children aged 4-15 years with ≤3 ATI consultations during the 3 years prior to 2001 (baseline). 450 children who underwent tonsillectomy (tonsillectomy group) and 13 442 other children with an ATI consultation (comparison group) in 2001. Mean differences in ATI consultation rates over the first 3 years' and subsequent 3 years' follow-up compared with 3 years prior to 2001 (baseline); odds of ≥3 ATI consultations at the same time points. Among children in the tonsillectomy group, the 3-year mean ATI consultation rate decreased from 1.31 to 0.66 over the first 3 years' follow-up and further declined to 0.60 over the subsequent 3 years' follow-up period. Compared with children who had no operation, those who underwent tonsillectomy experienced a reduction in 3-year mean ATI consultations per child of 2.5 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.6, p<0.001) over the first 3 years' follow-up, but only 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4, p<0.001) over the subsequent 3 years' follow-up compared with baseline, respectively. This equates to a mean reduction of 3.7 ATI consultations over a 6-year period and approximates to a mean annual reduction of 0.6 ATI consultations per child, per year, over 6 years' follow-up. Children who underwent tonsillectomy were also much less likely to experience ≥3 ATI consultations during the first 3 years' follow-up (adjusted OR=0.12, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.17) and the subsequent 3 years' follow-up (adjusted OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.41). Among children with low baseline ATI rates, there was a statistically significant reduction in ATI consultation rates over 6 years' follow-up. However, the relatively modest clinical benefit needs to be weighed against the potential

  7. UK doctors’ views on the implementation of the European Working Time Directive as applied to medical practice: a quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maisonneuve, Jenny J; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To report on doctors’ views, from all specialty backgrounds, about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and its impact on the National Health Service (NHS), senior doctors and junior doctors. Design All medical school graduates from 1999 to 2000 were surveyed by post and email in 2012. Setting The UK. Methods Among other questions, in a multipurpose survey on medical careers and career intentions, doctors were asked to respond to three statements about the EWTD on a five-point scale (from strongly agree to strongly disagree): ‘The implementation of the EWTD has benefited the NHS’, ‘The implementation of the EWTD has benefited senior doctors’ and ‘The implementation of the EWTD has benefited junior doctors’. Results The response rate was 54.4% overall (4486/8252), 55.8% (2256/4042) of the 1999 cohort and 53% (2230/4210) of the 2000 cohort. 54.1% (2427) of all respondents were women. Only 12% (498/4136 doctors) agreed that the EWTD has benefited the NHS, 9% (377) that it has benefited senior doctors and 31% (1289) that it has benefited junior doctors. Doctors’ views on EWTD differed significantly by specialty groups: ‘craft’ specialties such as surgery, requiring extensive experience in performing operations, were particularly critical. Conclusions These cohorts have experience of working in the NHS before and after the implementation of EWTD. Their lack of support for the EWTD 4 years after its implementation should be a concern. However, it is unclear whether problems rest with the current ceiling on hours worked or with the ways in which EWTD has been implemented. PMID:24503305

  8. The role of informal dimensions of safety in high-volume organisational routines: an ethnographic study of test results handling in UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Suzanne; Checkland, Katherine; Bowie, Paul; Guthrie, Bruce

    2017-04-27

    The handling of laboratory, imaging and other test results in UK general practice is a high-volume organisational routine that is both complex and high risk. Previous research in this area has focused on errors and harm, but a complementary approach is to better understand how safety is achieved in everyday practice. This paper ethnographically examines the role of informal dimensions of test results handling routines in the achievement of safety in UK general practice and how these findings can best be developed for wider application by policymakers and practitioners. Non-participant observation was conducted of high-volume organisational routines across eight UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics. Sixty-two semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the key practice staff alongside the analysis of relevant documents. While formal results handling routines were described similarly across the eight study practices, the everyday structure of how the routine should be enacted in practice was informally understood. Results handling safety took a range of local forms depending on how different aspects of safety were prioritised, with practices varying in terms of how they balanced thoroughness (i.e. ensuring the high-quality management of results by the most appropriate clinician) and efficiency (i.e. timely management of results) depending on a range of factors (e.g. practice history, team composition). Each approach adopted created its own potential risks, with demands for thoroughness reducing productivity and demands for efficiency reducing handling quality. Irrespective of the practice-level approach adopted, staff also regularly varied what they did for individual patients depending on the specific context (e.g. type of result, patient circumstances). General practices variably prioritised a legitimate range of results handling safety processes and outcomes, each with differing strengths and trade-offs. Future safety

