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Sample records for cutaneous side effects

  1. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  2. Drug cutaneous side effect: focus on skin ulceration.

    PubMed

    D'Epiro, S; Salvi, M; Luzi, A; Mattozzi, C; Luci, C; Macaluso, L; Marzocca, F; Salvo, V; Cantisani, C; Paolino, G; Calvieri, S; Richetta, A G

    2014-01-01

    Skin ulcers are defined as tissue loss interesting the deeper layers of the dermis and hypodermis, with low tendency to spontaneous healing. They cause disability related to pain, risk of infection and amputation, chronic management, requiring working absence with notably economic burden. The major cause is often related to underlying vascular disease, infections, tumors, autoimmunity, trauma, even if literature occasionally reported several cases of drug inducing skin ulceration. Most of drugs involved are chemotherapy agents and more recently molecular target therapies. Evidences supporting these drugs as the major cause of skin ulcers include delay of onset after therapy initiation, improvement after withdrawal of the drug, recurrence after its reintroduction and, sometimes, simultaneous occurrence of other skin lesions that have previously been reported to be associated with these agents. Attention should be reserved to patients undergoing antineoplastic agents, especially if previously affected by predisposing comorbidities, considering such side effect as possible differential diagnosis for skin ulceration in neoplastic patients. PMID:25203350

  3. Cutaneous Side Effects of BRAF Inhibitors in Advanced Melanoma: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has recently been increasing. BRAF mutations have been found in 40–60% of melanomas. The increased activity of BRAF V600E leads to the activation of downstream signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which plays a key role as a regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The use of BRAF inhibitors in metastatic melanoma with BRAF mutation ensures clinical improvement of the disease. Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are two selective BRAF inhibitors approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both drugs are well tolerated and successfully used in clinical practice. However, some adverse reactions have been reported in patients in the course of treatment. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse events among them with a broad spectrum. Both the case reports and several original clinical trials reported cutaneous reactions during the treatment with BRAF inhibitors. In this review, the common cutaneous side effects of BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation were reviewed. PMID:27042173

  4. Use of the vapor permeable membrane for cutaneous ulcers: details of application and side effects.

    PubMed

    Alper, J C; Welch, E A; Maguire, P

    1984-11-01

    Vapor permeable membranes (VPM) are commonly being used to treat cutaneous wounds where partial or full thickness skin is lost. Five years of experience with one particular VPM has taught a great deal concerning its proper use. Correct preparation of the treatment site to allow adhesion followed by application of the VPM with the right amount of tension and border are of paramount importance or aggravation rather than improvement of the cutaneous defect may occur. Initially, the membrane should be changed frequently, once or twice a day in heavily contaminated or necrotic wounds. Side effects are usually related to improper application, with resultant leaking of fluid and irritation of normal skin. Recent success has been achieved by weekly application of VPM in the office, removal at home after several days, and subsequent use of 10% benzoyl peroxide lotion until the next office visit. Extreme caution must be exercised if VPM is used to treat patients who are severely leukopenic or malnourished.

  5. Algorithm for dermocosmetic use in the management of cutaneous side-effects associated with targeted therapy in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Dreno, B; Bensadoun, RJ; Humbert, P; Krutmann, J; Luger, T; Triller, R; Rougier, A; Seité, S

    2013-01-01

    Currently, numerous patients who receive targeted chemotherapy for cancer suffer from disabling skin reactions due to cutaneous toxicity, which is a significant problem for an increasing number of patients and their treating physicians. In addition, using inappropriate personal hygiene products often worsens these otherwise manageable side-effects. Cosmetic products for personal hygiene and lesion camouflage are part of a patients’ well-being and an increasing number of physicians feel that they do not have adequate information to provide effective advice on concomitant cosmetic therapy. Although ample information is available in the literature on pharmaceutical treatment for cutaneous side-effects of chemotherapy, little is available for the concomitant use of dermatological skin-care products with medical treatments. The objective of this consensus study is to provide an algorithm for the appropriate use of dermatological cosmetics in the management of cutaneous toxicities associated with targeted chemotherapy such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and other monoclonal antibodies. These guidelines were developed by a French and German expert group of dermatologists and an oncologist for oncologists and primary care physicians who manage oncology patients. The information in this report is based on published data and the expert group’s opinion. Due to the current lack of clinical evidence, only a review of published recommendations including suggestions for concomitant cosmetic use was conducted. PMID:23368717

  6. [Results of a French nationwide survey of cutaneous side effects of ketoprofen gel reported between September 1996 and August 2000].

    PubMed

    Veyrac, G; Paulin, M; Milpied, B; Bourin, M; Jolliet, P

    2002-01-01

    A French nation-wide pharmacovigilance survey of ketoprofen topic collated, from September 1996 to August 2000, 770 cutaneous side-effects. The frequency varies from 0.013@1000 to 0.028@1000 according to the commercial gel. Analysis concerns spontaneous notifications of French nation-wide pharmacovigilance. Sex ratio is well distributed, population is young. Treatment lasted about 12 days, the side-effects appearing after about 13 days, 25 per cent of cases are delayed to discontinuance of treatment, mainly after exposure to sunlight. Co-administered drugs are in most cases systemic or topical NSAIDs and/or fibrates and then increase the seriousness of the iatrogenic pathology. 75 per cent of cutaneous side-effects appear in summer, 50 per cent have been reported as "photosensitivity". Reactions are severe in 30 per cent of the cases. More than 80 per cent of cases present an extension beyond the site of application. The course is usually favourable and neither topical nor systemic corticosteroid treatment influence the duration of evolution. Photopatchtests testing in 23 per cent of cases show evidence of photoallergy to ketoprofen and crossed photoallergy with tiaprofenic acid, fenofibrate, oxybenzone and benzophenone. These results confirm that photoallergy is due to the common benzoylketone structure but not to their arylpropionic function. Some cases of persistent or recurrent photosensitivity must be more explored. The results lead to request a modification of marketing authorizations.

  7. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    PubMed

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  8. Cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis after H1N1 vaccination: a case report and review of the cutaneous side effects of influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, C; Livideanu, C Bulai; Maza, A; Lamant, L; Paul, C

    2011-01-01

    Cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis (CHP) is a rare disease mostly caused by viral infections and/or lymphoproliferative diseases. We describe a case of CHP associated with H1N1 vaccine during the winter 2009-2010 vaccination campaign and discuss the cutaneous side effects of influenza vaccines. A 6-year-old child presented with inflammatory subcutaneous nodules, which had appeared 1 month after the first injection of H1N1 vaccine and 1 week after the second injection. There was no history of recent infection. The skin lesions spontaneously disappeared without scarring. In CHP the abnormal cytokine secretion from neoplastic or reactive T cells promotes monocyte-macrophage activation and haemophagocytosis. Vaccination is not a common cause of CHP, but it seems possible that, as in infectious diseases, reactive T cells to the vaccine antigen could trigger CHP.

  9. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication.

  10. A project by the SIDeMaST Immunopathology Group on cutaneous vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Papini, M; Quaglino, P; La Placa, M; Marzano, A V

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitides are a challenge to the clinician, in terms of both diagnosis and therapy. Multiple classification systems have been implemented and the numerous classification schemes reflect the complexity of establishing a simple classification that could be functional for daily care. Although vasculitis classification has become increasingly elaborated, some areas remain ill defined. Some forms of vasculitis are still difficult to assign to a specific disease entity. Generally accepted operational criteria are available for many vasculitides, but for some entities there are no effective criteria. Moreover, diagnostic criteria for vasculitis with sufficient strength and/or confidence that can be universally accepted are not yet available. The need for diagnostic criteria validated and agreed upon is particularly relevant in the context of cutaneous vasculitis. The project of the SIDeMaST Italian Group of Immunopathology on cutaneous vasculitis is a national prospective observational study designed to develop and validate diagnostic criteria and to improve and validate classification criteria for cutaneous small vessel vasculitis also known as leukocytoclastic vasculitis (CLV). Primary objective of the study will also be that of developing the CUtaneous VAsculitis Severity Index (CUVASI). Secondary objectives of the project will be: 1) definition of the etiological agents that are most frequently associated with CLV; 2) search for possible correlations between causative agent and peculiar clinical and/or histopathological aspects; 3) evaluation of immunofluorescence pattern observed in this specific group of primitive cutaneous vasculitis in order to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this technique; 4) identification of a set of clinical investigations and laboratory tests to be performed for a correct CLV assessment. Actually 15 Italian dermatological clinics are contributing to the project and anticipated recruiting >100 patients with CLV

  11. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  12. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  13. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions to the different drugs. The doctors, nurses, and pharmacists will describe what to look out for in ... will be monitored very closely by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists to make sure that all side effects are ...

  14. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  15. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  16. Psychopharmaceuticals: effects and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Nathan S.

    1959-01-01

    Drugs which affect psychological behaviour are being used in vast amounts nowadays, with, in all too many cases, but scant regard for their exact uses or possible side effects. This article contains a clinical classification of these drugs, followed by an account of their principal side effects and the means of obviating them. PMID:14409889

  17. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    PubMed Central

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects. PMID:25396122

  18. Expertise effects in cutaneous wind perception.

    PubMed

    Pluijms, Joost P; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Mulder, Fabian A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether expertise effects are present in cutaneous wind perception. To this end, we presented wind stimuli consisting of different wind directions and speeds in a wind simulator. The wind simulator generated wind stimuli from 16 directions and with three speeds by means of eight automotive wind fans. Participants were asked to judge cutaneously perceived wind directions and speeds without having access to any visual or auditory information. Expert sailors (n = 6), trained to make the most effective use of wind characteristics, were compared to less-skilled sailors (n = 6) and to a group of nonsailors (n = 6). The results indicated that expert sailors outperformed nonsailors in perceiving wind direction (i.e., smaller mean signed errors) when presented with low wind speeds. This suggests that expert sailors are more sensitive in picking up differences in wind direction, particularly when confronted with low wind speeds that demand higher sensitivity.

  19. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  20. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  1. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  2. Effect of Propolis on Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates clinically the effect of propolis paste on healing of cutaneous wound in dogs. Under general anesthesia and complete aseptic conditions, two full thickness skin wounds (3 cm diameter) were created in each side of the chest in five dogs, one dorsal and one ventral, with 10 cm between them. These wounds were randomly allocated into two groups, control group (10 wounds) and propolis group (10 wounds). Both groups were represented in each dog. The wounds were cleaned with normal saline solution and dressed with macrogol ointment in control group and propolis paste in propolis group, twice daily till complete wound healing. Measurement of the wound area (cm2) was monitored planimetrically at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after injury. The data were analyzed statistically. The results revealed a significant reduction in the wound surface area in the propolis group after 14 and 21 days compared to control group. The wound reepithelization, contraction, and total wound healing were faster in propolis group than in control group during five weeks of study. In conclusion, propolis paste has a positive impact on cutaneous wound healing and it may be suggested for treating various types of wounds in animals. PMID:26783495

  3. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  4. Xanthelasma palpebrarum: a new side effect of nilotinib.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Irmak; Ayli, Meltem; Oğuz, Ali Kemal; Seval, Güldane Cengiz

    2016-01-12

    Chronic myeloid leucaemia (CML) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterised by a reciprocal translocation between the chromosomes 9 and 22 resulting in constitutionally active tyrosine kinase signalling. BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly effective molecules in the treatment of CML. Unfortunately, these novel therapeutic agents are accompanied by various side effects, and haematological, cutaneous and metabolic abnormalities are among the most prevalent. Nilotinib, a second-generation TKI, has been shown to cause both--cutaneous lesions and lipid profile abnormalities. We present two CML cases developing xanthelasma palpebrarum while receiving nilotinib. Case 1 also acquired a lipid abnormality following the start of nilotinib therapy, while case 2 meanwhile stayed normolipidemic. In addition to a low cholesterol diet, atorvastatin was prescribed to case 1. Currently, both cases are normolipidemic and continuing their nilotinib therapy. Xanthelasma palpebrarum secondary to nilotinib therapy is new to the literature.

  5. Study on epidemiology of cutaneous amyloidosis in northern India and effectiveness of dimethylsulphoxide in cutaneous amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Arvind; Nath, Bhola; Dhir, G. G.; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Budhiraja, Virendra; Singh, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Context: Amyloidosis, which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of a proteinaceous substance, is usually associated with considerable tissue dysfunction. However, the etiology of the disease remains uncertain and the treatment disappointing. Aim: 1. To know the epidemiology of cutaneous amyloidosis 2. To evaluate the effect of dimethylsulphoxide on cutaneous amyloidosis. Settings and Design: Data was collected from patients attending the Outpatient Department (OPD) over a period of one year. Material and Methods: Patients were screened on the basis of signs and symptoms and then confirmed histologically. A total of 62 patients who were suspected to be suffering from amyloidosis on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and 38 patients who were further confirmed histopathologically underwent the treatment. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used for testing the significance of proportions. Results: 63.15 percent of the patients had macular amyloidosis and the interscapular area was the most common area involved (52.63%). Pruritus, pigmentation, and papules responded excellently to dimethylsulphoxide after one month of treatment. Conclusions: Cutaneous amyloidosis is a disease found in middle-aged persons, with a female preponderance, and dimethylsulphoxide seems to be an effective therapy. PMID:23189250

  6. Effect of adrenergic stimulation on cutaneous microcirculation immediately after surgical adventitiectomy in a rat skin flap model.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Jean-Pierre H; Joris, Jean L; Nelissen, Xavier P; Lamy, Maurice L; Heymans, Olivier Y

    2008-01-01

    Chronic sympathetic denervation leads to the development of supersentivity to adrenergic agents. Free flap surgery results in the disruption of the autonomic nerve fibers running along the anastomosed vessels. We therefore investigated the early effect of surgical sympathectomy on the reactivity of cutaneous microcirculation challenged to adrenergic agents. Two epigastric flaps were elevated and exposed in 15 rats. On the right flap (Side A), a circular adventitiectomy of the feeder vessels was realized to provide surgical sympathectomy. On the left flap (Side N), vessels were kept intact. The following drugs were then given intravenously successively: phenylephrine (10 and 15 microg kg(-1)), norepinephrine (10 microg kg(-1)), prazocin (1 mg kg(-1)) followed by norepinephrine (10 microg kg(-1)). Cutaneous microcirculation was assessed using Laser-Doppler Flowmeters simultaneously on the two flaps after each drug administration. Mean arterial pressure was also measured. On side N, phenylephrine and norepinephrine resulted in a transient increase in cutaneous microcirculation followed by a more prolonged reduction. On side A, only the initial increase was observed, which was greater and longer as compared with side N, and paralleled the increase in mean arterial pressure. After prazocin pre-treatment, norepinephrine produced a transient increase in cutaneous microcirculation similar on both sides, and parallel to the changes in arterial pressure. No decrease in cutaneous microcirculation was observed. Immediately after surgical adventitiectomy, the vasoconstriction produced by alpha-adrenergic agents is prevented. No denervation-induced hypersentivity is observed. Surgical sympathectomy might protect cutaneous flaps from vasoconstriction induced by endogenous catecholamines release. PMID:18623150

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor ... thinking or remembering things Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes Get help to remember things. Write down ...

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  9. Metabolic Network Prediction of Drug Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Itay; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-03-23

    Drug side effects levy a massive cost on society through drug failures, morbidity, and mortality cases every year, and their early detection is critically important. Here, we describe the array of model-based phenotype predictors (AMPP), an approach that leverages medical informatics resources and a human genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) to predict drug side effects. AMPP is substantially predictive (AUC > 0.7) for >70 drug side effects, including very serious ones such as interstitial nephritis and extrapyramidal disorders. We evaluate AMPP's predictive signal through cross-validation, comparison across multiple versions of a side effects database, and co-occurrence analysis of drug side effect associations in scientific abstracts (hypergeometric p value = 2.2e-40). AMPP outperforms a previous biochemical structure-based method in predicting metabolically based side effects (aggregate AUC = 0.65 versus 0.59). Importantly, AMPP enables the identification of key metabolic reactions and biomarkers that are predictive of specific side effects. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for future detection of metabolically grounded side effects during early stages of drug development. PMID:27135366

  10. Polarization effects in cutaneous autofluorescent spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Jeliazkova, Al.; Genova, Ts.; Pavlova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2014-05-01

    Used polarized light for fluorescence excitation one could obtain response related to the anisotropy features of extracellular matrix. The fluorophore anisotropy is attenuated during lesions' growth and level of such decrease could be correlated with the stage of tumor development. Our preliminary investigations are based on in vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from healthy volunteers skin on different ages and from different anatomical places using linear polarizer and analyzer for excitation and emission light detected. Measurements were made using spectrofluorimeter FluoroLog 3 (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) with fiber-optic probe in steady-state regime using excitation in the region of 280-440 nm. Three different situations were evaluated and corresponding excitation-emission matrices were developed - with parallel and perpendicular positions for linear polarizer and analyzer, and without polarization of excitation and fluorescence light detected from a forearm skin surface. The fluorescence spectra obtained reveal differences in spectral intensity, related to general attenuation, due to filtering effects of used polarizer/analyzer couple. Significant spectral shape changes were observed for the complex autofluorescence signal detected, which correlated with collagen and protein cross-links fluorescence, that could be addressed to the tissue extracellular matrix and general condition of the skin investigated, due to morphological destruction during lesions' growth. A correlation between volunteers' age and the fluorescence spectra detected was observed during our measurements. Our next step is to increase developed initial database and to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescent polarization effects and found if they are significantly altered from normal skin to cancerous state of the tissue, this way to develop a non-invasive diagnostic tool for dermatological practice.

  11. Pharmacological effects of various venoms on cutaneous capillary leakage.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

    1986-01-01

    Studies to counteract the cutaneous vasopermeability actions of a wasp (Vespa orientalis), an anemone (Bolocera tuediae) and three jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Physalia physalis) venoms were conducted by using various pharmacological antagonists. Piripost (a leukotriene inhibitor) reduced vasopermeability if administered 5 min prior to challenge with the jellyfish venoms. Methysergide counteracted the vasopermeability of three of four coelenterate venoms, whereas indomethacin was effective against capillary leakage induced by Chironex venom. These studies indicate that anti-dermonecrotic therapy against various venoms will have to be species-specific. PMID:2875548

  12. Effective and lesion-free cutaneous influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Li, Bo; Wu, Mei X

    2015-04-21

    The current study details efficient lesion-free cutaneous vaccination via vaccine delivery into an array of micropores in the skin, instead of bolus injection at a single site. Such delivery effectively segregated vaccine-induced inflammation, resulting in rapid resolution of the inflammation, provided that distances between any two micropores were sufficient. When the inoculation site was treated by FDA-approved nonablative fractional laser (NAFL) before insertion of a PR8 model influenza vaccine-packaged, biodegradable microneedle array (MNs), mice displayed vigorous antigen-uptake, eliciting strong Th1-biased immunity. These animals were completely protected from homologous viral challenges, and fully or partially protected from heterologous H1N1 and H3N2 viral challenges, whereas mice receiving MNs alone suffered from severe illnesses or died of similar viral challenges. NAFL-mediated adjuvanicity was ascribed primarily to dsDNA and other "danger" signals released from laser-damaged skin cells. Thus, mice deficient in dsDNA-sensing pathway, but not Toll like receptor (TLR) or inflammasome pathways, showed poor responses to NAFL. Importantly, with this novel approach both mice and swine exhibited strong protective immunity without incurring any appreciable skin irritation, in sharp contrast to the overt skin irritation caused by intradermal injections. The effective lesion-free cutaneous vaccination merits further clinical studies. PMID:25848020

  13. [Selected aspects of oral contraception side effects].

    PubMed

    Wolski, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    The first hormonal pill was approved in the 60s of the twentieth century Since that time, oral contraception has been used worldwide by dozens of women due to its high availability as well as relative ease and safety of taking. The main side effects of oral contraception include elevated risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Estrogens increase the probability of VTE development, depending on the dose in medication, and third-generation progestins increase the risk of VTE development more than older-generation progestins. Also, the coexistence of hereditary thrombophilia increases the risk of VTE development in women using oral contraceptives. Other side effects include changes in the carbohydrate and lipid economy Progestins in oral contraceptives decrease HDL cholesterol levels but increase LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Additionally estrogens are a recognized mitogenic factor for the epithelium of the mammary gland, acting proliferative on the glandular tissue and in the same way influence on the increased risk of breast cancer development. Patients sometimes complain about some subjective side symptoms such as headache, mood changes, nausea, back pain, breast pain and swelling, as well as decreased libido. Some patients discontinue oral contraception due to fear of side effects or temporary ailments before con- sulting their doctor what may result in unintended pregnancy The aim of the following paper was to present most frequent side effects of oral contraception, ways of their moni- toring and diagnosis. PMID:25669065

  14. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    PubMed

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  15. Effect of Thioridazine on Experimental Cutaneous Staphylococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Beth L.; Sohnle, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some non-antibiotic drugs, such as the phenothiazine antipsychotic agents, may have antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods We sought to determine the in vivo antimicrobial effects of the phenothiazine thioridazine in two mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Results Thioridazine significantly suppressed dissemination from skin to spleen and kidney after inoculation of the skin surface. However, the drug did not affect infection parameters in the skin itself. Thioridazine did suppress the size of abscesses produced when the bacteria were injected intradermally. On the other hand, using the cutaneous abscess model we were not able to demonstrate synergistic activity between thioridazine and the β-lactam drug cefazolin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, as previously demonstrated in vitro. Conclusion The phenothiazine drug thioridazine has in vivo antimicrobial activity against certain S. aureus skin infections, although the previously-demonstrated reversal of methicillin resistance by this agent may not be readily evident in vivo. PMID:24425833

  16. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  17. Clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol enhances its effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2016-03-11

    Clonidine prolongs duration of analgesia when used as an adjunct to local anesthetics for infiltrative cutaneous analgesia, and propranolol produces local anesthesia. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol on the quality and duration of cutaneous analgesia. A rat model of cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) in response to local skin pinprick was employed to evaluate the cutaneous analgesic effect of propranolol combined with clonidine. The long-lasting local anesthetic bupivacaine was used as control. Cutaneous analgesia elicited by propranolol and bupivacaine was dose-dependent, and both propranolol (9.0μmol) and bupivacaine (1.8μmol) produced 100% nociceptive blockade. On an 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the relative potency was bupivacaine [0.48 (0.42-0.55) μmol] greater than propranolol [2.27 (1.98-2.54) μmol] (p<0.01). Subcutaneous saline and clonidine (0.12μmol) did not produce cutaneous analgesia. The mixture of an ineffective-dose clonidine (0.12μmol) and a drug (propranolol or bupivacaine) at ED50 or ED95 increased the potency and extended the duration at producing cutaneous analgesia. The resulting data demonstrated that propranolol is less potent than bupivacaine as an infiltrative anesthetic. Clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol or bupivacaine has a significant peripheral action in increasing the depth and duration of action on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. PMID:26828301

  18. Enhancing Clinical Trials by Incorporating Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is often seen as a model for evidence-based education, and deservedly so, but evaluators in education have been slow to adopt one of its salient features, attention to side effects. Many education evaluations focus almost exclusively on efficacy, that is on achievement test scores. Regardless of domain, all interventions…

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  20. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-induced side effects

    PubMed Central

    Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    Currently available antipsychotic drugs (APDs) carry significant, though highly variable, liability to neurologic and metabolic side effects. Pharmacogenetics approaches offer the possibility of identifying patient-specific biomarkers for predicting risk of these side effects. To date, a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a handful of genes have received convergent support across multiple studies. The primary focus has been on SNPs in dopamine and serotonin receptor genes: persuasive meta-analytic evidence exists for an effect of the dopamine D2 and D3 receptor genes (DRD2 and DRD3) in risk for tardr inesia (TD) and for an effect of variation at the receptor gene (HTR2C) for liability to APD-inducec gain. However, effect sizes appear to be modest, and pharmacoeconomic considerations have not been sufficiently studied, thereby limiting clinical applicability at this time. Effects of these genes and others on risk for TD, extrapyramidal side effects, hyperprolactinemia, and weight gain are revieved in this article. PMID:20135898

  1. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  2. Analysis of the side effects of tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Delalleau, B; Dulcire, C; Le Moine, P; Kamoun, A

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of clinical and paraclinical safety of tianeptine was performed in (a) clinical pharmacology studies assessing night sleep EEG organization; electrocardiographic stability by continuous 24-h recordings (Holter's method); ocular tonus in patients with stabilized glaucoma; salivary flow; prolactin secretion; photodynamic dermatologic reactions; cerebral electrical activity; hematologic, hepatic, renal and main metabolic parameters; separately, withdrawal phenomena and addictive potential were searched for in drug addicts; (b) double-blind controlled studies versus reference compounds. The results confirm that the therapeutic safety of tianeptine is satisfactory with respect to clinical side effects and paraclinical parameters. Tianeptine does not induce sedation and thus does not disturb the recovery of active life. It does not induce anticholinergic effects (dry mouth, constipation, etc.), even in elderly subjects. It is devoid of heart and blood pressure side effects including postural hypotension tachycardia, ECG abnormalities, and especially atrioventricular or intraventricular conduction disorders. Moreover, tianeptine does not disturb the hematologic, renal, hepatic parameters, even in alcoholic patients in the detoxification period. It does not induce physical or psychological signs of dependence when discontinued, even in alcoholic patients or drug addicts. No abuse of tianeptine and no tolerance were noted in detoxified opiate addicts.

  3. Systemic effects of low-power laser irradiation on the peripheral and central nervous system, cutaneous wounds, and burns

    SciTech Connect

    Rochkind, S.; Rousso, M.; Nissan, M.; Villarreal, M.; Barr-Nea, L.; Rees, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we direct attention to the systemic effect of low-power helium-neon (HeNe) laser irradiation on the recovery of the injured peripheral and central nervous system, as well as healing of cutaneous wounds and burns. Laser irradiation on only the right side in bilaterally inflicted cutaneous wounds enhanced recovery in both sides compared to the nonirradiated control group (P less than .01). Similar results were obtained in bilateral burns: irradiating one of the burned sites also caused accelerated healing in the nonirradiated site (P less than .01). However, in the nonirradiated control group, all rats suffered advanced necrosis of the feet and bilateral gangrene. Low-power HeNe laser irradiation applied to a crushed injured sciatic nerve in the right leg in a bilaterally inflicted crush injury, significantly increased the compound action potential in the left nonirradiated leg as well. The statistical analysis shows a highly significant difference between the laser-treated group and the control nonirradiated group (P less than .001). Finally, the systemic effect was found in the spinal cord segments corresponding to the crushed sciatic nerves. The bilateral retrograde degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord expected after the bilateral crush injury of the peripheral nerves was greatly reduced in the laser treated group. The systemic effects reported here are relevant in terms of the clinical application of low-power laser irradiation as well as for basic research into the possible mechanisms involved.

  4. The effects of ageing on cutaneous wound healing in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, G S; Horan, M A; Ferguson, M W

    1995-01-01

    The dogma that cutaneous wound healing is impaired as a function of age is largely unsubstantiated. This can be attributed to poor experimental design of human studies, the lack of subject characterisation with the exclusion of disease processes, and the study of inappropriate animal models. Structural and functional changes in skin with age have been reported, such as a decrease in dermal thickness, decline in collagen content, a subtle alteration in the glycosaminoglycan profile, and a loss of elasticity, but these reports are subject to the above criticisms in addition to the often-neglected requirement for site specificity. Wound repair can be thought of as a culmination of three major overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. The inflammatory process has not been studied systematically with respect to age, and despite a reported decline in cellular function and number, there is a confounding increase in the production of specific cytokines involved in the process of repair. The proliferative phase is associated with a loss of cellular responsiveness to specific cytokines with a decline in motility and proliferation; however caution in interpreting these findings is important as, for example, the definition of 'ageing' is used rather loosely with the result that neonatal versus young adult cells are compared instead of young versus old adults. During remodelling, fibronectin and collagen production may increase with age, as may wound contraction; the deposition of elastin has not been assessed and the resulting mechanical properties of the scar are controversial, not least because human in vivo studies have been ignored. The absence of a critical review on the effects of advancing age on wound healing has conspired to permit the perpetuation of the belief that well defined tenets exist. This review aims to redress this imbalance and to highlight the need for well designed research into an increasingly important field. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

  5. Pathogenesis, Lethality, and Immunizing Effect of Experimental Cutaneous Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Mark A.; Friedman, Lorraine

    1978-01-01

    Mice were subcutaneously inoculated with small numbers of virulent Cryptococcus neoformans and divided into groups. Numbers of viable yeasts at the site were estimated at weekly intervals for 5 weeks on the basis of cultures of minced tissue excised from sacrificed animals. Organisms multiplied at the site for at least 4 weeks and were still detectable after the 5th week, although in reduced numbers. Agglutinins appeared within a week, but these antibodies were not detectable during the 2nd through the 5th week. Cryptococcal polysaccharide began to appear in the sera at 3 weeks, persisting through the duration of 5 weeks. All animals appeared healthy, but a few sickened after many months and died of systemic cryptococcosis. All of these events were observed in many separate experiments. The immunizing capacity of a cutaneous lesion was tested by challenging some of the above animals with viable C. neoformans after various intervals of time, either subcutaneously at a site distant from that of the vaccination or intravenously. Although we were unable to demonstrate reduced multiplication of yeasts in the brains, lungs, and spleens of intravenously challenged animals, it was possible to show that multiplication was inhibited at the site of subcutaneous challenge. It was noted also that vaccinated animals lived longer after lethal intravenous challenge than did nonvaccinated animals. The latter protection was observed, however, only when challenge followed vaccination by 3 weeks or longer, and it was effective only against a relatively low challenge dose. Mice were protected against a higher dose if they had previously received killed cryptococci, alternating subcutaneous and intraperitoneal inoculations, one of which contained a microbial adjuvant. No protection was observed in animals that were subcutaneously vaccinated with inert materials such as chitin, latex spheres, or even cryptococcal cell walls themselves. PMID:352944

  6. Effect of knee joint angle on side-to-side strength ratios.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2014-10-01

    Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength are typically tested at different joint angles due to the differences in length-tension relationships of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The efficiency of strength testing can be improved if the same angle can be used to test both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal angle for isometric knee strength testing by examining the effect of knee angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios. Eighteen active young people (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength were tested on both sides at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The effect of knee flexion angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios, raw torque values, and side-to-side flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were assessed. Side-to-side knee extensor peak torque ratios and knee flexor-to-extensor torque ratios differed significantly by knee flexion angle (p = 0.024 and p = 0.011, respectively), but side-to-side knee flexor peak torque ratios did not differ significantly (p = 0.311). When considering both side-to-side peak torque ratios and flexor-to-extensor torque ratios, the values were more symmetrical (i.e., closer to 100%) only at 60° of knee flexion. Our results indicate that both the knee flexors and the knee extensors can be tested clinically at 60° of knee flexion. Our results also indicate that the hamstrings can be tested at any of the 3 angles if the examiner is interested in side-to-side ratios rather than raw torque values. These results may facilitate more efficient and flexible clinical knee strength testing.

  7. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  8. Systemic side effects of locally used oxymetazoline

    PubMed Central

    Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Sahan, Mustafa; Sefil, Fatih; Tas, Zeynel Abidin; Tutuk, Okan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tumer, Cemil; Cevik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The object of the study is to experimentally investigate the possible systemic side effects of Oxymetazoline including its nasal spray which has been in use for a long time both by the physicians and patients. There is no study in the literature to address the damages of oxymetazoline on the end organ. Materials and methods: The study conducted on 2 groups of rat. Group 1 (n = 8): Control; and Group 2 (n = 8): Oxymetazoline. During 4 week, the control group was applied with 2 drops of saline water on each nasal cavity 3 times a day and the other group was applied with 2 drops of oxymetazoline HCl 3 times a day. At the end of experiment, samples from mandible, parotid and tails of the rats were taken in 10% formalin for histopathological investigations. Results: In histopathological experiments, when compared with the control group, the oxymetazoline group showed significant increase in many of the histopathological parameters (ischemic changes: P = 0.0001; congestion: P = 0.0006; arterial thrombosis: P = Ns; PNL accumulations: P = 0.001; necrosis: P = 0.0001; and ulceration: P = 0.014). The results of histopathologic tests on the samples taken from mandible and parotid gland, in comparison with the control group, showed no significant increase (focal inflammation: P = Ns; and lymphocyte aggregation: P = Ns). Conclusion: Due to the damage that the long-term use of nasal spray including oxymetazoline, it may cause injury on the end organ, which we revealed in our histopathological experiments. We believe that it’s essential for the physicians to provide information on the side effects of the medicine to their patients who use for a long term. PMID:25932218

  9. Effects of symptomatic treatments on cutaneous hyperalgesia and laser evoked potentials during migraine attack.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, M; Losito, L; Libro, G; Guido, M; Di Fruscolo, O; Sardaro, M; Sciruicchio, V; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2005-05-01

    Previously an amplitude enhancement of laser evoked potentials (LEPs) was detected during migraine attack: we further examined pain threshold to CO2 laser stimuli and LEPs during attacks, evaluating the effect of almotriptan, lysine-acetylsalicylate and placebo treatment on cutaneous hyperalgesia to thermal stimuli delivered by CO2 laser and on LEP components. Eighteen patients suffering from migraine without aura were analysed. They were divided into three groups of six patients each, randomly assigned to lysine acetyl-salicylate, almotriptan or placebo treatments. The supraorbital zones and the dorsum of the hand were stimulated on both the symptomatic and not symptomatic side in all patients. The LEPs were recorded by 25 scalp electrodes. During attacks, the P2 wave was significantly enhanced; the amplitude of the P2 component obtained by the stimulation of the supraorbital zone during the attack on the side of the headache was significantly correlated with the intensity of pain and the frequency of headache. Both almotriptan and lysine acetyl-salicylate significantly reduced the P2 amplitude but they showed no effects on hyperalgesia to laser stimulation; headache relief following therapy was correlated with the reduction of the P2 amplitude. The cortical elaboration of laser-induced experimental pain seemed increased during migraine attack, and the severity of headache was mainly related to the increase of the later LEPs components expressing the attentive and emotive compounds of suffering. Reversion of this process appeared to be primarily responsible for the efficacy of drugs in treating migraine, though both almotriptan and lysine-acetil salicilate seemed to have no effect in reducing sensitization at second and third order nociceptive neurons. PMID:15839851

  10. Effects of symptomatic treatments on cutaneous hyperalgesia and laser evoked potentials during migraine attack.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, M; Losito, L; Libro, G; Guido, M; Di Fruscolo, O; Sardaro, M; Sciruicchio, V; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2005-05-01

    Previously an amplitude enhancement of laser evoked potentials (LEPs) was detected during migraine attack: we further examined pain threshold to CO2 laser stimuli and LEPs during attacks, evaluating the effect of almotriptan, lysine-acetylsalicylate and placebo treatment on cutaneous hyperalgesia to thermal stimuli delivered by CO2 laser and on LEP components. Eighteen patients suffering from migraine without aura were analysed. They were divided into three groups of six patients each, randomly assigned to lysine acetyl-salicylate, almotriptan or placebo treatments. The supraorbital zones and the dorsum of the hand were stimulated on both the symptomatic and not symptomatic side in all patients. The LEPs were recorded by 25 scalp electrodes. During attacks, the P2 wave was significantly enhanced; the amplitude of the P2 component obtained by the stimulation of the supraorbital zone during the attack on the side of the headache was significantly correlated with the intensity of pain and the frequency of headache. Both almotriptan and lysine acetyl-salicylate significantly reduced the P2 amplitude but they showed no effects on hyperalgesia to laser stimulation; headache relief following therapy was correlated with the reduction of the P2 amplitude. The cortical elaboration of laser-induced experimental pain seemed increased during migraine attack, and the severity of headache was mainly related to the increase of the later LEPs components expressing the attentive and emotive compounds of suffering. Reversion of this process appeared to be primarily responsible for the efficacy of drugs in treating migraine, though both almotriptan and lysine-acetil salicilate seemed to have no effect in reducing sensitization at second and third order nociceptive neurons.

  11. Reducing Aversion to Side Effects in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Laypeople tend to be overly sensitive to side effects of treatments that prevent illness, possibly leading them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based study attempted to reduce such side effect aversion by adding graphic displays to the numerical risk probabilities. It also explored whether graphics reduce side effect aversion by…

  12. Cutaneous effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): the Michigan PBB incident

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, J.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Glamb, R.W.; Lomatch, D.L.; Wolff, M.S.; Voorhees, J.J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-10-01

    In 1973 an environmental accident occurred in northern Michigan in which 1000-2000 pounds of the toxic fire retardant polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was added to the livestock food supply of much of northern Michigan. PBB is highly lipophilic, poorly metabolized, and biocumulative. It subsequently entered the human food chain of the entire state of Michigan. Health effects were noted in contaminated animals and among exposed farmers some months after the contamination; these often included cutaneous problems. Three years later a multidisciplinary study of the farming population was undertaken. Detected cutaneous abnormalities included halogen acne, hair loss, skin redness, skin peeling, and scaling, itching, increased sweating, and increased growth of fingernails and toenails. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. PBBs appear to be etiologically implicated for significant cutaneous toxicity.

  13. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  14. A current appraisal of side effects of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Evans, J H

    1976-05-01

    Oral contraception, although offering almost 100 per cent protection against pregnancy, is associated with many side effects which have resulted in much unnecessary adverse publicity. Such side effects, the majority of which are of annoying nature only, are due to the synthetic hormones used, and have resulted in many changes in formulation and in the withdrawal of several preparations. The types of preparations available are discussed and the side effects appraised from both the patient's and the physician's viewpoint.

  15. Effect of wavelength on cutaneous pigment using pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, K.A.; Murray, S.; Kurban, A.K.; Tan, O.T.

    1989-05-01

    Several reports have been published over the last two decades describing the successful removal of benign cutaneous pigmented lesions such as lentigines, cafe au lait macules' nevi, nevus of Ota, and lentigo maligna by a variety of lasers such as the excimer (351 nm), argon (488,514 nm), ruby (694 nm), Nd:YAG (1060 nm), and CO/sub 2/ (10,600 nm). Laser treatment has been applied to lesions with a range of pigment depths from superficial lentigines in the epidermis to the nevus of Ota in the reticular dermis. Widely divergent laser parameters of wavelength, pulse duration, energy density, and spotsizes have been used, but the laser parameters used to treat this range of lesions have been arbitrary, with little effort focused on defining optimal laser parameters for removal of each type. In this study, miniature black pig skin was exposed to five wavelengths (504, 590, 694, 720, and 750 nm) covering the absorption spectrum of melanin. At each wavelength, a range of energy densities was examined. Skin biopsies taken from laser-exposed sites were examined histologically in an attempt to establish whether optimal laser parameters exist for destroying pigment cells in skin. Of the five wavelengths examined, 504 nm produced the most pigment specific injury; this specificity being maintained even at the highest energy density of 7.0 J/cm2. Thus, for the destruction of melanin-containing cells in the epidermal compartment, 504 nm wavelength appears optimal.

  16. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  17. A novel semisupervised algorithm for rare prescription side effect discovery.

    PubMed

    Reps, Jenna M; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Aickelin, Uwe; Soria, Daniele; Gibson, Jack E; Hubbard, Richard B

    2014-03-01

    Drugs are frequently prescribed to patients with the aim of improving each patient's medical state, but an unfortunate consequence of most prescription drugs is the occurrence of undesirable side effects. Side effects that occur in more than one in a thousand patients are likely to be signaled efficiently by current drug surveillance methods, however, these same methods may take decades before generating signals for rarer side effects, risking medical morbidity or mortality in patients prescribed the drug while the rare side effect is undiscovered. In this paper, we propose a novel computational metaanalysis framework for signaling rare side effects that integrates existing methods, knowledge from the web,metric learning, and semisupervised clustering. The novel framework was able to signal many known rare and serious side effects for the selection of drugs investigated, such as tendon rupture when prescribed Ciprofloxacin or Levofloxacin, renal failure with Naproxen and depression associated with Rimonabant. Furthermore, for the majority of the drugs investigated it generated signals for rare side effects at a more stringent signaling threshold than existing methods and shows the potential to become a fundamental part of post marketing surveillance to detect rare side effects.

  18. The incidence of side effects after laser hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanigan, Sean W.

    2004-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of lasers for hair removal there is little data published on the incidence of side effects from this treatment. We aimed to generate data on a large number of patients receiving laser hair removal to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence and type of side effects resulting from treatment. A multicentre prospective study of patients attending for laser hair removal was conducted to determine incidence of side effects in relation to skin type and laser(s) used. Laser hair removal is associated with a low incidence of side effects which are self-limiting in the majority of cases. Highest incidence of side effects was seen in darker skinned patients treated with the long pulsed ruby laser. Laser hair removal is inherently safe. For darker Fitzpatrick skin types the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is preferred to the ruby laser.

  19. [From Biological Effects of Local Cutaneous Thermal Stimulation to Moxibustion Therapy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai-yu; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Guang-yong; Zou, Yang-yang; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Jian-bin

    2015-12-01

    Moxibustion is one of the major external therapies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and exerts a definite favorable effect in the treatment of patients with different problems. In the present paper, the authors reviewed 38 papers about somatic thermal intervention therapy published in recent 15 years and analyzed its biological functions from local, distal, and whole body effects. The local effects include 1) improving cutaneous inflammatory illnesses as verruca, herpes simplex, Leishmania infection, cutaneous necrosis, wound disunion, and promoting percutaneous absorption of some medicines, swelling pain; 2) reliving sports fatigue and muscular injury, eliminating inflammation and pain reactions, probably by lowering local reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase,catalase, glutathione, etc. levels, and strengthening the flexibility of the knee-joint, and anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments; 3) increasing blood perfusion of the regional arteriola, micrangium to eliminate accumulated subcutaneous blood cells, inflammatory mediators and other metabolic products. The distal effects contain 1) increase of the distal cutaneous blood flow and suppression of the arterial stenosis; and 2) improvement of the visceral functions including the heart (ischemia), liver, gastrointestinal blood flow and smooth muscles, uterus smooth muscular tension, etc. The whole body effects include raising immunoability against cancer, and reducing tumor blood flow to damage the blood vessels in the tumor tissue, etc. In addition, the effects of thermal stimulation are affected by the temperature, stimulating duration and the stimulated positions. These research results may help us to comprehensively understand the effects and mechanisms of moxibustion therapy in the treatment of different clinical disorders. PMID:26887216

  20. Inhibitory effects of guarana seed extract on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Jippo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Hattori, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Shigekawa, Munekazu

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of guarana seed extract (GSE) on an anti-allergic mechanism. GSE orally administered inhibited the anti-dinitrophenol IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Furthermore, it inhibited the degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. It had no cytotoxicity on RBL-2H3 cells. These results show that GSE is a candidate for effective therapeutic material for allergic diseases.

  1. Romidepsin for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Prince, H Miles; Dickinson, Michael; Khot, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are relatively rare lymphomas and the most common form is mycosis fungoides. Its rare leukemic variant is Sezary syndrome. Advanced-stage disease is typically treated with bexarotene (a retinoid), IFN-α or conventional chemotherapeutic agents, but relapses are inevitable. Histone deacetylase inhibitors that modify the epigenome are an attractive addition to the armamentarium. Based on two large Phase II studies, the US FDA approved intravenous romidepsin for patients with relapsed/refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Romidepsin provides a subset of patients with an opportunity for prolonged clinical responses with a tolerable side-effect profile.

  2. Contact radiotherapy of cutaneous hemangiomas: therapeutic effects and radiation sequelae in 818 patients.

    PubMed

    Braun-Falco, O; Schultze, U; Meinhof, W; Goldschmidt, H

    1975-10-29

    The paper presents statistical data on the therapeutic effects and radiation sequelae following Chaoul contact therapy of 818 cutaneous hemangiomas treated between 1938 and 1952. 73.3% of all irradiated hemangiomas showed initial improvement but complete involution with an excellent cosmetic result was observed in only 50% of lesions 5 years after treatment. During the same period of time, more than one-third of all patients developed mild to moderate cutaneous radiation sequelae (hyper- or hypopigmentation and telangiectases, rarely atrophy). The high incidence of late radiation effects is probably relation to the high total doses administered in this series of patients, the very short intervals between treatments and the age of the patients. Other radiation radiation hazards are also discussed. Since large studies have proven conclusively that spontaneous involution occurs in 95% of hemangiomas after several years, indications for radiotherapy of hemangiomas are extremely limited.

  3. Some side-effects of alpha-methyldopa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, V K

    1976-04-10

    Three different regimens of drug treatment for hypertension were compared with regard to the development of undesirable side-effects in a group of 53 patients attending a hypertension clinic. The combination of alpha-methyldopa and chlorthalidone produced the highest incidence of side-effects. Weakness and impotence were most frequently encountered. In contrast, the combination of chlorthalidone, hydralazine and propranolol, and chlorthalidone alone, produced fewer side-effects. It is recommended that alpha-methyldopa should not be a first choice in the treatment of hypertension.

  4. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2), the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1). Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters. PMID:24278698

  5. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  6. Antithyroid Drug Side Effects in the Population and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In a Danish population study using health registers, agranulocytosis caused by antithyroid drugs was 4 times more frequent than liver failure. Both were very rare in pregnancy, where birth defects were the dominant side effect. PMID:26815881

  7. Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study Doctors should weigh the risk-benefit ratio, researcher ... of drugs that boost the immune system," said study author Dr. Laura Cappelli. She is a rheumatologist ...

  8. Thalidomide: dermatological indications, mechanisms of action and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, J J; Huang, D B; Pang, K R; Hsu, S; Tyring, S K

    2005-08-01

    Thalidomide was first introduced in the 1950s as a sedative but was quickly removed from the market after it was linked to cases of severe birth defects. However, it has since made a remarkable comeback for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved use in the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Further, it has shown its effectiveness in unresponsive dermatological conditions such as actinic prurigo, adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis, aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, cutaneous sarcoidosis, erythema multiforme, Jessner-Kanof lymphocytic infiltration of the skin, Kaposi sarcoma, lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, melanoma, prurigo nodularis, pyoderma gangrenosum and uraemic pruritus. This article reviews the history, pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical uses and adverse effects of thalidomide.

  9. Thermotherapy effective and safer than miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    López, Liliana; Cruz, Claudia; Godoy, Gonzalo; Robledo, Sara M; Vélez, Iván D

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine are the drugs of choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis; however, their toxicity, treatment duration, (treatment adherence problems), cost, and decreased parasite sensitivity make the search for alternative treatments of American cutaneous leishmaniasis necessary. Based on the results found in a controlled, open, randomized, phase III clinical trial, the efficacy and safety of miltefosine was compared to that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Adult patients from the Colombian army participated in the study; they received either 50 mg of miltefosine three times per day for 28 days by the oral route (n = 145) or a thermotherapy (Thermomed®) application of 50 °C for 30 seconds over the lesion and surrounding area (n = 149). Both groups were comparable with respect to their sociodemographic, clinical, and parasitological characteristics. The efficacy of miltefosine by protocol and by intention to treat was 70% (85/122 patients) and 69% (85/145 patients), respectively. The adverse effects were primarily gastrointestinal for miltefosine and pain at the lesion site after treatment for thermotherapy. No statistically significant difference was found in the efficacy analysis (intention to treat and protocol) between the two treatments.

  10. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side effects of montelukast.

    PubMed

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  11. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side Effects of Montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  12. Side effects of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. D.; Vekovius, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on operational proficiency of the antimotion sickness drugs scopolamine, promethazine and d-amphetamine are tested using a computerized pursuit meter. Proficiency is not significantly affected by oral doses of 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg scopolamine but is descreased by oral or I.M. doses of 25 mg promethazine. The performance decrement associated with 25 mg oral promethazine is prevented when combined with 10 mg oral d-amphetamine. The combination of 25 mg I.M. promethazine, 25 mg oral promethazine and 10 mg d-amphetamine produces less performance decrement than oral or I.M. doses of promethazine alone, though more performance decrement than a placebo. I.M. promethazine is adsorbed slowly and consequently may provoke drowsiness.

  13. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations.

  14. [Control of the effects and side-effects of detergents].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W

    1977-08-01

    An examination of detergents on the skin has to take into account the facultative sensibilisation and the wear and tear. In this connection the effect of summation between soapbody and perfume is pointed out as well as the different results of skin tests. To control the obligate effects, first of all a reliable technical reference has to be established; this is the washing activity, to which the side-effects then are related. To measure the hydratation, the resonance-frequency method of Tronnier and Wagener is used, where especially the syndets react very differently: partly similar to water and partly similar to soft soap. Further methods of examination are the measurement of the roughness and the quantitative determination of the fat of the skin. Concerning certain hand wash detergents and industrial cleaners the grade of rubbing is also of interest. Finally the relatively good compatibility of the bioactive detergents and the rinsing agents is discussed.

  15. Spectroscopic biofeedback on cutaneous carotenoids as part of a prevention program could be effective to raise health awareness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruo-Xi; Köcher, Wolfgang; Darvin, Maxim E; Büttner, Monika; Jung, Sora; Lee, Bich Na; Klotter, Christoph; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    The cutaneous carotenoid concentration correlates with the overall antioxidant status of a person and can be seen as biomarker for nutrition and lifestyle. 50 high school students were spectroscopically measured for their cutaneous carotenoid concentrations initially in a static phase, followed by an intervention phase with biofeedback of their measured values, living a healthy lifestyle and on healthy food this time. The volunteers showed higher carotenoid concentrations than found in previous studies. A significant correlation of healthy lifestyle habits and a high antioxidant status could be determined. Subjects improved their nutritional habits and significantly increased their carotenoid concentration during intervention. Follow-up five months later showed a consolidation of the increase. The investigations show that a healthy diet and a well-balanced lifestyle correlate with a high cutaneous antioxidant concentration and that spectroscopic biofeedback measurement of cutaneous carotenoids as part of an integrated prevention program is a feasible and effective means to raise the health awareness in adolescents.

  16. Triptans and CNS side-effects: pharmacokinetic and metabolic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dodick, D W; Martin, V

    2004-06-01

    Triptans are the treatment of choice for acute migraine. While seemingly a homogenous group of drugs, results from a meta-analysis reveal significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among oral triptans. The incidence of drug-related central nervous system (CNS) side-effects with some triptans is as high as 15% and may be associated with functional impairment and reduced productivity. The occurrence of adverse events associated with triptans in general, and CNS side-effects in particular, may lead to a delay in initiating or even avoidance of an otherwise effective treatment. Potential explanations for differences among triptans in the incidence of CNS side-effects may relate to pharmacological and pharmacokinetic differences, including receptor binding, lipophilicity, and the presence of active metabolites. Of the triptans reviewed, at clinically relevant doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and sumatriptan 50 mg had the lowest incidence of CNS side-effects, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg had the highest incidence. The most likely explanations for the differences in CNS side-effects among triptans are the presence of active metabolites and high lipophilicity of the parent compound and active metabolites. Eletriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have active metabolites, while lipophilicity is lowest for almotriptan and sumatriptan. If CNS side-effects are a clinically relevant concern in the individual patient, use of a triptan with a low incidence of CNS side-effects may offer the potential for earlier initiation of treatment and more effective outcomes. PMID:15154851

  17. Is ethnicity associated with morphine's side effects in children? morphine pharmacokinetics, analgesic response and side effects in children having tonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Nathalia; Anderson, Gail D.; Shen, Danny D.; Nielsen, Susan Searles; Farin, Federico M.; Seidel, Kristy; Lynn, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Aims To examine whether morphine pharmacokinetics (PK) and/or genetic polymorphisms in opioid-related genes, underlie differences in analgesic response and side effects to morphine in Latino (L) vs non-Latino Caucasian (NL) children. Background Morphine has high interindividual variability in its analgesic response and side effects profile. Earlier studies suggest that morphine response may vary by race and ethnicity. Methods Prospective cohort study in L and NL children, 3–17 years of age comparing pain scores, occurrence of side effects, plasma morphine, morphine-6-and morphine-3-glucuronide concentrations measured after a single morphine IV bolus administration. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and genotyping for 28 polymorphisms in 8 genes (UGT1A8, UGT2B7, ABCB1, COMT, STAT6, MC1R, OPRM1, and ARRB2) were done. Results We enrolled 68 children (33 L, 35 NL). There were no differences in pain scores or need for rescue analgesia. Statistically significant differences in the occurrence of side effects were documented: While 58% of L children experienced at least one side effect only 20% of NL did (p=0.001). Pruritus was 4 times (p=0.006) and emesis 7 times (p=0.025) more frequent in L compared to NL. PK parameters were similar between groups. None of the assessed polymorphisms mediated the association between ethnicity and side effects. Conclusions We found statistically significant differences in occurrence of side effects after morphine administration between L and NL children. Neither differences in morphine or metabolite concentrations, nor the genetic polymorphisms examined, explain these findings. Studies are needed to further investigate reasons for the increase in morphine side effects by Latino ethnicity. PMID:22486937

  18. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  19. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  20. Effects of a Skin Neuropeptide (Substance P) on Cutaneous Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Ramdani, Yasmina; Jaouen, Thomas; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Lati, Elian; Yvergnaux, Florent; Driouich, Azzedine; Lefeuvre, Luc; Farmer, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP), a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10−6 M) and this effect was rapid (<5 min). Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu) was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose®) were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. Conclusions/Significance SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism. PMID:24250813

  1. Relief from cancer chemotherapy side effects with pharmacologic vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Carr, Anitra C; Vissers, Margreet C M; Cook, John

    2014-01-24

    Fatigue is a common, often debilitating, side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Pharmacologic vitamin C has been used as an alternative treatment for the disease itself but its effects on fatigue have not often been documented. Here we report on the case of a woman with recurrent breast cancer, undergoing weekly chemotherapy, with lethargy as a major symptom. Vitamin C (50 g/session) was administered twice weekly and quality of life and multidimensional fatigue symptomology questionnaires were undertaken. Dramatic decreases in fatigue and insomnia were observed, as well as increased cognitive functioning. There were no adverse side effects of i.v. vitamin C.

  2. The effects of bergapten and sunlight on cutaneous pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Levine, N; Don, S; Owens, C; Rogers, D T; Kligman, A M; Forlot, P

    1989-09-01

    The effects of bergapten-containing preparations in sunlight-induced skin pigmentation were evaluated. Oil and lotion vehicles with bergapten/UV-B sunscreen or sunscreen alone were applied to the backs of subjects twice weekly for 4 weeks and the subjects were exposed to gradually increasing doses of midday sunlight. The degree of skin darkening was assessed by clinical examination, reflectometry, and light microscopy of skin biopsy specimens. At 5 weeks, 1 week after the last sunlight exposure, the sites treated with either the bergapten/UV-B sunscreen lotion or the lotion vehicle were significantly darker than the sites treated with the sunscreen lotions without bergapten. Oil preparations produced less clearcut results, possibly because of a less potent sunscreen or because the bergapten did not leave the vehicle and absorb into the epidermis. In type I skin, the bergapten/sunscreen and the oil vehicle alone produced the same amount of tanning; both yielded more tanning than the sunscreen in oil by clinical examination. The findings were not confirmed by reflectometry or by light microscopy. Thus, we conclude that bergapten added to a UV-B sunscreen lotion preparation can increase skin pigmentation over the sunscreen alone when one is exposed to sunlight. The bergapten/UV-B sunscreen combination is a potentially useful product since one can develop a psoralen and UV-A-induced tan while being protected from UV-B-induced sunburn by the UV-B sunscreen incorporated into the formulation.

  3. Global University Rankings--Impacts and Unintended Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, global and other university rankings are critically assessed with regard to their unintended side effects and their impacts on the European and national landscape of universities, as well as on individual institutions. An emphasis is put on the effects of ranking logics rather than on criticising their methodology. Nevertheless,…

  4. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  5. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs. PMID:20603395

  6. Effects of 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Shibasaki, Manabu; Cui, Jian; Levine, Benjamin D.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) reduces adrenergic and nonadrenergic cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Additionally, an exercise countermeasure group was included to identify whether exercise during bed rest might counteract any vasoconstrictor deficits that arose during HDBR. Twenty-two subjects underwent 14 days of strict 6 degrees HDBR. Eight of these 22 subjects did not exercise during HDBR, while 14 of these subjects exercised on a supine cycle ergometer for 90 min a day at 75% of pre-bed rest heart rate maximum. To assess alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness, intradermal microdialysis was used to locally administer norepinephrine (NE), while forearm skin blood flow (SkBF; laser-Doppler flowmetry) was monitored over microdialysis membranes. Nonlinear regression modeling was used to identify the effective drug concentration that caused 50% of the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response (EC(50)) and minimum values from the SkBF-NE dose-response curves. In addition, the effects of HDBR on nonadrenergic cutaneous vasoconstriction were assessed via the venoarteriolar response of the forearm and leg. HDBR did not alter EC(50) or the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction to exogenous NE administration regardless of whether the subjects exercised during HDBR. Moreover, HDBR did not alter the forearm venoarteriolar response in either the control or exercise groups during HDBR. However, HDBR significantly reduced the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the venoarteriolar response in the leg, and this response was similarly reduced in the exercise group. These data suggest that HDBR does not alter cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous NE administration, whereas cutaneous vasoconstriction of the leg due to the venoarteriolar response is reduced after HDBR. It remains unclear whether attenuated venoarteriolar responses in the lower limbs contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance after bed rest and

  7. Effects of reduced plantar cutaneous afferent feedback on locomotor adjustments in dynamic stability during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Höhne, Angela; Stark, Christian; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2011-08-11

    This study examined the effects of reduced plantar cutaneous afferent feedback on predictive and feedback adaptive locomotor adjustments in dynamic stability during perturbed walking. Twenty-two matched participants divided between an experimental-group and a control-group performed a gait protocol, which included surface alterations to one covered exchangeable gangway-element (hard/soft). In the experimental-group, cutaneous sensation in both foot soles was reduced to the level of sensory peripheral neuropathy by means of intradermal injections of an anaesthetic solution, without affecting foot proprioception or muscles. The gait protocol consisted of baseline trials on a uniformly hard surface and an adaptation phase consisting of nineteen trials incorporating a soft gangway-element, interspersed with three trials using the hard surface-element (2nd, 8th and 19th). Dynamic stability was assessed by quantifying the margin of stability (MS), which was calculated as the difference between the base of support (BS) and the extrapolated centre of mass (CM). The horizontal velocity of the CM and its vertical projection in the anterior-posterior direction and the eigenfrequency of an inverted pendulum determine the extrapolated-CM. Both groups increased the BS at the recovery step in response to the first unexpected perturbation. These feedback corrections were used more extensively in the experimental-group, which led to a higher MS compared to the control-group, i.e. a more stable body-position. In the adaptation phase the MS returned to baseline similarly in both groups. In the trial on the hard surface directly after the first perturbation, both groups increased the MS at touchdown of the disturbed leg compared to baseline trials, indicating rapid predictive adjustments irrespective of plantar cutaneous input. Our findings demonstrate that the locomotor adaptational potential does not decrease due to the loss of plantar sensation.

  8. Effects of lung volume and O2 and CO2 content on cutaneous gas exchange in frogs.

    PubMed

    Malvin, G M; Hlastala, M P

    1986-11-01

    The effects of lung O2 and CO2 content and volume on cutaneous gas exchange and perfusion were investigated in the frog, Rana pipiens. (Ha)-anesthetized frogs were equilibrated with 9.5% Freon-22 (Fr, chlorodifluoromethane) and 1.1% Ha. Cutaneous elimination of Fr, Ha, and CO2 into a small sample chamber on the abdomen was measured with a mass spectrometer. Introducing an air mixture into the lung decreased cutaneous Fr, Ha, and CO2 elimination. Lung inflation with an O2 mixture decreased cutaneous gas elimination more than with the air mixture. Inflation with a N2 mixture had no effect. The response to lung inflation with the air mixture was not affected by adding 4.8% CO2 to the air mixture or by atropine. Voluntary lung ventilation decreased CO2 and Fr elimination. The results indicate that intrapulmonary O2 is a factor regulating skin breathing. If a change in lung volume is also a factor, it requires a concomitant change in lung O2. Intrapulmonary CO2 and cholinergic nerves are not involved in cutaneous respiration across the abdomen.

  9. No effects of bosentan on microvasculature in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hettema, Martha E; Zhang, Dan; Stienstra, Ymkje; Smit, Andries J; Bootsma, Hendrika; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2009-07-01

    The endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor molecule endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). We studied the effect of bosentan on microvascular structure and function in patients with RP secondary to limited cutaneous SSc in a mechanistic pilot study. In this single center, open study, 15 patients with limited cutaneous SSc were treated with bosentan for 16 weeks with a follow-up period of 4 weeks. Changes in microvascular structure and function were studied with assessment of vasodilatory microvascular responses using laser Doppler fluxmetry combined with iontophoresis, capillary permeability using fluorescence videomicroscopy, nailfold capillary microscopy, and serological markers of endothelial activation. No significant changes were seen in vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside following bosentan treatment. No effect was noted on capillary permeability during treatment. The number of nailfold capillaries remained unchanged. The endothelial activation marker vascular cell adhesion molecule did not change during treatment, but levels of thrombomodulin significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment. Bosentan did not induce significant changes in vasodilator responses, capillary permeability, and capillary density during treatment, so no evidence was obtained for structural improvement of microvascular structure and function in this short-time mechanistic pilot study in patients with lcSSc. PMID:19350343

  10. The antiviral effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene on herpes cutaneous infections in hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, A.D.; Arruda, D.; Snipes, W.; Frost, P.

    1982-06-01

    Hairless mice, cutaneously infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), were treated topically with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The effectiveness of BHT in shortening the duration of infections was assayed under three conditions. In the first experiments, mice undergoing primary infections with no prior immunity to HSV-1 were utilized. These animals tended to develop deep lesions that were not typical of recurrent HSV-1 infections in humans. A second set of experiments utilized mice that had recovered from a primary infection and that were immunosuppressed by ..gamma.. irradiation. Immunosuppression was essential for the full development of lesions upon reinfection. The lesions in these animals remained more localized with less tendency to spread into deep tissues. A third set of experiments utilized animals that were subcutaneously inoculated with human serum ..gamma..-globulin 24 hr prior to infection. Lesions on these animals also remained localized and did not penetrate into deep tissues. Under all three conditions, BHT was found to be effective in reducing the clearance time of HSV-1 cutaneous lesions when applied topically to the infected area.

  11. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Rash (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points A rash is an irritated ... health care provider tells you to. What HIV medicines can cause a hypersensitivity reaction? Nevirapine (brand name: ...

  12. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Lipodystrophy (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Lipodystrophy refers to the changes ... loss on the face and leg . Which HIV medicines are linked to lipodystrophy? Although more research is ...

  13. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Hepatotoxicity (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Hepatotoxicity means damage to the ... the liver can be life-threatening. What HIV medicines can cause hepatotoxicity? HIV medicines in the following ...

  14. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in ... are also infected with hepatitis C. What HIV medicines increase the risk of type 2 diabetes? Some ...

  15. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  16. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  17. Development and validation of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Tracy A.; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a measure of antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects in children with a variety of seizure types, treatments, and therapy durations. Methods: Content for an initial 44-item measure was developed using the previously published Hague Scale and expert opinion from recognized pediatric epileptologists (n = 12) and caregivers of children with epilepsy (n = 21). The measure was completed by caregivers during routine clinic visits. Demographic and medical data were collected through chart reviews. Factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Results: Questionnaires were analyzed from 495 children with epilepsy (Mage = 10.1 years; range 2–21 years; 42% female; 14% African American; 32% new onset vs 68% chronic epilepsy). The final questionnaire, the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ), is a 19-item measure with 5 subscales (i.e., cognitive, motor, behavioral, general neurological, and weight) that accounts for 99% of the variance. Internal consistency coefficients and test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.72 to 0.93 and 0.74 to 0.97, respectively. Construct validity was demonstrated by increasing side effects as the number of drugs increased. Participants on valproic acid had significantly higher scores on the Weight Scale compared to those on carbamazepine. Conclusions: The PESQ is a reliable and valid measure of AED side effects in children across the epilepsy spectrum that can be used in both clinical and research settings. PMID:22875082

  18. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis.

  19. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

  20. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. PMID:22129319

  1. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19% of which can be compared to the frequency under placebo treatment. SIDER furthermore contains a data set of drug indications, extracted from the package inserts using Natural Language Processing. These drug indications are used to reduce the rate of false positives by identifying medical terms that do not correspond to ADRs.

  2. Self-report of gastrointestinal side effects after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on gastrointestinal (GI) side effects of bariatric surgery are limited due to incomplete reporting, cross sectional samples, and non-standardized assessments. Objective To report on GI side effects over the first 6 months following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Setting Academic Medical Center, United States. Methods One hundred forty-four patients completed a standardized clinical interview 6 months after operation, including questions on the occurrence and frequency of episodes of dumping syndrome, vomiting, and plugging for each of the past 6 months; monthly rates were stable, so results were averaged over the entire period. Although data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial, randomization group and the interaction of group by surgical procedure were not related to GI side effects. Thus, results are reported by procedure only (RYGB; n = 87, LAGB; n= 56). Results RYGB patients had a higher preoperative Body Mass Index (BMI) than LAGB patients (46.8 ± 6.8 vs. 43.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.001), were more likely to report dumping (45.7% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and were less likely to report plugging (45.7% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.0005). Vomiting did not differ significantly by procedure (68.6% vs. 65.1%, p = 0.7). Most patients experienced each GI side effect less than once per week. Conclusions Although self-reported GI side effects were common over the first 6 months after operation, the frequency of episodes was relatively low. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine whether symptoms worsen or improve over time. PMID:25443069

  3. The effect of 17β-estradiol on cutaneous wound healing in protein-malnourished ovariectomized female mouse model.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kanae; Komatsu, Emi; Nakajima, Yukari; Urai, Tamae; Nasruddin; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is delayed by protein malnutrition (PM). On the other hand, estrogen promotes cutaneous wound healing by its anti-inflammatory and cell proliferation effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that estrogen administration in protein-malnourished ovariectomized (OVX) female mice might improve the inflammatory response and promote cutaneous wound healing as well as normal nutrition. To test this hypothesis, we used full-thickness excisional wounds in Control SHAM, PM SHAM, PM OVX and PM OVX+17β-estradiol mice. The Control diet included 200 g/kg protein and the PM diet included 30 g/kg protein. The ratio of wound area in the Control SHAM group was significantly smaller than those in the three PM groups. In addition, microscopic findings also showed that the ratio of collagen fibers, the ratio of myofibroblasts and the number of new blood vessels in the Control SHAM group were significantly greater than those in the three PM groups. However, the number of Ym1-positive cells as an anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophage marker in the PM OVX+17β-estradiol group was significantly higher than those in the other three groups. These results indicate that the appearance of anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages was promoted by estrogen administration; however, it could not promote cutaneous wound healing upon a low-protein diet. Therefore, it may be confirmed that nutrition is more important for promoting cutaneous wound healing than estrogen administration.

  4. EFFECT OF TIME TO SENTINEL-NODE BIOPSY ON THE PROGNOSIS OF CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Tejera-Vaquerizo, Antonio; Nagore, Eduardo; Puig, Susana; Robert, Caroline; Saiag, Philippe; Martín-Cuevas, Paula; Gallego, Elena; Herrera-Acosta, Enrique; Aguilera, José; Malvehy, Josep; Carrera, Cristina; Cavalcanti, Andrea; Rull, Ramón; Vilalta-Solsona, Antonio; Lannoy, Emilie; Boutros, Celine; Benannoune, Naima; Tomasic, Gorana; Aegerte, Philippe; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Palou, Josep; Alos, LLúcia; Requena, Celia; Traves, Víctor; Pla, Ángel; Bolumar, Isidro; Soriano, Virtudes; Guillén, Carlos; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Instroduction In patients with primary cutaneous melanoma, there is generally a delay between excisional biopsy of the primary tumor and sentinel-node biopsy. The objective of this study is to analyze the prognostic implications of this delay. Patients and method This was an observational, retrospective, cohort study in four tertiary referral hospitals. A total of 1963 patients were included. The factor of interest was the interval between the date of the excisional biopsy of the primary melanoma and the date of the sentinel-node biopsy (delay time) in the prognosis. The primary outcome was melanoma-specific survival and disease-free survival. Results A delay time of 40 days or less (HR, 1.7; CI, 1.2 to 2.5) increased Breslow thickness (Breslow ≥2 mm, HR >3.7; CI 1.4 to 10.7), ulceration (HR 1.6; CI, 1.1 to 2.3), sentinel-node metastasis (HR, 2.9; CI, 1.9 to 4.2), and primary melanoma localized in the head or neck were independently associated with worse melanoma-specific survival (all P<0.03). The stratified analysis showed that the effect of delay time was at the expense of the patients with a negative sentinel-node biopsy and without regression. Conclusion Early sentinel-node biopsy is associated with worse survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma. PMID:26072362

  5. The effect of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Yümin, Eylem Tütün; Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Sertel, Meral; Ankaralı, Handan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effects of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and three healthy female volunteers over the age of 20 were included in the study. The statistical analyses were performed by considering the age and body mass index values of the individuals. The individuals were divided according to their ages and body mass index values. Foot pain was measured with a visual analogue scale and plantar cutaneous sensation using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. [Results] Fifty-six (27.5%) of the participants had normal weights, 67 (33%) were overweight, and 80 (39%) were obese. Statistical analysis revealed that as age and body mass index values increased, plantar sensitivity decreased and the frequency and severity of pain increased. [Conclusion] It is possible that healthy women may experience a decrease in foot plantar sensation with increasing weight and age. If women do not have any health problems, proprioception and sensory training must be focused on in order to prevent balance and falling problems. PMID:27799700

  6. Cutaneous microvascular response during local cold exposure - the effect of female sex hormones and cold perception.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Ksenija; Music, Mark; Finderle, Zare

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that differences exist between males and females with regard to sensitivity to cold. Similar differences even among females in different hormonal balance might influence microvascular response during cold provocation testing. The aim of the present study was to measure sex hormone levels, cold and cold pain perception thresholds and compare them to cutaneous laser-Doppler flux response during local cooling in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. In the luteal phase a more pronounced decrease in laser-Doppler flux was observed compared to follicular phase during local cooling at 15°C (significant difference by Dunnett's test, p<0.05). In addition, statistically significant correlations between progesterone level and laser-Doppler flux response to local cooling were observed during the follicular (R=-0.552, p=0.0174) and during the luteal phases (R=0.520, p=0.0271). In contrast, the correlation between estradiol level and laser-Doppler flux response was observed only in the follicular phase (R=-0.506, p=0.0324). Our results show that individual sensitivity to cold influences cutaneous microvascular response to local cooling; that microvascular reactivity is more pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle; and that reactivity correlates with hormone levels. The effect of specific sex hormone levels is related to the cold-provocation temperature. PMID:27430896

  7. Antiangiogenic agents and the skin: cutaneous adverse effects of sorafenib, sunitinib, and bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Ara, M; Pastushenko, E

    2014-12-01

    As new antiangiogenic therapies have been introduced and added to the therapeutic arsenal against various types of cancer, previously unknown adverse effects have been detected. These effects negatively impact patients' quality of life and can even make it necessary to suspend treatment. Adverse skin reactions occur in 90% of patients treated with angiogenesis inhibitors. In some cases, a correlation has been observed between the severity of reactions and treatment efficacy and tumor response. It is therefore extremely important that dermatologists be able to recognize and manage these reactions. Moreover, in order to avoid the unjustified withdrawal of potentially life-extending treatments, dermatologists must be able to differentiate between non-life-threatening reactions and life-threatening reactions that necessitate the suspension of treatment. In this review article, we analyze the main cutaneous adverse effects of the most common antiangiogenic agents. PMID:24766821

  8. Anti-inflammatory and side effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Süleyman, Halis; Demircan, Berna; Karagöz, Yalçin

    2007-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly used drugs in inflammatory diseases, since they are effective in management of pain, fever, redness, edema arising as a consequence of inflammatory mediator release. Studies have shown that both therapeutic and side effects of NSAIDs are dependent on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. COX isoforms have been named constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2). COX-1 catalyzes formation of cytoprotective prostaglandins in thrombocytes, vascular endothelium, stomach mucosa, kidneys, pancreas, Langerhans islets, seminal vesicles, and brain. Induction of COX-2 by various growth factors, proinflammatory agents, endotoxins, mitogens, and tumor agents indicates that this isoform may have a role in induction of pathological processes, such as inflammation. It is well known that therapy with COX inhibitors is associated with a number of side effects including gastrointestinal erosions, and renal and hepatic insufficiency. Such critical adverse reactions are mostly dependent on COX-1 inhibition. As a result of research focused on reduction of the adverse effects of NSAIDs, selective COX-2 inhibitors, such as celecoxib and rofecoxib have been developed. However, many data demonstrate that mechanisms of action of these drugs are multidirectional and complex. These drugs or their derivatives, which belong to the same group, have distinct pharmacological effects, side effects and potencies which implies that there may be more than two, five or even tens of COX isoforms.

  9. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    PubMed

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective.

  10. Cutaneous sporotrichosis. Intermittent treatment (pulses) with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Fierro, Leonel; Saúl, Amado; Ponce, Rosa María

    2008-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous and exceptionally deep mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. Itraconazole is a triazole derivative leading to good results in the treatment of sporotrichosis. Patients with cutaneous sporotrichosis proven with mycological tests (direct examination and culture) were enrolled. All patients underwent laboratory tests (at baseline and on a monthly basis) and received oral itraconazole 400 mg/day for one week with a 3-week break (pulses); thereafter the drug was administered as pulses until clinical and mycological cure was achieved. Five patients with sporotrichosis were enrolled, 4 with cutaneous lymphangitic form and one with fixed cutaneous form. Clinical and mycological cure was achieved in 4/5 cases (80%), with a mean number of pulses of 3.5. No patient had side effects and no laboratory test abnormalities occurred. Intermittent or pulsed itraconazole was effective in treating cutaneous sporotrichosis. It may be considered as a new treatment choice that entails an important reduction in total medication use.

  11. Effective cutaneous vaccination using an inactivated chikungunya virus vaccine delivered by Foroderm.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Penny A; Raphael, Anthony P; Yamada, Miko; Nufer, Kaitlin L; Gardner, Joy; Le, Thuy T T; Prow, Natalie A; Dang, Nhung; Schroder, Wayne A; Prow, Tarl W; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-09-22

    Foroderm is a new cutaneous delivery technology that uses high-aspect ratio, cylindrical silica microparticles, that are massaged into the skin using a 3D-printed microtextured applicator, in order to deliver payloads across the epidermis. Herein we show that this technology is effective for delivery of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-virus chikungunya virus vaccine in mice, with minimal post-vaccination skin reactions. A single topical Foroderm-based vaccination induced T cell, Th1 cytokine and antibody responses, which provided complete protection against viraemia and disease after challenge with chikungunya virus. Foroderm vaccination was shown to deliver fluorescent, virus-sized beads across the epidermis, with beads subsequently detected in draining lymph nodes. Foroderm vaccination also stimulated the egress of MHC II(+) antigen presenting cells from the skin. Foroderm thus has potential as a simple, cheap, effective, generic, needle-free technology for topical delivery of vaccines.

  12. The effect of topical ethanol extract of Cotinus coggygria Scop. on cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Halil; Sancar, Mesut; Sen, Ali; Okuyan, Betul; Bitis, Leyla; Uras, Fikriye; Akakin, Dilek; Cevik, Ozge; Kultur, Sukran; İzzettin, Fikret Vehbi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the cutaneous wound healing effects of the ethanol extract of Cotinus coggygria leaves in rats by excision wound model to provide scientific evidence for the traditional use of C. coggygria Scop. The levels of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and hydroxyproline were investigated in wound tissues. Histopathological examination was also performed. The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue and the glutathione levels were both significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05 for both); while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in the treatment group (p < 0.05). These results were supported with histological results. The ethanol extract of C. coggygria Scop could be considered as an effective agent in wound healing in accordance with its traditional use.

  13. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Post-Transplant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Valerian Ciprian; Berardinelli, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Modern immunosuppressive therapy has produced a real revolution in renal and organ transplantation but it comes with the price of multiple side effects. There are many gastrointestinal (GI) complications that are the consequence of transplant immunosuppressant medication. In fact, for any immunosuppressant therapy, certain standardized precepts and attitudes that aim to reduce the incidence and the impact of the medication side effects must be applied. Many patients undergo renal transplantation and the physicians have to be aware of the advantages and the risks associated. This article reviews the main GI complications that may arise as a consequence of immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation, focusing on renal and renal/pancreas transplantation, as well as the ways in which the incidence of these complications can be reduced. Management of the post-transplant therapy is mandatory in order to increase not only the grafts' and the patients' survival, but also their quality of life by the occurrence of fewer complications. PMID:27689202

  14. Psychological side effects of immune therapies: symptoms and pathomechanism.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, David; Kovacs, Peter; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapies revolutionised the treatment of several disorders but show specific side-effect profiles which frequently involve psychological symptoms. Long term interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy can cause wide-ranging psychiatric side-effects from fatigue, insomnia, anxiety to full-blown depression. This treatment-emergent depression shares several symptoms with major depressive disorder (MDD) with a predominance of somatic/neurovegetative symptoms, and can be treated with antidepressants. However, this experience directed research to inflammatory mechanisms in MDD. MDD has been confirmed as a heterogeneous disorder with a subgroup of patients suffering from low-grade chronic inflammation and frequently resistant to traditional antidepressant treatment. Thus future research should develop strategies to identify those MDD patients who could benefit from drugs acting through inflammatory pathways. PMID:27456240

  15. [New side effects of proton pump inhibitors; time for reflection?].

    PubMed

    de Wit, N J; Numans, M E

    2016-01-01

    Large population studies published recently have revealed additional risks of chronic use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Dementia and renal failure were reported as long-term follow-up side effects of chronic use, in addition to the previously known increased risk for various infections, osteoporosis and metabolic disturbances. In the light of ongoing over-prescription of PPIs, this should lead to reconsideration of individual indications. PMID:27334088

  16. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  17. Pharmacogenetics and Antipsychotics: Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences is clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one's genetic markers. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the pharmacogenetic literature from early 1990s to 2010, focusing on two aspects of drug action: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Genetic variants in the neurotransmitter receptors including dopamine and serotonin, and metabolic pathways of drugs including CYP2D6 and COMT, were discussed in association with clinical drug response and side effects. What the reader will gain Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field. Take home message Pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs is both promising and challenging. There is consistent evidence that some genetic variants can affect clinical response and side effects. However, more studies that are designed specifically to test pharmacogenetic hypotheses are clearly needed to advance the field. PMID:21162693

  18. Plasma fenfluramine levels, weight loss, and side effects.

    PubMed Central

    Innes, J A; Watson, M L; Ford, M J; Munro, J F; Stoddart, M E; Campbell, D B

    1977-01-01

    Fifty women with refractory obesity received fenfluramine for 20 weeks. Every two weeks details of weight change, drug dose, degree of anorexia, and any side effects were recorded and plasma was obtained for fenfluramine and norfenfluramine measurements. Of the 41 patients available for final analysis 26 achieved a maximum plateau dose of 160 mg/day. Plasma fenfluramine concentrations did not correlate with the degree of anorexia or with the incidence of side effects other than the severity of dream disturbance. There was a highly significant relation between weight loss and plasma fenfluramine and norfenfluramine concentrations and also between weight loss and the presence of sustained anorexia. Women who achieved mean plateau concentrations over 200 ng/ml lost a mean 8.8 kg while those with concentrations less than 100 ng/ml lost a mean of only 2.1 kg. When fenfluramine is prescribed in refractory obesity the dose should be increased stepwise until either satisfactory weight loss is achieved or troublesome side effects appear. PMID:589167

  19. The Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire: Establishing clinically meaningful change.

    PubMed

    Junger, Katherine W; Morita, Diego; Modi, Avani C

    2015-04-01

    The present study extends the utility of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ) by determining distribution-based minimally clinically important difference (MCID) scores. Participants (N=682) were youth (ages 2-25) with newly diagnosed and chronic epilepsy pooled from research and clinical data in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. Caregivers completed the PESQ. Demographic and medical data were extracted from medical chart reviews or via a questionnaire. The MCIDs, which are the standard errors of measurement for each scale, for the entire sample were as follows: Cognitive=4.66, Motor=4.67, Behavior=8.05, General Neurological=7.41, Weight=9.58, and Total Side Effects=3.25. Additionally, MCIDs for patients with new-onset (<12months) epilepsy on monotherapy, new-onset epilepsy on polytherapy, chronic epilepsy on monotherapy (>12months), and chronic epilepsy on polytherapy were calculated. Results from the present study extend the utility of the PESQ by providing clinicians and researchers an enhanced understanding about clinically meaningful changes in side effect profiles across the pediatric epilepsy spectrum. These data can inform clinical decision-making for clinicians and researchers. PMID:25842203

  20. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic treatment response and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, B; Souza, RP; Likhodi, O; Tiwari, AK; Zai, CC; Sturgess, J

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are particularly interesting in pharmacogenetic studies as they are associated with a large interindividual variability in terms of response and side effects and, therefore, frequently need to be discontinued, requiring switches to other antipsychotics. Any information that allows the prediction of outcome to a given antipsychotic in a particular patient will, therefore, be of great help for the clinician to minimize time and find the right drug for the right patient, thus optimizing response and minimizing side effects. This will also have a substantial impact on compliance and doctor–patient relationships. Moreover, antipsychotic drug treatments are often required for life-long treatment and are also frequently prescribed to the more ‘vulnerable’ populations: children, adolescents and the elderly. This article focuses on some important studies performed with candidate gene variants associated with antipsychotic response. In addition, important findings in pharmacogenetic studies of antipsychotic-induced side effects will be briefly summarized, such as antipsychotic treatment induced tardive dyskinesia and weight gain. PMID:22287936

  1. Beta-blocker therapy: identification and management of side effects.

    PubMed

    Dennis, K E; Froman, D; Morrison, A S; Holmes, K D; Howes, D G

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale designed to identify and quantify the impact that the side effects of beta-blocker therapy have on people's lives, and the self-management practices people use to mediate their influence. Instruments included the 20-item beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale and the Profile of Mood States. Subjects had hypertension; 51 men were involved in a larger study involving antihypertensive medications and exercise, and 19 men and women were receiving beta-blocker therapy as first-line drug of choice. Estimates of internal consistency reliability, content validity, and concurrent and discriminant validity were moderately strong. The most problematic side effects were related to lack of sleep, vivid or active dreams, lack of energy and pep, diminished interest in sexual activity, and changes in vision. Among self-management practices used to mediate side effects were planning rest and activity periods, thinking carefully before reacting, and seeking out others for support. PMID:1680114

  2. Side-effects of henna and semi-permanent 'black henna' tattoos: a full review.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-07-01

    Henna, the dried and powdered leaf of Lawsonia inermis, is widely used as a dye for the skin, hair, and nails, and as an expression of body art, especially in Islamic and Hindu cultures. As it stains the skin reddish-brown, it is also called red henna. Black henna is the combination of red henna with p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and is used for temporary 'black henna tattoos'. This article provides a full review of the side-effects of topical application of red and black henna, both cutaneous (allergic and non-allergic) and systemic. Red henna appears to be generally safe, with rare instances of contact allergy and type I hypersensitivity reactions. In children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, topical application of henna may cause life-threatening haemolysis. Black henna tattoos will induce contact allergy to its ingredient PPD at an estimated frequency of 2.5%. Once sensitized, the patients may experience allergic contact dermatitis from the use of hair dyes containing PPD. There are often cross-reactions to other hair dyes, dyes used in textiles, local anaesthetics, and rubber chemicals. The sensitization of children to PPD may have important consequences for health and later career prospects. Systemic toxicity of black henna has been reported in certain African countries.

  3. TNF-alpha reverses the disease-exacerbating effect of subcutaneous immunization against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Liew, F Y; Li, Y; Yang, D M; Severn, A; Cox, F E

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that mice injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly with leishmanial antigens develop significantly exacerbated disease compared with unimmunized controls when challenged with the cutaneous protozoan parasites Leishmania major. We report here that this disease enhancement can be prevented, and protective immunity induced, by the incorporation of recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) in the immunizing inoculum. This effect of TNF-alpha is dose-dependent and is not evident when TNF-alpha and the antigens are injected into separate sites. Furthermore, TNF-alpha injected together with p183, a peptide known to preferentially stimulate Th2 cells and disease exacerbation in H-2d mice, activates spleen and lymph node cells secreting more interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and less interleukin-4 (IL-4) and induces a modest but significant degree of resistance against L. major infection in highly susceptible BALB/c mice. PMID:1748478

  4. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Rojas, Ernesto; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Pardo, Henry; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Åkesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit. PMID:25397995

  5. Effects and Side Effects of Inspections and Accountability in Education: An Overview of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Inge F.; Janssens, Frans J. G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of whether inspections have positive causal effects on…

  6. Pandemic influenza vaccines and neuraminidase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects.

    PubMed

    Bijl, D

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the outbreak of the pandemic of New Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccines became available via an accelerated registration procedure. In 2005 large stocks of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir were built up in the Netherlands and other western countries. There was considerable doubt about the efficacy of this medicine. Initially reported positive effects of the drug were largely based on unpublished research, which was sponsored by the manufacturer and was partially written by ghostwriters. There now have been reports of rare and serious side effects. The first reports on the severity of the pandemic in Australia and New Zealand indicated a mild course.