  9. IS INCREASED HCV CASE-FINDING COMBINED WITH CURRENT OR 8–12 WEEK DAA THERAPY COST-EFFECTIVE IN UK PRISONS? A PREVENTION BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Natasha K; Vickerman, Peter; Brew, Iain F; Williamson, Joan; Miners, Alec; Irving, William L; Saksena, Sushma; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Mandal, Sema; O’Moore, Eamonn; Hickman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Prisoners have a high prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), but case-finding may not have been cost-effective because treatment often exceeded average prison stay combined with a lack of continuity-of-care. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased HCV case-finding and treatment in UK prisons using short-course therapies. Methods A dynamic HCV transmission model assesses the cost-effectiveness of doubling HCV case-finding (achieved through introducing opt-out HCV testing in UK pilot prisons) and increasing treatment in UK prisons, compared to status-quo voluntary risk-based testing (6% prison entrants/year), using currently recommended therapies (8–24 weeks) or IFN-free DAAs (8–12 weeks, 95% SVR, £3300/wk). Costs (GBP£) and health utilities (quality-adjusted life-years, QALYs) were used to calculate mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We assume 56% referral and 2.5%/25% of referred people who inject drugs (PWID)/exPWID treated within 2 months of diagnosis in prison. PWID and ex/nonPWID are in prison an average 4/8 months, respectively. Results Doubling prison testing rates with existing treatments produces a mean ICER of £19,850/QALY gained compared to current testing/treatment, and is 45% likely to be cost-effective under a £20,000 willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold. Switching to 8–12 week IFN-free DAAs in prisons could increase cost-effectiveness (ICER £15,090/QALY gained). Excluding prevention benefit decreases cost-effectiveness. If >10% referred PWID are treated in prison (2.5% base-case), either treatment could be highly cost-effective (ICER<£13,000). HCV case-finding and IFN-free DAAs could be highly cost-effective if DAA cost is 10% lower or 8 weeks duration. Conclusions Increased HCV testing in UK prisons (such as through opt-out testing) is borderline cost-effective compared to status-quo voluntary risk-based testing under a £20,000 WTP with current treatments, but likely to be cost-effective if short

  10. Pharmacovigilance in oncology: evaluation of current practice and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Paolo; De Paoli, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV), or drug safety monitoring, aims to improve patient safety through the detection and management of drug-related adverse reactions. It is implemented both by spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and by careful detection of signals suggestive of drug toxicity. PV is an important clinical topic in clinical practice and pharmacotherapy, assuring the maintenance of a safe risk/benefit ratio throughout the commercial life cycle of a drug. We conducted a structured literature search on PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library. We also performed manual searches in international databases of ADR individual reports to outline a structured profile on the topic. Our goal was to review key elements that affect safety monitoring of cancer drugs and their appropriate use, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of PV in oncology. This paper provides an understanding of the methodologies used by PV in current clinical practice and particularly in cancer drug therapy; a focus upon reporting of ADRs by health professionals and patients; and a focus upon methods used by PV to detect new signals of risk/harm related to medicines utilization. To our knowledge, few articles focus upon the importance of PV and post-marketing surveillance of cancer drug therapies. Structured management of spontaneous reports of ADRs and data collection is essential to monitoring the safe use of drugs in this field in which pharmacotherapy is affected by high incidence of drug-related complications and by a narrow benefit/risk ratio. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Survey on current practices for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Dünser, Martin W; Duranteau, Jacques; Horn, Janneke; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    To investigate current practices and timing of neurological prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the 8000 members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine during September and October 2012. The survey had 27 questions divided into three categories: background data, clinical data, decision-making and consequences. A total of 1025 respondents (13%) answered the survey with complete forms in more than 90%. Twenty per cent of respondents practiced outside of Europe. Overall, 22% answered that they had national recommendations, with the highest percentage in the Netherlands (>80%). Eighty-nine per cent used induced hypothermia (32-34 °C) for comatose cardiac arrest patients, while 11% did not. Tw