  7. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P; Sen, Subrata

    2014-04-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism.

  8. Composition of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community in Japanese Amphibians: Effects of Captivity, Host Species, and Body Region.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Bletz, Molly Catherine; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Shimizu, Norio; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Vences, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The cutaneous microbiota plays a significant role in the biology of their vertebrate hosts, and its composition is known to be influenced both by host and environment, with captive conditions often altering alpha diversity. Here, we compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of 61 amphibians (both wild and captive) from Hiroshima, Japan, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of these samples came from a captive breeding facility at Hiroshima University where specimens from six species are maintained under highly standardized conditions for several generations. This allowed to identify host effects on the bacterial communities under near identical environmental conditions in captivity. We found the structure of the cutaneous bacterial community significantly differing between wild and captive individuals of newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, with a higher alpha diversity found in the wild individuals. Community structure also showed distinct patterns when comparing different species of amphibians kept under highly similar conditions, revealing an intrinsic host effect. Bacterial communities of dorsal vs. ventral skin surfaces did not significantly differ in most species, but a trend of higher alpha diversity on the ventral surface was found in Oriental fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis. This study confirms the cutaneous microbiota of amphibians as a highly dynamic system influenced by a complex interplay of numerous factors.

  9. Composition of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community in Japanese Amphibians: Effects of Captivity, Host Species, and Body Region.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Bletz, Molly Catherine; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Shimizu, Norio; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Vences, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The cutaneous microbiota plays a significant role in the biology of their vertebrate hosts, and its composition is known to be influenced both by host and environment, with captive conditions often altering alpha diversity. Here, we compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of 61 amphibians (both wild and captive) from Hiroshima, Japan, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of these samples came from a captive breeding facility at Hiroshima University where specimens from six species are maintained under highly standardized conditions for several generations. This allowed to identify host effects on the bacterial communities under near identical environmental conditions in captivity. We found the structure of the cutaneous bacterial community significantly differing between wild and captive individuals of newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, with a higher alpha diversity found in the wild individuals. Community structure also showed distinct patterns when comparing different species of amphibians kept under highly similar conditions, revealing an intrinsic host effect. Bacterial communities of dorsal vs. ventral skin surfaces did not significantly differ in most species, but a trend of higher alpha diversity on the ventral surface was found in Oriental fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis. This study confirms the cutaneous microbiota of amphibians as a highly dynamic system influenced by a complex interplay of numerous factors. PMID:27278778

  10. [Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms].

    PubMed

    Timonen, Kaisa; Nuutinen, Pauliina; Raili, Kauppinen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms Cutaneous symptoms of porphyrias are initiated from a phototoxic reaction caused by sunlight and circulating porphyrins in the vascular walls of the skin. This leads in fragility, blistering and scarring of the skin on light-exposed areas. There are approximately 200 patients having hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms in Finland. Cutaneous symptoms of variegate porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda are indistinguishable, but an effective treatment is available only for the latter. Differential diagnosis is important due to acute episodes occurring in variegate porphyria.

  11. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. Material/Methods In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. Results A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1–78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0–20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Conclusions Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection. PMID:26190279

  12. The effect of light touch on the amplitude of cutaneous reflexes in the arms during treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Forero, Juan; Misiaszek, John E

    2014-09-01

    Light touch contact of the tip of one finger can influence the postural control of subjects standing or walking on a treadmill. It is suggested that haptic cues from the finger provide an important sensory cue for the control of posture. In the current study, we used intra-limb cutaneous reflexes in the arms to test the hypothesis that transmission in sensory pathways relevant to the light touch contact would be modulated when light touch is used to increase stability during walking in an unstable environment. Subjects walked on a treadmill and received periodic pulls to the waist. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked from stimulation of the median and radial nerves while the subjects either (a) lightly touched or (b) did not touch a stable contact with the tip of their index finger, while the eyes were either (c) open or (d) closed. The results showed that cutaneous reflexes were modulated by both touch and vision. The effect of touch depended on the nerve being stimulated. The provision of touch in the absence of vision resulted in facilitation of median nerve reflexes evoked in the posterior deltoid and the triceps brachii, but resulted in the suppression of radial nerve reflexes. The nerve-specific influence of touch observed in the responses suggests that cutaneous afferent pathways are facilitated in the presence of touch if they transport sensory information from functionally relevant sensory cues.

  13. Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids in Weight-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R H; Wright, J E; Finerman, G A; Catlin, D H

    1983-12-01

    In brief: This study documents the patterns of use of anabolic steroids in 32 body builders and power lifters. These subjects and seven control athletes who had never used steroids were interviewed and underwent a medical examination including 28 diagnostic blood tests and a urinalysis. Gynecomastia was detected in 4 of the 20 current users and 1 of the other 19 subjects. Sixty-seven percent of users reported temporary changes in libido, and 56% reported a temporary increase in irritability or aggressive behavior. Physicians should tell patients about the possible adverse side effects of such agents.

  14. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy. PMID:25671958

  15. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism. PMID:27211356

  16. Drug-induced ocular side-effects with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Barrado-Navascués, Eva; Rubido-Crespo, María-José

    2008-09-01

    Whereas there are numerous reported ocular side-effects from isotretinoin medication, we present the first case report of corneal steepening after systemic treatment with isotretinoin for seven and a half weeks. The case was associated with a significant drop in visual acuity which could not be explained from the refractive error change. All signs and symptoms were absent seven and a half weeks after the medication was withdrawn. The case indicates that eye care professionals need to be vigilant about the possibility of adverse ocular manifestations associated with the use of systemic medications.

  17. [Downbeat nystagmus - a rare side-effect of lithium carbonate].

    PubMed

    Monden, M A H; Nederkoorn, P J; Tijsma, M

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman who had been treated with lithium carbonate for 10 years developed a downbeat nystagmus. The literature describes downbeat nystagmus as a rare side-effect of lithium carbonate. In this patient other causes of downbeat nystagmus were ruled out. In most cases stopping lithium carbonate does not alleviate the symptoms, which are often debilitating. At the moment there is no adequate treatment for the condition. In some cases, however, the symptoms subside after the patient stops taking lithium. Therefore, we consider that early recognition of downbeat nystagmus in patients being treated with lithium carbonate is vitally important.

  18. Male superiority in spatial navigation: adaptation or side effect?

    PubMed

    Clint, Edward K; Sober, Elliott; Garland, Theodore; Rhodes, Justin S

    2012-12-01

    In the past few decades, sex differences in spatial cognition have often been attributed to adaptation in response to natural selection. A common explanation is that home range size differences between the sexes created different cognitive demands pertinent to wayfinding in each sex and resulted in the evolution of sex differences in spatial navigational ability in both humans and nonhuman mammals. However, the assumption of adaptation as the appropriate mode of explanation was nearly simultaneous with the discovery and subsequent verification of the male superiority effect, even without any substantive evidence establishing a causal role for adaptation. An alternate possibility that the sex difference in cognition is a genetic or hormonal side effect has not been rigorously tested using the comparative method. The present study directly evaluates how well the range hypothesis fits the available data on species differences in spatial ability by use of a phylogenetically based, cross-species, comparative analysis. We find no support for the hypothesis that species differences in home range size dimorphism are positively associated with parallel differences in spatial navigation abilities. The alternative hypothesis that sex differences in spatial cognition result as a hormonal side effect is better supported by the data.

  19. Cutaneous zygomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous zygomycosis is a fungal infection caused by zygomycetes that affects the skin. It occurs in uncontrolled diabetic patients and immunosuppressed individuals. It has 2 clinical forms: primary cutaneous zygomycosis and secondary cutaneous zygomycosis. The first is characterized by necrotic lesions and the fungus is usually inoculated by trauma. If diagnosed early, it generally has a good prognosis. Secondary zygomycosis is usually a complication and extension of the rhinocerebral variety that starts as a palpebral fistula and progresses to a necrotic lesion with a poor prognosis. The diagnosis is made by identification of the fungus by direct KOH examination, culture, and biopsy. Treatment for the primary disease is surgical debridement plus amphotericin B. The secondary type is treated with amphotericin B and/or posaconazole.

  20. Cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N J; King, C M

    1998-11-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ granulomatous disorder of unknown cause. Skin sarcoidosis occurs in about 25% of patients with systemic disease and may also arise in isolation. A wide range of clinical presentations of cutaneous sarcoidosis is recognised. The diagnosis rests on the presence of non-caseating granulomas on skin biopsy and the exclusion of other granulomatous skin disease. The treatment and overall prognosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis is primarily dependent on the degree of systemic involvement. In patients with aggressive disease limited to the skin immunosuppressive therapy may be indicated.

  1. The Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire: Establishing clinically meaningful change

    PubMed Central

    Junger, Katherine W.; Morita, Diego; Modi, Avani C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the utility of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ) by determining distribution-based minimally clinically important difference (MCID) scores. Participants (N=682) were youth (ages 2–25) with newly diagnosed and chronic epilepsy pooled from research and clinical data in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. Caregivers completed the PESQ. Demographic and medical data were extracted from medical chart reviews or via a questionnaire. The MCIDs, which are the standard errors of measurement for each scale, for the entire sample were: Cognitive = 4.66; Motor = 4.67; Behavior = 8.05; General Neurological = 7.41; Weight = 9.58; Total PESQ = 3.25. Additionally, MCIDs for patients with new-onset (<12 months) epilepsy on monotherapy, new-onset epilepsy on polytherapy, chronic epilepsy on monotherapy (>12 months), and chronic epilepsy on polytherapy were calculated. Results from the present study extend the utility of the PESQ by providing clinicians and researchers an enhanced understanding about clinically meaningful changes in side effect profiles across the pediatric epilepsy spectrum. These data can inform clinical decision making for clinicians and researchers. PMID:25842203

  2. Cognitive side-effects of antiepileptic drugs in children.

    PubMed

    Ijff, Dominique M; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2013-01-01

    Although the causes of cognitive impairment in patients with epilepsy have not been completely elucidated, three factors are clearly involved: the underlying etiology of epilepsy, the effects of seizures or the epileptiform EEG discharges themselves, and the central nervous system effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). All commonly used AEDs have some effect on cognitive function, and the effect may be substantial when crucial functions are involved, such as learning in children. With phenobarbital, there is a high risk for serious cognitive effects impacting attention and memory. Phenytoin may affect mental speed, mainly in higher dosing and polytherapy. Moderate monotherapy doses do not seem to induce much effect. Valproate does not seem to impair cognition if sufficiently controlled for hyperammonemia. For carbamazepine, there are conflicting reports, which may be due to selection bias or dosing. For oxcarbazepine, there is no evidence for any detrimental change compared to valproate but mild improvements on attentional tests. For topiramate, there is clear evidence for topiramate-induced cognitive impairment (attention, memory, and language function) in adults and children. Although data is sketchy, levetiracetam does not seem to have a negative impact on cognition. For lamotrigine, there is evidence of a cognitive-enhancing effect on attention. No evidence for cognitive side-effects has been found for vigabatrin. Ethosuximide is not associated with cognitive impairment although the evidence is sketchy. For gabapentin, tiagabine, zonisamide, and rufinamide no studies in children are available. PMID:23622218

  3. Ocular Side Effect of Tinidazole: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kauser, Hina; Qadir, Maniah; Anwar, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported. PMID:25657970

  4. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  5. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  6. The effects of topical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine experimental cutaneous wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lyoo, Young S; Jung, Dong-In; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells have been widely investigated in bioengineering approaches for tissue repair therapy. We evaluated the clinical value and safety of the application of cultured bone marrow-derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating skin wounds in a canine model. Hypothesis Topical allogenic MSC transplantation can accelerate the closure of experimental full-thickness cutaneous wounds and attenuate local inflammation. Animals Adult healthy beagle dogs (n = 10; 3–6 years old; 7.2–13.1 kg) were studied. Methods Full-thickness skin wounds were created on the dorsum of healthy beagles, and allogenic MSCs were injected intradermally. The rate of wound closure and the degree of collagen production were analysed histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining and trichrome staining. The degree of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis was evaluated by immunocytochemistry using proliferating cell nuclear antigen-, vimentin- and α-smooth muscle actin-specific antibodies. Local mRNA expression levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results Compared with the vehicle-treated wounds, MSC-treated wounds showed more rapid wound closure and increased collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, MSC-treated wounds showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ) and wound healing-related factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2). Conclusion and clinical importance Topical transplantation of MSCs results in paracrine effects on cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, as well as modulation of local mRNA expression of several factors related to cutaneous wound healing. Résumé Contexte Les cellules souches adultes ont été largement étudiées dans les approches de bio-ingénierie pour la thérapie de réparation tissulaire. Nous évaluons l

  7. Cutaneous Horn

    MedlinePlus

    ... fair-skinned individuals with a history of significant sun exposure. Signs and Symptoms A cutaneous horn most often ... radiation therapy. Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Skin Conditions MedlinePlus: Sun Exposure References Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp.1715. ...

  8. Effects of sangre de drago in an in vitro model of cutaneous neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ulysse; Garcia-Le Gal, Caridad; Le Gal, Grégoire; Boulais, Nicholas; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Dorange, Germaine; Lefeuvre, Luc; Gougerot, Agnés; Misery, Laurent

    2010-09-01

    Sangre de drago (SD) is a viscous bright red resin collected from Croton lechleri trees that grow in the South American jungle. This sap is used extensively in the native pharmacopoeia to treat skin disorders. Its effectiveness as an inhibitor of neurogenic inflammation has been recently demonstrated. To understand the underlying mechanisms of these effects, we examined the ability of SD to reduce substance P (SP) release in an in vitro model of cutaneous neurogenic inflammation (CNI). This model is based on an enzyme immunoassay of SP (an inducer of CNI) in a porcine co-culture of dorsal root ganglion neurons and keratinocytes. After incubation with different concentrations of SD, we noted an immediate and significant dose-dependent decrease in basal SP release, with average values of 32% at 1% SD (v/v) and 26% at 0.1% (v/v). On the other hand, pretreatment (72 or 1 h) of the co-culture with 1% SD (v/v) was sufficient to induce a 111% (72 h) or 65% (1 h) inhibition of capsaicin-induced SP release, while 0.1% SD (v/v) triggered a 109% (72 h) or 30% (1 h) inhibition. We conclude that sangre de drago is a potent inhibitor of CNI through direct inhibition of neuropeptide release by sensory afferent nerves.

  9. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eduardo S.; Campos, Bruno L. S.; Jesus, Jéssica A.; Laurenti, Márcia D.; Ribeiro, Susan P.; Kallás, Esper G.; Rafael-Fernandes, Mariana; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Silva, Marcelo S.; Sessa, Deborah P.; Lago, João H. G.; Levy, Débora; Passero, Luiz F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo). Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50) was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for the treatment

  10. [Toxicity of cyproheptadine. Side effects and accidental overdosage (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    von Mühlendahl, K E; Krienke, E G

    1978-03-01

    113 cases of accidental ingestion of cyproheptadine (Nuran) by children have been evaluated. Life threatening alterations have not been observed after doses ranging from 0.3-6.15 (x:1.89) mg per kg of body weight. Somnolence, excitation, hallucinations, ataxia, tachycardia, and muscle twitchings were observed frequently, and occasionally gastric pain, dry mucuous surfaces, mydriasis, and rubeosis of the face were present. Symptoms appeared rapidly after ingestion and generally did not last longer than 6-12 h. When given in therapeutic doses, cyproheptadine reduces the secretion of ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone, lowers blood glucose concentrations, and raises the levels of unesterified free fatty acids. Parents frequently complain about unsatisfactory eating habits of their children, but chronic lack of appetite needing therapeutical attention, in healthy children, is the rare exception. Cyproheptadine is an agent with considerable side effects, and it should be prescribed to children only after very careful deliberation.

  11. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    PubMed

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  12. Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Block, Jerald; Nevin, Remington Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (previously marketed in the United States as Lariam®) is an antimalarial medication with potent psychotropic potential. Severe psychiatric side effects due to mefloquine intoxication are well documented, including anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, persecutory delusions, dissociative psychosis, and anterograde amnesia. Exposure to the drug has been associated with acts of violence and suicide. In this article, we discuss the history of mefloquine use and describe plausible mechanisms of its psychotropic action. Mefloquine intoxication has not yet been successfully advanced in legal proceedings as a defense or as a mitigating factor, but it appears likely that it eventually will be. Considerations for the application of claims of mefloquine intoxication in forensic settings are discussed.

  13. Peripheral oedema as a side-effect of fluticasone

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Alice; Godden, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl had experienced gross peripheral oedema for nearly 2 years. She was under review by several paediatric specialists for a variety of problems. Her local paediatric team were unable to find the cause of her oedema, despite extensive investigations. Eventually, her mother discovered the cause was inhaled fluticasone, prescribed at normal dosage for asthma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first reported case of peripheral oedema associated with the use of fluticasone. Peripheral oedema is a rare side-effect of fluticasone in the form of either seretide or flixotide. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in cases of resistant peripheral oedema with no other identified cause. PMID:22752833

  14. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use. PMID:22409453

  15. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to address the open question in regard

  16. Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Garden, J.M.; Tan, O.T.; Kerschmann, R.; Boll, J.; Furumoto, H.; Anderson, R.R.; Parrish, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    The pulsed dye laser at 577 nm, a wavelength well absorbed by oxyhemoglobin, causes highly selective thermal injury to cutaneous blood vessels. Confinement of thermal damage to microvessels is, in theory, related to the laser exposure time (pulsewidth) on selective vascular injury. This study investigates the effect of 577 nm dye laser pulsewidth on selective vascular injury. Nine Caucasian, normal volunteers received 577 nm dye laser exposures at pulsewidths of 1.5-350 microseconds to their skin. Clinical purpura threshold exposure doses were determined in each volunteer, and biopsies of threshold and suprathreshold doses were examined in each volunteer. The laser exposure dose required to produce purpura increased as pulsewidth increased in all 9 subjects (p less than 0.001). This finding corresponds to laser pulsewidths equal to or exceeding the thermal relaxation times for dermal blood vessels. Histologically, vessel damage was selectively, but qualitatively, different for short vs long pulsewidths. Pulsewidths shorter than 20 microseconds caused vessel wall fragmentation and hemorrhage, whereas longer pulsewidths caused no significant hemorrhage. The purpura noted clinically appears to be due to a coagulum of intralumenal denatured erythrocytes. At 24 h, there was marked vessel wall necrosis at all pulsewidths. The short pulsewidths may cause erythrocyte vaporization, rapid thermal expansion, and mechanical vessel rupture with hemorrhage. Long pulsewidths appear to cause thermal denaturation with less mechanical vessel damage. The selective, nonhemorrhagic, vascular necrosis caused by the long-pulsewidth dye laser may lead to a more desirable clinical outcome in the therapy of blood vessel disease processes.

  17. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  18. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The purpose of this study was to add, to the objective evaluation, an instrumental assessment of the skin damage induced by radiation therapy. Materials and methods A group of 100 patients affected by breast cancer was recruited in the study over one year. Patients were divided into five groups of 20 patients. For each group it was prescribed a different topical treatment. The following products were used: Betaglucan, sodium hyaluronate (Neoviderm®), Vitis vinifera A. s-I-M.t-O.dij (Ixoderm®), Alga Atlantica plus Ethylbisiminomethylguaicolo and Manganese Cloruro (Radioskin1®) and Metal Esculetina plus Ginko Biloba and Aloe vera (Radioskin 2®); Natural triglycerides-fitosterols (Xderit®); Selectiose plus thermal water of Avene (Trixera+®). All hydrating creams were applied twice a day starting 15 days before and one month after treatment with radiations. Before and during treatment patients underwent weekly skin assessments and corneometry to evaluate the symptoms related to skin toxicity and state of hydration. Evaluation of acute cutaneous toxicity was defined according to the RTOG scale. Results All patients completed radiotherapy; 72% of patients presented a G1 cutaneous toxicity, 18% developed a G2 cutaneous toxicity, 10% developed a G3 toxicity, no one presented G4 toxicity. The corneometry study confirmed the protective role of effective creams used in radiation therapy of breast cancer and showed its usefulness to identify radiation-induced dermatitis in a very early stage. Conclusions The preventive use of topic products reduces the incidence of skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. An instrumental evaluation of skin hydration can help the radiation oncologist to use strategies that prevent the onset of toxicity of high degree. All moisturizing creams used in this study were equally valid in the treatment of skin damage induced by radiotherapy. PMID:23497676

  19. The effects of topically applied hexyl nicotinate lotion on the cutaneous blood flow in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bunker, C B; Lanigan, S; Rustin, M H; Dowd, P M

    1988-12-01

    The effect of the epicutaneous application of 0.1% and 1.0% hexyl nicotinate lotion on upper limb skin blood flow was investigated in 25 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and five healthy volunteers. Assessments were made using laser Doppler velocimetry. The 0.1% lotion induced an increase in cutaneous blood flow in both controls and patients when applied at different sites on the upper limb. Increased cutaneous blood flow occurred more often when the lotion was applied to the forearm than to the fingers. A greater increase in blood flow and an increased percentage of positive responses was elicited with the 1.0% hexyl nicotinate lotion. Hexyl nicotinate lotion may be of value in the topical treatment of RP.

  20. Lupus erythematosus: considerations about clinical, cutaneous and therapeutic aspects*

    PubMed Central

    Moura Filho, Jucélio Pereira; Peixoto, Raiza Luna; Martins, Lívia Gomes; de Melo, Sillas Duarte; de Carvalho, Ligiana Leite; Pereira, Ana Karine F. da Trindade C.; Freire, Eutilia Andrade Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease with multifactorial etiology. Although clinical manifestations are varied, the skin is an important target-organ, which contributes to the inclusion of skin lesions in 4 out of the 17 new criteria for the diagnosis of the disease, according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. The cutaneous manifestations of lupus are pleomorphic. Depending on their clinical characteristics, they can be classified into Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus, Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus, Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus and Intermittent Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus. Treatment is based on preventive measures, reversal of inflammation, prevention of damage to target organs and relief of adverse events due to pharmacological therapy. The most commonly used treatment options are topical, systemic and surgical treatment, as well as phototherapy. The correct handling of the cases depends on a careful evaluation of the morphology of the lesions and the patient's general status, always taking into consideration not only the benefits but also the side effects of each therapeutic proposal. PMID:24626656

  1. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  2. Cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal adjuvant therapy for breast cancer: a case of localised urticarial vasculitis following anastrozole therapy and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bock, Vanessa L; Friedlander, Michael; Waring, Dale; Kossard, Steven; Wood, Glenda K

    2014-11-01

    Hormonal therapy with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors is commonly used to treat women with breast cancer in both the adjuvant and recurrent disease setting. Cutaneous adverse reactions to these drugs have been rarely reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of urticarial vasculitis following the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole that localised to the unilateral trunk and mastectomy scar, and review the literature on the cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal therapy for breast cancer.

  3. Cutaneous Myiasis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Michal; Lachish, Tamar; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-09-01

    Myiasis is defined as the infestation of live vertebrates, either humans or animals, with dipterous larvae. Many organs can be infested by these larvae with cutaneous myiasis being the most common form. Cutaneous myiasis can be divided into three categories: localized furuncular myiasis, migratory myiaisis and wound myiasis, which occurs when fly larvae infest the open wounds of the host. Human myiasis has worldwide distribution, with more species and a heavier burden in tropical and subtropical countries. In recent years with increased travel to the tropics, myiasis has become common in returning travelers from these regions, Furuncular myiasis, mainly Dermatobia homonis becomes the most common form seen among them. Treatment is based on full extraction of the larva and no antibiotic treatment is needed. Understanding the mode of transmission of each type of myiasis may help to prevent the infestation. PMID:27443558

  4. Cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N. J.; King, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ granulomatous disorder of unknown cause. Skin sarcoidosis occurs in about 25% of patients with systemic disease and may also arise in isolation. A wide range of clinical presentations of cutaneous sarcoidosis is recognised. The diagnosis rests on the presence of non-caseating granulomas on skin biopsy and the exclusion of other granulomatous skin disease. The treatment and overall prognosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis is primarily dependent on the degree of systemic involvement. In patients with aggressive disease limited to the skin immunosuppressive therapy may be indicated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10197194

  5. Glucocorticoid effects on contact hypersensitivity and on the cutaneous response to ultraviolet light in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.M.; Walberg, J.A.; Bradlow, H.L.

    1988-03-01

    A single exposure to 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation (UV) can systemically suppress experimental sensitization to the simple allergen 2,4-dinitro, 1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) in the mouse. We show here that topical application at the site of irradiation of the 21-oic acid methyl ester derivative of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide (TAme) prevents UV suppression of sensitization. That is, mice painted with TAme at the site of UV exposure developed normal contact hypersensitivity (CH); mice exposed to UV only, like mice treated with the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), failed to be sensitized by DNCB applied to a distal site. TAme is inactivated rapidly by plasma esterases, so its effect is thought to be confined to the skin. Apparently, TAme blocked the cutaneous signal(s) for systemic suppression of CH. Histologically, irradiated skin exhibited mild inflammation and hyperproliferation, but these effects were greatly exaggerated and prolonged in the UV + TAme-treated skin, independent of sensitization at the distal site. The infiltrate consisted mostly of neutrophils and lacked the round cells characteristic of cell-mediated immunity. Apparently, normal immune suppression by UV prevented this vigorous reaction to irradiated skin. Applied together with DNCB. TAme blocked sensitization. It also prevented response to challenge by DNCB in previously sensitized animals. However, unlike the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), Budesonide or Beclomethasone diproprionate, each of which can penetrate the epidermis in active form, TAme had no effect on sensitization when applied at a distal site. Likewise, TAme did not affect plasma B (17-desoxycortisol) levels, whereas the other three compounds reduced plasma B tenfold, as expected of compounds causing adrenal-pituitary suppression.

  6. Cutaneous ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Nordlund, James J

    2009-01-01

    Parasites inhabit many places in the world. Some of these can inhabit the human skin or body. Many of these have been eradicated in the developed countries but persist in some tropical environments that are fun places to visit. Visitors can bring such parasites home with them such as scabies, cutaneous larva migrans, tungiasis and myiasis. Their clinical manifestations and treatment are presented for physicians evaluating and treating travelers from exotic places. PMID:19889135

  7. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  8. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  9. Evaluation of Effects of Topical Estradiol Benzoate Application on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Ovariectomized Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Kanae; Urai, Tamae; Asano, Kimi; Nakajima, Yukari; Nakatani, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen promotes cutaneous wound healing in ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. However, the effects of topical estrogen application on wounds remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of topical estrogen application on wounds with standard treatment methods. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J female mice underwent OVX and received two full-thickness wounds four weeks later. Mice were divided into three groups: topical estradiol benzoate (EB) (0.75 μg/g/day) wound treatment, subcutaneous estradiol (E2) pellets (0.05 mg, 21 days), and topical E2 (0.01 g/day) skin application. Wound healing was observed until day 14. Wound area ratios were significantly smaller in the topical EB wound treatment group than in the subcutaneous E2 pellet group on days 1–14 (p < 0.05) and topical E2 skin application group on days 1–9 (p < 0.05). Neutrophil and macrophage numbers were significantly smaller in the topical EB wound treatment group than in the subcutaneous E2 pellet and topical E2 skin application groups on day 7 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the number of new blood vessels and ratio of myofibroblasts were significantly larger in the topical EB wound treatment group than in the subcutaneous E2 pellet and topical E2 application skin groups on day 7 (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the application of estrogen to wounds reduced inflammatory responses and promoted angiogenesis and wound contraction more than the two other standard treatment methods. PMID:27658263

  10. Capsaicin 8 % as a cutaneous patch (Qutenza™): analgesic effect on patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Raber, Julia Marie; Reichelt, Doris; Grüneberg-Oelker, Ute; Philipp, Konstanze; Stubbe-Dräger, Bianca; Husstedt, Ingo-W

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of the analgesic effect after a single application of the capsaicin 8 % cutaneous patch (Qutenza™) in 37 patients suffering from painful, distal symmetric polyneuropathy (PNP) for an average of 5 years. Patients ranged from 40 to 78 years of age and 22 subjects were HIV-positive. Patients were observed 4 weeks prior to 12 weeks post administration. An evaluation of the therapeutic effect of capsaicin 8 % as a dermal patch in terms of pain reduction, change of sleeping behavior and social activities was performed and statistical analysis of data was conducted using non-parametric methods. Patients were selected according to clinical criteria. Numerical rating scale (NRS 0-10) was used to inquire pain intensity and a pain score was calculated using the painDETECT(©) questionnaire Freynhagen R (Curr Med Res Opin 22:1911-1920, [2006]). A significant reduction of pain was achieved for up to 12 weeks, with a maximum after 2-4 weeks post administration. After patient education and before application of capsaicin patch, a significant reduction of three levels on the NRS was observed. Symptoms of painful PNP decreased over the period of investigation and 8 patients reported a reduction of systemic pain medication. In patients with an HIV infection, a significant extension of sleep was achieved for 2, 4 and 8 weeks after application. Thus, the application of the capsaicin 8 % patch resulted in a significant relief of neuropathic pain, a prolongation of sleep, a reduction of oral pain medication and a resumption of social activities.

  11. Differential effects of plantar cutaneous afferent excitation on soleus stretch and H-reflex.

    PubMed

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Vette, Albert H; Obata, Hiroki; Alekhina, Maria I; Akai, Masami; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that plantar cutaneous afferents can adjust motoneuron excitability, which may contribute significantly to the control of human posture and locomotion. However, the role of plantar cutaneous afferents in modulating the excitability of stretch and H-reflex with respect to the location of their excitation remains unclear. In the present study, it was hypothesized that electrical stimulation delivered to the sole of the foot might be followed by modulation of spinal excitability that depends on: (1) the stimulation location and (2) the reflex studied. In these experiments, conditioned and unconditioned stretch and H-reflexes were evoked in 16 healthy subjects in a seated position. Both reflexes were conditioned by non-noxious electrical plantar cutaneous afferent stimulation at two different sites, the heel and metatarsal regions, at four different conditioning-test (CT) intervals. The conditioning stimulation delivered to the heel caused a significant facilitation of the soleus stretch reflex for all CT intervals, whereas the soleus H-reflex had significant facilitation only at CT interval of 50 ms and significant inhibition at longer CT intervals. Stimulation delivered to the metatarsal region, however, resulted mainly in reduced stretch and H-reflex sizes. This study extends the reported findings on the contribution of plantar cutaneous afferents within spinal interneuron reflex circuits as a function of their location and the reflex studied. PMID:19260052

  12. Medical and Behavioral Symptoms as Potential Medication Side Effects in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Caruso, Mary; Roberts, Celeste; Kim, Geunyoung; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of medical and behavioral symptoms that could occur as side effects of psychotropic medication was assessed in a sample of 30 adults with developmental disabilities. Using a retrospective chart review method, we measured symptoms in six a priori classes of potential side effects over a 2-year period. The majority of side effects…

  13. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug.

  14. Case role filling as a side effect of visual search

    SciTech Connect

    Marburger, H.; Wahlster, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generating communicatively adequate extended responses in the absence of specific knowledge concerning the intentions of the questioner. The authors formulate and justify a heuristic for the selection of optional deep case slots not contained in the question as candidates for the additional information contained in an extended response. It is shown that, in a visually present domain of discourse, case role filling for the construction of an extended response can be regarded as a side effect of the visual search necessary to answer a question containing a locomotion verb. The paper describes the various representation constructions used in the German language dialog system HAM-ANS for dealing with the semantics of locomotion verbs and illustrates their use in generating extended responses. In particular, it outlines the structure of the geometrical scene description, the representation of events in a logic-oriented semantic representation language, the case-frame lexicon and the representation of the referential semantics based on the flavor system. The emphasis is on a detailed presentation of the application of object-oriented programming methods for coping with the semantics of locomotion verbs. The process of generating an extended response is illustrated by an extensively annotated trace. 13 references.

  15. Minimising menopausal side effects whilst treating endometriosis and fibroids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul D; McLaren, James S; Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2015-03-01

    Medical management of endometriosis and fibroids involves manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to alter the balance of sex hormones thereby inhibiting disease progression and ameliorate symptoms. Unfortunately, resultant menopausal symptoms sometimes limit the tolerability and duration of such treatment. The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists to treat these diseases can result in short-term hypoestrogenic and vasomotor side effects as well as long-term impacts on bone health and cardiovascular risk. The routine use of add-back hormone replacement has reduced these risks and increased patient compliance, making this group of drugs more useful as a medium-term treatment option. The estrogen threshold hypothesis highlights the concept of a 'therapeutic window' in which bone loss is minimal but the primary disease is not aggravated. It explains why add-back therapy is appropriate for such patients and helps to explain the basis behind new developments in the treatment of hormonally responsive gynaecological conditions such as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators. PMID:25802141

  16. Minimising menopausal side effects whilst treating endometriosis and fibroids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul D; McLaren, James S; Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2015-03-01

    Medical management of endometriosis and fibroids involves manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to alter the balance of sex hormones thereby inhibiting disease progression and ameliorate symptoms. Unfortunately, resultant menopausal symptoms sometimes limit the tolerability and duration of such treatment. The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists to treat these diseases can result in short-term hypoestrogenic and vasomotor side effects as well as long-term impacts on bone health and cardiovascular risk. The routine use of add-back hormone replacement has reduced these risks and increased patient compliance, making this group of drugs more useful as a medium-term treatment option. The estrogen threshold hypothesis highlights the concept of a 'therapeutic window' in which bone loss is minimal but the primary disease is not aggravated. It explains why add-back therapy is appropriate for such patients and helps to explain the basis behind new developments in the treatment of hormonally responsive gynaecological conditions such as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators.

  17. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    PubMed

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  18. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  19. Transversus abdominis block: clinical uses, side effects, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Sinclair, Alexander; Raffa, Robert B; Aldington, Dominic; Plavin, Stanford; Apfel, Christian C

    2013-04-01

    Poorly controlled acute pain during the postoperative setting after abdominal surgery can be detrimental to the patient. Current pain management practices for the postoperative abdominal surgery patient rely heavily on opioids, which are associated with many unwanted side effects. Recently, interest surrounding regional anesthesia has been growing owing to its demonstrated efficacy and safety outcomes. More specifically, the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block procedure has attracted attention owing to its ability to successfully block peripheral pain signaling in the abdomen, its ease of use, few complications, and its greater acceptability. A majority of the studies published has demonstrated the successful reduction in pain in many abdominal surgical procedures using local anesthetics during the TAP block. However, the short duration of the pain block causes the patient to still rely on other analgesics throughout the additional postoperative days. Preliminary studies using continuous infusion catheters placed in the TAP has been one of the ways to prolong the nerve block in the abdomen; however, technical and operational issues currently limit the widespread adoption of this method. In this review, current studies will be presented and summarized to update the field on the potential benefits of the TAP block procedure, in addition to providing insight into the future direction of the drugs that could be used for TAP block.

  20. Contraceptive led to hysterectomy. Drug maker liable for side effects.

    PubMed

    Hladky, M

    1989-01-12

    Having previously suffered side effects with an IUD device and the contraceptive pill, Anne Marie MacMurdo sought an alternate method of contraception. She received her first injection of Depo-Provera in 1974 from a New Orleans gynecologist. Three months later, MacMurdo received a second injection from a gynecologist in Miami. Following this second injection, she experienced continuous menstrual bleeding and reported her condition to the gynecologist in New Orleans. He advised MacMurdo to undergo an hysterectomy to stop the painful bleeding and the operation was performed five months after the second injection. MacMurdo filed a product liability suit three years later against Upjohn Inc., the manufacturer of Depo-Provera. The fourth District Court of Appeals (DCA) in Broward County, Florida, in December 1988 ruled Upjohn negligent and awarded MacMurdo $370,000 in damages. Upjohn plans to contest the ruling. This case is already one of the longest running court fights in Broward County history, already going before the fourth DCA in West Palm Beach three times before this most recent ruling. Depo-Provera's uses, the MacMurdo case, and Upjohn's defense are reviewed.

  1. The effect of topical capsaicin-induced sensitization on heat-evoked cutaneous vasomotor responses

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Thomas A; da Silva, Larissa Bittencourt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Brief, localized, cutaneous, non-painful thermal stimuli can evoke a transient vasomotor response, causing increased cutaneous blood flow and elevated skin temperature. The aims of this study were to investigate 1) if cutaneous sensitization by topical application of capsaicin (TRPV1 receptor agonist) can facilitate the size, duration and spatial extent of this vasomotor response and 2) if males and females respond differently. Thermal pulses (43°C for 60 seconds) were applied on left/right volar forearms of 15 age-matched males and females. Skin temperature and cutaneous blood flow were measured 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after heat application before and after topical capsaicin (1%, 30 min application) with contralateral arm serving as the control. Recordings were made from the region of interest at distances of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm from the capsaicin application site. Sensitization significantly enhanced skin temperature for up to 30 min and compared with non-sensitized skin at 10 min. Females showed the strongest response after sensitization, but the response lasted longer and spread more widely in males. The blood flow responses were significantly longer after capsaicin (from 5 to 30 minutes after thermal application). This increased blood flow extended outside the treated area up to 10 min after stimulation. After sensitization, the area under the blood flow response curves showed significantly stronger responses in females, spreading 4 cm outside the stimulation site. Cutaneous sensitizing caused prolonged and spatially expanded vasomotor responses to standardized thermal stimulation with sex specific differences. PMID:24044034

  2. Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-03-01

    The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.

  3. Central role of fibroblast alpha3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mediating cutaneous effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Juan; Hall, Leon L; Ndoye, Assane; Nguyen, Vu Thuong; Chernyavsky, Alexander I; Bercovich, Dani; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Beaudet, Arthur L; Grando, Sergei A

    2003-02-01

    Smoking is associated with aberrant cutaneous tissue remodeling, such as precocious skin aging and impaired wound healing. The mechanism is not fully understood. Dermal fibroblasts (DF) are the primary cellular component of the dermis and may provide a target for pathobiologic effects of tobacco products. The purpose of this study was to characterize a mechanism of nicotine (Nic) effects on the growth and tissue remodeling function of DF. We hypothesized that the effects of Nic on DF result from its binding to specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by these cells and that downstream signaling from the receptors alters normal cell functioning, leading to changes in skin homeostasis. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting, we found that a 24-hour exposure of human DF to 10 micro M Nic causes a 1.9- to 28-fold increase of the mRNA and protein levels of the cell cycle regulators p21, cyclin D1, Ki-67, and PCNA and a 1.7- to 2-fold increase of the apoptosis regulators Bcl-2 and caspase 3. Nic exposure also up-regulated expression of the dermal matrix proteins collagen type Ialpha1 and elastin as well as matrix metalloproteinase-1. Mecamylamine (Mec), the specific antagonist of nAChRs, abolished Nic-induced alterations, indicating that they resulted from a pharmacologic stimulation of nAChRs expressed by DF. To establish the relevance of these findings to a specific nicotinergic pathway, we studied human DF transfected with anti-alpha3 antisense oligonucleotides and murine DF from alpha3 nAChR knockout mice. In both cases, lack of alpha3 was associated with alterations in fibroblast growth and function that were opposite to those observed in DF treated with Nic, suggesting that the nicotinic effects on DF were mostly mediated by alpha3 nAChR. In addition to alpha3, the nAChR subunits detected in human DF were alpha5, alpha7, beta2, and beta4. The exposure of DF to Nic altered the relative amounts of each of these subunits, leading to reciprocal changes

  4. Biostimulative effects of 809 nm diode laser on cutaneous skin wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmaz, Hakan; Gülsoy, Murat; Ülgen, Yekta

    2015-03-01

    The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for therapeutic purposes in medicine has become widespread recently. There are many studies in literature supporting the idea of therapeutic effects of laser irradiation on biological tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the biostimulative effect of 809nm infrared laser irradiation on the healing process of cutaneous incisional skin wounds. 3-4 months old male Wistar Albino rats weighing 300 to 350 gr were used throughout this study. Lowlevel laser therapy was applied through local irradiation of 809nm infrared laser on open skin incisional wounds of 1 cm length. Each animal had six identical incisions on their right and left dorsal region symmetrical to each other. The wounds were separated into three groups of control, 1 J/cm2 and 3 J/cm2 of laser irradiation. Two of these six wounds were kept as control group and did not receive any laser application. Rest of the incisions was irradiated with continuous diode laser of 809nm in wavelength and 20mW power output. Two of them were subjected to laser irradiation of 1 J/cm2 and the other two were subjected to laser light with energy density of 3 J/cm2. Biostimulation effects of irradiation were studied by means of tensile strength tests and histological examinations. Wounded skin samples were morphologically examined and removed for mechanical and histological examinations at days 3, 5 and 7 following the laser applications. Three of the six fragments of skin incisions including a portion of peripheral healthy tissue from each animal were subjected to mechanical tests by means of a universal tensile test machine, whereas the other three samples were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examinations. The findings of the study show that tissue repair following laser irradiation of 809nm has been accelerated in terms of tissue morphology, strength and cellular content. These results seem to be consistent with the results of many

  5. Thermogenic side effects to migratory predisposition in shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Vézina, François; Jalvingh, Kirsten M; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2007-03-01

    In the calidrine sandpiper red knot (Calidris canutus), the weeks preceding takeoff for long-distance migration are characterized by a rapid increase in body mass, largely made up of fat but also including a significant proportion of lean tissue. Before takeoff, the pectoral muscles are known to hypertrophy in preparation for endurance flight without any specific training. Because birds facing cold environments counterbalance heat loss through shivering thermogenesis, and since pectoral muscles represent a large proportion of avian body mass, we asked the question whether muscle hypertrophy in preparation for long-distance endurance flight would induce improvements in thermogenic capacity. We acclimated red knots to different controlled thermal environments: 26 degrees C, 5 degrees C, and variable conditions tracking outdoor temperatures. We then studied within-individual variations in body mass, pectoral muscle size (measured by ultrasound), and metabolic parameters [basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolic rate (M(sum))] throughout a 3-mo period enclosing the migratory gain and loss of mass. The gain in body mass during the fattening period was associated with increases in pectoral muscle thickness and thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation. Regardless of their thermal treatment, birds showing the largest increases in body mass also exhibited the largest increases in M(sum). We conclude that migratory fattening is accompanied by thermoregulatory side effects. The gain of body mass and muscle hypertrophy improve thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation in this species. Whether this represents an ecological advantage depends on the ambient temperature at the time of fattening.

  6. The Role of Systemic Retinoids in the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huen, Auris O; Kim, Ellen J

    2015-10-01

    Retinoids are natural and synthetic vitamin A analogs with effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. They have significant activity in hematologic malignancies and have been studied extensively in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Retinoids bind to nuclear receptors and exert their effects through moderation of gene expression. Retinoic acid receptor and retinoic X receptor exert regulatory activity in vivo, binding to distinct ligands. Studies investigating systemic retinoids as monotherapy and in combination with other agents active against cutaneous lymphoma are reviewed. Side effects associated with retinoids include teratogenicity, dyslipidemias, and hypothyroidism, which should be carefully monitored in patients receiving treatment. PMID:26433844

  7. Effects of topical application of honey on cutaneous wound healing in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oryan, A; Zaker, S R

    1998-04-01

    Although it has been known for many centuries that honey can accelerate wound healing, there have only been isolated reports of its use in the healing of burns, ulcers, infected wounds and open wounds. None of these reports developed a model to assess the changes in morphological and biochemical properties due to topical application of honey on cutaneous wounds. In the present investigation, efficacy of honey in the healing of cutaneous wounds of rabbits was studied on the basis of histopathological and biochemical changes. For this reason 40 healthy White New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to four equal groups. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the skin of the left thigh of each rabbit and the wounds of five rabbits in each group were twice daily treated with topical application of 5 ml pure unheated honey. The other half remained as untreated controls. Rabbits in groups A, B, C and D were biopsied on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 postoperatively respectively, and biopsies from the lesions of all groups were collected for histopathological studies and from groups C and D for biomechanical evaluations as well. Treated lesions showed less oedema, fewer polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltration, less necrosis, better wound contraction, improved epithelialization and lower glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan concentration on days 2 and 7 postoperatively and better tissue organization and consequently an improved tissue ultimate strength and yield strength on days 14 and 21 postoperation. These findings suggest that honey applied topically on cutaneous wounds accelerates the healing processes and appears to have an important property that makes it ideal as a dressing for cutaneous wounds. PMID:9673575

  8. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Bordbar, Aarash; Jensen, Kasper; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Mo, Monica L.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating the relationships between the cellular response to drugs, genetic variation of patients and cell metabolism may help managing side effects by personalizing drug prescriptions and nutritional intervention strategies. PMID:26055627

  9. Living with antipsychotic medication side-effects: the experience of Australian mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Paul; Meehan, Tom; Stomski, Norman Jay

    2015-06-01

    The present study explores people's experience of living with antipsychotic medication side-effects. Qualitative data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 10 mental health consumers in a community care setting in Australia. The interview transcriptions were content analysed, and enhanced by combining manifest and latent content. Important contextual cues were identified through replaying the audio-recordings. Several main themes emerged from the analysis, including the impact of side-effects, attitudes to the use of medication and side-effects, and coping strategies to manage medication side-effects. Each participant reported between six and seven side-effects on average, which were often pronounced and had a major disruptive impact on their lives. Of these effects, the most commonly mentioned was sedation, which the participants described as leaving them in a 'zombie'-like state. Most participants expressed an attitude of acceptance about the side-effects. The participants' most common strategy to manage side-effects was to change the dosage of the medication. Other common side-effect management strategies involved using other medications to control side-effects, and diverse self-help techniques, the most common of which was relaxation/distraction techniques. PMID:25529392

  10. Cutaneous angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, J F; Mira, C

    1996-08-01

    Extrarenal angiomyolipomas are rare lesions. An angiomyolipoma located on the right ear lobe in a 49-year-old man is reported. Pathologic examination showed a well-circumscribed subcutaneous nodule, 2 cm in diameter. The components of the tumor were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Reactivity for HMB-45 was negative. A review of the twelve published cases, including the present, reveals that the patients age ranged from 33 to 77 years (mean 53.6), the male/female ratio was 11.1. The tumors were solitary, asymptomatic, noninvasive, located most commonly in acral skin or on the ear. The clinical impression is that of a cyst, a lipoma or a vascular tumor. Signs of tuberous sclerosis were absent in all cases. In contrast to the renal form, the cutaneous angiomyolipoma is a tumor differing in sex predominance, clinical associations, circumscription, solitariness, and HMB-45 immunoreactivity. Distinction from other mesenchymal lesions depends on recognition of traditional histologic criteria.

  11. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-09

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  12. Exploring the relationship between drug side-effects and therapeutic indications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic indications and drug side-effects are both measureable human behavioral or physiological changes in response to the treatment. In modern drug development, both inferring potential therapeutic indications and identifying clinically important drug side-effects are challenging tasks. Previous studies have utilized either chemical structures or protein targets to predict indications and side-effects. In this study, we compared indication prediction using side-effect information and side-effect prediction using indication information against models using only chemical structures and protein targets. Experimental results based on 10-fold cross-validation, show that drug side-effects and therapeutic indications are the most predictive features for each other. In addition, we extracted 6,706 statistically highly correlated disease-side-effect pairs from all known drug-disease and drug-side-effect relationships. Many relationship pairs provide explicit repositioning hypotheses (e.g., drugs causing postural hypotension are potential candidates for hypertension) and clear adverse-reaction watch lists (e.g., drugs for heart failure possibly cause impotence). All data sets and highly correlated disease-side-effect relationships are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/druganalysis.html. PMID:24551427

  13. Exploring the Relationship Between Drug Side-Effects and Therapeutic Indications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic indications and drug side-effects are both measureable human behavioral or physiological changes in response to the treatment. In modern drug development, both inferring potential therapeutic indications and identifying clinically important drug side-effects are challenging tasks. Previous studies have utilized either chemical structures or protein targets to predict indications and side-effects. In this study, we compared indication prediction using side-effect information and side-effect prediction using indication information against models using only chemical structures and protein targets. Experimental results based on 10-fold cross-validation, show that drug side-effects and therapeutic indications are the most predictive features for each other. In addition, we extracted 6,706 statistically highly correlated disease-side-effect pairs from all known drug-disease and drug-side-effect relationships. Many relationship pairs provide explicit repositioning hypotheses (e.g., drugs causing postural hypotension are potential candidates for hypertension) and clear adverse-reaction watch lists (e.g., drugs for heart failure possibly cause impotence). All data sets and highly correlated disease-side-effect relationships are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/druganalysis.html. PMID:24551427

  14. Exploring the relationship between drug side-effects and therapeutic indications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic indications and drug side-effects are both measureable human behavioral or physiological changes in response to the treatment. In modern drug development, both inferring potential therapeutic indications and identifying clinically important drug side-effects are challenging tasks. Previous studies have utilized either chemical structures or protein targets to predict indications and side-effects. In this study, we compared indication prediction using side-effect information and side-effect prediction using indication information against models using only chemical structures and protein targets. Experimental results based on 10-fold cross-validation, show that drug side-effects and therapeutic indications are the most predictive features for each other. In addition, we extracted 6,706 statistically highly correlated disease-side-effect pairs from all known drug-disease and drug-side-effect relationships. Many relationship pairs provide explicit repositioning hypotheses (e.g., drugs causing postural hypotension are potential candidates for hypertension) and clear adverse-reaction watch lists (e.g., drugs for heart failure possibly cause impotence). All data sets and highly correlated disease-side-effect relationships are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/druganalysis.html.

  15. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  16. Metabolic Disturbances, Side Effect Profile and Effectiveness of Clozapine in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13) patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward) 46.2% (6/13) had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100%) followed by sedation (69%). Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population. PMID:27335518

  17. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  18. Enquiry into the Side Effects of School Inspection in a "Low-Stakes" Inspection Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study into the occurrence of the side effects of school inspection through in-depth interviews in five case schools. The study investigates the extent to which strategic activities, disturbing effects and emotional side effects occur in the case schools. The study also aims to understand features that may…

  19. The Relationship among Side Effects Associated with Anti-Epileptic Medications in Those with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Turygin, Nicole; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are fairly common in those with intellectual disabilities. In order to treat these seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are often used and in many cases are effective. However, these medications often create a variety of associated side effects. In order to monitor these side effects, measures such as the SEIZES-B have been used. While…

  20. Effects and side effects associated with the non-nutritional use of tryptophan by humans.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, John D

    2012-12-01

    The daily nutritional requirement for L-tryptophan (Trp) is modest (5 mg/kg). However, many adults choose to consume much more, up to 4-5 g/d (60-70 mg/kg), typically to improve mood or sleep. Ingesting L-Trp raises brain tryptophan levels and stimulates its conversion to serotonin in neurons, which is thought to mediate its actions. Are there side effects from Trp supplementation? Some consider drowsiness a side effect, but not those who use it to improve sleep. Though the literature is thin, occasional side effects, seen mainly at higher doses (70-200 mg/kg), include tremor, nausea, and dizziness, and may occur when Trp is taken alone or with a drug that enhances serotonin function (e.g., antidepressants). In rare cases, the "serotonin syndrome" occurs, the result of too much serotonin stimulation when Trp is combined with serotonin drugs. Symptoms include delirium, myoclonus, hyperthermia, and coma. In 1989 a new syndrome appeared, dubbed eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), and was quickly linked to supplemental Trp use. Key symptoms included debilitating myalgia (muscle pain) and a high peripheral eosinophil count. The cause was shown not to be Trp but a contaminant in certain production batches. This is not surprising, because side effects long associated with Trp use were not those associated with the EMS. Over 5 decades, Trp has been taken as a supplement and as an adjunct to medications with occasional modest, short-lived side effects. Still, the database is small and largely anecdotal. A thorough, dose-related assessment of side effects remains to be conducted. PMID:23077193

  1. Organization of sensory input to the nociceptive-specific cutaneous trunk muscle reflex in rat, an effective experimental system for examining nociception and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Barker, Darrell F.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Trainer, Robert; Fransen, James W.; Seidman, Peggy A.; Soto, Roy G.; Mendell, Lorne M.; Johnson, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Detailed characterization of neural circuitries furthers our understanding of how nervous systems perform specific functions and enables the use of those systems to test hypotheses. We have characterized the sensory input to the cutaneous trunk muscle (CTM; also cutaneus trunci (rat) or cutaneus maximus (mouse)) reflex (CTMR), which manifests as a puckering of the dorsal thoracolumbar skin and is selectively driven by noxious stimuli. CTM electromyography (EMG) and neurogram recordings in naïve rats revealed that CTMR responses were elicited by natural stimuli and electrical stimulation of all segments from C4 to L6, a much greater extent of segmental drive to the CTMR than previously described. Stimulation of some subcutaneous paraspinal tissue can also elicit this reflex. Using a selective neurotoxin, we also demonstrate differential drive of the CTMR by trkA-expressing and non-expressing small diameter afferents. These observations highlight aspects of the organization of the CTMR system which make it attractive for studies of nociception and anesthesiology and plasticity of primary afferents, motoneurons, and the propriospinal system. We use the CTMR system to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate that experimental pharmacological treatments can be compared to controls applied either to the contralateral side or to another segment, with the remaining segments providing controls for systemic or other treatment effects. These data indicate the potential for using the CTMR system as both an invasive and non-invasive quantitative assessment tool providing improved statistical power and reduced animal use. PMID:23983104

  2. Differential presynaptic control of the synaptic effectiveness of cutaneous afferents evidenced by effects produced by acute nerve section

    PubMed Central

    Rudomin, P; Jiménez, I; Chávez, D

    2013-01-01

    In the anaesthetized cat, the acute section of the saphenous (Saph) and/or the superficial peroneal (SP) nerves was found to produce a long-lasting increase of the field potentials generated in the dorsal horn by stimulation of the medial branch of the sural (mSU) nerve. This facilitation was associated with changes in the level of the tonic primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of the mSU intraspinal terminals. The mSU afferent fibres projecting into Rexed's laminae III–IV were subjected to a tonic PAD that was reduced by the acute section of the SP and/or the Saph nerves. The mSU afferents projecting deeper into the dorsal horn (Rexed's laminae V–VI) were instead subjected to a tonic PAD that was increased after Saph and SP acute nerve section. A differential control of the synaptic effectiveness of the low-threshold cutaneous afferents according to their sites of termination within the dorsal horn is envisaged as a mechanism that allows selective processing of sensory information in response to tactile and nociceptive stimulation or during the execution of different motor tasks. PMID:23478136

  3. The effect of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) on cutaneous wound healing and pain relief in rats.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun-Mo; Yong, Min-Sik; Na, Sang-Su

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the impact of low-intensity laser therapy on wound healing and pain control using a rat cutaneous wound model. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 220-240 g, 7 weeks) were used in this study. The rats were anesthetized and a circular fragment of skin was removed from the dorsal region of the back by a punch with an 8-mm diameter. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups, Groups C 1, C 3, and C 5, control groups, received no laser treatment. Groups T 1, T 3, and T 5 received laser treatment for 20 min per day for 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Lumbar spine and dorsal skin were extracted and processed using western blot analysis. [Results] Periodical observation showed increases in NGF expression on the skin, and decreases in c-fos expression by the spinal cord in the treatment groups compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The present findings suggest that low-intensity laser therapy could be used as an effective therapy for wound healing and pain relief, and could be further used as a clinical approach for treating cutaneous wounds. PMID:26696711

  4. The effects of preoperative oral administration of carprofen or tramadol on postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing cutaneous tumor removal

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, Nicole M.; Lerche, Phillip; Aarnes, Turi K.; Gardner, Heather L.; London, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, blinded, controlled clinical study compared the effects of pre-emptive oral administration of carprofen or tramadol on pain scores and analgesic requirement in dogs undergoing cutaneous tumor removal. Thirty-six client-owned dogs presenting for cutaneous tumor removal were randomly assigned to receive carprofen, tramadol, or no treatment prior to surgery. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), the Modified Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Score (MGCMPS), and algometry at enrollment, prior to premedication, at extubation, then hourly for the first 4 h, and every 4 h for 24 h. Dogs scoring ≥ 7 (MGCMPS), or having a VAS measurement ≥ 40 mm were given rescue analgesia. There were no significant differences in pain VAS, MGCMPS, or algometry. There were no differences in rescue analgesia requirement, or time to rescue analgesia among groups. Carprofen, tramadol, or no pre-emptive analgesia, combined with pre-operative hydromorphone and rescue analgesia, resulted in satisfactory analgesia in the 24-hour postoperative period. PMID:26246627

  5. The use of the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, P; Gaskill, D; Meehan, T; Lunney, P; Lawrence, G; Collings, P

    2000-12-01

    Forty-four mental health clients completed the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS)--a self-rating scale to assess the prevalence and intensity of neuroleptic side-effects. In the month prior to the study, 50% of the clients surveyed had experienced more than half of the side-effects outlined on the 41-item scale. A prevalence profile allowed us to rank the frequency of individual side-effects across the sample. Some side-effects such as 'difficulty concentrating', 'difficulty remembering', 'tiredness' and 'restlessness' were experienced by most of the clients in the study while 'unusual skin marks', 'difficulty passing water', 'rashes' were experienced by a few. A prevalence profile may be a useful guide in developing strategies for managing side-effects more effectively in small groups of clients. In addition, the use of the LUNSERS in clinical practice would enable case managers to establish baseline measures for individual clients and evaluate changes in medication and other non-medical strategies for reducing unwanted side-effects. The identification and assessment of antipsychotic side-effects is an important area for client and professional carer education.

  6. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  7. The effective theory of quintessence: the w < -1 side unveiled

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Vernizzi, Filippo; D'Amico, Guido; Norena, Jorge E-mail: damico@sissa.it E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2009-02-15

    We study generic single-field dark energy models, by a parametrization of the most general theory of their perturbations around a given background, including higher derivative terms. In appropriate limits this approach reproduces standard quintessence, k-essence and ghost condensation. We find no general pathology associated to an equation of state w{sub Q} < -1 or in crossing the phantom divide w{sub Q} = -1. Stability requires that the w{sub Q} < -1 side of dark energy behaves, on cosmological scales, as a k-essence fluid with a virtually zero speed of sound. This implies that one should set the speed of sound to zero when comparing with data models with w{sub Q} < -1 or crossing the phantom divide. We summarize the theoretical and stability constraints on the quintessential plane (1+w{sub Q}) vs. speed of sound squared.

  8. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37

  9. The effects of topical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine experimental cutaneous wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lyoo, Young S; Jung, Dong-In; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells have been widely investigated in bioengineering approaches for tissue repair therapy. We evaluated the clinical value and safety of the application of cultured bone marrow-derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating skin wounds in a canine model. Hypothesis Topical allogenic MSC transplantation can accelerate the closure of experimental full-thickness cutaneous wounds and attenuate local inflammation. Animals Adult healthy beagle dogs (n = 10; 3–6 years old; 7.2–13.1 kg) were studied. Methods Full-thickness skin wounds were created on the dorsum of healthy beagles, and allogenic MSCs were injected intradermally. The rate of wound closure and the degree of collagen production were analysed histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining and trichrome staining. The degree of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis was evaluated by immunocytochemistry using proliferating cell nuclear antigen-, vimentin- and α-smooth muscle actin-specific antibodies. Local mRNA expression levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results Compared with the vehicle-treated wounds, MSC-treated wounds showed more rapid wound closure and increased collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, MSC-treated wounds showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ) and wound healing-related factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2). Conclusion and clinical importance Topical transplantation of MSCs results in paracrine effects on cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, as well as modulation of local mRNA expression of several factors related to cutaneous wound healing. Résumé Contexte Les cellules souches adultes ont été largement étudiées dans les approches de bio-ingénierie pour la thérapie de réparation tissulaire. Nous évaluons l

  10. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  11. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  12. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-25

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  13. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  14. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells.

  15. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells. PMID:26754772

  16. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper.

  17. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper. PMID:26601963

  18. Thalidomide in cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Michelle T; Werth, Victoria P

    2003-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, thalidomide has struggled between success and controversy. After causing an epidemic of phocomelia and other birth defects during the 1960s, affecting thousands of neonates, thalidomide was used as a sedative in selective disorders including leprosy. The potent anti-inflammatory properties of thalidomide were serendipitously discovered while treating patients with erythema nodosum leprosum, and the drug is now approved by the US FDA for the treatment of this disease. Subsequently, the immunosuppressant effects of thalidomide, including the complex modulation of many cytokines, have been recognized. One promising application of thalidomide has been the treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Among the largest series reviewed, the drug has been found to ameliorate cutaneous lupus erythematosus in 90% of patients, on average. Remission is achieved in approximately 15-20% of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus at doses between 50-400 mg daily. Contraceptive concerns and the recognized neuropathic effects of thalidomide limit the use of the drug in patients with cutaneous lupus. Physicians who prescribe thalidomide in the US must be registered with the drug manufacturer. With appropriate control of drug access and close physician monitoring, thalidomide provides a needed therapeutic option for the treatment of refractory cases of cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

  19. Patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy: the influence of 5HT3 antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer-Dennert, M.; de Wit, R.; Schmitz, P. I.; Djontono, J.; v Beurden, V.; Stoter, G.; Verweij, J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, Coates conducted a survey that ranked the side-effects perceived by patients receiving chemotherapy in the order of their severity. Vomiting and nausea were found to be the two most distressing side-effects. They have an impact on quality of life and compliance with treatment. The development of 5HT3 antagonists has been a major step forward in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Presently, these antiemetics are routinely used as concomitant therapy in emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 5HT3 antagonists on patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy. Coates' survey was replicated in patients who received 5HT3 antagonists for acute nausea and vomiting resulting from emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients received the survey to identify those physical and non-physical side-effects that they attributed to chemotherapy and were asked to rank the five most distressing side-effects. Of the 197 patients who consented to take part in the study, 181 were evaluable. Nausea, hair loss and vomiting were described as the three most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy. Eighty per cent of all the patients actually experienced nausea and 57% experienced vomiting. Hair loss appeared to be more distressing to women (P < 0.001) but, in other aspects, gender, age and marital status did not influence the ranking of the three most distressing side-effects. Constipation was ranked as 6th and was not identified as a distressing side-effect in 1983. Nausea and vomiting remain to be the first and third most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy, even though the incidence and severity of acute nausea and vomiting are now significantly reduced. PMID:9376266

  20. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  1. Treatment strategy: Role of enfuvirtide in managing treatment-limiting side effects.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Side effects can limit the options available to physicians for the treatment of HIV infection. Management of these side effects is essential, to avoid cessation of treatment. The entry inhibitor enfuvirtide can be useful as one of three active agents in an HIV treatment regimen as a way to both reduce treatment-limiting side effects and provide an efficacious agent for viral control. In the present case, the patient had a problematic and lengthy treatment history, with numerous concomitant conditions. His latest regimen, which includes an agent in a new drug class (enfuvirtide), has maintained HIV suppression while minimizing toxicity.

  2. [Side effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Although drugs are the most powerful therapeutic tools we have for improving the quality of life of the population, their use is not free of adverse effects. Today there are many polymedicated patients, and it is difficult to find the cause of their adverse effects that increase exponentially when more than 4 drugs are combined. There are a large number of drugs that can result in numerous adverse effects in the oral cavity. The most common are xerostomia, altered taste, gingival enlargement and mucositis caused by cancer treatment. We also review other disorders of the salivary glands, oral mucosal changes, pigmentations, halitosis, osteonecrosis, opportunistic infections and bleeding diathesis.

  3. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    MedlinePlus

    Different types of cancer treatment can affect your sexuality and fertility in different ways. Surgery for cancer: ... Effects: What Women Can Do About Changes in Sexuality and Fertility. April 2007. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  4. Antimalarials in dermatology: mechanism of action, indications, and side effects.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caruncho, C; Bielsa Marsol, I

    2014-04-01

    Antimalarial drugs have been in common use in dermatology since the 1950s. Their mechanism of action is complex, and it is now known that they act through various pathways. We review the indications for antimalarials in dermatology, their adverse effects, and some less well-known effects, such as their antithrombotic and hypolipidemic action. The most recent recommendations concerning ophthalmological screening in patients on antimalarials are also reviewed.

  5. Treatment of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus is centered upon formulating a regimen of topical and systemic therapies designed to reduce disease activity and minimize cosmetic damage. Sun avoidance and sunscreen are important preventative measures proven to minimize cutaneous lupus erythematosus exacerbations. Limited disease is typically managed with topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. Antimalarial therapy is the gold standard of systemic therapy. Many other treatments have been studied in patients with recalcitrant cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and their use must be evaluated based on individual risk-benefit concerns. R-salbutamol and pulsed dye laser therapy have proven to be effective topical alternatives. Additional systemic agents include retinoids, immunosuppressants, immunomodulators, biologics, and other experimental therapies with novel modes of action. According to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria for evaluating the strength of evidence supporting an individual treatment measure, no therapy for cutaneous lupus erythematosus has achieved Level 1 status. This demonstrates the need for randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews of all cutaneous lupus erythematosus interventions in order to meet increasing standards and demand for evidence-based practice. PMID:23320123

  6. The Effect of Exercise on Neuropathic Symptoms, Nerve Function, and Cutaneous Innervation in People with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kluding, Patricia M.; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Singh, Rupali; Jernigan, Stephen; Farmer, Kevin; Rucker, Jason; Sharma, Neena; Wright, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Although exercise can significantly reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetic complications, no studies have evaluated the impact of exercise on nerve function in people with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine feasibility and effectiveness of a supervised, moderately intense aerobic and resistance exercise program in people with DPN. We hypothesize that the exercise intervention can improve neuropathic symptoms, nerve function, and cutaneous innervation. Methods A pre-test post-test design was to assess change in outcome measures following participation in a 10-week aerobic and strengthening exercise program. Seventeen subjects with diagnosed DPN (8 males/9 females; age 58.4±5.98; duration of diabetes 12.4±12.2 years) completed the study. Outcome measures included pain measures (visual analog scale), Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) questionnaire of neuropathic symptoms, nerve function measures, and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and branching in distal and proximal lower extremity skin biopsies. Results Significant reductions in pain (−18.1±35.5 mm on a 100 mm scale, p=0.05), neuropathic symptoms (−1.24±1.8 on MNSI, p=0.01), and increased intraepidermal nerve fiber branching (+0.11±0.15 branch nodes/fiber, p=−.008) from a proximal skin biopsy were noted following the intervention. Conclusions This is the first study to describe improvements in neuropathic and cutaneous nerve fiber branching following supervised exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. These findings are particularly promising given the short duration of the intervention, but need to be validated by comparison with a control group in future studies. PMID:22717465

  7. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin". PMID:26887117

  8. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance.

  9. Oral tissues and orthodontic treatment: common side effects.

    PubMed

    Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Cannalire, P; Martinelli, G; Tubertini, I; Maspero, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review about the problems that can occur during orthodontic treatment. Using the PubMed database we collected items that would provide information regarding the direct consequences of the placement of an orthodontic appliance: coming to the discussion of the following topics: candida infections, the effects on the soft tissues, the effects on periodontal tissues and effects on hard tissues. The presence of appliances in the oral cavity increases the prevalence of people with candida, specifically the species Candida Albicans is the most frequently isolated. The balance between the clearance of the microorganism, the colonization and the state of candidiasis depends both on the virulence of the fungus, and the competence of the host immune system. On soft tissues, cases of ulceration of the upper jaw by a rapid palatal expander and pyogenic granuloma due to quad helix appliance have been reported. The second one is mostly observed on vestibular gingiva. The first one was found, however, in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 because of the tissue modifications induced by this pathological condition. The more severe periodontic effects are those caused by incorrect use of orthodontic elastic separators. Finally, the White Spot Lesions are the direct consequences of a wrong conditioning of enamel when attaching the bracket. They represent a first stage of caries in the positioning area of the bracket. The orthodontist is required to intercept these issues not to affect the success of the treatment. PMID:24270203

  10. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. PMID:25293550

  11. Toxic side effects of local anaesthetics on the human cornea.

    PubMed Central

    Boljka, M; Kolar, G; Vidensek, J

    1994-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of 0.5% amethocaine (tetracaine) on the human cornea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructural examination of epithelial cells showed damage of the cell membrane, rare-faction and loss of microvilli, deposits of amethocaine on the corneal surface and accelerated desquamation of superficial epithelial cells. Images PMID:8025073

  12. A weighty matter: heaviness influences the evaluation of disease severity, drug effectiveness, and side effects.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Peoples' perception of diseases and pharmaceutical drugs is a critical issue in health research. Beliefs about disease severity influence the compliance with recommendations for convalescence and the motivation to perform proper health-behavior. The estimated effectiveness of drugs and severity of side effects influence medication adherence and contribute to placebo effects. The present paper closes the gap between these effects and the concept of embodied cognition from a metaphor-enriched perspective. In five studies, we demonstrate that the bodily sensation of weight influences our evaluations of diseases and drugs. The experience of heaviness enhanced the estimated seriousness of diseases and the estimated effectiveness of drugs. The perceived seriousness of drug side effects was also affected by weight but only when drug effectiveness was not attended to. Moreover, the incidental sensation of weight shows a novel effect when evaluating weight-related drugs. The results are in line with the idea of embodied metaphors and reveal important boundary conditions which contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  13. A Weighty Matter: Heaviness Influences the Evaluation of Disease Severity, Drug Effectiveness, and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Peoples' perception of diseases and pharmaceutical drugs is a critical issue in health research. Beliefs about disease severity influence the compliance with recommendations for convalescence and the motivation to perform proper health-behavior. The estimated effectiveness of drugs and severity of side effects influence medication adherence and contribute to placebo effects. The present paper closes the gap between these effects and the concept of embodied cognition from a metaphor-enriched perspective. In five studies, we demonstrate that the bodily sensation of weight influences our evaluations of diseases and drugs. The experience of heaviness enhanced the estimated seriousness of diseases and the estimated effectiveness of drugs. The perceived seriousness of drug side effects was also affected by weight but only when drug effectiveness was not attended to. Moreover, the incidental sensation of weight shows a novel effect when evaluating weight-related drugs. The results are in line with the idea of embodied metaphors and reveal important boundary conditions which contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24244302

  14. Oesophagus side effects related to the treatment of oesophageal cancer or radiotherapy of other thoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    The oesophagus as a serial organ located in the central chest is frequent subject to "incidental" dose application in radiotherapy for several thoracic malignancies including oesophageal cancer itself. Especially due to the radiosensitive mucosa severe radiotherapy induced sequelae can occur, acute oesophagitis and strictures as late toxicity being the most frequent side-effects. In this review we focus on oesophageal side effects derived from treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and secondly provide an overview on oesophageal toxicity from conventional and stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to the thoracic area in general. Available data on pathogenesis, frequency, onset, and severity of oesophageal side effects are summarized. Whereas for conventional radiotherapy the associations of applied doses to certain volumes of the oesophagus are well described, the tolerance dose to the mediastinal structures for hypofractionated therapy is unknown. The review provides available attempts to predict the risk of oesophageal side effects from dosimetric parameters of SBRT. PMID:27644905

  15. A review of trials investigating efavirenz-induced neuropsychiatric side effects and the implications.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Razia; Truter, Ilse; Grobler, Christoffel; Kotze, Theunis; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz is part of the first-line treatment for HIV patients including those in South Africa with approximately 50% experiencing neuropsychiatric side effects. A systematic review of papers reporting neuropsychiatric side effects with efavirenz published between January 2001 and December 2014 was performed, to provide guidance. 13 articles were reviewed. Patient ages ranged between 37 to 41 years, with a high percentage males. Scales used to measure incidence and severity of side effects were varied; with disease severity or stage not reported. Patients with psychoses were excluded. Most commonly reported side effects were a reduction in sleep quality, depression, dizziness and anxiety. These were generally mild and not warranting discontinuation of efavirenz. It is difficult to directly compare the studies. Standardised methods need to be introduced and all patient groups represented including the elderly, children, patients with active symptomatic illness and more women especially among the African population.

  16. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  17. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children.

  18. Nitric oxide releasing plasma polymer coating with bacteriostatic properties and no cytotoxic side effects.

    PubMed

    Michl, Thomas D; Coad, Bryan R; Doran, Michael; Osiecki, Michael; Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Hüsler, Amanda; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J

    2015-04-25

    We report a stable plasma polymer coating, using isopentyl nitrite as a volatile precursor, which releases nitric oxide at bacteriostatic concentrations when contacted with water, inhibiting bacterial growth without cytotoxic side effects to human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria: clinical features, current status and the effects of war.

    PubMed

    Hayani, Kinan; Dandashli, Anwar; Weisshaar, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide disease caused by an infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania transmitted via sand flies. It is endemic in many of the poorest countries of all continents. "Aleppo boil" is one of the recognised names given to this disease in the medical literature. Although CL used to be well-controlled and well-documented in Syria, its incidence has dramatically increased since the beginning of the war; however, there is lack of documentation. Here, we present the past and current epidemiological situation of the disease in Syria. We also draw attention to gross and highly unusual clinical variants of CL presented to the Department of Dermatology in Aleppo covering the important differential clinical diagnoses, since this disease is already known to mimic other conditions. Diagnostic procedures and treatment as well as prevention are summarised. Due to the increased ability to travel, and especially the flight of Syrians to neighbouring countries, as well as to Europe, CL may become a new threat in formerly unaffected regions. Through this account, we hope to give weight to the aspiration that CL does not remain a neglected and often clinically overlooked tropical dermatosis.

  20. Romidepsin for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Prince, H Miles; Dickinson, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are relatively rare lymphomas with an annual incidence of approximately 0.2 to 0.8/100,000 and comprise a variety of clinical entities; mycosis fungoides or its leukemic variant Sezary syndrome account for the majority of cases. Advanced-stage disease is typically treated with bexarotene (a retinoid), interferon, or conventional chemotherapeutic agents, but relapses are inevitable. Histone deacetylase inhibitors, which modify the epigenome, are an attractive addition to the armamentarium. On the basis of 2 large phase II studies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved intravenous romidepsin for patients with relapsed and/or refractory CTCL. Romidepsin provides a subset of patients with an opportunity for prolonged clinical responses with a tolerable side effect profile.

  1. The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Pesaresi, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    Progestins are a broad class of progestational agents widely differing in their chemical structures and pharmacological properties. Despite emerging data suggest that progestins, besides their action as endometrial protection, can also have multiple nonreproductive functions, much remains to be discovered regarding the actions exerted by these molecules in the nervous system. Here, we report the role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies, in regulating cognitive functions as well as social behavior and mood. We provide evidence that the effects and mechanisms underlying their actions are still confusing due to the use of different estrogens and progestins as well as different doses, duration of exposure, route of administration, baseline hormonal status and age of treated women. We also discuss the emerging issue concerning the relevant increase of these substances in the environment, able to deeply affect aquatic wildlife as well as to exert a possible influence in humans, which may be exposed to these compounds via contaminated drinking water and seafood. Finally, we report literature data showing the neurobiological action of progestins and in particular their importance during neurodegenerative events. This is extremely interesting, since some of the progestins currently used in clinical practice exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the nervous system, opening new promising opportunities for the use of these molecules as therapeutic agents for trauma and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27339142

  2. The dark side of the light: Phototherapy adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Valejo Coelho, Margarida Moura; Apetato, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is a valuable therapeutic tool in Dermatology, but there may be drawbacks. Acute and long-term adverse effects, of variable severity, include skin erythema, xerosis, pruritus, blistering, altered pigmentation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Despite concerns over the carcinogenic potential of ultraviolet radiation, most studies have not found an increased risk of non-melanoma or melanoma skin cancer in patients treated with ultraviolet B (broadband and narrowband) and ultraviolet A1 phototherapy. These are therefore considered reasonably safe treatment modalities concerning the development of skin neoplasms, although caution and further investigation are warranted. Photoprotective measures, such as avoidance of concurrent sunlight exposure and covering skin areas not afflicted with disease, or more modern strategies, including phytochemical antioxidants and exogenous DNA repair enzymes, can minimize the hazards of phototherapy. Patients submitted to phototherapeutic regimens should undergo complete, careful dermatologic examination regularly and lifelong. PMID:27638433

  3. Evaluation of antimotion sickness drug side effects on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of antimotion-sickness drugs on the performance in computerized-pursuit-meter tests of groups of ten 18-30-yr-old male and female subjects are investigated experimentally using double-blind placebo techniques. The results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The proficiency scores are as good as or better than placebo values for subjects given d-amphetamine (DA) 5 or 10 mg, promethazine (P) 25 mg + scopolamine (S) 400 ng + DA 10 mg, S 1 mg + DA 10 mg, S 250-600 ng, marezine 50 mg, meclizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 50 mg, S 1 mg + DA 5 mg, or P 25 mg + DA 10 mg. Significantly lower scores are seen in subjects given S 800 ng or 1 mg, P 25 mg (oral or IM), P 25 mg + S 400 ng, and P 25 mg oral + P 25 mg IM + DA 10 mg.

  4. Body–drug assemblages: theorizing the experience of side effects in the context of HIV treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Marilou; Holmes, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Each of the antiretroviral drugs that are currently used to stop the progression of HIV infection causes its own specific side effects. Despite the expansion, multiplication, and simplification of treatment options over the past decade, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. Yet, we see a clear disconnect between the way side effects are normalized, routinized, and framed in clinical practice and the way they are experienced by people living with HIV. This paper builds on the premise that new approaches are needed to understand side effects in a manner that is more reflective of the subjective accounts of people living with HIV. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, it offers an original application of the theory of ‘assemblage’. This theory offers a new way of theorizing side effects, and ultimately the relationship between the body and antiretroviral drugs (as technologies). Combining theory with examples derived from empirical data, we examine the multiple ways in which the body connects not only to the drugs but also to people, things, and systems. Our objective is to illustrate how this theory dares us to think differently about side effects and allows us to originally (re)think the experience of taking antiretroviral drugs. PMID:27435229

  5. A review of self-report medication side effect questionnaires for mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Ashoorian, Deena; Davidson, Rowan; Rock, Daniel; Gudka, Sajni; Clifford, Rhonda

    2014-11-30

    Side effects of psychotropic medications are important determinants of adherence to treatment. Discussion between the patient and clinician facilitated through the use of a side effect self-report questionnaire (SRQ) could lead to improved communications and treatment adherence. The aim of this review was to 1) identify all currently available side effect SRQs used in the assessment of mental health patients' subjective experiences, 2) evaluate the characteristics of the studies and 3) assess the psychometric properties of each of the questionnaires. Eight electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed published articles. Six side effect SRQs were identified. Two independent reviewers assessed the quality of the study designs and psychometric properties of the identified SRQs. All questionnaires consisted of closed questions relating to antipsychotic side effects and completion times ranged from 5 to 20 min. Five questionnaires had undergone some form of psychometric testing, ranging from basic to comprehensive. There is a need in everyday clinical practice for a side effect communication tool applicable to all psychotropic medications, which allows the patient to express their subjective beliefs about their medications. This could provide an important contribution to the working relationship between patients and clinicians leading to informed decision-making and improved adherence.

  6. Comprehensive prediction of drug-protein interactions and side effects for the human proteome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongyi; Gao, Mu; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Identifying unexpected drug-protein interactions is crucial for drug repurposing. We develop a comprehensive proteome scale approach that predicts human protein targets and side effects of drugs. For drug-protein interaction prediction, FINDSITEcomb, whose average precision is ~30% and recall ~27%, is employed. For side effect prediction, a new method is developed with a precision of ~57% and a recall of ~24%. Our predictions show that drugs are quite promiscuous, with the average (median) number of human targets per drug of 329 (38), while a given protein interacts with 57 drugs. The result implies that drug side effects are inevitable and existing drugs may be useful for repurposing, with only ~1,000 human proteins likely causing serious side effects. A killing index derived from serious side effects has a strong correlation with FDA approved drugs being withdrawn. Therefore, it provides a pre-filter for new drug development. The methodology is free to the academic community on the DR. PRODIS (DRugome, PROteome, and DISeasome) webserver at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/dr.prodis/. DR. PRODIS provides protein targets of drugs, drugs for a given protein target, associated diseases and side effects of drugs, as well as an interface for the virtual target screening of new compounds. PMID:26057345

  7. [Protective effects of d-chlorpheniramine maleate pre-treatment against acute side effects of Irinotecan(CPT- 11)].

    PubMed

    Misumi, Nobuhiro; Hiraike, Mikako; Nawata, Fusako; Hashimoto, Mirai; Tanigawa, Kayoko; Takase, Izumi; Nabeshima, Aya; Honda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    It is wellknown that cholinomimetic side effects, such as sedation, abdominal pain, nasal flow and watery eyes, may develop in patients in the early stage of Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration; however, there have been no investigations concerning methods for preventing the development of these side effects. To assess the protective effects of pre-treatment with d-CM on cholinomimetic side effects in the early stage after Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration, we prescribed d- Chlorpheniramine maleate (d-CM) to a group of patients prior to Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration. Twenty members from the group of non-d-CM-treated patients (n=39) and 4 members from the group of treated patients (n=20) complained of side effects. The pre-administration of d-CM significantly reduced the number of patients with side effects (p<0.05). The relative risk (RR) for the frequency of side effects was 0.39 (95% CI; 0.15-0.98), demonstrating that the frequency of side effects was significantly reduced. Based on theses findings, we concluded that the pre-administration of d-CM had protective effects against side effects that might develop in the early stage after Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration.

  8. [Stapotomy with ultrasound? Animal experiment study of possible side effects].

    PubMed

    Böhmer, A

    1993-12-01

    Stapedectomy by ultrasound has been proposed as an alternative method for perforating the stapes footplate in surgery for otosclerosis. Possible functional adverse effects of ultrasound perforation of the otic capsule in guinea pigs were investigated in the present study by means of vestibular evoked potentials (VsEP). VsEP were elicited by pulsed linear accelerations applied to the animal's head following surgical removal of the middle ear, following intense ultrasound drilling around the otic capsule and after drilling a small hole in the anterior bony wall of the vestibule. All manipulations did not affect amplitudes and latencies of the early potential N1 (less than 1 msec after onset of acceleration). Significant alterations of N1 occurred following direct mechanical damage of the otolithic organs, indicating that VsEP can be used to detect lesions of these receptors and therefore may be used as a parameter of vestibular function in experimental animals. Findings indicate that perforation of the otic capsule by ultrasound is possible without inducing functional lesions of the otolithic organs. PMID:8125798

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of electrochemotherapy with the Cliniporator™ vs other methods for the control and treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Matteo, Sergio Di; Mir, Lluis M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of any histological origin can give rise to cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases during follow-up. This study aims to evaluate the costs and benefits of electrochemotherapy (ECT) with the Cliniporator™ vs other currently used methods in the control and treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous advanced neoplasms. Materials and methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out on ECT using the Cliniporator vs other techniques (radiotherapy, hyperthermia associated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, interferon-alpha, and isolated limb perfusion) for the control and treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous neoplasms. The direct health costs were attributed a value according to the Italian National Healthcare System. Resource consumption and clinical outcomes were derived from cost survey data collection and literature review. Results ECT is cost-effective with an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €1,571.53 to achieve a further additional response. Radiotherapy and interferon-alpha are the least effective strategies. A combination of hyperthermia, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and interferon-alpha treatment are dominated by ECT (more costly and less effective). Isolated limb perfusion is the most effective treatment, but is very costly (€18,530.47) because of the use of antiblastic drugs (TNFα), with an ICER of €92,717.29. Conclusions After sensitivity analysis, the study results confirm the favorable cost-effectiveness ratio of ECT with the Cliniporator and justify its wider use. PMID:18728828

  10. Cutaneous abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis compared with non‐inflammatory rheumatic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, K M J; Ladoyanni, E; Treharne, G J; Hale, E D; Erb, N; Kitas, G D

    2006-01-01

    Background Cutaneous abnormalities are common in rheumatoid arthritis, but exact prevalence estimates are yet to be established. Some abnormalities may be independent and coincidental, whereas others may relate to rheumatoid arthritis or its treatment. Objectives To determine the exact nature and point prevalence of cutaneous abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with those in patients with non‐inflammatory rheumatic disease. Methods 349 consecutive outpatients for rheumatology (205 with rheumatoid arthritis and 144 with non‐inflammatory rheumatic conditions) were examined for skin and nail signs by a dermatologist. Histories of rheumatology, dermatology, drugs and allergy were noted in detail. Results Skin abnormalities were reported by more patients with rheumatoid arthritis (61%) than non‐inflammatory controls (47%). More patients with rheumatoid arthritis (39%) than controls (10%) attributed their skin abnormality to drugs. Cutaneous abnormalities observed by the dermatologist were also more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (76%) than in the group with non‐inflammatory disease (60%). Specifically, bruising, athlete's foot, scars, rheumatoid nodules and vasculitic lesions were more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than in controls. The presence of bruising was predicted only by current steroid use. The presence of any other specific cutaneous abnormalities was not predicted by any of the variables assessed. In the whole group, current steroid use and having rheumatoid arthritis were the only important predictors of having any cutaneous abnormality. Conclusions Self‐reported and observed cutaneous abnormalities are more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than in controls with non‐inflammatory disease. These include cutaneous abnormalities related to side effects of drugs or to rheumatoid arthritis itself and other abnormalities previously believed to be independent but which may be of clinical

  11. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  12. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  13. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  14. The effect of certain topical medications on healing of cutaneous wounds in the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

    PubMed

    Smith, D A; Barker, I K; Allen, O B

    1988-01-01

    The effects of four topical medications on the rate and character of healing of cutaneous wounds were studied in six common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) held at an ambient temperature of 30 degrees C. Two sets of five 6 to 8 mm round excisional wounds, four test and one control site in each set, were created on the dorsolateral body wall of each snake. Wounds were examined daily and treated for ten days, then the snakes were killed and sections of all wounds were examined by light microscopy. Composite scores, derived by ranking each treatment group in relation to the control group (control score = 0) for each of 22 characteristics associated with wound healing, were used to compare the overall effects of each treatment. Statistical comparisons were made between groups for 20 characteristics. Wounds treated with a polyurethane film merited a score of +12 and had significantly more advanced healing than untreated controls for three characteristics. Wounds treated with an ointment containing scarlet red scored +6 but healing was not significantly greater than controls. Wounds treated with an antibacterial spray powder and an antibacterial ointment healed more slowly than controls and had scores of -6 and -12 respectively.

  15. UV-induced cutaneous photobiology.

    PubMed

    Beissert, S; Granstein, R D

    1996-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) present in sunlight is a major environmental factor capable of affecting human health and well being. The organ primarily affected by UVR is the skin, which is composed of a variety of different cell types. Here, UVR is needed for production of active vitamin D as well as producing undesirable effects such as sunburn, premature cutaneous photoaging, and promoting skin cancer development. Depending on the radiation dose, UVR influences virtually every cutaneous cell type investigated differently. Since the end of the nineteenth century, sun exposure has been known to induce skin cancer, which is now the human malignancy with the most rapidly increasing incidence. In several experimental models, mid-range UVR has been demonstrated to be the major cause of UV-induced cutaneous tumors. The stratospheric ozone layer protecting the terrestrial surface from higher quantum energy solar radiation is being damaged by industrial activities resulting in the possibility of increased UVR exposure in the future. Investigations in the field of experimental dermatology have shown that within the skin an immunosurveillance system exists that may be able to detect incipient neoplasms and to elicit a host responses against it. This article reviews the literature on studies designed to investigate the effects of UVR on cutaneous cellular components, with special focus on the immune system within the skin and the development of UV-induced cancer.

  16. Does contraceptive treatment in wildlife result in side effects? A review of quantitative and anecdotal evidence.

    PubMed

    Gray, Meeghan E; Cameron, Elissa Z

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of contraceptive treatments has been extensively tested, and several formulations are effective at reducing fertility in a range of species. However, these formulations should minimally impact the behavior of individuals and populations before a contraceptive is used for population manipulation, but these effects have received less attention. Potential side effects have been identified theoretically and we reviewed published studies that have investigated side effects on behavior and physiology of individuals or population-level effects, which provided mixed results. Physiological side effects were most prevalent. Most studies reported a lack of secondary effects, but were usually based on qualitative data or anecdotes. A meta-analysis on quantitative studies of side effects showed that secondary effects consistently occur across all categories and all contraceptive types. This contrasts with the qualitative studies, suggesting that anecdotal reports are insufficient to investigate secondary impacts of contraceptive treatment. We conclude that more research is needed to address fundamental questions about secondary effects of contraceptive treatment and experiments are fundamental to conclusions. In addition, researchers are missing a vital opportunity to use contraceptives as an experimental tool to test the influence of reproduction, sex and fertility on the behavior of wildlife species.

  17. Side effects of rational dose iodine-131 therapy for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Neutze, J.; Atkins, F.

    1986-10-01

    Benua, Leeper, and others (BEL) have advocated the estimation of radiation exposure to the blood to select a more rational maximum safe dose of radioiodine (dosimetry) to treat metastatic functioning well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. After adopting the BEL dosimetry approach, we reviewed the immediate (during hospitalization) and intermediate (from discharge up to 3 mo) side effects after our initial 15 therapies in ten patients. The doses ranged from 51 mCi (1887 MBq) to 450 mCi (16.65 GBq). Immediate side effects were observed in 12/15 (80%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 10/15, salivary 9/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 2/15, pulmonary 0/15. Intermediate side effects were observed in 10/15 (67%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 0/15, salivary 3/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 3/15, nasal complaints 2/15, transient bone marrow suppression 9/10, pulmonary 0/15. No patient required blood transfusions or had complications secondary to reduced blood counts. All patient complaints resolved; however, several patients may have reduced baseline blood counts one year after therapy. No other long-term side effect has been noted but the mean follow-up has been only 15 mo. In our opinion, we have not observed any side effect to date which would contraindicate the continued use and evaluation of the BEL dosimetry approach.

  18. Cataplexy as a side effect of modafinil in a patient without narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Eduardo; Pereira, Danielle; da Silva Behrens, Nilce Sanny Costa; de Almeida Fonseca, Hassana; Calvancanti, Paola Oliveira; de Araújo Lima, Taís Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Castro, Juliana; Tufik, Sergio; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho Santos

    2014-03-01

    Narcolepsy is a disease in which there is diurnal excessive sleepiness with sleep attacks and a prevalence in the general population of 1/4000 individuals. Classically, it is characterized by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and fragmented sleep. The use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy is the first option of treatment for diurnal excessive sleepiness. Although considered a safe drug for use in patients with narcolepsy, being utilized for more than 20 years, modafinil possesses a series of side effects, some of them still not fully researched or described. Side effects such as headache, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, lumbago, diarrhea, dyspepsia, rhinitis and vertigo are the most frequent. However, the clinical follow-up of patients under treatment with modafinil must be intensive and the side effects ought to be noted and evaluated. The under-response to treatment or the unexpected side effects must always be directed to differential diagnostics. The objective of this article is to describe an unexpected side effect of the use of modafinil in a patient with incorrect diagnosis of narcolepsy. PMID:26483900

  19. Drug Side Effect Profiles as Molecular Descriptors for Predictive Modeling of Target Bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nancy C; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    We have explored the potential of using side effect profiles of drugs to predict their bioactivities at the receptor level. Serotonin 5-HT6 binding and dopamine antagonism were investigated in separate studies. A set of 5-HT6 binders and non-binders was retrieved from the PDSP Ki database, whereas dopamine antagonists were retrieved from the MeSH Pharmaceutical Action file. The side effect data was extracted from ChemoText, a data repository containing MeSH annotations pulled from MEDLINE records. These side effects profiles were treated as molecular descriptors enabling a QSAR-like approach to build models that could reliably discriminate different classes of molecules, e.g., binders versus non-binders, and dopamine antagonists versus non-antagonists. Selected models with the best external prediction performances were applied to a library of ca. 1000 chemicals with known side effects profiles in order to predict their potential 5-HT6 binding and/or dopamine antagonism. In each case the virtual screening process was able to identify putatively active compounds that through subsequent literature-based validation were found to be likely or known 5-HT6 binders or dopamine antagonists. These results demonstrate that side effect profiles can be utilized to predict a drug's unknown molecular activity, thus representing a valuable opportunity in repositioning the drug for a new indications.

  20. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  1. Cutaneous bacterial species from Lithobates catesbeianus can inhibit pathogenic dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Antje; Hernandez, Trang

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics are being successfully used to fight many infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. However, new infectious diseases are continuously being identified, and some known pathogens are becoming resistant against known antibiotics. Furthermore, many antifungals are causing serious side effects in long-term treatments of patients, and many skin infections caused by dermatophytes are difficult to cure. The beneficial roles of resident cutaneous microbiota to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms have been shown for many vertebrate species. Microbial symbionts on the amphibian skin for example can be a source of powerful antimicrobial metabolites that can protect amphibians against diseases, such as chytridiomycosis, caused by a fungal pathogen. In this research, we investigated whether cutaneous bacterial species isolated from Lithobates catesbeianus (North American bullfrog), an invasive amphibian species that is resistant to chytridiomycosis, produce secondary metabolites that can be used to inhibit the growth of three species of dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) which are known to cause topical or subdermal skin infections in humans. Strongly anti-dermatophyte bacterial species that belonged to the Bacillaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. This research has provided evidence of the presence of cutaneous anti-dermatophyte bacteria from L. catesbeianus which might provide a basis for health care providers to experiment with new antifungals in the future. PMID:25431089

  2. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  3. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Warris, Lidewij T; van den Akker, Erica L T; Aarsen, Femke K; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J E; Sassen, Sebastiaan D T; Veening, Margreet A; Zwaan, Christian M; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2016-10-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied whether we could predict the occurrence of these side effects using the very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) or by measuring trough levels of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were initially included during the maintenance phase (with dexamethasone) of the Dutch ALL treatment protocol. As a marker of glucocorticoid sensitivity, the salivary very low-dose DST was used. A post-dexamethasone cortisol level <2.0nmol/L was considered a hypersensitive response. The neurobehavioral endpoints consisted of questionnaires regarding psychosocial and sleeping problems administered before and during the course of dexamethasone (6mg/m(2)), and dexamethasone trough levels were measured during dexamethasone treatment. Patients with a hypersensitive response to dexamethasone had more behavioral problems (N=11), sleeping problems, and/or somnolence (N=12) (P<0.05 for all three endpoints). The positive predictive values of the DST for psychosocial problems and sleeping problems were 50% and 30%, respectively. Dexamethasone levels were not associated with neurobehavioral side effects. We conclude that neither the very low-dose DST nor measuring dexamethasone trough levels can accurately predict dexamethasone-induced neurobehavioral side effects. However, patients with glucocorticoid hypersensitivity experienced significantly more symptoms associated with dexamethasone-induced depression. Future studies should elucidate further the mechanisms by which neurobehavioral side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity. PMID:27448086

  4. Preference weights for chemotherapy side effects from the perspective of women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, I; Bouganim, N; Beusterien, K; Grinspan, J; Vandermeer, L; Gertler, S; Dent, S F; Song, X; Segal, R; Mazzarello, S; Crawley, F; Dranitsaris, G; Clemons, M

    2013-11-01

    Perceptions among women with breast cancer about the relative importance of different potential chemotherapy side effects is not well understood. A survey was performed by women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Grade I/II (mild to moderate) and III/IV (moderate to severe) descriptions of nine common chemotherapy side effects were assigned preference weights using the standard gamble technique. For each hypothetical side effect, patients could choose to stay in the respective side effect state or take a gamble between full health (probability p) or being dead (1 - p). For each side effect, p was varied until the patient was indifferent between these options. The survey also included questions about the importance of survival, slowing cancer growth, and quality of life. This analysis included 69 patients; mean age 54 years (range 35-84), representing all cancer stages. Standard gamble preferences were lowest (i.e., least preferred) for grade III/IV nausea/vomiting (0.621), indicating that patients would, on average, risk a 38 % chance of being dead to avoid having grade III/IV nausea/vomiting for the rest of their lives. The next least preferred side effects were grade III/IV diarrhea (0.677) and grade III/IV sensory neuropathy (0.694). Survival appeared more important than slowing cancer growth and maintaining quality of life across cancer stages. Nevertheless, patients with advanced disease placed less importance on survival (p = 0.09) and higher importance on quality of life (p = 0.05). These standard gamble utilities provide unique insights into chemotherapy toxicities from the patient perspective. Differences in the relative importance of overall survival and quality of life with treatment existed between patients with different stages of disease. These studies should be expanded as the data may also be used to calculate quality-adjusted life expectancy in cost-effectiveness evaluations of breast cancer chemotherapies.

  5. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PASSOS, Sonia Regina Lambert; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; BEDOYA-PACHECO, Sandro Javier; VALETE-ROSALINO, Cláudia Maria; VASCONCELLOS, Erica Camargo Ferreira; ANTONIO, Liliane Fatima; SAHEKI, Mauricio Naoto; SALGUEIRO, Mariza Mattos; SANTOS, Ginelza Peres Lima; RIBEIRO, Madelon Noato; CONCEIÇÃO-SILVA, Fatima; MADEIRA, Maria Fatima; SILVA, Jorge Luiz Nunes; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando Oliveria

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023). Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003) of developing more serious (moderate to severe) hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL. PMID:27680173

  6. Pentalinon andrieuxii root extract is effective in the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Lezama-Dávila, Claudio M.; Pan, Li; Isaac-Márquez, Angelica P.; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Isaac-Márquez, Ricardo; Pech-Dzib, MY; Barbi, Joseph; Calomeni, Edward; Parinandi, Narasimham; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) manifests as localized skin lesions, which lead to significant tissue destruction and disfigurement. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mayan traditional healers use Pentalinon andrieuxii Muell.-Arg. (Apocynaceae) roots for the topical treatment of CL. Here, we studied the effect of P. andrieuxii root hexane extract (PARE) on the parasites and host cells in vitro and examined its efficacy in the topical treatment of CL caused by L. mexicana. PARE exhibited potent antiparasitic activity in vitro against promastigotes as well as amastigotes residing in macrophages. Electron microscopy of PARE-treated parasites revealed direct membrane damage. PARE also activated NF-κB and enhanced IFN-γR and MHC class II expression and TNF-α production in macrophages. In addition, PARE induced production of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 in dendritic cells as well as enhanced expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86. In vivo studies showed that L. mexicana-infected mice treated by topical application of PARE resulted in the significant reduction in lesion size and parasite burden compared to controls. These findings indicate that PARE could be used as an alternative therapy for the topical treatment of CL. PMID:24347110

  7. Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects.

    PubMed

    Bird, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript addresses how developing countries can maximize access to essential medicines and minimize unwanted side-effects within the legal environment of a compulsory license regime. While compulsory licensing can play a role in improving public health, external social and political conditions must be considered in order to make licensing an effective practice.

  8. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  9. Side effects of antibiotics during bacterial infection: mitochondria, the main target in host cell.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rochika; Sripada, Lakshmi; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics are frontline therapy against microbial infectious diseases. Many antibiotics are known to cause several side effects in humans. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the main target of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. According to the endosymbiont theory, mitochondrion is of bacterial origin and their molecular and structural components of the protein expression system are almost similar. It has been observed that the rate of mutations in mitochondrial rRNA is higher as compared to that of nuclear rRNA. The presence of these mutations may mimic prokaryotic rRNA structure and bind to antibiotics targeted to ribosomes of bacteria. Mitochondrial functions are compromised hence may be one of the major causes of side effects observed during antibiotic therapy. The current review had summarized the studies on the role of antibiotics on mitochondrial functions and its relevance to the observed side effects in physiological and pathological conditions.

  10. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Andreas; Thieme, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Side effects of anabolic steroids with relevance in forensic medicine are mainly due to life-threatening health risks with potential fatal outcome and cases of uncertain limitations of criminal liability after steroid administration. Both problems are typically associated with long-term abuse and excessive overdose of anabolic steroids. Side effects may be due to direct genomic or nongenomic activities (myotrophic, hepatotoxic), can result from down-regulation of endogenous biosynthesis (antiandrogenic) or be indirect consequence of steroid biotransformation (estrogenic).Logically, there are no systematic clinical studies available and the number of causally determined fatalities is fairly limited. The following compilation reviews typical abundant observations in cases where nonnatural deaths (mostly liver failure and sudden cardiac death) were concurrent with steroid abuse. Moreover, frequent associations between structural characteristics and typical side effects are summarized.

  11. Effect of side by side interactions on the thermodynamic properties of adsorbed CO molecules on the Ni(111) surface: a cluster model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamkhali, Amir N.; Parsafar, Gholamabbas

    2010-05-01

    The effect of electrostatic interactions on vibrational frequencies and thermodynamic properties of CO adsorbate on the Ni(111) surface is calculated by taking the first and second nearest-neighbour interactions into account. In order to obtain reasonable results, the cluster model of various surface adsorption sites with CO adsorbate is partially optimized, using Density Functional Theory and also the MP2 method for the hcp site. Comparison between DFT and MP2 results shows that DFT results are more reliable for this system. The stretching and bending frequencies of CO adsorbate are calculated using both Partial Hessian Analysis and Cluster-Adsorbate Coupling methods. Stretching and bending frequencies are both shifted by the side by side interactions. The coupling of surface phonons and adsorbate vibrations reduces the side effects. The largest side effects on the vibrational internal energy, isochoric heat capacity, entropy and total Helmholtz free energy of adsorbed CO molecule calculated using the CAC method are found for 0.5 ML coverage. The results of the CAC method are better, but the PHA method can be used as a simple upper bound estimation. The adsorptive phase acts as an intelligent material in such a way that it changes its configuration in order to reduce the side effects.

  12. Focused study on the quiet side effect in dwellings highly exposed to road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2012-12-01

    This study provides additional evidence for the positive effect of the presence of a quiet façade at a dwelling and aims at unraveling potential mechanisms. Locations with dominant road traffic noise and high L(den)-levels at the most exposed façade were selected. Dwellings both with and without a quiet façade were deliberately sought out. Face-to-face questionnaires (N = 100) were taken to study the influence of the presence of a quiet side in relation to noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. As a direct effect, the absence of a quiet façade in the dwelling (approached as a front-back façade noise level difference smaller than 10 dBA) leads to an important increase of at least moderately annoyed people (odds-ratio adjusted for noise sensitivity equals 3.3). In an indirect way, a bedroom located at the quiet side leads to an even stronger reduction of the self-reported noise annoyance (odds-ratio equal to 10.6 when adjusted for noise sensitivity and front façade L(den)). The quiet side effect seems to be especially applicable for noise sensitive persons. A bedroom located at the quiet side also reduces noise-induced sleep disturbances. On a loud side, bedroom windows are more often closed, however, conflicting with the preference of dwellers.

  13. Release of neuropeptides from a neuro-cutaneous co-culture model: A novel in vitro model for studying sensory effects of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Le Garrec, Raphaele; L'herondelle, Killian; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Leschiera, Raphael; Buhe, Virginie; Talagas, Matthieu; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Misery, Laurent

    2016-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are the major toxins responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, a disease dominated by muco-cutaneous sensory disorders including paresthesiae, cold dysesthesia and pruritus. While the ciguatoxins are well known to target voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), the ensuing molecular mechanisms underlying these sensory disorders remain poorly understood. In this study, we propose a primary sensory neuron-keratinocyte co-culture as an appropriate model to study the neuro-cutaneous effects of ciguatoxins. Using this model, we show for the first time that nanomolar concentrations of Pacific ciguatoxin-2 (P-CTX-2) induced a VGSC-dependent release of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). As these neuropeptides are known mediators of pain and itch sensations, the ciguatoxin-induced sensory disturbances in ciguatera fish poisoning may involve the release of these neuropeptides. We further determined time- and P-CTX-2 concentration-dependence of the release of SP and CGRP from the co-culture model. Moreover, we highlighted the influence of extracellular calcium on the release of neuropeptides elicited by P-CTX-2. These findings underline the usefulness of this novel in vitro model for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the neuro-cutaneous effects of ciguatoxins, which may assist with identifying potential therapeutics for ciguatera fish poisoning.

  14. Release of neuropeptides from a neuro-cutaneous co-culture model: A novel in vitro model for studying sensory effects of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Le Garrec, Raphaele; L'herondelle, Killian; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Leschiera, Raphael; Buhe, Virginie; Talagas, Matthieu; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Misery, Laurent

    2016-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are the major toxins responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, a disease dominated by muco-cutaneous sensory disorders including paresthesiae, cold dysesthesia and pruritus. While the ciguatoxins are well known to target voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), the ensuing molecular mechanisms underlying these sensory disorders remain poorly understood. In this study, we propose a primary sensory neuron-keratinocyte co-culture as an appropriate model to study the neuro-cutaneous effects of ciguatoxins. Using this model, we show for the first time that nanomolar concentrations of Pacific ciguatoxin-2 (P-CTX-2) induced a VGSC-dependent release of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). As these neuropeptides are known mediators of pain and itch sensations, the ciguatoxin-induced sensory disturbances in ciguatera fish poisoning may involve the release of these neuropeptides. We further determined time- and P-CTX-2 concentration-dependence of the release of SP and CGRP from the co-culture model. Moreover, we highlighted the influence of extracellular calcium on the release of neuropeptides elicited by P-CTX-2. These findings underline the usefulness of this novel in vitro model for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the neuro-cutaneous effects of ciguatoxins, which may assist with identifying potential therapeutics for ciguatera fish poisoning. PMID:26562445

  15. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S L; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  16. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S. L.; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  17. Management of side effects of BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm therapies. Focus on anagrelide.

    PubMed

    Antelo, María Luisa; de Las Heras, Natalia; Gonzalez Porras, Jose Ramón; Kerguelen, Ana; Raya, Jose María

    2015-12-01

    Although hydroxyurea is considered the first-line cytoreductive therapy in high-risk patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia, approximately 20-25% of patients develop resistance or intolerance and they need an alternative therapy. Anagrelide is the treatment of choice in patients with essential thrombocythemia intolerant or with resistance to hydroxyurea. Anagrelide is usually well tolerated. Although there is concern about the increased risk of cardiac side effects, in most cases these are mild, and easily manageable. In this paper, the available evidence about the management of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, with a special focus on the side effects of drug therapies is reviewed.

  18. Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.

  19. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  20. Balancing opioid-induced gastrointestinal side effects with pain management: Insights from the online community.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives. PMID:26535966

  1. Left- and right-sided video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy exhibit similar effects on myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xuan; Gan, Xiangfeng; Chen, Baishen; Shen, Zhuojian; Wang, Minghui; Zhang, Huizhong; Xu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background Unilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) thymectomy features less operative trauma, improved cosmesis, and similar efficiency compared with transsternal (TS) thymectomy for treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Unilateral VATS thymectomy can be easily performed from either side of the thorax, because thymus is located in the middle of mediastinum. Nevertheless, the side that provides better outcomes remains controversial. This study presents our experience on treatments for MG and reveals the differences between the unilateral VATS thymectomy performed on each side. Methods Eighty-one consecutive patients with MG who underwent TS or VATS thymectomy on either side between January 2003 and December 2012 were enrolled in the study. Clinicopathologic data and surgical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed and compared among different surgical approaches. Results TS thymectomy was administered in 50 patients, whereas unilateral VATS approaches were performed on the remaining 31 patients, 15 on the left side and 16 on the right side. The VATS group exhibited a significantly shorter surgery duration (P<0.001), less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.009), shorter postoperative hospital stay (P=0.025), smaller thoracic drainage volume (P=0.033), shorter thoracic drainage duration (P=0.006), and less postoperative complications (P<0.001) compared with the TS group. However, disease remission rates did not significantly differ among the groups (P=0.988). The left-sided group exhibited considerably longer thoracic drainage duration than the right-sided group (P=0.041). Moreover, surgical time (P=0.736), intraoperative blood loss (P=0.281), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.599), thoracic drainage volume (P=0.571), postoperative complications (P=0.742) and therapeutic effect (P=1.000) did not significantly differ among the groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ocular type of MG is the only independent factor for clinical remission (P=0

  2. Cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Spatz, Alan; Robert, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    In the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of melanoma. New predisposition genes have been reported and key somatic events, such as BRAF mutation, directly translated into therapeutic management. Surgery for localised melanoma and regional lymph node metastases is the standard of care. Sentinel-node biopsy provides precise staging, but has not been reported to affect survival. The effect of lymph-node dissection on survival is a topic of investigation. Two distinct approaches have emerged to try to extend survival in patients with metastatic melanoma: immunomodulation with anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies, and targeted therapy with BRAF inhibitors or MEK inhibitors for BRAF-mutated melanoma. The combination of BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors might improve progression-free survival further and, possibly, increase overall survival. Response patterns differ substantially-anti-CTLA4 immunotherapy can induce long-term responses, but only in a few patients, whereas targeted drugs induce responses in most patients, but nearly all of them relapse because of pre-existing or acquired resistance. Thus, the long-term prognosis of metastatic melanoma remains poor. Anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 antibodies have emerged as breakthrough drugs for melanoma that have high response rates and long durability. Biomarkers that have predictive value remain elusive in melanoma, although emerging data for adjuvant therapy indicate that interferon sensitivity is associated with ulceration of the primary melanoma. Intense investigation continues for clinical and biological markers that predict clinical benefit of immunotherapeutic drugs, such as interferon alfa or anti-CTLA4 antibodies, and the mechanisms that lead to resistance of targeted drugs.

  3. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control.

    PubMed

    Choi, Julia T; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-07-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force-matching and (3) an ankle position-matching task. Additional force-matching experiments were done to compare the effects of transient versus continuous stimulation in 6 subjects and to determine the effects of foot anesthesia using lidocaine in another 6 subjects. The results showed that stimulation decreased cutaneous sensory function as evidenced by increased touch threshold. Absolute dorsiflexion force error increased without visual feedback during peroneal nerve stimulation. This was not a general effect of stimulation because force error did not increase during plantar nerve stimulation. The effects of transient stimulation on force error were greater when compared to continuous stimulation and lidocaine injection. Position-matching performance was unaffected by peroneal nerve or plantar nerve stimulation. Our results show that cutaneous feedback plays a role in the control of force output at the ankle joint. Understanding how the nervous system normally uses cutaneous feedback in motor control will help us identify which functional aspects are impaired in aging and neurological diseases.

  4. Frontal Plane Knee Moments in Golf: Effect of Target Side Foot Position at Address

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Scott K.; Noffal, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR) and externally rotated (EXT) target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting) and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent). The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%); however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of attenuating these loads

  5. Multivariate Analysis of Side Effects of Drug Molecules Based on Knowledge of Protein Bindings and ProteinProtein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2014-12-01

    Here, we examined the relationships between 969 side effects associated with 658 drugs and their 1368 human protein targets using our hybrid approaches. Firstly, L-shaped PLS (LPLS) was used to construct a multivariate model of side effects and protein bindings of drug molecules. LPLS is an extension of standard PLS regression, where, in addition to the response matrix Y and the regressor matrix X, an extra data matrix Z is constructed that summarizes the background information of X. X and Y are matrices comprising drugs-target proteins, and drugs-side effects, respectively. The Z matrix is the proteinprotein interaction data. From the loading plot of Y, we could identify two remarkable side effects (urinary incontinence and increased salivation) From the corresponding loading plot of X, the responsible protein targets causing each side effect could be estimated (sodium channels and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors). The loading plot of the Z matrix indicated that the GABA receptors interact with each other and they heavily influence the side effect of increased salivation. Secondly, Bayesian classifier methods were separately applied to the cases of the two side effects. That is, the Bayesian classifier method was used to classify drug molecules as binding or not binding to the responsible protein targets associated with each side effect. Using atom-coloring techniques, it was possible to estimate which fragments on the drug molecule might cause the specific side effects. This information is valuable for drug design to avoid specific side effects.

  6. Psychotropic Drug Efficacy and Side Effects for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy is a frequently employed treatment option in the area of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A considerable literature base has developed indicating when these medications should or could be administered. However, research on the potential side effects and cost benefit analysis of these treatments is not well understood at this time.…

  7. Complement activation plays a key role in the side-effects of rituximab treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, L E; Grillo-López, A J; Baars, J W; Hack, C E; van Oers, M H

    2001-12-01

    Treatment with rituximab, a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can be associated with moderate to severe first-dose side-effects, notably in patients with high numbers of circulating tumour cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of these side-effects. At multiple early time points during the first infusion of rituximab, complement activation products (C3b/c and C4b/c) and cytokines [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8] were measured in five relapsed low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. Infusion of rituximab induced rapid complement activation, preceding the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8. Although the study group was small, the level of complement activation appeared to be correlated both with the number of circulating B cells prior to the infusion (r = 0.85; P = 0.07) and with the severity of the side-effects. We conclude that complement plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of side-effects of rituximab treatment. As complement activation can not be prevented by corticosteroids, it might be relevant to study the possible role of complement inhibitors during the first administration of rituximab.

  8. Monitoring Metabolic Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeluckdharry, Sadira; Sharma, Sujit; O'Rourke, Elizabeth; Tharian, Priyanka; Gondalekar, Anjali; Nainar, Feroz; Roy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    This audit was undertaken prospectively to examine the compliance of a group of psychiatrists against guidelines they developed for monitoring the onset of metabolic syndrome, a potential side effect of antipsychotic medication, especially second generation or atypical ones. Phase 1 of the audit was to set standards by a questionnaire survey of…

  9. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  10. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...) Each authorized dispenser or pharmacy must distribute the side effects statement with each prescription... distributed with new and refill prescriptions. (b) An authorized dispenser or pharmacy must choose one or...

  11. 21 CFR 209.10 - Content and format of the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content and format of the side effects statement. 209.10 Section 209.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE...

  12. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients.

  13. Behavioral and Psychiatric Differences in Medication Side Effects in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Participants were 109 adults with severe intellectual disabilities and long histories of psychotropic drug use. Side effect profiles were examined in the context of types of mental health disorders observed using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Revised (DASH-II) and the Behavior Problems Inventory-Revised (BPI-01). The best…

  14. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  15. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients. PMID:1358128

  16. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  17. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: side effects and quality of life.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, B V; Walsh, G A; McKinna, J A; Greening, W P

    1980-01-01

    In a trial of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy women with primary breast cancer and spread to one or more axillary nodes were randomised to receive a six-month course of either the single agent chlorambucil or the five-drug combination of chlorambucil, methotrexate, fluorouracil, vincristine, and adriamycin. On completing the treatment 47 patients were asked to fill in questionnaires at home on the side effects of treatment and its influence on the quality of their life. Side effects including nausea, vomiting, malaise, and alopecia had been severe enough to interfere with their lifestyle in 9 (42%) of the patients who had received the single agent and 19 (79%) of those who had received multiple-drug treatment. Various other side effects were reported by a few patients. Seven (29%) of the patients who had received the multiple-drug schedule voluntarily added that the treatment had been "unbearable" or "could never be gone though again." The proportion of patients who had experienced severe side effects while receiving the treatment was considerable; hence such adjuvant chemotherapy is justifiable only if it will substantially improve a patient's prognosis. PMID:7004560

  18. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  19. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  20. Analgesia and central side-effects: two separate dimensions of morphine response

    PubMed Central

    Droney, Joanne M; Gretton, Sophy K; Sato, Hiroe; Ross, Joy R; Branford, Ruth; Welsh, Kenneth I; Cookson, William; Riley, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Aims To present a statistical model for defining interindividual variation in response to morphine and to use this model in a preliminary hypothesis-generating multivariate genetic association study. Methods Two hundred and sixty-four cancer patients taking oral morphine were included in a prospective observational study. Pain and morphine side-effect scores were examined using principal components analysis. The resulting principal components were used in an exploratory genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genes coding for the three opioid receptors, OPRM1, OPRK1 and OPRD1. Associations in multivariate models, including potential clinical confounders, were explored. Results Two principal components corresponding to residual pain and central side-effects were identified. These components accounted for 42 and 18% of the variability in morphine response, respectively, were independent of each other and only mildly correlated. The genetic and clinical factors associated with these components were markedly different. Multivariate regression modelling, including clinical and genetic factors, accounted for only 12% of variability in residual pain on morphine and 3% of variability in central side-effects. Conclusions Although replication is required, this data-driven analysis suggests that pain and central side-effects on morphine may be two separate dimensions of morphine response. Larger study samples are necessary to investigate potential genetic and clinical associations comprehensively. PMID:23072578

  1. Putting a finger on potential predictors of oral contraceptive side effects: 2D:4D and middle-phalangeal hair.

    PubMed

    Oinonen, Kirsten A

    2009-06-01

    Many women experience emotional or physical side effects when taking oral contraceptives (OCs). Despite the potential impact on women's health and well-being, there are no valid methods to screen women for their risk of OC side effects. The present paper presents the results of two studies where anthropometric indicators of androgen exposure, 2D:4D and middle-phalangeal hair, were examined for their potential as predictors of OC side effects. In study 1, 2D:4D was associated with women's reports of a history of: (a) negative mood side effects; (b) discontinuation due to negative mood side effects; (c) specific mood side effects (i.e., crying, sadness, and altered trust in one's partners) and (d) specific physical side effects (i.e., headaches, fatigue, and decreased sex drive). In study 2, 2D:4D and/or middle-phalangeal hair was/were associated with a reported history of: (a) discontinuation due to negative mood side effects; (b) specific mood-related side effects (i.e., negative mood, disrupted sleep, increased aggression, and altered trust in one's partner) and (c) specific physical side effects (i.e., headaches, decreased menstrual cramps, and increased sex drive/arousal). The general pattern was that adverse OC side effects were experienced by women with lower 2D:4D and fewer middle-phalangeal hairs. Almost all relationships remained significant when response bias was controlled. These results suggest a possible role for prenatal testosterone exposure and both androgen action and sensitivity in women's experience of OC side effects. Furthermore, these two digit measures may be useful predictors of hormonal contraceptive side effects in women. PMID:19131172

  2. Effects and side effects of DRO as treatment for self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Cowdery, G E; Iwata, B A; Pace, G M

    1990-01-01

    A three-part controlled case study is presented in which severe and longstanding self-injurious behavior exhibited by a 9-year-old-boy was treated successfully with differential reinforcement of other behavior. In Phase 1, an experimental analysis demonstrated that the boy's scratching was not maintained by environmental contingencies; instead, it appeared that the self-injurious behavior was a stereotypic (automatically reinforced) response. In Phase 2, the effects of an escalating differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule mediated through token reinforcement (pennies) were evaluated in a reversal design. Results showed that differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior eliminated self-injurious behavior very quickly and for periods of time as long as 30 min. A noteworthy side effect observed during Phase 2 was the occurrence of crying behavior following the nondelivery of reinforcement. In Phase 3, the token program was gradually extended in 30-min increments throughout the day. Additionally, results of a brief multielement manipulation showed that the effects of token reinforcement were superior to those of a more easily administered differential reinforcement of other behavior based on social reinforcement, which differed little from baseline. PMID:2074238

  3. Sunitinib therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: recommendations for management of side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kollmannsberger, C; Soulieres, D; Wong, R; Scalera, A; Gaspo, R; Bjarnason, G

    2007-01-01

    Sunitinib, a new vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, has demonstrated high activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and is now widely used for patients with metastatic disease. Although generally well tolerated and associated with a low incidence of common toxicity criteria grade 3 or 4 toxicities, sunitinib exhibits a distinct pattern of novel side effects that require monitoring and management. This article summarizes the most important side effects and proposes recommendations for their monitoring, prevention and treatment, based on the existing literature and on suggestions made by an expert group of Canadian oncologists. Fatigue, diarrhea, anorexia, oral changes, skin toxicity and hypertension seem to be the most clinically relevant toxicities of sunitinib. Fatigue may be partly related to the development of hypothyroidism during sunitinib therapy for which patients should be observed and, if necessary, treated. Hypertension can be treated with standard antihypertensive therapy and rarely requires treatment discontinuation. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia usually do not require intervention, in particular no episodes of neutropenic fever have been reported to date. A decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening side effect. Because of its metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 a number of drugs can potentially interact with sunitinib. Clinical response and toxicity should be carefully observed when sunitinib is combined with either a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer or inhibitor and doses adjusted as necessary. Knowledge about side effects, as well as the proactive assessment and consistent management of sunitinib-related side effects, is critical to ensure optimal benefit from sunitinib treatment. PMID:18542784

  4. An Internet-based survey on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette; Rittmann, Ines; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Tattoo removal by laser therapy is a frequently performed procedure in dermatological practices. Quality-switched ruby, alexandrite, or Nd:YAG lasers are the most suitable treatment devices. Although these techniques are regarded as safe, both temporary and permanent side effects might occur. Little has been published on the frequency of complications associated with laser tattoo removal. We performed an Internet survey in German-speaking countries on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects. A total number of 157 questionnaires entered the final analysis. Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the tattoo as youthful folly (29%), esthetic reasons (28%), and 6% indicated medical problems. One third of participants were unsatisfied with the result of laser tattoo removal, and a complete removal of the tattoo pigment was obtained in 38% only. Local transient side effects occurred in nearly all participants, but an important rate of slightly visible scars (24%) or even important scarring (8%) was reported. Every fourth participant described mild or intense tan when the laser treatment was performed, and the same number of people indicated UV exposure following laser therapy, which should normally be avoided in these circumstances. As reported in the literature, nearly half of the participants experienced hypopigmentation in the treated area. Our results show that from the patients' point of view there is an important rate of side effects occurring after laser tattoo removal. Appropriate pretreatment counseling with regard to realistic expectations, possible side effects, and the application of test spots is mandatory to ensure patient satisfaction. Laser treatment should be performed by appropriately trained personnel only. PMID:23907603

  5. Assessment of the effects of laser or LED photobiomodulation on hypothyroid rats of cutaneous wound healing: A morphometric study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Castro, Isabele Cardoso Vieira; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; dod Reis Júnior, João Alves; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Hypothyroid has been associated to a disruption of the body's metabolism, including the healing process. Laser and LED have been shown to be effective on improving healing in many situations, but their benefit in the improvement of healing on hypothyroidism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess, morphometrically, the influence of Laser (λ660nm, 24 J/cm2, 40mW, CW, spot output= 4mm2;) and LED (λ630nm ± 20, 24 J/cm2, 150mW, CW, spot output= 0.5 cm2) on the wound healing of rats with Hypothyroid. Under general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 72 male Wistar rats divided into 6 groups of 12 animals each: G1: Euthyroid; G2: Euthyroid + Laser; G3: Euthyroid + LED; G4: Hypothyroid; G5: Hypothyroid + Laser and G6: Hypothyroid + LED. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. Rats were irradiated after surgery each 48h then killed after 7 and 14 days. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Hypothyroid rats with phototherapy laser or LED showed significant less wound contraction than euthyroid's rats at the 7th day (p<0.05). At the 14th day, the longitudinal measurement was significantly higher in euthyroids (control and irradiated with laser) when compared to the hypothyroid group (p <0.05). This study has shown that hypothyroidism delays wound healing and Laser and LED photobiomodulation using 24 J/cm2 per session improved cutaneous wound healing in hypothyroid rats.

  6. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  7. Biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Meszaros, K; Lenzinger, E; Hornik, K; Schönbeck, G; Hatzinger, R; Langer, G; Sieghart, W; Aschauer, H N

    1997-01-01

    Anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden are used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) induced by neuroleptics such as haloperidol. The effects of biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels on EPS were studied in 29 chronically ill schizophrenics. The results show relationships between biperiden dose and biperiden plasma levels (BPL), and between BPL and haloperidol plasma levels (HPL). Neither BPL nor HPL seem to influence EPS.

  8. [Secondary side effects of corticosteroids and the management of corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Peillon, F

    1975-01-01

    The side effects of glucocorticoids are the result of their biological effects and closely related to the dose administered and the duration of treatment. Whilst excessive amounts may result in the development of a clinical and biological Cushings syndrome, there exists also the problem of avoiding acute adrenal insufficiency when corticosteroids are stopped after a prolonged period of administration or during substitutive therapy for adrenal insufficiency. Aspects requiring surveillance are discussed.

  9. [Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma].

    PubMed

    Dhouib Sellami, Rym; Sassi, Samia; Mrad, Karima; Abess, Imen; Driss, Maha; Ben Romdhane, Khaled

    2007-04-01

    Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma (PCP) is a rare cutaneous B cell lymphoma. We report a case of PCP in a 64 year old woman presenting with a nodular lesion of the left cheek. Histologically, the lesion was composed predominately of variably maturated plasma cells with monotypic expression of lambda chain. Extracutaneous localizations of the disease had been excluded. The prognosis of PCP is better than that of the metastatic cutaneous lesion of myeloma. The main prognosis factors are the size tumor and clinical presentation (solitary, versus multiple lesions). Solitary lesions of the PCP are treated by surgical excision and sometimes local radiotherapy. PMID:17909472

  10. Cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Anandi, V; Kurien, T; Jacob, M; Koshi, G

    1994-01-01

    The first case of cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis from Nagaland and a case of cutaneous sporotrichosis from Kerala who had acquired infection from Assam are reported. The diagnosis in both cases were established by isolating Sporothrix schenckii from multiple cutaneous lesions. The dimorphic nature of fungus was established in vitro by demonstrating the mycelial phase at 25-30 degrees C and yeast phase at 37 degrees C and pathogenicity to white mice. Both the patients were successfully treated with oral administration of potassium iodide for 3 months. PMID:8088907

  11. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children.

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Gomathy; Ramesh, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that accounts for 1% to 2% of cases. Childhood skin tuberculosis represents 18% to 82% of all cutaneous tuberculosis cases. Scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris are the two most common clinical forms in children. An increase in the number of tuberculids, especially lichen scrofulosorum, has been observed in the last several years. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children can be severe and have a protracted course. Multiplicity of lesions and multifocal disseminated involvement in scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris is common. Scrofuloderma progressing to gummatous lesions (scrofulous gumma) is mostly described in children. Morbidities and deformities are more severe in children.

  12. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases. PMID:27621348

  13. Alterations in blood lipids and side effects induced by depo-provera in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Fajumi, J O

    1983-02-01

    A fasting plasma lipid profile investigation was undertaken in 63 women who were on contraception with the 3-monthly intramuscular depo-provera injection for periods ranging from 3 to 30 months. Fifty nulliparous women, with no previous history of contraceptive therapy, matched for age, parity, height and socio-economic status, served as controls. History of clinico-physiological side effects was recorded. The results show reduced levels of fasting plasma cholesterol in patients on depo-provera compared to the control group but there was no significant change in fasting plasma phospholipid levels. Contrary to expectations, the patients on depo-provera had higher fasting plasma triglyceride levels than controls. Excessive weight gain and irregular heavy bleeding represent major reasons for withdrawal from depo-provera therapy. The findings suggest that the alterations in the plasma lipid profile, body weight and side effects experienced by women on depo-provera may be inversely related to the duration of effective therapy.

  14. Depo Provera. Position paper on clinical use, effectiveness and side effects.

    PubMed

    Bigrigg, A; Evans, M; Gbolade, B; Newton, J; Pollard, L; Szarewski, A; Thomas, C; Walling, M

    1999-07-01

    has an advantage over the combined oral contraceptive pill, and provides a simple, effective alternative for women who cannot use the pill for these reasons. Similarly, it has been suggested that women who suffer from focal migraine and are therefore advised against use of the combined oral contraceptive pill can still use progestogen-only contraceptives. Although the POP is medically safe in these circumstances, in young women it is less effective, and involves strict time keeping, which will be disadvantageous for some women. Side effects, long term use and schedules of administration are also discussed. The use of local protocols to allow nurse administration is to be supported both in general practice and the clinic situation. Perhaps the most important issue surrounding the use of DMPA is that of patient information. The method has had a particularly bad public image, which naturally makes potential users anxious and subject to misinformation from poorly informed or biased sources. Also, it is temporarily irreversible during its three months duration, so the duration of any problems or anxieties resulting from side effects may be longer than for other methods. It is of paramount importance that easily understood, accurate patient information leaflets are available, since biased and inaccurate information is readily available from women's magazines, perpetuating the myths surrounding the method. PMID:10454658

  15. Depo Provera. Position paper on clinical use, effectiveness and side effects.

    PubMed

    Bigrigg, A; Evans, M; Gbolade, B; Newton, J; Pollard, L; Szarewski, A; Thomas, C; Walling, M

    1999-07-01

    has an advantage over the combined oral contraceptive pill, and provides a simple, effective alternative for women who cannot use the pill for these reasons. Similarly, it has been suggested that women who suffer from focal migraine and are therefore advised against use of the combined oral contraceptive pill can still use progestogen-only contraceptives. Although the POP is medically safe in these circumstances, in young women it is less effective, and involves strict time keeping, which will be disadvantageous for some women. Side effects, long term use and schedules of administration are also discussed. The use of local protocols to allow nurse administration is to be supported both in general practice and the clinic situation. Perhaps the most important issue surrounding the use of DMPA is that of patient information. The method has had a particularly bad public image, which naturally makes potential users anxious and subject to misinformation from poorly informed or biased sources. Also, it is temporarily irreversible during its three months duration, so the duration of any problems or anxieties resulting from side effects may be longer than for other methods. It is of paramount importance that easily understood, accurate patient information leaflets are available, since biased and inaccurate information is readily available from women's magazines, perpetuating the myths surrounding the method.

  16. Effects of flavonoids from Martynia annua and Tephrosia purpurea on cutaneous wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Santram; Jain, Avijeet; Jain, Alok Pal; Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua), (Martyniaccae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea), (Fabaceae) has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C) and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A) were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w) of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w) and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w) was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent), respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w) significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents. PMID:27761428

  17. [Penile sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, A; Boudaya, S; Bouzid, L; Frigui, F; Meziou, T J; Akrout, F; Turki, H; Zahaf, A

    2005-12-01

    The localisation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis of L. major at the penis level is rare, we report here a new observation. Mr K. R aged of 41, without known pathological background presented for 20 days a nodular lesion of the anterior face of the neck, 2 juxtaposed ulcerated nodular lesions of the left wrist. He presented also subcutaneous nodules ranged linearly and extended to the root of the penis. Theses lesions were covered by an erythematous or ulcerated skin. The smear made from the genital lesions of the penis confirmed the diagnosis of a cutaneous leishmaniasis. The evolution was favourable after a 21 days treatment by doxycyclin after an interval of one week. Our observation was specific by the localisation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis and by the clinical form. This shows that in our region cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterised by different clinical symptoms. PMID:16425718

  18. Fear appeals and treatment side-effects: an effective combination for HIV prevention?

    PubMed

    Slavin, S; Batrouney, C; Murphy, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent rises in the incidence of HIV infections among gay men in Australia have produced widespread discussion about appropriate health promotion responses. This has sometimes included calls for a return to fear-based campaigns, exemplified by the Grim Reaper advertisements in HIV. This paper discusses results from four focus groups that tested mock campaign material based on an appeal to fear. Five different poster images were tested among groups distinguished by age and HIV serostatus. Three posters used side-effects from treatments as the fear trigger and two used death from AIDS. A number of themes arose in response to the material including 'othering', shame and scepticism about HIV treatments. The meanings of these themes are explored in the light of current health-promotion theory. This data demonstrates that fear is an ineffective tool for HIV health promotion. It further demonstrates that feelings of shame and stigma are likely to be exacerbated in gay men, leading to poorer health outcomes in various ways.

  19. Normal threshold values for a monofilament sensory test in sural and radial cutaneous nerves in Indian and Nepali volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Inge; Brandsma, Wim; Post, Erik; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-12-01

    The monofilament test (MFT) is a reliable method to assess sensory nerve function in leprosy and other neuropathies. Assessment of the radial cutaneous and sural nerves, in addition to nerves usually tested, can help improve diagnosis and monitoring of nerve function impairment (NFI). To enable the detection of impairments in leprosy patients, it is essential to know the monofilament threshold of these two nerves in normal subjects. The radial cutaneous, sural, ulnar, median and posterior tibial nerves of 245 volunteers were tested. All nerves were tested at three sites on both left and right sides. Normal monofilament thresholds were calculated per test-site and per nerve. We assessed 490 radial cutaneous and 482 sural nerves. The normal monofilament was 2 g (Filament Index Number (FIN) 4.31) for the radial cutaneous and 4 g (FIN 4.56) for the sural nerve, although heavy manual laborers demonstrated a threshold of 10 g (FIN 5.07) for the sural nerve. For median and ulnar nerves, the 200 mg (FIN 3.61) filament was confirmed as normal while the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filament was normal for the posterior tibial. Age and occupation have an effect on the mean touch sensitivity but do not affect the normal threshold for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves. The normal thresholds for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves are determined as the 2 g (FIN 4.31) and the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filaments, respectively. The addition of the radial cutaneous and sural nerve to sensory nerve assessment may improve the diagnosis of patients with impaired sensory nerve function. PMID:25675652

  20. Exploring the Effects of Glycosylation and Etherification of the Side Chains of the Anticancer Drug Mitoxantrone.

    PubMed

    Shaul, Pazit; Steinbuch, Kfir B; Blacher, Eran; Stein, Reuven; Fridman, Micha

    2015-09-01

    Herein we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of symmetric and asymmetric analogues of the DNA intercalating drug mitoxantrone (MTX) in which the side chains of the parent drug were modified through glycosylation or methyl etherification. Several analogues with glycosylated side chains exhibited higher DNA affinity than the parent MTX. The most potent in vitro cytotoxicity was observed for MTX analogue 8 (1,4-dimethoxy-5,8-bis[2-(2-methoxyethylamino)ethylamino]anthracene-9,10-dione) with methoxy ether containing side chains. Treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with MTX or analogue 8 decreased the intraperitoneal tumor burden relative to untreated mice; the effect of 8 was less pronounced than that of MTX. In vitro metabolism assays of MTX with rabbit liver S9 fraction gave rise to several metabolites; almost no metabolites were detected for MTX analogue 8. The results presented indicate that derivatization of the MTX side chain primary hydroxy groups may result in a significant improvement in DNA affinity and lower susceptibility to the formation of potentially toxic metabolites.

  1. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  2. Effect of a topical formulation containing Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. extract on cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Lordani, T V A; Brenzan, M A; Cortez, L E R; Lordani, C R F; Honda, P A; Lonardoni, M V C; Cortez, D A G

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the wound healing effects of topical application of an emulsion containing the HPLC-standardised extract from Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess (Clusiaceae) leaves in rats. The macroscopic analysis demonstrated that the wounds treated with the C. brasiliense emulsion healed earlier than the wounds treated with emulsion base and Dersani®. The percentage of wound healing in the group treated with the C. brasiliense emulsion was significantly higher than in the other groups at 7 and 14 days. On day 14, the animals treated with the C. brasiliense emulsion exhibited a 90.67% reduction of the wound areas. The histological evaluation revealed that on day 21, the group treated with the C. brasiliense emulsion exhibited a significant increase in fibroblasts compared with the other groups. Thus, the C. brasiliense emulsion had healing properties in the topical treatment of wounds and accelerated the healing process.

  3. Synergistic Effect of Honey and Propolis on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Accelerating wound healing is now considered as a principle clinical treatment and increasing the quality and speed of healing which has always been emphasized by the scientists. Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. This study was aimed to determine the synergistic effect of honey and propolis in wound healing of rat skin. A total of 75 Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were placed under general anesthesia and sterile conditions. Then a square shape wound with 1.5*1.5 mm dimension was made on the back of the neck. Animals were randomly divided into control, honey, propolis, combined honey propolis and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 4th, 7th and, 14th days of treatment in each period of study. Wound area in the experimental group was covered once daily with a fixed amount of thyme honey, propolis, propolis and honey and phenytoin cream (1%), the control group did not receive any treatment. For histological studies, during the fourth, seventh and fourteenth day's rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the wound and adjacent skin. After histological staining fibroblast, neutrophils, macrophages and vascular sections were counted in the wound bed. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in the experimental and control groups were significant (P<0.05). The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in combined propolis and honey experimental group was significantly different from the control group (Multivariate ANOVA test) (P<0.05). Combined application of propolis and honey on the open wound healing in rats has a synergistic effect.

  4. Synergistic Effect of Honey and Propolis on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Accelerating wound healing is now considered as a principle clinical treatment and increasing the quality and speed of healing which has always been emphasized by the scientists. Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. This study was aimed to determine the synergistic effect of honey and propolis in wound healing of rat skin. A total of 75 Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were placed under general anesthesia and sterile conditions. Then a square shape wound with 1.5*1.5 mm dimension was made on the back of the neck. Animals were randomly divided into control, honey, propolis, combined honey propolis and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 4th, 7th and, 14th days of treatment in each period of study. Wound area in the experimental group was covered once daily with a fixed amount of thyme honey, propolis, propolis and honey and phenytoin cream (1%), the control group did not receive any treatment. For histological studies, during the fourth, seventh and fourteenth day's rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the wound and adjacent skin. After histological staining fibroblast, neutrophils, macrophages and vascular sections were counted in the wound bed. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in the experimental and control groups were significant (P<0.05). The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in combined propolis and honey experimental group was significantly different from the control group (Multivariate ANOVA test) (P<0.05). Combined application of propolis and honey on the open wound healing in rats has a synergistic effect. PMID:27309263

  5. One rare side effect of zolpidem--sleepwalking: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weibin; Dollear, Mary; Muthukrishnan, Sri Ranjini

    2005-06-01

    Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine agent indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Sleepwalking is a rare side effect of zolpidem. A review of the literature produced only 2 cases. We report a case of a male rehabilitation inpatient in his mid fifties with a history of alcoholism and traumatic brain injury who had undergone a right hip hemiarthroplasty. He had no history of somnambulism or insomnia but walked in his sleep on 2 nonconsecutive nights after taking zolpidem. He had exhibited no such behavior before taking zolpidem, on the intervening night that was he was not given medication, and after the medication was discontinued. We conclude that zolpidem can cause sleepwalking, and patients who have suffered a brain injury may be more susceptible to this side effect. Here we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on zolpidem and sleepwalking.

  6. A detailed insight into drug delivery from PEDOT based on analytical methods: Effects and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, Christian; Asplund, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to release drugs from conducting polymers, like polypyrrole or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), has been described and investigated for a variety of different substances during the last years, showing a wide interest in these release systems. A point that has not been looked at so far however is the possibility of other substances, next to the intended ones, leaving the polymer film under the high voltage excursions during redox sweeping. In this study we target this weakness of commonly used detection methods by implementing a high precision analytical method (high-performance liquid chromatography) that allows a separation and subsequently a detailed quantification of all possible release products. We could identify a significantly more complex release behavior for a PEDOT:Dex system than has been assumed so far, revealing the active release of the monomer upon redox activation. The released EDOT could thereby be shown to result from the bulk material, causing a considerable loss of polymer (>10% during six release events) that could partly account for the observed degradation or delamination effects of drug-eluting coatings. The monomer leakage was found to be substantially higher for a PEDOT:Dex film compared to a PEDOT:PSS sample. This finding indicates an overestimation of drug release if side products are mistaken for the actual drug mass. Moreover the full picture of released substances implements the need for further studies to reduce the monomer leakage and identify possible adverse effects, especially in the perspective of releasing an anti-inflammatory substance for attenuation of the foreign body reaction toward implanted electrodes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1200–1207, 2015. PMID:24912825

  7. [Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on side effects of CAP therapy in gynecological malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Y; Okazaki, T; Okamura, S; Ueki, M; Sugimoto, O

    1989-07-01

    We concomitantly administered a large dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to gynecological malignant tumor patients undergoing CAP therapy (CAP). Hematological changes in the peripheral blood were compared between concomitant MPA patients and those not receiving MPA to examine the effect of MPA in reducing the marrow depression which is the major side effect of CAP. 1) Leukocyte count reached minimum at the second week of CAP in both groups. There was no significant difference in the count between the two groups. At the third week of CAP, the count improved to 84% of the pre-CAP level in patients receiving MPA and to 68% in those not receiving MPA, a significant difference (p less than 0.01). At the fourth week, leukocyte counts were 105% and 96% of pre-CAP levels, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups, but the leukocyte count returned to the pre-CAP level in the patients receiving MPA. 2) Platelet count showed changes similar to those in the leukocyte count. In patients receiving MPA, the count improved more rapidly within three weeks (118%, p less than 0.01), and was significantly higher at the fourth week (107%, p less than 0.05) than in patients not receiving MPA. 3) Reticulocyte count reached minimum in the first week, thereafter improving rapidly in both groups. No differences were noted between the two groups. 4) The periods needed for one course of CAP were 27.7 +/- 3.3 days in the patients receiving MPA and 29.5 +/- 3.7 days in the patients not receiving MPA, making for a significant difference between the two groups (p less than 0.05). These results show that MPA accelerates recovery from marrow depression caused by CAP. It is anticipated, therefore, that MPA will be helpful in the application of various chemotherapies which are expected to be frequently conducted in the future. PMID:2526618

  8. Multiple side effects of penicillamine therapy in one patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Essigman, W K

    1982-01-01

    Skin rashes, proteinuria, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis and myasthenia gravis have all been recorded as complications of penicillamine therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A patient who had developed all 5 is now described. The skin lesion resembled elastosis perforans serpiginosa, which has been reported as a rare side effect in patients with Wilson's disease but not in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with penicillamine. Images PMID:6216862

  9. [Myoclonus as a side effect to citalopram treatment in a patient with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Forsberg-Gillving, Mimmi; Bode, Matthias; Sindrup, Søren Hein

    2015-09-21

    Side effects such as myoclonus and tremor are rare when treating with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We present a case where a patient with known liver cirrho-sis and in treatment with citalopram developed myoclonus, tremor and gait difficulties. The symptoms were reduced when the SSRI dose was decreased. In patients with unexplained movement disorders the usage of SSRIs should be considered as a cause. Furthermore, treatment with SSRIs should be carefully assessed in patients with reduced liver function. PMID:26418639

  10. Effective side length formula for resonant frequency of equilateral triangular microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, Kerim; Kurt, Erhan

    2016-02-01

    A novel and accurate expression is obtained by employing the differential evolution algorithm for the effective side length (ESL) of the equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (ETMA). This useful formula allows the antenna engineers to accurately calculate the ESL of the ETMA. The computed resonant frequencies (RFs) show very good agreement with the experimental RFs when this accurate ESL formula is utilised for the computation of the RFs for the first five modes.

  11. [Prevention of neuro- and cardiotoxic side effects of tuberculosis chemotherapy with noopept].

    PubMed

    Mordyk, A V; Lysov, A V; Kondria, A V; Gol'dzon, M A; Khlebova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated clinical efficiency of noopept used to prevent adverse side effects of antituberculous agents. It included 60 patients with newly diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis. Those in group 1 (n = 30) received 10 mg of noopept twice daily during the first month. The treatment promoted functional normalization of vegetative nervous system and antioxidative systems, reduced manifestations of anxiety, decreased frequency of adverse neuro- and cardiotoxic responses to antituberculous drugs. PMID:19565831

  12. Side-effects of cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic and difficult to treat disease of the larynx. In 1998, the first article was published that described the use of the antiviral substance cidofovir to treat this disease. Although the results are promising, there remains some concern about the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. There is a demand for a qualitative review of the side-effects of this medicine. In this review, the side-effects of cidofovir are investigated. Special attention was given to the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. For this review a search is performed in PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles in which the use of intralesional cidofovir for patients with RRP is described. Eventually, 31 articles could be included for this review. In these articles a total of 188 patients with RRP were described who underwent therapy with intralesional cidofovir. Five of these patients have developed dysplasia of the larynx during the treatment with cidofovir. This is a percentage of 2.7. This percentage is concurrent with the incidence of spontaneous malignant degeneration of RRP (2–3%). Based on this review, it can be concluded that the use of intralesional cidofovir does not increase the risk of laryngeal dysplasia. Apart from the articles that describe the intralesional administration of cidofovir, some articles have been published in which the use of intravenous cidofovir is described as a therapy for RRP. Therefore, a summary is given on the side-effects of intralesional cidofovir as well as a summary on the reported side-effects of the intravenous administration of cidofovir. Based on the outcomes of this review, recommendations are given for a safe use of cidofovir for treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the future. PMID:18458927

  13. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  14. Subthreshold vestibular reflex effects in seated humans can contribute to soleus activation when combined with cutaneous inputs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kristen E; Bent, Leah R

    2013-01-01

    The integration of vestibular and somatosensory information for the control of lower limb musculature remains elusive. To determine whether a subthreshold vestibular input influences the cutaneous evoked response, the isometric EMG activity in the posturally inactive soleus muscles of 13 healthy, seated subjects was collected. Vestibular afferents were activated using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS; 1.8-2.5mA, 500ms), while percutaneous electrical stimulation was delivered to the distal tibial nerve (11ms train of 3 × 1.0 ms pulses, 200Hz) to activate foot sole skin afferents. GVS elicited responses in soleus both independently and when combined with cutaneous stimulation. The responses to the combined sensory input showed an interaction between the two sensory modalities to influence muscle activation. Of note is the presence of significant muscle modulation in the combined condition, where subthreshold vestibular inputs altered the outcome of the cutaneous reflex response. This finding has implications for individuals with sensory deficiency. In the case of an absent or deficient sensory modality, balance protective reflexes to maintain postural equilibrium may be enhanced with targeted sensory augmentation.

  15. Managing cancer side effects to improve quality of life: a cancer psychoeducation program.

    PubMed

    Golant, Mitch; Altman, Tamara; Martin, Chloe

    2003-02-01

    This study aimed to develop and pilot test a community-based education program that addresses the prevention and management of the major side effects of cancer and its treatment according to a Patient Active Empowerment Model. This piloted program evaluated the health and quality of life outcomes for patients with cancer. The program was implemented through a half-day patient education conference. This conference included clinical information concerning disease and treatment-related side effects, an overview of treatment methods, information to help improve communication between the patient and healthcare team, education materials and experiences to empower patients and caregivers, and integration of specific mind-body techniques to strengthen key educational messages and reinforce the importance of side effect management. A total of 32 patients completed both the program and psychometric assessments on the day of the intervention and 30 days later. The participants were primarily white women with an average age of 57 years. Breast cancer was the most prevalent type of cancer experienced by the participants. The pilot results for this small sample showed that from baseline to follow-up evaluation, patients reported significant decreases in depressive symptoms and problems with work or other daily activities that resulted from emotional distress. Some improvements in health and well-being were greater for those who had not experienced fever or infection, those who had no children, and those who were working. Participants indicated that the program was useful in its ability to help them manage treatment side effects. Although the findings presented in this article are based only on a pilot program evaluation and a small sample, they do suggest that the program may be effective in educating patients about specific cancer side effects and empowering them to cope more effectively with their illness. Results showing that subgroups of individuals may have benefited more

  16. Effect of side-chain substituents on self-assembly of perylene diimide molecules: morphology control.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Datar, Aniket; Naddo, Tammene; Huang, Jialing; Oitker, Randy; Yen, Max; Zhao, Jincai; Zang, Ling

    2006-06-01

    Effect of side-chain substitutions on the morphology of self-assembly of perylene diimide molecules has been studied with two derivatives modified with distinctly different side-chains, N,N'-di(dodecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (DD-PTCDI) and N,N'-di(nonyldecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (ND-PTCDI). Due to the different side-chain interference, the self-assembly of the two molecules results in totally different morphologies in aggregate: one-dimensional (1D) nanobelt vs zero-dimensional (0D) nanoparticle. The size, shape, and topography of the self-assemblies were extensively characterized by a variety of microscopies including SEM, TEM, AFM, and fluorescence microscopy. The distinct morphologies of self-assembly have been obtained from both the solution-based processing and surface-supported solvent-vapor annealing. The nanobelts of DD-PTCDI fabricated in solution can feasibly be transferred to both polar (e.g., glass) and nonpolar (e.g., carbon) surfaces, implying the high stability of the molecular assembly (due to the strong pi-pi stacking). The side-chain-dependent molecular interaction was comparatively investigated using various spectrometries including UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the emission of ND-PTCDI aggregate, the emission of DD-PTCDI aggregate was significantly red-shifted (ca. 30 nm) and the emission quantum yield decreased about three times, primarily due to the more favorable molecular stacking for DD-PTCID. Moreover, the aggregate of DD-PTCDI shows a pronounced absorption band at the longer wavelength, whereas the absorption of ND-PTCDI aggregate is not significant in the same wavelength region. These optical spectral observations are reminiscent of the previous theoretical investigation on the side-chain-modulated electronic properties of PTCDI assembly.

  17. Long term side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jessica J; Visvanathan, Kala; Wolff, Antonio C

    2015-11-01

    Adjuvant systemic therapy along with screening has been key to the observed improvements in disease-free and overall survival (DFS/OS) in breast cancer. Improvements in overall survival already take into account therapy related toxicities that can result in death. However, this measure alone does not adequately capture the impact on health-related quality of life. Therefore, it is important to examine the prevalence, frequency and short/long-term impact of therapy-related toxicities, identify patients who might be at greatest risk. Ultimately decisions regarding expected therapy benefits (relative and absolute percentage improvements in DFS/OS) must be made against a background of known potential harms. For many patients with early breast cancer (EBC), their risk of recurrence is not zero but is small. At the same time, for many therapies for early stage breast cancer, the risk of serious side effects is small but is not zero. As we better understand the long-term side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy and targeted therapy, it becomes critical to integrate our growing understanding of breast cancer biology with standard high-quality histopathologic measures to better identify the patients most likely to benefit from the various options for combined multimodality therapy. Hence, we must strive against the notion of recommending adjuvant systemic chemotherapy "just in case." This article focuses on the long-term side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with EBC.

  18. Phenotypic side effects prediction by optimizing correlation with chemical and target profiles of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Rakesh; Sharma, Abhinav; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-11-01

    Despite technological progresses and improved understanding of biological systems, discovery of novel drugs is an inefficient, arduous and expensive process. Research and development cost of drugs is unreasonably high, largely attributed to the high attrition rate of candidate drugs due to adverse drug reactions. Computational methods for accurate prediction of drug side effects, rooted in empirical data of drugs, have the potential to enhance the efficacy of the drug discovery process. Identification of features critical for specifying side effects would facilitate efficient computational procedures for their prediction. We devised a generalized ordinary canonical correlation model for prediction of drug side effects based on their chemical properties as well as their target profiles. While the former is based on 2D and 3D chemical features, the latter enumerates a systems-level property of drugs. We find that the model incorporating chemical features outperforms that incorporating target profiles. Furthermore we identified the 2D and 3D chemical properties that yield best results, thereby implying their relevance in specifying adverse drug reactions. PMID:26252576

  19. Electro-rheological effects of liquid crystalline polymer on one-sided pattern electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takesue, Naoyuki; Furusho, Junji; Inoue, Akio

    2002-02-01

    In most industrial robots, serious problems of vibratory behavior are caused because of elasticity in the drive systems. An electro-rheological (ER) fluid is a substance that can change its apparent viscosity by the application of an electric field, and homogeneous ER fluids are effective in reducing vibration in robots. Conventional research into ER fluids is based on parallel electrodes with ER fluids between them. Since a high voltage is required for use of ER fluids with parallel electrodes, problems of cost, safety and wiring for practical applications are of concern. In this article, we propose one-sided pattern electrodes that solve some of the above problems. A one-sided pattern electrode is an electrode in a pattern arranged on only one of the two surfaces of a pair of electrodes, with an insulator arranged on the other surface. We developed two kinds of one-sided pattern electrodes: a concentric circle form and a radial form, experimentally verifying the manifestation of ER effects in a liquid crystalline polymer (a homogeneous ER fluid). In addition, the effect of disk gap upon viscosity change was investigated.

  20. The impact of nalmefene on side effects due to intrathecal morphine at cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, J E; Bailey, S L; Graves, J; Paice, J A; Shott, S; Faut-Callahan, M

    2001-06-01

    Nalmefene is a long-acting opioid antagonist that provides long-term relief from side effects of intrathecal morphine sulfate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether prophylactic nalmefene could decrease side effects of intrathecal morphine given during cesarean section, without affecting analgesia. Sixty parturients were given 0.25 mg of intrathecal morphine, 12.5 micrograms of fentanyl, and 11.25 to 15 mg of bupivacaine. A dose of 0.25 microgram/kg of nalmefene or placebo was given by intravenous piggyback immediately after delivery of the neonate. Nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and level of sedation were assessed for a 24-hour period using a 4-point ordinal scoring system. Pain was assessed by using a 0- to 10-point verbal analogue scale. A 5-point analgesic satisfaction survey also was completed. Subjects who received nalmefene required supplemental analgesia at a median of 6.00 hours after intrathecal morphine, compared with 14.12 hours in the placebo group (P = .037). No differences were found between the groups in the incidence of pruritus, nausea and vomiting, level of sedation, or analgesic satisfaction. We concluded that nalmefene at a dose of 0.25 microgram/kg does not decrease the incidence of side effects but increases the need for supplemental analgesics.

  1. Tacrolimus whole blood concentrations correlate closely to side-effects in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Böttiger, Y; Brattström, C; Tydén, G; Säwe, J; Groth, C-G

    1999-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the relationship between tacrolimus whole blood concentrations and side-effects and rejections in 14 renal transplant recipients. Methods Tacrolimus was measured by MEIA in whole blood in samples collected repeatedly during the first year after transplantation. Retrospectively, tacrolimus trough concentrations on the days with adverse events (n = 172) or rejection (n = 28) were related to the total distribution of the concentration values (n = 656). Results Side-effects (one or more) were noted in connection with 76% of tacrolimus concentrations above 30 ng ml−1, with 41% of concentrations within the interval of 20–30 ng ml−1, with 26% of the concentrations within the interval of 10–20 ng ml−1 and with only 5.3% on the concentrations lower than 10 ng ml−1. No relation to the tacrolimus concentration was seen for rejection episodes. Conclusions We conclude that therapeutic drug monitoring may be helpful in the management of tacrolimus therapy and that tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations (MEIA) should preferably be kept below 20 ng ml−1 to avoid side-effects, such as nephro-and neurotoxicity and infections. The lower limit of the therapeutic range has yet to be defined. PMID:10510159

  2. [Predicting side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A with ribaverin].

    PubMed

    Sarkisiants, N K; Grigorian, É G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the commonest side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A (PEG-IFN) and ribaverin (RBV) and the influence of various factors on their development. The work was done in the Department of Infectious Disease, Erevan State Medical University. Monitoring 16 adverse reactions was carried out with the use of special tables within 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after the onset of therapy in patients with genotypes 2 and 3 and in addition after 8, 10 and 12 months in patients with genotype 1. The influence of independent prognostic factors was estimated by logistic regression analysis. The commonest side effects of PEG-IFN plus RBV therapy were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, weight loss, depression, fatigue, and insomnia that occurred at one time or another in more than half of the patients. Weight loss during therapy amounted to 8.36 kg (95% CI 6.7-10) (maximum 21 kg). Myalgia, anorexia, arthralgia, headache, alopecia, and vomiting were documented in 20-50% of the cases. Anemia, pruritis, eruption, erythema, and hair shedding at injection sites occurred in 1/4 of the patients. It is concluded that logistic regression analysis with matching selected prognostic factors permits to estimate the probability of such side effects as weight loss, flu-like syndrome, and myalgia. PMID:24159787

  3. Aggressive behavior as a rare side effect of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Papuć, Ewa; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Obszańska, Katarzyna; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) has a well-established position in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), it may be accompanied by different side effects including behavioral changes. We present a patient with advanced PD after bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) who developed attacks of aggressive behavior. The patient with a 12 year history of PD underwent the procedure of DBS with one-stage bilateral stereotactic approach using the Leksel G stereotactic frame. For STN identification microrecording technique was applied (5 microelectrodes). Four weeks after surgery STN stimulation was switched on. With increasing the amplitude of stimulation on the right (active contacts 1 and 2) the patient experienced transient episodes of aggression. Change of stimulation mode led to withdrawal of all side effects. We hypothesize that aggression episodes in the patient were caused by stimulation of limbic circuit probable within STN although we cannot exclude simultaneous stimulation of neighboring structures. Aggression episodes are rare side effect of STN-DBS, nevertheless they may be expected in more posteromedial placement of the electrode within STN. The presented case extends the evidence for non-motor functions of STN and highlights its role as an integrating structure within the basal ganglia system.

  4. Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Containing Artemether in Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania major in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimisadr, Parisa; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Hassan, Zuhir Mohammad; Sirousazar, Mohammad; Mohammadnejad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is one of the well-known polymers, which has been used in numerous biomedical applications because of its good biocompatibility. Objectives: Due to problems made by the therapeutics already used for leishmaniasis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PVA containing artemether in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solution of PVA was prepared by mixing with Double Distilled Water. After preparation of PVA, 4.33 mg of each drug (main drug artemether and control drug 14% glucantime) was added to 100 g of prepared PVA-honey solution. The solution was incubated at 37°C and the release of artemether was evaluated by measuring absorbance at 260 nm wave length. In this study for treatment of mice lesion, we used PVA containing artemether and glucantime and this method was compared with ointment treatment. Results: Mean diameters of lesions in mice treated with artemether were smaller than the control group and the differences were significant (P < 0.05). The mean lesion size of mice treated with PVA containing artemether in comparison with the group treated with ointment of artemether were smaller and the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: PVA containing artemether is a new method for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and according to the obtained results, artemether is an appropriate and effective drug, especially when used with PVA as a lesion dressing; thus we suggest that this method can be applied for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25147717

  5. The effect of 48 weeks of aerobic exercise training on cutaneous vasodilator function in post-menopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Gary J; Sharp, Lisa; Stephenson, Claire; Patwala, Ashish Y; George, Keith P; Goldspink, David F; Tim Cable, N

    2010-04-01

    Skin blood flow (SkBF) and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation decline with ageing and can be reversed with exercise training. We tested whether 48 weeks of training could improve SkBF and endothelial function in post-menopausal females; 20 post-menopausal subjects completed the study. SkBF was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/blood pressure. Resting CVC was measured at 32 degrees C and peak CVC at 42 degrees C. Cutaneous endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilatations were determined by the iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively. All assessments described were performed at entry (week 0), and after 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks of training. Resting CVC measures did not change (P > 0.05) throughout the study. Peak CVC increased (P < 0.05) after 24 weeks (7.2 +/- 1.2 vs. 11.6 +/- 1.4 AU mmHg(-1)) and at the 36- and 48-week assessments (13.0 +/- 1.7 and 14.9 +/- 2.1 AU mmHg(-1), respectively). Responses to ACh also increased (P < 0.05) at the 24-week assessment (5.1 +/- 2.1 vs. 8.55 +/- 2.3 AU mmHg(-1)) and increased further at the 36 and 48-week assessments (11.6 +/- 3.7 and 13.2 +/- 3.9 AU mmHg(-1), respectively). Cutaneous responses to SNP increased (P < 0.05) after 36 weeks (8.7 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.02 +/- 2.23 AU mmHg(-1) at 36 weeks). VO(2max) increased after 12 weeks (23.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 25.4 +/- 0.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and improved (P < 0.05) further throughout the study (31.6 +/- 1.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) at week 48). Aerobic exercise produces positive adaptations in the cutaneous vasodilator function to local heating as well as in cutaneous endothelial and endothelial-independent vasodilator mechanisms. Aerobic capacity was also significantly improved. These adaptations were further enhanced with progressive increases in exercise intensity.

  6. Leakage and field emission in side-gate graphene field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bartolomeo, A.; Giubileo, F.; Iemmo, L.; Romeo, F.; Russo, S.; Unal, S.; Passacantando, M.; Grossi, V.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO2/vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO2 up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1 μA/μm between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.

  7. The Zero-vision: potential side effects of communicating health perfection and zero risk.

    PubMed

    Fugelli, Per

    2006-03-01

    Public health education may have harmful side effects: generate fear, give rise to healthism and contribute to a medical sorting society. To prevent these adverse reactions a new deal for public health communication is presented. It is commended to move public health from omnipotence to moderation, from life style to living conditions, from risk to the bright sides of health, from statistical clone to the holy individual. Furthermore public health communication ought to include uncertainty as authoritarian truth mongering erodes trust. The public health educator must convey compassion and dedication. Rational techno-info is not sufficient. The last golden rule for a new public health is to respect the people. The people are not an inferior mass subjected to basic instincts and irrational fears. Common sense and lay experiences may contribute to the wise management of risk. Therefore public health should develop a people-centered method, recognizing people's own values, perceptions and potentials for preventing disease and promoting health.

  8. Double blind, randomized controlled trial, to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled nitric oxide releasing patch versus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis [NCT00317629

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sandra Y; Rueda, Ligia C; López, Marcos; Vélez, Iván D; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Smith, Daniel J; Muñoz, Gerardo; Mosquera, Hernando; Silva, Federico A; Buitrago, Adriana; Díaz, Holger; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease, endemic in 88 countries, that has shown an increasing incidence over the last two decades. So far, pentavalent antimony compounds have been considered the treatment of choice, with a percentage of cure of about 85%. However, the high efficacy of these drugs is counteracted by their many disadvantages and adverse events. Previous studies have shown nitric oxide to be a potential alternative treatment when administered topically with no serious adverse events. However, due to the unstable nitric oxide release, the topical donors needed to be applied frequently, making the adherence to the treatment difficult. The electrospinning technique has allowed the production of a multilayer transdermal patch that produces a continuous and stable nitric oxide release. The main objective of this study is to evaluate this novel nitric oxide topical donor for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and design A double-blind, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial, including 620 patients from endemic areas for Leishmaniasis in Colombia was designed to investigate whether this patch is as effective as meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis but with less adverse events. Subjects with ulcers characteristic of cutaneous leishmaniasis will be medically evaluated and laboratory tests and parasitological confirmation performed. After checking the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups. During 20 days Group 1 will receive simultaneously meglumine antimoniate and placebo of nitric oxide patches while Group 2 will receive placebo of meglumine antimoniate and active nitric oxide patches. During the treatment visits, the medications will be daily administered and the presence of adverse events assessed. During the follow-up, the research group will visit the patients at days 21, 45, 90 and 180. The healing process of the ulcer

  9. The Effects of Cutaneous Fatty Acids on the Growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Etiological Agent of White-Nose Syndrome (WNS)

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Craig L.; Ingala, Melissa R.; Ravenelle, Rebecca E.; Dougherty-Howard, Kelsey; Wicks, Samuel O.; Herzog, Carl; Rudd, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    White Nose Syndrome (WNS) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana (Myotis sodalis), northern (Myotis septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats. It is caused by a cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are much more resistant to cutaneous infection with Pd, however. We thus conducted analyses of wing epidermis from hibernating E. fuscus and M. lucifugus to determine their fatty acid compositions, and laboratory Pd culture experiments at 4.0–13.4°C to determine the effects of these fatty acids on Pd growth. Our analyses revealed that the epidermis of both bat species contain the same 7 fatty acid types (14:0, 15:0, 16:0. 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, & 18:2), but the epidermis of M. lucifugus contains: a) more stearic (18:0) acid, b) less palmitoleic (16:1) acid, c) less myristic (14:0) acid, and, d) less oleic (18:1) acid than that of E. fuscus. The growth of Pd was inhibited by: a) myristic and stearic acids at 10.5–13.4°C, but not at 4.0–5.0°C, b) oleic acid at 5.0–10.6°C, c) palmitoleic acid, and, d) linoleic (18:2) acid at 5.0–10.6°C. One set of factors that enables E. fuscus to better resist cutaneous P. destructans infections (and thus WNS) therefore appears to be the relatively higher myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid contents of the epidermis. PMID:27070905

  10. The Effects of Cutaneous Fatty Acids on the Growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Etiological Agent of White-Nose Syndrome (WNS).

    PubMed

    Frank, Craig L; Ingala, Melissa R; Ravenelle, Rebecca E; Dougherty-Howard, Kelsey; Wicks, Samuel O; Herzog, Carl; Rudd, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    White Nose Syndrome (WNS) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana (Myotis sodalis), northern (Myotis septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats. It is caused by a cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are much more resistant to cutaneous infection with Pd, however. We thus conducted analyses of wing epidermis from hibernating E. fuscus and M. lucifugus to determine their fatty acid compositions, and laboratory Pd culture experiments at 4.0-13.4°C to determine the effects of these fatty acids on Pd growth. Our analyses revealed that the epidermis of both bat species contain the same 7 fatty acid types (14:0, 15:0, 16:0. 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, & 18:2), but the epidermis of M. lucifugus contains: a) more stearic (18:0) acid, b) less palmitoleic (16:1) acid, c) less myristic (14:0) acid, and, d) less oleic (18:1) acid than that of E. fuscus. The growth of Pd was inhibited by: a) myristic and stearic acids at 10.5-13.4°C, but not at 4.0-5.0°C, b) oleic acid at 5.0-10.6°C, c) palmitoleic acid, and, d) linoleic (18:2) acid at 5.0-10.6°C. One set of factors that enables E. fuscus to better resist cutaneous P. destructans infections (and thus WNS) therefore appears to be the relatively higher myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid contents of the epidermis. PMID:27070905

  11. From Eye Drops to ICU, a Case Report of Three Side Effects of Ophthalmic Timolol Maleate in the Same Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Muhammad Asim; Mady, Ahmed Fouad; Rehman, Basheer Abdel; Alharthy, Abdulrahman; Huwait, Basim; Riaz, Asim; Aletreby, Waleed Tharwat

    2015-01-01

    Timolol Maleate (also called Timolol) is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker and a class II antiarrhythmic drug, which is used to treat intraocular hypertension. It has been reported to cause systemic side effects especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. These side effects are due to systemic absorption of the drug and it is known that Timolol is measurable in the serum following ophthalmic use. Chances of life threatening side effects increase if these are coprescribed with other cardiodepressant drugs like calcium channel or systemic beta blockers. We report a case where an elderly patient was admitted with three side effects of Timolol and his condition required ICU admission with mechanical ventilation and temporary transvenous pacing. The case emphasizes the need of raising awareness among physicians of such medications about the potential side effects and drug interactions. A close liaison among patient's physicians is suggested. PMID:26347135

  12. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites.

    PubMed

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  13. Refractive and Relativistic Effects on ITER Low Field Side Reflectometer Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Peebles, W. A.; Harvey, R. W.; Budny, R. V.

    2010-06-01

    The ITER low field side reflectometer faces some unique design challenges, among which are included the effect of relativistic electron temperatures and refraction of probing waves. This paper utilizes GENRAY, a 3- D ray tracing code, to investigate these effects. Using a simulated ITER operating scenario, characteristics of the reflected RF waves returning to the launch plane are quantified as a function of a range of design parameters, including antenna height, antenna size, and antenna radial position. Results for edge/SOL measurement with both O- and X-modes using proposed antennas are reported.

  14. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  15. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    PubMed

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders.

  16. Refractive and relativistic effects on ITER low field side reflectometer design.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Rhodes, T L; Peebles, W A; Harvey, R W; Budny, R V

    2010-10-01

    The ITER low field side reflectometer faces some unique design challenges, among which are included the effect of relativistic electron temperatures and refraction of probing waves. This paper utilizes GENRAY, a 3D ray tracing code, to investigate these effects. Using a simulated ITER operating scenario, characteristics of the reflected millimeter waves after return to the launch plane are quantified as a function of a range of design parameters, including antenna height, antenna diameter, and antenna radial position. Results for edge/SOL measurement with both O- and X-mode polarizations using proposed antennas are reported.

  17. Acceptor side effects on the electron transfer at cryogenic temperatures in intact photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Bao, Han; Zhang, Chunxi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Ren, Yanan; Shen, Jian-Ren; Zhao, Jingquan

    2008-09-01

    In intact PSII, both the secondary electron donor (Tyr(Z)) and side-path electron donors (Car/Chl(Z)/Cyt(b)(559)) can be oxidized by P(680)(+)* at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, the effects of acceptor side, especially the redox state of the non-heme iron, on the donor side electron transfer induced by visible light at cryogenic temperatures were studied by EPR spectroscopy. We found that the formation and decay of the S(1)Tyr(Z) EPR signal were independent of the treatment of K(3)Fe(CN)(6), whereas formation and decay of the Car(+)/Chl(Z)(+) EPR signal correlated with the reduction and recovery of the Fe(3+) EPR signal of the non-heme iron in K(3)Fe(CN)(6) pre-treated PSII, respectively. Based on the observed correlation between Car/Chl(Z) oxidation and Fe(3+) reduction, the oxidation of non-heme iron by K(3)Fe(CN)(6) at 0 degrees C was quantified, which showed that around 50-60% fractions of the reaction centers gave rise to the Fe(3+) EPR signal. In addition, we found that the presence of phenyl-p-benzoquinone significantly enhanced the yield of Tyr(Z) oxidation. These results indicate that the electron transfer at the donor side can be significantly modified by changes at the acceptor side, and indicate that two types of reaction centers are present in intact PSII, namely, one contains unoxidizable non-heme iron and another one contains oxidizable non-heme iron. Tyr(Z) oxidation and side-path reaction occur separately in these two types of reaction centers, instead of competition with each other in the same reaction centers. In addition, our results show that the non-heme iron has different properties in active and inactive PSII. The oxidation of non-heme iron by K(3)Fe(CN)(6) takes place only in inactive PSII, which implies that the Fe(3+) state is probably not the intermediate species for the turnover of quinone reduction.

  18. Cutaneous candidiasis: treatment with miconazole nitrate.

    PubMed

    Cullin, S I

    1977-01-01

    In a well-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 30 patients with cutaneous candidiasis were treated with a 2% miconazole nitrate lotion or its placebo control. By the 14th day, 13 of the 15 patients [87%] treated with miconazole nitrate achieved clinical and mycologic cures. Only a single patient treated with the placebo lotion would be classified as a therapeutic cure. In a second portion of the study those patients judged to be therapeutic failures were treated with the lotion containing 2% miconazole nitrate. By combining the results of both portions of the study we find that miconazole nitrate lotion produced both a clinical and mycologic cure in all patients receiving the active lotion. The miconazole lotion formula was well tolerated by all patients and no side effects were noted. The fact that miconazole nitrate acts rapidly in relieving symptoms, is well tolerated, and is highly effective against dermatophytes, yeasts and gram-positive bacteria, makes it a welcome addition to available topical therapy of skin infections.

  19. Cutaneous histiocytosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Roper, S S; Spraker, M K

    1985-11-01

    Cutaneous histiocytosis may take two principal forms. It is either a benign proliferative process or a relentless, progressive process with a poor prognosis. In histiocytic medullary reticulosis, histiocytes demonstrate nuclear atypia and the outcome is uniformly fatal. Benign cephalic histiocytosis X causes lesions similar to those of histiocytosis X, but Langerhans' cells are absent. In congenital self-healing histiocytosis X, the Letterer-Siwe-like cutaneous infiltrate contains Langerhans' cells, but the lesions heal spontaneously without treatment. The nodular cutaneous lesions of juvenile xanthogranuloma appear in infancy and resolve without treatment; however, the higher percentage (10%) of associated ocular lesions may lead to glaucoma and blindness. In histiocytosis X, the cutaneous lesions show a marked proliferation of Langerhans' cells, with prognosis dependent on the patient's age and the extent of organ dysfunction. Patients who survive the acute form of the disease may develop diabetes insipidus, growth retardation, pulmonary fibrosis, and biliary cirrhosis. A subtle immunologic defect has been identified in patients with histiocytosis X, yet the pathogenesis of the disease is still speculative. Familial disease occurring in early infancy should be differentiated from complete or partial immunodeficiency syndromes. Guidelines for evaluating patients with cutaneous histiocytosis are reviewed.

  20. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    PubMed Central

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  1. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  2. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  3. Management of cutaneous metastases using electrochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Matthiessen, Louise Wichmann; Chalmers, Richard Ling; Sainsbury, David Christopher George; Veeramani, Sivakumar; Kessell, Gareth; Humphreys, Alison Claire; Bond, Jane Elisabeth; Muir, Tobian; Gehl, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cutaneous metastases may cause considerable discomfort as a consequence of ulceration, oozing, bleeding and pain. Electrochemotherapy has proven to be highly effective in the treatment of cutaneous metastases. Electrochemotherapy utilises pulses of electricity to increase the permeability of the cell membrane and thereby augment the effect of chemotherapy. For the drug bleomycin, the effect is enhanced several hundred-fold, enabling once-only treatment. The primary endpoint of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of electrochemotherapy as a palliative treatment. Methods. This phase II study is a collaboration between two centres, one in Denmark and the other in the UK. Patients with cutaneous metastases of any histology were included. Bleomycin was administered intratumourally or intravenously followed by application of electric pulses to the tumour site. Results. Fifty-two patients were included. Complete and partial response rate was 68% and 18%, respectively, for cutaneous metastases <3 cm and 8% and 23%, respectively, for cutaneous metastases >3 cm. Treatment was well-tolerated by patients, including the elderly, and no serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions. ECT is an efficient and safe treatment and clinicians should not hesitate to use it even in the elderly. PMID:21574833

  4. Can we predict short-term side effects of methylphenidate immediate-release?

    PubMed

    Karabekiroglu, Koray; Yazgan, Yanki M; Dedeoglu, Ceyda

    2008-01-01

    Objective. In children and adolescents who were prescribed immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the first time, we aimed to investigate the effect of gender, psychiatric co-morbidity and the baseline severity of clinical symptoms on the short-term side-effects of the medication. Method. In a clinical sample, over a period of 6 months, all MPH-naive patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N=90; male, n=73; female, n=17) age: 9.0±2.2 years (5-16 years)) were included. Patients were prescribed MPH-IR 10-30 mg/day (17.6±4.95). The assessment included structured measurements, including the Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV)-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S) (parents and teachers), Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for ADHD-Short version (teachers). Parents also completed the "Barkley Stimulants' Side Effects Rating Scale" (BSSERS) at baseline and on the third, seventh and 15th days of medication. Results. Repeated measures multiple ANOVA revealed an overall significant difference in BSSERS between the baseline measures and the 15th day (P<0.01). On the 15th day, only the "loss of appetite" item severity scores increased (P=0.001), whereas the scores of "irritability", "proneness to cry", "anxiety", "nail biting" and "euphoria" items decreased significantly. In post hoc analyses, when subjects whose side effects increased and did not increase were compared, chi-square tests revealed a significant difference (P=0.029) only for the presence of co-morbidity, and no difference for the gender, age, dosage of MPH, and the baseline severity of inattentiveness and/or hyperactivity. Discussion. The only significant increase during MPH treatment was for the "loss of appetite" item on BSSERS. Our results suggest that some of the BSSERS items may represent both the ADHD symptoms and the side effects. When overall BSSERS item severity is considered

  5. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis. PMID:26933433

  6. Cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, M; Serrano, M L; Allende, I; Ratón, J A; Acebo, E; Diaz-Perez, J L

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are an unusual finding that may present as the first sign of an internal neoplasia. A case of cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma, which may often involve other organs but very rarely metastases to the skin, is reported.

  7. Short communication: The cost-effectiveness of cutaneous leishmaniasis patient management during an epidemic in Chaparral, Colombia in 2004.

    PubMed

    Vega, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Boris Fernando; Montero, Luz Mery; Montaña, Rafael; Del Pilar Mahecha, Mercedes; Dueñes, Bladimir; Baron, Angela Rocío; Reithinger, Richard

    2007-12-01

    We calculated ranges for the cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment during an ongoing epidemic of CL in Chaparral, Colombia. Using operational clinical and cost data, we calculated that the cost of treating leishmaniasis patients with standard pentavalent antimony was US$345 (95% CI 277-488) per patient treated and cured. The cost per DALY averted per patient cured with antimony was estimated to be approximately US$15 000 (95% CI 12 226-21 532).

  8. Sub-acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus following nitrofurantoin: causative or coincidental?

    PubMed

    Murie, Jill; Agarwal, Monica

    2014-11-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with progressive skin lesions on the face, limbs and trunk in the absence of systemic illness. Three months earlier, she had been prescribed six months prophylactic nitrofurantoin for recurrent urinary tract infections, treated with nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim. Positive immunology and histological inflammatory changes in a skin biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of sub-acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Following treatment with topical steroids, the skin lesions regressed, but alopecia followed and required hydroxychloroquine. One year later, there are no new skin lesions and no evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus. Nitrofurantoin is associated with many side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Possible drug-induced lupus reactions due to nitrofurantoin include pneumonitis, blood disorders and hepatotoxicity. This is the only published case of isolated sub-acute cutaneous lupus following maintenance nitrofurantoin.

  9. Patient-reported side effects, concerns and adherence to corticosteroid treatment for asthma, and comparison with physician estimates of side-effect prevalence: a UK-wide, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Vanessa; Metcalf, Leanne; Versnel, Jenny; Upton, Jane; Walker, Samantha; Horne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to corticosteroid treatment has been shown to reduce treatment efficacy, thus compromising asthma control. Aims: To examine the experiences of treatment side effects, treatment concerns and adherence to inhaled (ICS) and oral corticosteroids (OCS) among people with asthma and to identify the degree of concordance between clinician estimates of side effects and the prevalence reported by patients. Methods: Asthma UK members were sent validated questionnaires assessing treatment concerns, experiences of side effects and adherence. Questionnaires measuring clinicians’ estimates of the prevalence of corticosteroid side effects were completed online. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 1,524 people taking ICS, 233 taking OCS and 244 clinicians (67% of clinicians were primary care nurses). Among people with asthma, 64% of those taking ICS and 88% of those taking OCS reported ⩾1 side effect. People reporting high adherence to ICS (t=−3.09, P<0.005) and those reporting low adherence to OCS (t=1.86, P<0.05; one-tailed test) reported more side effects. There was a disparity between clinicians’ estimates of the frequency of side effects and the frequency reported by people with asthma: e.g., although 46% of people taking ICS reported sore throat, clinicians estimated that this figure would be 10%. Patients who reported side effects had stronger concerns about both ICS (r=0.46, P<0.0001) and OCS (r=0.50, P<0.0001). Concerns about corticosteroids were associated with low adherence to ICS (t=6.90, P<0.0001) and OCS (t=1.71; P<0.05; one-tailed test). Conclusions: An unexpectedly large proportion of people with asthma experienced side effects and had strong concerns about their treatment, which compromised adherence. These findings have implications for the design of interventions to optimise asthma control through improved adherence. PMID:26158805

  10. Effects of short splitter plates on vortex shedding and sound generation in flow past two side-by-side square cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Octavianty, Ressa; Asai, Masahito

    2016-09-01

    Effects of short splitter plates on vortex shedding and sound generation in a low subsonic flow past two side-by-side square cylinders were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers {{{Re}}} = 1.0 - 3.3 × 10^4. The experiment was mainly conducted with the center-to-center distance between the two cylinders of 3.6 d ( d is the side length of a square cylinder) where vortex shedding from the two cylinders was synchronized with anti-phase relation, generating a quadrupole-like sound source that radiated in-phase sound in the far field. The results showed that the attachment of short splitter plates whose length ( c) was ≤0.5 d could reduce the sound pressure level of Aeolian tone significantly. Even with the shortest splitter plates of c{/}d=0.1, SPL was reduced by 6 dB at Mach number M_{∞ }=0.15. This was in contrast to the case of a single square cylinder, for which the attachment of a short splitter plate <0.2 d led to no noticeable noise reduction. It was also shown that even when short splitter plates with a spanwise length as long as or less than the correlation length of shed vortices were attached on the two cylinders in a staggered array, the anti-phase vortex shedding and the corresponding in-phase sound radiation were still dominant.

  11. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liyan; Li, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi) were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck's pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention. PMID:26989683

  12. Lipophilicity, hydrophilicity, and the central nervous system side effects of beta blockers.

    PubMed

    Drayer, D E

    1987-01-01

    One of the attributes of beta-adrenergic blocking agents that has distinguished these drugs from each other is degree of lipophilicity. While this feature may play a role in facilitating passage across the blood-brain barrier, it is essential to realize that crossing the barrier is not necessarily synonymous with the ability to cause central nervous system (CNS) effects. Several studies have found some degree of CNS side effects, particularly tiredness and fatigue, with atenolol, a hydrophilic beta blocker. Pindolol, a moderately lipophilic beta blocker, has been reported to cause greater disturbances on electroencephalogram (EEG) than propranolol, the most highly lipophilic beta blocker. The investigational agent bevantolol exhibits a moderate degree of lipophilicity and a low frequency of CNS side effects. Drug-induced increases in plasma catecholamine levels, the possible saturation of CNS receptor sites at relatively low drug levels, and the specific structural details of beta-blocker molecules have been suggested as possible contributory factors in determining the degree of CNS effects.

  13. Cutaneous signs of piety.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Al Aboud, Khalid

    2014-07-01

    It is important for dermatologists to be aware of cutaneous changes related to religious practices to help in their recognition and management. The anatomic location of cutaneous lesions associated with friction from praying varies based on religious practice. Allergic contact dermatitis from products and substances commonly used in worshipping also vary by religion. Some religious practices may render individuals prone to infections that manifest on the skin. Tattoos of godly figures also may adorn the body. Religious practices also have been implicated in cases of urticaria, köbnerization, and leukoderma. This article reviews the clinical presentation of some of the most common cutaneous changes that occur in individuals who practice the following religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, and Sikhism. PMID:25101349

  14. Cutaneous delivery of natural antioxidants: the enhancement approaches.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Lin, Yin-Ku; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied natural antioxidants can be an effective treatment for inhibiting oxidative damage and photoaging of the skin. Due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC), it is necessary to use an enhancement approach to promote the cutaneous absorption of natural antioxidants. Some factors that should be considered when developing delivery systems for natural antioxidants include increased solubility, enhanced storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, skin targeting, and minimal side effects. This review describes the skin delivery systems for natural antioxidant permeation that have been developed during the last decade. The antioxidants introduced include vitamins, polyphenols, and carotenoids. Various types of formulations are employed to improve the skin penetration of the antioxidants, such as hydrogels, cyclodextrin, microemulsions, nanoparticles, liposomes and niosomes. This review focuses on the introduction of natural antioxidants used in skin protection, the mechanisms of antioxidant activity on the skin, and formulation designs for enhancing absorption and efficacy. PMID:25925121

  15. Cutaneous delivery of natural antioxidants: the enhancement approaches.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Lin, Yin-Ku; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied natural antioxidants can be an effective treatment for inhibiting oxidative damage and photoaging of the skin. Due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC), it is necessary to use an enhancement approach to promote the cutaneous absorption of natural antioxidants. Some factors that should be considered when developing delivery systems for natural antioxidants include increased solubility, enhanced storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, skin targeting, and minimal side effects. This review describes the skin delivery systems for natural antioxidant permeation that have been developed during the last decade. The antioxidants introduced include vitamins, polyphenols, and carotenoids. Various types of formulations are employed to improve the skin penetration of the antioxidants, such as hydrogels, cyclodextrin, microemulsions, nanoparticles, liposomes and niosomes. This review focuses on the introduction of natural antioxidants used in skin protection, the mechanisms of antioxidant activity on the skin, and formulation designs for enhancing absorption and efficacy.

  16. Effects of obesity and mild hypohydration on local sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during passive heat stress in females.

    PubMed

    Moyen, Nicole E; Burchfield, Jenna M; Butts, Cory L; Glenn, Jordan M; Tucker, Matthew A; Treece, Keeley; Smith, Amber J; McDermott, Brendon P; Ganio, Matthew S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and mild hypohydration on local sweating (LSR) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) responses during passive heat stress in females. Thirteen obese (age, 24 ± 4 years; 45.4% ± 5.2% body fat) and 12 nonobese (age, 22 ± 2 years; 25.1% ± 3.9% body fat) females were passively heated (1.0 °C rectal temperature increase) while either euhydrated (EUHY) or mildly hypohydrated (HYPO; via fluid restriction). Chest and forearm LSR (ventilated capsule) and CVC (Laser Doppler flowmetry) onset, sensitivity, and plateau/steady state were recorded as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb). Participants began trials EUHY (urine specific gravity, Usg = 1.009 ± 0.006) or HYPO (Usg = 1.025 ± 0.004; p < 0.05), and remained EUHY or HYPO. Independent of obesity, HYPO decreased sweat sensitivity at the chest (HYPO = 0.79 ± 0.35, EUHY = 0.95 ± 0.39 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb) and forearm (HYPO = 0.82 ± 0.39, EUHY = 1.06 ± 0.34 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb); forearm LSR plateau was also decreased (HYPO = 0.66 ± 0.19, EUHY = 0.78 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); all p < 0.05). Overall, obese females had lower chest-sweat sensitivity (0.72 ± 0.35 vs. 1.01 ± 0.33 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb) and plateau (0.55 ± 0.27 vs. 0.80 ± 0.25 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); p < 0.05). While hypohydrated, obese females had a lower chest LSR (p < 0.05) versus nonobese females midway (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 0.73 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) and at the end (0.53 ± 0.27 vs. 0.81 ± 0.24 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) of heating. Furthermore, HYPO (relative to the EUHY trials) led to a greater decrease in CVC sensitivity in obese (-28 ± 27 Δ% maximal CVC/°C ΔTb) versus nonobese females (+9.2 ± 33 Δ% maximal CVC/°C ΔTb; p < 0.05). In conclusion, mild hypohydration impairs females' sweating responses during passive heat stress, and this effect is exacerbated when obese. PMID:27455036

  17. MRI-guided core needle biopsy of the prostate: acceptance and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Egbers, Nina; Schwenke, Carsten; Maxeiner, Andreas; Teichgräber, Ulf; Franiel, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to study side effects, complications, and patient acceptance of magnetic resonance imaging-guided real-time biopsy (MRI-GB) of the prostate. METHODS Fifty-four men (49–78 years) with elevated prostate-specific antigen after at least one negative systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-GB) were included in a prospective clinical study. Suspicious areas on images were selectively sampled by obtaining a median of four specimens (range, 1–9 specimens) using MRI-GB. In TRUS-GB, a median of 10 specimens (range, 6–14 specimens) were obtained. Telephone interviews were conducted one week after outpatient MRI-GB, asking patients about pain and side effects (hematuria, hemospermia, rectal bleeding, fever, and chills) of the two biopsy procedures and which of the two procedures they preferred. Multinomial regression analysis and Fisher’s exact test was used to test for differences. RESULTS MRI-GB was preferred by 65% (35/54), and 82% (44/54) would undergo MRI-GB again. Pain intensity (P = 0.005) and bleeding duration (P = 0.004) were significantly lower for MRI-GB compared with TRUS-GB. Hematuria was less common after MRI-GB compared with TRUS-GB (P = 0.006). A high correlation was given between bleeding intensity and bleeding duration for TRUS-GB (r=0.77) and pain intensity and pain duration for MRI-GB (r=0.65). Although hemospermia, rectal hemorrhage, fever, and chills were less common in MRI, they showed no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION MRI-GB of the prostate seems to have fewer side effects and less pain intensity than TRUS-GB and was preferred by the majority of patients. PMID:25858525

  18. The Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rates and Side Effects during Eradication Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yini; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. Methods This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER) and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER <80% vs.>80%). Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086–1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070–1.159). Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036) and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598–0.902). This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. Conclusions The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  19. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    PubMed

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  20. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage.

  1. Treatment Modifications and Treatment-Limiting Toxicities or Side Effects: Risk Factors and Temporal Trends.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Nikos; Psichogiou, Mina; Paparizos, Vassilios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chini, Maria; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Panos, George; Chrysos, George; Sambatakou, Helen; Katsarou, Olga; Touloumi, Giota

    2015-07-01

    Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications are often required due to treatment failure or side effects. We investigate cART regimens' durability, frequency of treatment-limiting adverse events, and potential risk factors and temporal trends. Data were derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS). Statistical analyses were based on survival techniques, allowing for multiple contributions per individual. Overall, 2,756 individuals, aged >15 years, initiated cART. cART regimens were grouped by their initiation date into four calendar periods (1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007+). Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] time to first treatment modification was 2.11 (1.95-2.33) years; cumulative probabilities at 1 year were 31.6%, 29.0%, 33.1%, and 29.6% for the four periods, respectively. cART modifications were less frequent in more recent years (adjusted HR=0.96 per year; p<0.001). Longer treatment duration was associated with lower HIV-RNA, higher CD4 counts, and being previously ART naive. cART modifications due to treatment failure became less frequent in recent years (adjusted HR=0.91 per year; p<0.001). Estimated (95% CI) 1 year cumulative probabilities of treatment-limiting side effects were 16.4% (12.0-21.3%), 19.3% (15.6-23.3%), 24.9% (20.3-29.7%), and 21.1% (13.4-29.9%) for the four periods, respectively, with no significant temporal trends. Risk of side effects was lower in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens or triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based cART regimens. Treatment modifications have become less frequent in more recent years. This could be partly attributed to the lower risk for side effects of NNRTI-based cART regimens and mainly to the improved efficacy of newer drugs. However, the rate of drugs substitutions due to adverse events remains substantially high. PMID:25950848

  2. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage. PMID:25399625

  3. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints. PMID:27085227

  4. Effects of one-sided heat input and removal on axially grooved heat pipe performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamotani, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of an axially grooved heat pipe with one-sided heat input and removal was investigated analytically. Under zero-g condition the maximum heat transport of the pipe may decrease as much as 30% depending on the liquid slug behavior in the condenser section. In one-g environment the performance depends mainly on the fluid charge. The maximum heat transport, if over-charged, is almost equal to the value for uniform heating and cooling due to puddling effect. However, for some heater-cooler combinations the temperature drop across the heat pipe becomes very large. Computed results for tilted heat pipes compare favorably with available experimental data.

  5. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Guan; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2014-11-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare human infection due to ubiquitous soil born gram-positive, filametous aerobic bacteria. First signs are frequently cutaneous either as part of systemic infection disseminated to the skin, or as primary cutaneous inoculation. An 88 years old man presented with a 3-day history of red papules and pustules with pain on his forehead. The combination of the unusual clinical presentation, laboratory examinations, and a favorable response to co-trimoxazole therapy were consistent with a diagnosis of primary cuteneous nocardiosis. Early recognition and treatment of the disease will improve the cure rate. PMID:25518763

  6. The cutaneous porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg-Brand, Danja; Katugampola, Ruwani; Anstey, Alexander V; Badminton, Michael N

    2014-07-01

    The porphyrias are a group of mainly inherited disorders of heme biosynthesis where accumulation of porphyrins and/or porphyrin precursors gives rise to 2 types of clinical presentation: cutaneous photosensitivity and/or acute neurovisceral attacks. The cutaneous porphyrias present with either bullous skin fragility or nonbullous acute photosensitivity. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, complications, and current approach to porphyria management. Although focusing mainly on their dermatological aspects, the article also covers the management of acute porphyria, which by virtue of its association with variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria, may become the responsibility of the clinical dermatologist.

  7. Cutaneous histiocytosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mays, M B; Bergeron, J A

    1986-02-15

    Multifocal cutaneous histiocytic lesions were recognized in 9 dogs. Clinically, the dogs had multiple erythematous plaques or nodules in the skin (1 to 5 cm diameter). Histologically, the lesions were comprised of dermal or pannicular infiltrates of large histiocytic cells, with varying numbers of other inflammatory cells intermixed. By electron microscopy, the cells resembled those of canine cutaneous histiocytoma. The lesions seemed to wax and wane and appeared in new sites, regardless of treatment. The dogs ranged in age from 2 to 13 years; 7 dogs were under 6 years of age. Both sexes and various breeds were represented. An infectious agent could not be identified.

  8. The cutaneous porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg-Brand, Danja; Katugampola, Ruwani; Anstey, Alexander V; Badminton, Michael N

    2014-07-01

    The porphyrias are a group of mainly inherited disorders of heme biosynthesis where accumulation of porphyrins and/or porphyrin precursors gives rise to 2 types of clinical presentation: cutaneous photosensitivity and/or acute neurovisceral attacks. The cutaneous porphyrias present with either bullous skin fragility or nonbullous acute photosensitivity. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, complications, and current approach to porphyria management. Although focusing mainly on their dermatological aspects, the article also covers the management of acute porphyria, which by virtue of its association with variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria, may become the responsibility of the clinical dermatologist. PMID:24891059

  9. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available. PMID:24916211

  10. [ORALMEDIC® for treatment of aphthous stomatitis--possible side effects with repeated applications].

    PubMed

    Jarjoura, S; Kaplan, I

    2014-10-01

    ORALMEDIC® (HybenX, Epien Medical Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) is a relatively recent commercial agent designated for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). It has the potential to safely and effectively reduce pain associated with RAS. We present two patients who used ORALMEDIC® to reduce pain caused by RAS lesions. Both patients developed side effects presenting as deep ulcerations with a necrotic base at the location where ORALMEDIC® has been repeatedly applied as pain did not diminish after the first application. One patient used ORALMEDIC® several times on the same lesion. However the other patient followed the manufacturer instructions when he successively used ORALMEDIC® stick twice over the same lesion. Patients were treated with systemic antibiotics and local antiseptic agents. The healing process of the ulcers was slow and has completed its course within six weeks. It is suggested that when dental surgeons recommend ORALMEDIC®, they should emphasize the importance of using this agent according to the manufacturer's instructions in order to minimize the risk for side effects.

  11. Respiratory dyskinesia--an under-recognized side-effect of neuroleptic medications.

    PubMed

    Bhimanil, Mukesh Mohan; Bhimani, Mukesh; Khan, Murad Moosa; Khan, Muhammad Faheem Ashraf; Waris, Muhammad Shiraz

    2011-09-01

    Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognized side effect of neuroleptic administration. There are only few studies that have addressed the prevalence of respiratory dyskinesia in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Our case report highlights the need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature. Since RD is underrecognized and misdiagnosed, early detection can improve long term prognosis as treatment options are few and usually of only limited effect. A 62-year-old Asian male, retired civil engineer, had more than 20 years history of depressive illness, developed antidepressant induced hypomania, and was given risperidone upto 1 mg per day. He developed extrapyrmidal side effects as tremors, rigidity and later dyskinetic movements of lips with shortness of breathing, dyspnoea, grunting or gasping. He was referred to the pulmonologist who got the neccessary medical work up done, which was normal. A diagnosis of respiratory dyskinesia was made. Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognised and distressing condition that clinicians need to be aware of when treating patients with anti-psychotic medications. And also there is a need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature for early diagnosis and better outcome. This case report also is worth reading for professionals of other specialties also because of the presentation of this patient, it can be easily misdiagnosed and result in poor outcome.

  12. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  13. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information. PMID:26590979

  14. Non-cell Corynebacterium parvum generated by nanotechnology: a promising immunomodulator with less side effects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shangxian; Liu, Chenghu; Qu, Shoufang; Song, Jing; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Pin; Wang, Qun; Guo, Chun; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Lining

    2007-10-01

    Corynebacterium parvum (CP), a kind of immunomodulator, has been well documented in immunotherapy to tumor. However, severe side effects, such as intrahepatic granulomas and scleromas in injected areas, restrict its clinical application. To minimize side effects of CP, a non-cell Corynebacterium parvum product (NCPP) was prepared by disposing CP with Nanotechnology. In present study, we compared effect of NCPP with that of CP and found: (1) NCPP with non-formaldehyde residue was easy to be absorbed without swelling and scleroma in local injected areas; (2) NCPP caused no obvious liver injury in murine and macaques; (3) NCPP maintained powerful anti-tumor activity, increased splenic index, elevated macrophage number, phagocytosis and production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and nitric oxide (NO); (4) Importantly, unparallel CP, NCPP could stimulate macrophages to produce low level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) but high level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), an inhibitor to fibrosis. Our study has led to the view that NCPP will evolve into a new valuable immunomodulator for clinical application. PMID:17673148

  15. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Methods Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Results Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0,0042). Talc produced significant edema compared to oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042). Conclusions Both agents were shown to produce pulmonary lesions. In acute phase, the pulmonary side effects of oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose

  16. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  17. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  18. [Dermal and systemic side effects of fluocortin butylester. Comparative skin tearing experiments with active principles from commercial preparations].

    PubMed

    Kapp, J F; Gliwitzki, B; Josefiuk, P; Weishaupt, W

    1977-01-01

    Different concentrations of butyl 6alpha-fluoro-11beta-hydroxy-16alpha-methyl-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadien-21-oate (fluocortin butylester FCB, Vaspit) and of clobetasone-17-butyrate, clobetasole-17-propionate and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate have been administered topically in order to investigate dermal and systemic side effects. It could be shown that FCB exhibits by far the least side effects. A specially devised apparatus covering the site of substance application, guaranteed an exclusive dermal absorption. Side effects, therefore, cannot be ascribed to oral ingestion of the drugs.

  19. Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Blacquière, Tjeerd; Smagghe, Guy; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Mommaerts, Veerle

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are successfully applied to control pests in a variety of agricultural crops; however, they may not only affect pest insects but also non-target organisms such as pollinators. This review summarizes, for the first time, 15 years of research on the hazards of neonicotinoids to bees including honey bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. The focus of the paper is on three different key aspects determining the risks of neonicotinoid field concentrations for bee populations: (1) the environmental neonicotinoid residue levels in plants, bees and bee products in relation to pesticide application, (2) the reported side-effects with special attention for sublethal effects, and (3) the usefulness for the evaluation of neonicotinoids of an already existing risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds. Although environmental residue levels of neonicotinoids were found to be lower than acute/chronic toxicity levels, there is still a lack of reliable data as most analyses were conducted near the detection limit and for only few crops. Many laboratory studies described lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids on the foraging behavior, and learning and memory abilities of bees, while no effects were observed in field studies at field-realistic dosages. The proposed risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds was shown to be applicable to assess the risk for side-effects of neonicotinoids as it considers the effect on different life stages and different levels of biological organization (organism versus colony). Future research studies should be conducted with field-realistic concentrations, relevant exposure and evaluation durations. Molecular markers may be used to improve risk assessment by a better understanding of the mode of action (interaction with receptors) of neonicotinoids in bees leading to the identification of environmentally safer compounds.

  20. Effect of gas puffing from different side on lower hybrid wave-plasma coupling in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Kong, E. H.; Zhang, T.; Ekedahl, A.; Li, M. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wu, J. H.; Xu, G. S.; Zhao, H. L.; Wang, M.; Gong, X. Z.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; EAST Team

    2013-10-01

    Effect of gas puffing from electron-side and ion-side on lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma is investigated in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak for the first time. Experimental results with different gas flow rates show that electron density at the grill is higher in the case of gas puffing from electron-side; consequently, a lower reflection coefficient is observed, suggesting better effect of puffing from electron-side on LHW-plasma. The difference in edge density between electron- and ion-side cases suggests that local ionization of puffed gas plays a dominant role in affecting the density at the grill due to different movement direction of ionized electrons and that part of gas has been locally ionized near the gas pipe before diffusing into the grill region. Such difference could be enlarged and important in ITER due to the improvement of plasma parameters and LHW power.

  1. Nutritional Intervention Using Nutrition Care Process in a Malnourished Patient with Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition. PMID:25713794

  2. Nutritional intervention using nutrition care process in a malnourished patient with chemotherapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ok; Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition.

  3. Exploring Motivations, Awareness of Side Effects, and Attitudes among Potential Egg Donors.

    PubMed

    Gezinski, Lindsay B; Karandikar, Sharvari; Carter, James; White, Melinda

    2016-05-01

    This research study surveyed prospective egg donors at orientation to (a) understand women's motivations to donate eggs, (b) assess awareness and knowledge of egg donation prior to entry into the egg donation program, and (c) explore attitudes toward egg donation. Ninety-two women completed the questionnaire at one fertility clinic located in the Midwest between August 2011 and August 2012. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as textual analysis were used to analyze the data. Three themes emerged regarding participant motivations: (1) altruistic, (2) financial, and (3) desire to pass on genetic material. The majority of participants were unconcerned with potential physical and psychological side effects; however, differences emerged based on motherhood status and educational level. Although potential donors felt recipients should receive some information about the donor, they tended to value privacy regarding information giving to resultant offspring. This research study has implications for social work practice, policy, and future research. It is crucial that women receive adequate procedural and side effect information prior to engaging in egg donation. PMID:27263197

  4. Cholestatic hepatitis as a possible new side-effect of oxycodone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent; Stewart, Maxwell; Boyd, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Oxycodone is a widely-used semisynthetic opioid analgesic that has been used for over eighty years. Oxycodone is known to cause side effects such as nausea, pruritus, dizziness, constipation and somnolence. As far as we are aware cholestatic hepatitis as a result of oxycodone use has not been reported so far in the world literature. Case presentation A 34-year-old male presented with cholestatic jaundice and severe pruritus after receiving oxycodone for analgesia post-T11 vertebrectomy. Extensive laboratory investigations and imaging studies did not reveal any other obvious cause for his jaundice and a liver biopsy confirmed canalicular cholestatis suggestive of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient's symptoms and transaminases normalised on withdrawal of oxycodone confirming that oxycodone was the probable cause of the patient's hepatotoxicity. Conclusion We conclude that cholestatic hepatitis is possibly a rare side effect of oxycodone use. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially serious picture of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:18452597

  5. Complement activation during OKT3 treatment: a possible explanation for respiratory side effects.

    PubMed

    Raasveld, M H; Bemelman, F J; Schellekens, P T; van Diepen, F N; van Dongen, A; van Royen, E A; Hack, C E; ten Berge, I J

    1993-05-01

    Respiratory side effects that sometimes occur during treatment with anti-CD3 MAb OKT3 might result from pulmonary sequestration of activated neutrophils. Therefore, we studied complement activation in relation to activation and pulmonary sequestration of neutrophils during antirejection treatment with OKT3. In each of nine patients studied, plasma C3a-desarg and C4b/c levels increased compared with pretreatment values already in the first sample taken 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3 (P < 0.05), with peak values at 15 and 30 minutes, respectively. Levels of neutrophil degranulation product elastase (complexed to alpha 1-antitrypsin) also increased already at 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3 (P < 0.05), which is before elevated levels of the cytokines TNF alpha, IL-6 or IL-8 were detectable. In contrast, upon subsequent OKT3 administrations or in the control group treated with methylprednisolone, neither complement activation, cytokine release nor neutrophil degranulation occurred. In five studied patients treated with OKT3, pulmonary sequestration of radiolabeled granulocytes was observed from 3 until 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3, together with peripheral blood granulocytopenia, which lasted at least 30 minutes. In conclusion, we demonstrate a simultaneous activation of complement and pulmonary sequestration of activated granulocytes immediately following the first dose of OKT3. These phenomena may be involved in the development of respiratory side effects complicating this therapy.

  6. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  7. Patient-controlled inhalational analgesia in prehospital care: a study of side-effects and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R D; Paris, P M; Stoy, W A; Cannon, G

    1983-11-01

    A clinical trial of a 50:50 mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen for pain relief was carried out to determine the feasibility of its use in a field setting and the side-effects produced by this sedative/analgesic. The gas mixture was delivered from a single-tank system using a demand-valve apparatus which was triggered by the patient's inspiratory effort. This "patient-controlled" sedation/analgesia was provided to 1243 patients over a period of 18 months. Of the 1201 patients evaluated, 20.6% reported minor side-effects consisting of nausea or vomiting (5.7%), dizziness or lightheadedness (10.3%), excitement (3.7%), and numbness (0.3%). Ninety-one (7.6%) patients became drowsy or fell into a light sleep but all were readily aroused by verbal command. All retained the ability to cough or swallow on command. No consistent or clinically adverse changes were found in BP or pulse rates. The trial supports the concept that this agent is a promising sedative/analgesic for the relief of mild to moderate pain and anxiety. Because of its safety, it is particularly suited to use in prehospital emergency care.

  8. Reducing Side Effects of Hiding Sensitive Itemsets in Privacy Preserving Data Mining

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Wei; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Hsu, Hung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Data mining is traditionally adopted to retrieve and analyze knowledge from large amounts of data. Private or confidential data may be sanitized or suppressed before it is shared or published in public. Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) has thus become an important issue in recent years. The most general way of PPDM is to sanitize the database to hide the sensitive information. In this paper, a novel hiding-missing-artificial utility (HMAU) algorithm is proposed to hide sensitive itemsets through transaction deletion. The transaction with the maximal ratio of sensitive to nonsensitive one is thus selected to be entirely deleted. Three side effects of hiding failures, missing itemsets, and artificial itemsets are considered to evaluate whether the transactions are required to be deleted for hiding sensitive itemsets. Three weights are also assigned as the importance to three factors, which can be set according to the requirement of users. Experiments are then conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in execution time, number of deleted transactions, and number of side effects. PMID:24982932

  9. [Efficacy and side effects following immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z G; Zhou, W Z; Shi, J

    1997-02-01

    Efficacy and side effects following the immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Vi) were assessed. The diluted solution (DS) of Vi was used as placebo. A total number of 777 children and adults were observed for side effect response. Mild and moderate fever appeared 16.93% and 0.05% in Vi group, 15.01% and 0.03% in DS group, respectively (statistically significant). Two cases with mild local reaction were observed in Vi group. A total number of 81,506 vaccinees were investigated on the efficacy of Vi vaccine, using positive blood culture of Salmonolla typhi as a diagnostic criterion. The protective rate and index of vaccine were 71.35% and 3.49% respectively. If 2 cases of positive Widal's test were included in, the protective rate would come up to 78.17% with a protective index 4.85. Clinical data showed that fever seen in the cases in Vi group was much lower than that of DS group. The systematic and local reaction of Vi vaccine were mild. The vaccine is safe and has high protective rate. It can also decrease the degree of fever with only one single dose as primary immunization. We believe Vi vaccine may serve as a vaccine of new generation to be promoted.

  10. Side-effects of beta-blockers assessed using visual analogue scales.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R V; Jackson, P R; Ramsay, L E

    1985-01-01

    Visual analogue scales were used in a pilot study to compare side-effects in patients receiving antihypertensive drugs either including or excluding beta-blockers. Compared with symptom scores for patients receiving antihypertensive medication other than a beta-blocker, symptom scores (when combined) for patients receiving a beta-blocker were significantly higher for tired legs (p less than 0.001), cold digits (p less than 0.005), and vivid dreams (p less than 0.01). These methods were also applied in a postal survey which was designed to compare the incidence of symptoms in patients receiving different beta-blockers with symptoms in subjects receiving no drugs. When compared with symptom scores for subjects receiving no drugs, symptom scores (when combined) for patients receiving beta-blockers were significantly higher for tired legs (p less than 0.001), cold digits (p less than 0.01), insomnia (p less than 0.01), and lack of well-being (p less than 0.01). These two studies were consistent in showing higher symptom scores for tired legs and cold digits in patients receiving beta-blockers. However, there were inconsistencies regarding sleep disturbance. Increased dreaming was apparent in the pilot study whereas increased insomnia was apparent from the postal survey. These inconsistencies cannot be explained. No significant differences in side-effects were apparent between different beta-blockers. PMID:2865155

  11. Tooth discoloration in patients with neonatal diabetes after transfer onto glibenclamide: a previously unreported side effect.

    PubMed

    Kumaraguru, Janani; Flanagan, Sarah E; Greeley, Siri Atma W; Nuboer, Roos; Støy, Julie; Philipson, Louis H; Hattersley, Andrew T; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess if tooth discoloration is a novel side effect of sulfonylurea therapy in patients with permanent neonatal diabetes due to mutations in KCNJ11. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 67 patients with a known KCNJ11 mutation who had been successfully transferred from insulin injections onto oral sulfonylureas were contacted and asked about the development of tooth discoloration after transfer. RESULTS Altered tooth appearance was identified in 5 of the 67 patients. This was variable in severity, ranging from mild discoloration/staining (n = 4) to loss of enamel (n = 1) and was only seen in patients taking glibenclamide (glyburide). CONCLUSIONS These previously unreported side effects may relate to the developing tooth and/or to the high local concentrations in the children who frequently chewed glibenclamide tablets or took it as a concentrated solution. Given the multiple benefits of sulfonylurea treatment for patients with activating KCNJ11 mutations, this association warrants further investigation but should not preclude such treatment. PMID:19435956

  12. Recognizing and Managing Antipsychotic Drug Treatment Side Effects in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Bruce L.; Robinson, Delbert G.; Woerner, Margaret G.

    2004-01-01

    Although atypical antipsychotics differ from conventional antipsychotics in their decreased ability to cause reversible drug-induced movement disorders/motor side effects such as dystonia, drug-induced parkinsonism, and akathisia and potentially persistent drug-induced movement disorders/motor side effects such as tardive dyskinesia, no antipsychotic agent completely eradicates this risk. Antipsychotic agents are frequently used in facilities for the elderly and in general hospitals to treat older patients with behavioral problems. Drug-induced movement disorders are more common and more persistent in elderly patients than in younger patients, and this problem is exacerbated by the fact that antipsychotic medications are often misused by practitioners lacking adequate psychopharmacologic training. Movement disorders can be detrimental to an elderly patient's quality of life and may transform what were otherwise routine activities into difficult tasks. Educational programs are needed to teach primary care physicians, specialists, and patients and their families how to identify and manage drug-induced movement disorders in order to achieve safer and more efficacious care for elderly patients. PMID:16001096

  13. [Cutaneous myxoma (focal dermal mucinosis)].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Kuhlwein, A; Jänner, M; Schäfer, R

    1988-09-01

    Two cases of cutaneous myxoma are presented. In case 1 the cutaneous myxoma was localized on the left thumb and clinically resembled a pyogenic granuloma. In case 2 it was found at the left nipple. The benign cutaneous tumor may herald a cardiac myxoma and other conditions. Thus, a cutaneous myxoma should be accepted as an indication for thorough investigation of the whole body at regular intervals. As there are neither clinically nor histologically adequate criteria for differentiation, cutaneous myxoma and focal dermal mucinosis can be considered as variants of a single entity.

  14. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of nitrogen mustard-induced cutaneous effects in SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant warfare agent which causes severe skin injuries. Currently, we lack effective antidotes against SM-induced skin injuries, in part due to lack of appropriate animal model(s) that can be used for efficacy studies in laboratory settings to identify effective therapies. Therefore, to develop a relevant mouse skin injury model, we examined the effects of nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicant and a bifunctional alkylating agent that induces toxic effects comparable to SM. Specifically, we conducted histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of several applicable cutaneous pathological lesions following skin NM (3.2mg) exposure for 12-120h in SKH-1 and C57BL/6 mice. NM caused a significant increase in epidermal thickness, incidence of microvesication, cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, inflammatory cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) and myleoperoxidase activity in the skin of both mouse strains. However, there was a more prominent NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, and macrophages and mast cell infiltration, in SKH-1 mice relative to what was seen in C57BL/6 mice. NM also caused collagen degradation and edema at early time points (12-24h); however, at later time points (72 and 120h), dense collagen staining was observed, indicating either water loss or start of integument repair in both the mouse strains. This study provides quantitative measurement of NM-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical cutaneous lesions in both hairless and haired mouse strains that could serve as useful tools for screening and identification of effective therapies for treatment of skin injuries due to NM and SM. PMID:24373750

  15. [Influence of potassium on Mg- and Ca-metabolism in cows: effects and side effects of scientific research].

    PubMed

    Martens, H; Schweigel, M

    2003-12-01

    Results of scientific studies are obtained by analysing of the present knowledge of a current problem and a corresponding new experimental set-up. Under ideal conditions the data of the new study agree with the deduced working hypothesis. This general consideration is true for the well established correlation between K content and growth rates of plants. At low K concentrations (up to 3% of dry matter) K causes a linear increase of growth and finally a saturation. This positive effect of K on growth rates of plants is accompanied by some side effects. There is no doubt that a high intake of K is involved in the pathogenesis of grass tetany and of milk fever. The present publication gives some information about this correlation and discusses the discrepancy between the intention of a scientific study and possible "side effects", which cannot be predicted in many cases. PMID:14725184

  16. "Malignant Cutaneous Ulcer".

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Kotwal, Sumedha

    2016-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an aggressive malignancy and the rich vascular supply enables it to metastasize early via haematogenous route. Skin lesions are a late manifestation of the disease. Clinicians should be aware of cutaneous presentation of RCC while evaluating a case of unknown primary with skin lesions. PMID:27651705

  17. Effect of side chain length on intrahelical interactions between carboxylate- and guanidinium-containing amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Yang, Po-An; Wang, Wei-Ren; Hsu, Hao-Chun; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Yu-Te; Weng, Ming-Huei; Kuo, Li-Hung; Cheng, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    The charge-containing hydrophilic functionalities of encoded charged amino acids are linked to the backbone via different numbers of hydrophobic methylenes, despite the apparent electrostatic nature of protein ion pairing interactions. To investigate the effect of side chain length of guanidinium- and carboxylate-containing residues on ion pairing interactions, α-helical peptides containing Zbb-Xaa (i, i + 3), (i, i + 4) and (i, i + 5) (Zbb = carboxylate-containing residues Aad, Glu, Asp in decreasing length; Xaa = guanidinium residues Agh, Arg, Agb, Agp in decreasing length) sequence patterns were studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The helicity of Aad- and Glu-containing peptides was similar and mostly pH independent, whereas the helicity of Asp-containing peptides was mostly pH dependent. Furthermore, the Arg-containing peptides consistently exhibited higher helicity compared to the corresponding Agp-, Agb-, and Agh-containing peptides. Side chain conformational analysis by molecular mechanics calculations showed that the Zbb-Xaa (i, i + 3) and (i, i + 4) interactions mainly involved the χ 1 dihedral combinations (g+, g+) and (g-, g+), respectively. These low energy conformations were also observed in intrahelical Asp-Arg and Glu-Arg salt bridges of natural proteins. Accordingly, Asp and Glu provides variation in helix characteristics associated with Arg, but Aad does not provide features beyond those already delivered by Glu. Importantly, nature may have chosen the side chain length of Arg to support helical conformations through inherent high helix propensity coupled with stabilizing intrahelical ion pairing interactions with the carboxylate-containing residues.

  18. Investigation of blood flow and the effect of vasoactive substances in cutaneous blood vessels of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Škorjanc, Aleš; Belušič, Gregor

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized Xenopus, a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB microscope while it remained connected to a functioning circulatory system. In this way, it was possible to obtain sharp images of arteries and veins and to visualize blood flow. This allows students to learn about the functional differences between arteries and veins and about the complexity of hemodynamics as well as the particularities of the amphibian pulmocutaneous circulation. Students can then quantitatively estimate the effect of norepinephrine and epinephrine on the diameter of blood vessels by simply superfusing the skin patch with a series of solutions of the two substances. They can also test the effect of α-adrenergic receptor blockers, used to treat high blood pressure, on the norepinephrine-induced muscle tonus of blood vessels.

  19. The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

    2013-06-01

    There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

  20. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    PubMed

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26830953

  1. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency – Benefits, Side Effects, and Risks of Growth Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mary L.; Merriam, George R.; Kargi, Atil Y.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity, and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT) is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD); beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events, and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long-term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality. PMID:23761782

  2. Cation alkyl side chain length and symmetry effects on the surface tension of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hugo F D; Freire, Mara G; Fernandes, Ana M; Lopes-da-Silva, José A; Morgado, Pedro; Shimizu, Karina; Filipe, Eduardo J M; Lopes, José N Canongia; Santos, Luís M N B F; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-06-10

    Aiming at providing a comprehensive study of the influence of the cation symmetry and alkyl side chain length on the surface tension and surface organization of ionic liquids (ILs), this work addresses the experimental measurements of the surface tension of two extended series of ILs, namely R,R'-dialkylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C(n)C(n)im][NTf2]) and R-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C(n)C(1)im][NTf2]), and their dependence with temperature (from 298 to 343 K). For both series of ILs the surface tension decreases with an increase in the cation side alkyl chain length up to aliphatic chains no longer than hexyl, here labeled as critical alkyl chain length (CACL). For ILs with aliphatic moieties longer than CACL the surface tension displays an almost constant value up to [C12C12im][NTf2] or [C16C1im][NTf2]. These constant values further converge to the surface tension of long chain n-alkanes, indicating that, for sufficiently long alkyl side chains, the surface ordering is strongly dominated by the aliphatic tails present in the IL. The enthalpies and entropies of surface were also derived and the critical temperatures were estimated from the experimental data. The trend of the derived thermodynamic properties highlights the effect of the structural organization of the IL at the surface with visible trend shifts occurring at a well-defined CACL in both symmetric and asymmetric series of ILs. Finally, the structure of a long-alkyl side chain IL at the vacuum-liquid interface was also explored using Molecular Dynamics simulations. In general, it was found that for the symmetric series of ILs, at the outermost polar layers, more cations point one of their aliphatic tails outward and the other inward, relative to the surface, than cations pointing both tails outward. The number of the former, while being the preferred conformation, exceeds the latter by around 75%.

  3. Beneficial and side effects of arginine vasopressin and terlipressin for septic shock.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xudong; Zhu, Yu; Zhen, Danyang; Chen, Xiao Ming; Yue, Wu; Liu, Liangming; Li, Tao

    2015-05-15

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its analog, terlipressin (TP), were all demonstrated beneficial for septic shock. What advantages and disadvantages that AVP and TP have for septic shock as well as the mechanism, however, are not completely known. With cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats and lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock rabbits, we systematically compared the beneficial and side effects of AVP and TP, in septic shock and the sex difference, and investigated their relationship to Rho kinase and calcium sensitivity. The results indicated that low dose of TP (2.6 μg/kg/h) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) improving vascular reactivity and animal survival were superior to a small dose of AVP (0.03 U/kg/h) in septic shock rats and rabbits. This improving effect of AVP and TP on vascular reactivity was closely related to the activation of Rho-kinase and Rho-kinase-mediating vascular calcium sensitization. A small dose of TP did not result in hyponatremia, did not increase blood bilirubin and decrease platelet count, whereas AVP did. Animal survival and vascular reactivity in female rats after TP or AVP administration were slightly better than male rats, while there were no significant differences. It was suggested that a small dose of TP has better beneficial effect and less side effects on septic shock than AVP. AVP and TP improving vascular reactivity is closely related to Rho-kinase activation and calcium sensitivity improvement. TP or plus NE may be more appropriate for early emergency care for severe septic shock than AVP.

  4. Cation Effects on the Electron-Acceptor Side of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sahr; Sun, Jennifer S; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-06-18

    The normal pathway of electron transfer on the electron-acceptor side of photosystem II (PSII) involves electron transfer from quinone A, QA, to quinone B, QB. It is possible to redirect electrons from QA(-) to water-soluble Co(III) complexes, which opens a new avenue for harvesting electrons from water oxidation by immobilization of PSII on electrode surfaces. Herein, the kinetics of electron transfer from QA(-) to [Co(III)(terpy)2](3+) (terpy = 2,2';6',2″-terpyridine) are investigated with a spectrophotometric assay revealing that the reaction follows Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, is inhibited by cations, and is not affected by variation of the QA reduction potential. A negatively charged site on the stromal surface of the PSII protein complex, composed of glutamic acid residues near QA, is hypothesized to bind cations, especially divalent cations. The cations are proposed to tune the redox properties of QA through electrostatic interactions. These observations may thus explain the molecular basis of the effect of divalent cations like Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+) on the redox properties of the quinones in PSII, which has previously been attributed to long-range conformational changes propagated from divalent cations binding to the Ca(II)-binding site in the oxygen-evolving complex on the lumenal side of the PSII complex.

  5. Effect of smoke evacuation on limiting thermal damage when using the carbon dioxide laser for cutaneous surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Ruth A.; Thomas, J. M.; Clement, Marc; Davies, S.

    1990-06-01

    We have conducted a study of the use of the carbon dioxide (C02) laser for ablation of multiple cutaneous recurrences of melanoma. Lesions of primary malignant melanoma are usually widely excised to try and prevent local recurrence. Despite this, recurrent cutaneous lesions do occur. These lesions may be small and numerous making local excision impractical. Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion has shown some success in controlling the local disease but this procedure has a significant morbidty, some patients show only a limited response and post-perfusion recurrences are common.1 Also, in some patients, thelesions will not be confined to a limb. No other method of local control has provided an ideal solution and amputation has sometimes been a last resort. We have therefore selected patients for laser ablation if they have had lesions too numerous for local excision, or have had recurrences following perfusion or were otherwise suitable for perfusion. The lesions were vaporized under local or general anaesthesia according to their size and number. The wounds were then left to heal by secondary intention. Simple dry dressings were applied and all patients were discharged home within 24 hours. In total we have treated over 1,500 lesions in 30 patients. The results of the initial study have been very encouraging. The procedure is quick and simple with absent or minimal post-operative pain. Although the incidence of recurrent tumour at a previously lasered site is less than 1%, new tumours may develop at other sites. These are amenable to further laser treatment.

  6. NEW INSIGHTS OF SIDE-EFFECTS OF TAU-FLUVALINATE ON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND POLLINATORS.

    PubMed

    Sterk, G M K M; Kolokytha, P D

    2015-01-01

    A high number of side-effects trials were developed and carried out on beneficial insects and mites by the 'Side-effects on beneficial organisms' IOBC working group and subsequently published in the IOBC bulletins over a number of years. In general, these tests were mainly carried out under laboratory and/or semi-field conditions following the very worst case scenario applications, leading to an IOBC classification of 3 (moderately toxic) and 4 (harmful) for many of the tested compounds However, feedback from applications under practical conditions, often indicated that the published results were far from realism for a number of compounds. Due to the fact that some of these active ingredients are still regularly used, or even growing in importance, a number of them were tested on many beneficial arthropods and pollinators and the upcoming results were compared with the registered IOBC data. Among these compounds, Tau-fluvalinate (Mavrik), a widely used synthetic pyrethroid against aphids, caterpillars and beetles in a large number of crops, was tested in the facilities of IPM Impact. While this compound was often considered as being very toxic for all beneficial organisms, slightly toxicity was shown on adults of Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), and larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Anthocoris nemoralis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). However, the moderately toxicity or toxicity appeared on adults of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as well as larvae of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae), was moderated by short persistence of less than 3 days. Concerning large earth bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the compound was characterized as completely safe, even when being sprayed in the full flight phase of the bumblebees. This indicates that for a high number of pollinator species and some of the most important beneficial insects, tau

  7. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  8. Heteropterys tomentosa (A. Juss.) infusion counteracts Cyclosporin a side effects on the ventral prostate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug widely used in treatment of auto-immune diseases or after organ transplants. However, several side effects are commonly associated with CsA long term intake, some regarding to loss of reproductive organ function due to oxidative damage. Considering that phytotherapy is an important tool often used against oxidative stress, we would like to describe the beneficial effects of Heteropterys tomentosa intake to minimize the damage caused by CsA to the ventral prostate tissue of Wistar rats under laboratorial conditions. Methods Thirty adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were divided into: control group (water); CsA group (Cyclosporin A); Ht group (H. tomentosa infusion) and CsA + Ht group (CsA and H. tomentosa infusion). Plasmic levels of hepatotoxicity markers, triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose were quantified. The ventral prostate tissue was analyzed under light microscopy, using stereological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical techniques. Results H. tomentosa did not cause any alterations either of the plasmic parameters or of the ventral prostate structure. CsA caused alterations of GOT, total and indirect bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in the plasma; CsA-treated rats showed alterations of the ventral prostate tissue. There were no alterations regarding the plasma levels of GOT, triglycerides and glucose of CsA + Ht animals. The same group also showed normalization of most of the parameters analyzed on the ventral prostate tissue when compared to the CsA group. The treatments did not alter the pattern of AR expression or the apoptotic index of the ventral prostate epithelium. Conclusions The results suggest a protective action of the H. tomentosa infusion against the side effects of CsA on the ventral prostate tissue, which could also be observed with plasmic biochemical parameters. PMID:23406403

  9. Poly-dimethylsiloxane derivates side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migani, V.; Weiss, H.; Massafra, M. R.; Merlo, A.; Colleoni, C.; Rosace, G.

    2011-02-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers finishing of Polyamide-6,6 (PA66) fabrics involves ionic interactions between reactive groups on the PDMS polymers and the ones of the textile fabric. Such interactions could be strengthened by a pretreatment with a fixing agent to promote either ion-ion and H-bonding and ion-dipole forces. These forces could contribute towards the building of substantial PDMS-PA66 systems and the achieving of better adhesion properties to fabrics. Four different silicone polymers based on PDMS were applied on a synthetic tanning agent (syntan) finished Polyamide-6,6 fabric under acid conditions. Soxhlet extraction method and ATR FT-IR technique were used to investigate the application conditions. The finishing parameters such as pH and temperature together with fastness, mechanical and performance properties of the treated samples were studied and related to PDMS side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric.

  10. Transposable element proliferation as a possible side effect of endosymbiont manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Bast, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The mode of reproduction has been predicted to affect the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs). A population that switches from sexual to asexual reproduction could either accumulate TEs because purifying selection becomes less efficient, or a decrease in TE load because the opportunity for horizontal transmission is reduced. A third possibility is that the mechanism that induces asexual reproduction affects TE dynamics as a side effect. We propose two such mechanisms that might explain recently described patterns of TE abundance in sexual and asexual lineages of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina clavipes. Asexual reproduction in this species is induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. In order to achieve parthenogenesis in its host, Wolbachia might remove methylation or interfere with Argonaute proteins. Both methylation and Argonaute proteins are known to control TE activity in other species. By interfering with either, Wolbachia might therefore secondarily hamper the control of specific TEs. PMID:23550173

  11. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  12. The Potential Side Effects of Case-Mix Reimbursement on Clinical Data Bases and Physician Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Simborg, Donald W.

    1981-01-01

    Current pressures to utilize a case complexity or case-mix measure of hospital output for reimbursement purposes has two sources: a) the need to control hospital costs by relating amount of resource use to clinical conditions and b) the perceived inequity of ambulatory care reimbursement limitations. Although these pressures may be relieved by a case-mix hospital output measure, certain side effects may occur. The hospital clinical data base as reflected in the discharge abstract system will become more accurate although biased toward more costly case-mix categories. It will also be more complete, particularly with respect to surgical and other procedures. Physician behavior may change in three ways: a) actual diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making, b) the manner in which patient problems are represented in the information system, and c) admitting decision criteria.

  13. [Risks and side effects of periodontitis therapy. Focus on restorative possibilities for improving esthetic defects].

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the prophylaxis and therapy of periodontitis is the establishment and the preservation of the secondary oral health. Thereby, the main expected outcomes are the reduction of inflammation and probing pocket depths. During the healing process, some tissue shrinkage during the reparative process and healing is inevitable in most cases and leads to more or less pronounced recession. The latter can cause subsequent secondary side effects due to dentin exposure, which appear - in most cases - unwanted and negative, i. e. hypersensitivity, increased caries risk, erosion and abrasion of the exposed dentin. These pathologic conditions may also encounter esthetic and functional impairments. The aim of this article is to elucidate and discuss these potential clinical pitfalls and their minimal-invasive management, especially when using adhesive strategies using composite resin materials.

  14. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and

  15. Do SSRI Antidepressants Increase The Risk of Extrapyramidal Side Effects In Patients Taking Antipsychotics?

    PubMed Central

    Allsbrook, Matthew; Fries, Brant E.; Szafara, Kristina L.; Regal, Randolph E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Among antidepressants, selective serotonin reup-take inhibitors (SSRIs) have enjoyed great popularity among clinicians as well as generally wide acceptance and tolerance among patients. A potentially overlooked side effect of SSRIs is the occasional occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which could be a concern when SSRIs are used with antipsychotics. This study was designed to explore the possible association between SSRI antidepressant use and the incidence of EPS side effects in patients who take concomitant antipsychotic medications. Methods: The University of Michigan conducted a study at the four Michigan state mental health hospitals between May 2010 and October 2010. The Michigan Public Health Institute collected data using the InterRAI Mental Health Assessment (InterRAI MH). The present study is a retrospective cohort analysis of the cross-sectional data that were collected. Within these institutions, 693 residents were using antipsychotics. We measured the observed frequency of seven EPS recorded in the InterRAI MH within three groups of patients: 1) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking an SSRI antidepressant; 2) those on antipsychotic drugs who were not taking an antidepressant; and 3) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking a non-SSRI antidepressant. Differences in the prevalence of EPS were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Results: There were no significant differences in the observed EPS frequencies among the three groups (F2,18 = 0.01; P < 0.9901). Conclusion: In this study, SSRIs did not appear to potentiate the occurrence of EPS in patients using antipsychotics. PMID:26909002

  16. Proinflammatory cytokine responses correspond with subjective side effects after influenza virus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Porter, Kyle; Karlsson, Erik; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Background Though typically mild, side effects to the influenza virus vaccine are common and may contribute to negative perceptions including the belief that the vaccine can cause the flu. However, the extent to which subjective symptoms correspond with biological response indicators is poorly understood. Methods This study examined associations among subjective side effects (soreness at the site of injection and illness-like symptoms), serum proinflammatory cytokines and body temperature a baseline, 1, 2, and 3 days following receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in a sample of 56 women 18–40 years in age. Results In relation to local reactions, women reporting being very sore at the injection site at 1 day post-vaccination exhibited greater increases in serum TNF-α and MIF in the days following vaccination compared to those with no or mild soreness. In addition, higher basal body temperature was observed in this group compared to other groups (98.7°F versus 98.0°–98.1°). In relation to systemic reactions, women endorsing illness-like symptoms (headache, fatigue, nausea, sore throat, dizziness, achiness, or mild fever) exhibited marginally higher IL-6 at baseline (p = .055) and greater increases in serum MIF at 2 days post-vaccination than those reporting no systemic symptoms. Associations of systemic symptoms with inflammatory responses were not accounted for by concomitant local reactions. As expected, antibody responses to the vaccine were highly similar in women regardless of local or systemic symptoms. Conclusions These results are consistent with the notion that subjective reports of local and systemic reactions following vaccination may be predicted by and correspond with biological indicators of inflammatory status, but are not meaningful predictors of antibody responses. To improve adherence to vaccine recommendations, clinicians should provide assurance that such symptoms may be related to normal mild inflammatory responses to

  17. Changes in behavior as side effects in methylphenidate treatment: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Konrad-Bindl, Doris Susanne; Gresser, Ursula; Richartz, Barbara Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Our review of the scientific literature focused on an analysis of studies describing instances of methylphenidate treatment leading (or not) to behavioral changes in the pediatric, adolescent, and adult populations. Materials and methods We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Medline, and Google using the keywords “methylphenidate”, “behavioral changes”, “adverse effects”, and “side effects”. A total of 44 studies were identified as reporting on the effects and adverse effects of methylphenidate administration, and were included in the analysis. Results Five studies specifically set out to study, record, and discuss changes in behavior. Eight studies did not set out to study behavioral effects, but record and discuss them. A total of 28 studies recorded behavioral effects, but failed to discuss these further. Three studies did not include behavioral effects. Conclusion This review records what data have been published in respect of changes in behavior in association with the use of methylphenidate. While there is some evidence to suggest that methylphenidate causes changes in behavior, the majority of the studies reviewed paid little or no attention to this issue. Based on the available data, it is impossible to determine the point at which such behavioral effects occur. The frequency of occurrence of behavioral effects is also impossible to determine with certainty. Based on the available data, it is not possible to rule out whether behavioral effects may persist or not persist once treatment is discontinued. In conclusion, despite countless publications and extensive administration, especially to children, we have insufficient data to judge the long-term effects and risks of methylphenidate taking. PMID:27789952

  18. Overcoming toxicity and side-effects of lipid-lowering therapies.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Laffin, Luke J; Davidson, Michael H

    2014-06-01

    Lowering serum lipid levels is part of the foundation of treating and preventing clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Recently, the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology released cholesterol guidelines which advocate for high efficacy statins rather than LDL-c goals for five patient subgroups at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is critical that clinicians have an approach for managing side-effects of statin therapy. Statins are associated with myopathy, transaminase elevations, and an increased risk of incident diabetes mellitus among some patients; connections between statins and other processes, such as renal and neurologic function, have also been studied with mixed results. Statin-related adverse effects might be minimized by careful assessment of patient risk factors. Strategies to continue statin therapy despite adverse effects include switching to another statin at a lower dose and titrating up, giving intermittent doses of statins, and adding non-statin agents. Non-statin lipid-lowering drugs have their own unique limitations. Management strategies and algorithms for statin-associated toxicities are available to help guide clinicians. Clinical practice should emphasize tailoring therapy to address each individual's cholesterol goals and risk of developing adverse effects on lipid-lowering drugs.

  19. Taking advantage of the positive side-effects of smallpox vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    2004-06-01

    From the introduction of smallpox vaccination approximately 200 years ago right up to its discontinuation (1980), reports by physicians and scientists about positive side-effects such as healing of chronic skin rashes, reduced susceptibility to various infectious diseases, e.g. measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough, and even the prophylactic use of the vaccination, e.g. against syphilis, were published again and again. Comparison with the period after cessation of vaccination confirms the experiences of the above vaccinators. As early as 1956, targeted research on these observations led to evidence of the 'ring-zone phenomenon', i.e. the production of soluble antiviral substances in infected chicken embryos and cell cultures. With the help of modern immunological and bioengineering methods, it was later possible to demonstrate that these effects are based on the activation of lymphoreticular cells and the regulatory effect of certain cytokines within the context of the non-specific immune system. These findings led to the development of paramunization with paraspecific vaccines from highly attenuated animal pox viruses. During attenuation, deletions in the virus DNA occur. Attenuated animal pox strains are therefore suited for the production of vector vaccines. The fact that these vector vaccines demonstrate an especially high level of paraspecific efficacy and lack harmful effects is likewise the result of the attenuated animal pox viruses. Optimum regulation of the entire immune system leads to increased paramunity already in the first few days after vaccination and to enhanced antigen recognition and thus accelerated commencement of specific immunity.

  20. The influence of the channel size on the reduction of side effects in microchannel proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Zlobinskaya, Olga; Dollinger, Günther; Schmid, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    The potential of proton microchannel radiotherapy to reduce radiation effects in the healthy tissue but to keep tumor control the same as in conventional proton therapy is further elucidated. The microchannels spread on their way to the tumor tissue resulting in different fractions of the healthy tissue covered with doses larger than the tumor dose, while the tumor gets homogeneously irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing channel width on potential side effects in the normal tissue. A rectangular 180 × 180 µm(2) and two Gaussian-type dose distributions of σ = 260 µm and σ = 520 µm with an interchannel distance of 1.8 mm have been applied by 20-MeV protons to a 3D human skin model in order to simulate the widened channels and to compare the irradiation effects at different endpoints to those of a homogeneous proton irradiation. The number of protons applied was kept constant at all irradiation modes resulting in the same average dose of 2 Gy. All kinds of proton microchannel irradiation lead to higher cell viability and produce significantly less genetic damage than homogeneous proton irradiation, but the reduction is lower for the wider channel sizes. Our findings point toward the application of microchannel irradiation for clinical proton or heavy ion therapy to further reduce damage of normal tissues while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose distribution inside the tumor.

  1. Side effects of 58 years of copper sulfate treatment of the Fairmont Lakes, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.J.; Stefan, H.G.

    1984-12-01

    The shallow Fairmont Lakes in Southern Minnesota have been treated with copper sulfate for 58 years to reduce excessive algal growth. Copper sulfate was applied to five lakes at cumulative rates up to 1647 kg/ha (1470 lb/acre), totaling 1.5 million kilograms. Data collected since treatment of the Fairmont Lakes began in 1921 provide alarming insights into lake responses to sustained chemical treatment with copper sulfate. Short-term and long-term effects have occurred. Short-term effects include: a) the intended temporary killing of algae, b) dissolved oxygen depletion by decomposition of dead algae, c) accelerated phosphorus recycling from the lake bed and recovery of the agal population within 7 to 21 days, and d) occasional fish kills due to oxygen depletion or copper toxicity or both. Long-term effects are shown to include: a) copper accumulation in the sediments, b) tolerance adjustments of certain species of algae to higher copper sulfate dosages, c) shift of species from green to blue-green algae and from game fish to rough fish, d) disappearance of macrophytes, and e) reductions in benthic macroinvertebrates. The conclusion is that while copper sulfate treatments enjoy great popularity because they kill and remove algae almost instantaneously, other immediate or cumulative side effects can be harmful to many other aquatic organisms.

  2. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  3. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B R; Sousa, Gustavo F M; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL(-1)), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  4. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley C.; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B. R.; Sousa, Gustavo F. M.; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL−1), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL−1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  5. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  6. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yub; Yun, Sook Jung

    2016-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  7. Update on cutaneous tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; do Nascimento, Leninha Valério; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

  8. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians.

  9. Predictors and Diagnostic Significance of the Adenosine Related Side Effects on Myocardial Perfusion SPECT/CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım Poyraz, Nilüfer; Özdemir, Elif; Poyraz, Barış Mustafa; Kandemir, Zuhal; Keskin, Mutlay; Türkölmez, Şeyda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient characteristics and adenosine-related side-effects during stress myocard perfusion imaging (MPI). The effect of presence of adenosine-related side-effects on the diagnostic value of MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system for coronary artery disease (CAD), was also assessed in this study. Methods: Total of 281 patients (109 M, 172 F; mean age:62.6±10) who underwent standard adenosine stress protocol for MPI, were included in this study. All symptoms during adenosine infusion were scored according to the severity and duration. For the estimation of diagnostic value of adenosine MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system, coronary angiography (CAG) or clinical follow-up were used as gold standard. Results: Total of 173 patients (61.6%) experienced adenosine-related side-effects (group 1); flushing, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most common. Other 108 patients completed pharmacologic stress (PS) test without any side-effects (group 2). Test tolerability were similar in the patients with cardiovascular or airway disease to others, however dyspnea were observed significantly more common in patients with mild airway disease. Body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 and age ≤45 years were independent predictors of side-effects. The diagnostic value of MPI was similar in both groups. Sensitivity of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT was calculated to be 86%, specificity was 94% and diagnostic accuracy was 92% for diagnosis of CAD. Conclusion: Adenosine MPI is a feasible and well tolerated method in patients who are not suitable for exercise stress test as well as patients with cardiopulmonary disease. However age ≤45 years and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 are the positive predictors of adenosine-related side-effects, the diagnostic value of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT is not affected by the presence of adenosine related side-effects. PMID:25541932

  10. Differential effects of topical vitamin E and C E Ferulic® treatments on ultraviolet light B-induced cutaneous tumor development in Skh-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Burns, Erin M; Tober, Kathleen L; Riggenbach, Judith A; Kusewitt, Donna F; Young, Gregory S; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2013-01-01

    Because of the ever-increasing incidence of ultraviolet light B (UVB)-induced skin cancer, considerable attention is being paid to prevention through the use of both sunscreens and after sun treatments, many of which contain antioxidants. Vitamin E is included as an antioxidant in many sunscreens and lotions currently on the market. Studies examining the efficacy of vitamin E as a topical preventative agent for UVB-induced skin cancer have yielded conflicting results. A likely contributor to differences in study outcome is the stability of vitamin E in the particular formulation being tested. In the current study we examined the effects of topical vitamin E alone as well as vitamin E combined with vitamin C and ferulic acid in a more stable topical formula (C E Ferulic®). Mice were exposed to UVB for 10 weeks in order to induce skin damage. Then, before the appearance of any cutaneous lesions, mice were treated for 15 weeks with a topical antioxidant, without any further UVB exposure. We found that topical C E Ferulic decreased tumor number and tumor burden and prevented the development of malignant skin tumors in female mice with chronically UVB-damaged skin. In contrast, female mice chronically exposed to UVB and treated topically with vitamin E alone showed a trend towards increased tumor growth rate and exhibited increased levels of overall DNA damage, cutaneous proliferation, and angiogenesis compared to vehicle-treated mice. Thus, we have demonstrated that topical 5% alpha tocopherol may actually promote carcinogenesis when applied on chronically UVB-damaged skin while treating with a more stable antioxidant compound may offer therapeutic benefits.

  11. Health sector demand-side financial incentives in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review on demand- and supply-side effects.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Saji S; Mutasa, Ronald; Friedman, Jed; Das, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Demand-side financial incentive (DSF) is an emerging strategy to improve health seeking behavior and health status in many low- and middle-income countries. This narrative synthesis assessed the demand- and supply-side effects of DSF. Forty one electronic data bases were searched to screen relevant experimental and quasi-experimental study designs. Out of the 64 selected papers, 28 were eligible for this review and they described 19 DSF initiatives across Asia, Africa and Latin America. There were three categories of initiatives, namely long-run multi-sectoral programs or LMPs (governmental); long-run health-exclusive programs (governmental); and short-run health-exclusive initiatives (both governmental and non-governmental). Irrespective of the nature of incentives and initiatives, all DSF programs could achieve their expected behavioral outcomes on healthcare seeking and utilization substantially. However, there existed a few negative and perverse outcomes on health seeking behavior and DSF's impact on continuous health seeking choices (e.g. bed net use and routine adult health check-ups) was mixed. Their effects on maternal health status, diarrhea, malaria and out-of-pocket expenditure were under-explored; while chronic non-communicable diseases were not directly covered by any DSF programs. DSF could reduce HIV prevalence and child deaths, and enhance nutritional and growth status of children. The direction and magnitude of their effects on health status was elastic to the evaluation design employed. On health system benefits, despite prioritizing on vulnerable groups, DSF's substantial effect on the poorest of the poor was mixed compared to that on the relatively richer groups. Though DSF initiatives intended to improve service delivery status, many could not optimally do so, especially to meet the additionally generated demand for care. Causal pathways of DSF's effects should be explored in-depth for mid-course corrections and cross-country learning on their

  12. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.

    PubMed

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0-1.4 m·s(-1); 1.4-3.4 m·s(-1); 3.4-5.2 m·s(-1); >5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  13. A case of cutaneous protothecosis mimics eczema.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Li; Yuli, Kang; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Junhao; Zhu, Min

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of cutaneous protothecosis due to Prototheca wickerhamii in an immunocompetent man presented with a specific eczema-like lesions. Dermatological examination revealed erythematous plaques, dark red papules with some coalescence, and a few superficial ulcerations, covered with less scales on his right side chest and neck. Fungal culture, histopathological examination and molecular identification confirmed the organism. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed strain sensitive to amphotericin B, Fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The patient was cured by oral itraconazole capsules and topical cream ketoconazole 2%. PMID:25200680

  14. Shortening or Abolishing Shift Report as the Effect of ENR and EMR Implementation, and Its Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Asami; Nakajima, Anna; Fukuju, Yuri; Mori, Natsumi; Shimoda, Mariko; Kurihara, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the shortening or abolishing shift report as the effect of implementing electronic nursing and medical records and its side effects at 10 Japanese hospitals. The majority of staff nurses accepted this change, but both directors and staff nurses recognized the risk of insufficient collection and communication of patient information, difficulties of understanding the risks and matters of patients not under care and an increase in time to collect information from the computer before starting patient care. Directors should carefully evaluate and reduce the negative influences associated with changing or eliminating the traditional shift report. PMID:27577330

  15. Primary cutaneous PEComa.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Anna; Conrad, David M; Tatlidil, Cuneyt; Jollimore, Jason; Walsh, Noreen; Covert, Alan; Pasternak, Sylvia

    2010-05-01

    A 48-year-old woman attended a physician because of a solitary cutaneous nodule on the left lower leg. Microscopic examination of the excisional specimen revealed a dermal tumor composed of nests of epithelioid cells exhibiting clear cytoplasm. They had centrally located vesicular nuclei with distinct nucleoli. A rich network of capillaries was present throughout. The tumor showed an infiltrative border. There was no epidermal involvement. Periodic acid-Shif (PAS) and PAS-Diastase stains demonstrated glycogen deposition within the cytoplasm of the clear cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that the tumor cells were positive for HMB-45 and microftalmia associated transcription factor (MITF). Focal desmin positivity was also seen. The tumor cells were negative for S-100 protein, alfa smooth muscle actin, HHF-35, and various cytokeratins. The case is one of a primary cutaneous pecoma. Pecomas are rare, recently described mesenchymal tumors composed of perivascular epithelioid cells. They constitute a spectrum of lesions in different organs including angiomyolipoma of the kidney and liver, sugar tumor of the lung, lymphangiomatosis, and lymphangiomyoma. Primary cutaneous PEComas are exceptionally rare and have only recently been recognized. To date, these are approximately 22 cases in the English literature. Follow-up data is limited but they appear to behave in a benign fashion. We report an additional case with the goal of alerting dermatopathologists to this distinctive unusual neoplasm.

  16. Peptoid oligomers with alpha-chiral, aromatic side chains: effects of chain length on secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, C W; Sanborn, T J; Zuckermann, R N; Barron, A E

    2001-04-01

    Oligomeric N-substituted glycines or "peptoids" with alpha-chiral, aromatic side chains can adopt stable helices in organic or aqueous solution, despite their lack of backbone chirality and their inability to form intrachain hydrogen bonds. Helical ordering appears to be stabilized by avoidance of steric clash as well as by electrostatic repulsion between backbone carbonyls and pi clouds of aromatic rings in the side chains. Interestingly, these peptoid helices exhibit intense circular dichroism (CD) spectra that closely resemble those of peptide alpha-helices. Here, we have utilized CD to systematically study the effects of oligomer length, concentration, and temperature on the chiral secondary structure of organosoluble peptoid homooligomers ranging from 3 to 20 (R)-N-(1-phenylethyl)glycine (Nrpe) monomers in length. We find that a striking evolution in CD spectral features occurs for Nrpe oligomers between 4 and 12 residues in length, which we attribute to a chain length-dependent population of alternate structured conformers having cis versus trans amide bonds. No significant changes are observed in CD spectra of oligomers between 13 and 20 monomers in length, suggesting a minimal chain length of about 13 residues for the formation of stable poly(Nrpe) helices. Moreover, no dependence of circular dichroism on concentration is observed for an Nrpe hexamer, providing evidence that these helices remain monomeric in solution. In light of these new data, we discuss chain length-related factors that stabilize organosoluble peptoid helices of this class, which are important for the design of helical, biomimetic peptoids sharing this structural motif.

  17. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman; Dieckmann, Karin; Gleiss, Andreas; Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Poetter, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  18. Redox nanoparticle increases the chemotherapeutic efficiency of pioglitazone and suppresses its toxic side effects.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Sindhu; Yoshitomi, Toru; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-08-01

    Pioglitazone is a widely used anti-diabetic drug that induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells; however, its clinical use is questioned due to its associated liver toxicity caused by increased oxidative stress. We therefore employed nitroxide-radical containing nanoparticle, termed redox nanoparticle (RNP(N)) which is an effective scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a drug carrier. RNP(N) encapsulation increased pioglitazone solubility, thus increasing cellular uptake of encapsulated pioglitazone which reduced the dose required to induce toxicity in prostate cancer cell lines. Investigation of in vitro molecular mechanism of pioglitazone revealed that both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were involved in tumor cell death. In addition, intravenously administered pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) produced significant tumor volume reduction in vivo due to enhanced permeation and retention effect. Most importantly, oxidative damage caused by pioglitazone in the liver was significantly suppressed by pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) due to the presence of nitroxide radicals. It is interesting to note that oral administration of encapsulated pioglitazone, and co-administration of RNP(N) and pioglitazone, i.e., no encapsulation of pioglitazone in RNP(N) also significantly contributed to suppression of the liver injury. Therefore, use of RNP(N) either as an adjuvant or as a carrier for drugs with severe side effects is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. PMID:27235996

  19. Is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis an inducer of vasopressin analogue side-effects? A case report.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, F; Giorgi, A; Riggio, O; De Santis, A; Laviano, A; Rossi-Fanelli, F

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, the use of vasopressin analogues in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome has become an effective therapeutic strategy leading to improved survival and often allowing the completion of liver transplantation. Terlipressin, in particular, has proven to be safe and effective. Due to the limited number of patients treated so far, it is, however, difficult to draw any definite conclusions on the optimal dosage and on the occurrence of side-effects in these patients. The case is reported of an ascitic cirrhotic patient who developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis followed by a type-I hepatorenal syndrome. Treatment with terlipressin boluses (0.5 mg/4 h) associated with albumin infusion was then started. The course of the disease was monitored by clinical and laboratory means. After 10 boluses of terlipressin, rectorrhagia and severe ischaemic complications involving the skin of the abdomen, lower limbs, scrotus, and penis, occurred. These ischaemic complications improved after terlipressin withdrawal, while renal failure evolved leading to the patient's death. This case report shows that, in patients with type-I hepatorenal syndrome, the use of terlipressin, even at low dosages, may induce life-threatening ischaemic complications and, moreover, suggests that the recent occurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, even if properly treated, may significantly increase the risk of major ischaemic complications.

  20. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    PubMed

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies. PMID:23574283

  1. Glucocorticoid (dexamethasone)-induced metabolome changes in healthy males suggest prediction of response and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Bordag, Natalie; Klie, Sebastian; Jürchott, Kathrin; Vierheller, Janine; Schiewe, Hajo; Albrecht, Valerie; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schwartz, Christoph; Schichor, Christian; Selbig, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are indispensable anti-inflammatory and decongestant drugs with high prevalence of use at ~0.9% of the adult population. Better holistic insights into glucocorticoid-induced changes are crucial for effective use as concurrent medication and management of adverse effects. The profiles of 214 metabolites from plasma of 20 male healthy volunteers were recorded prior to and after ingestion of a single dose of 4 mg dexamethasone (+20 mg pantoprazole). Samples were drawn at three predefined time points per day: seven untreated (day 1 midday - day 3 midday) and four treated (day 3 evening - day 4 evening) per volunteer. Statistical analysis revealed tremendous impact of dexamethasone on the metabolome with 150 of 214 metabolites being significantly deregulated on at least one time point after treatment (ANOVA, Benjamini-Hochberg corrected, q < 0.05). Inter-person variability was high and remained uninfluenced by treatment. The clearly visible circadian rhythm prior to treatment was almost completely suppressed and deregulated by dexamethasone. The results draw a holistic picture of the severe metabolic deregulation induced by single-dose, short-term glucocorticoid application. The observed metabolic changes suggest a potential for early detection of severe side effects, raising hope for personalized early countermeasures increasing quality of life and reducing health care costs. PMID:26526738

  2. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    PubMed

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  3. Antiparkinson drugs used as prophylactics for nerve agents: studies of cognitive side effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, Trond; Enger, Siri; Aas, Pål

    2008-06-01

    Antiparkinson agents possess excellent anticonvulsant properties against nerve agent-induced seizures by exerting both cholinergic and glutamatergic antagonisms. It is important, however, that drugs used as prophylactics not by themselves cause impairment of cognitive capability. The purpose of the present study was to make a comparative assessment of potential cognitive effects of benactyzine (0.3 mg/kg), biperiden (0.11 mg/kg), caramiphen (10 mg/kg), procyclidine (3 mg/kg), and trihexyphenidyl (0.12 mg/kg) separately and each in combination with physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg). The results showed that benactyzine, caramiphen, and trihexyphenidyl reduced rats' innate preference for novelty, whereas biperiden and procyclidine did not. When benactyzine, caramiphen, and trihexyphenidyl were combined with physostigmine the cognitive impairment disappeared. This counteracting effect, however, caused changes in locomotor and rearing activities not seen by each drug alone. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergics used as prophylactics can offset each other, but exceptions are observed in a previous study when a very potent anticholinergic (scopolamine) or a high dose of procyclidine still results in cognitive deficits in spite of coadministration with physostigmine. Among the present drugs tested, procyclidine appears to be a robust anticonvulsant with few cognitive side effects.

  4. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain. PMID:26108899

  5. Ergogenic aids: a review of basic science, performance, side effects, and status in sports.

    PubMed

    Tokish, John M; Kocher, Mininder S; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-09-01

    The use of drugs and supplements to enhance performance has become a part of mainstream athletics. Many team physicians and sports medicine practitioners are unfamiliar with the benefits and risks of these products and thus are unable to educate young athletes on this topic. In spite of numerous reports on the health risks of anabolic steroid use, 1 to 3 million Americans have used them. Human growth hormone has been tried by up to 5% of 10th graders, although no scientific study has shown that it is an effective performance-enhancing drug. Amphetamines and similar compounds may be the most widely abused drug in baseball; recently, they have come under increased scrutiny in sport. Erythropoietin is a highly effective aerobic enhancer that has been linked to multiple deaths in cyclists and other endurance athletes. The neutraceutical industry, led by supplements such as creatine, ephedra, and androstenedione, remains unregulated by the Food and Drug Administration and has serious issues with quality and side effects. An understanding of these products is essential for the sports medicine practitioner to provide sound, safe advice to the athlete.

  6. [Analysis of the cardiac side effects of antipsychotics: Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER)].

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Takashi; Okumara, Yasuyuki; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka; Ito, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed the cases of side effects due to antipsychotics reported to Japan's Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2012. We used the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) and analyzed 136 of 216,945 cases using the defined terms. We also checked the cardiac adverse effects listed in the package inserts of the antipsychotics involved. We found cases of Ikr blockade resulting in sudden death (49 cases), electrocardiogram QT prolonged (29 cases), torsade de pointes (TdP, 19 cases), ventricular fibrillation (VF, 10 cases). M2 receptor blockade was observed in tachycardia (8 cases) and sinus tachycardia (3 cases). Calmodulin blockade was involved in reported cardiomyopathy (3 cases) and myocarditis (1 case). Multiple adverse events were reported simultaneously in 14 cases. Our search of package inserts revealed warnings regarding electrocardiogram QT prolongation (24 drugs), tachycardia (23), sudden death (18), TdP (14), VF (3), myocarditis (1) and cardiomyopathy (1). We suggest that when an antipsychotic is prescribed, the patient should be monitored regularly with ECG, blood tests, and/or biochemical tests to avoid adverse cardiac effects. PMID:25069255

  7. The dysfunctional side effects of quantitative indicator production: illustration from mental health care (a message from Chicken Little).

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, P E

    1984-01-01

    In the current context of economic conservation, accountability and retrenchment from social programs, justification is required in order to maintain human service capacity. In this effort, evaluation is a key component. Yet desire to base action upon information resulting from evaluation must be tempered by increased attention to the effects of the evaluation process. All too often premature application of quantitative indicators formerly used for individual assessment and research to bureaucratic decision making produces side effects that are dysfunctional in nature. Frequently these side effects influence service delivery directly. More insidious, because they are less easily discerned, are distortions introduced into the data by evaluation pressure. These not only delay effects on service but also impair understanding of the very process they are meant to illuminate. In order to illustrate this phenomenon, the author reviews a general literature and utilized examples from mental health care. Common themes are identified and a tentative theory of side effect generation proposed.

  8. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence.

  9. Comparison of Two Doses of Elemental Iron in the Treatment of Latent Iron Deficiency: Efficacy, Side Effects and Blinding Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to iron supplementation can be compromised due to side effects, and these limit blinding in studies of iron deficiency. No studies have reported an efficacious iron dose that allows participants to remain blinded. This pilot study aimed to determine a ferrous sulfate dose that improves iron stores, while minimising side effects and enabling blinding. A double-blinded RCT was conducted in 32 women (18–35 years): 24 with latent iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 20 µg/L) and 8 iron sufficient controls. Participants with latent iron deficiency were randomised to 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron or to placebo, for 16 weeks. The iron sufficient control group took placebo. Treatment groups (60 mg n = 7 and 80 mg n = 6) had significantly higher ferritin change scores than placebo groups (iron deficient n = 5 and iron sufficient n = 6), F(1, 23) = 8.46, p ≤ 0.01. Of the 24 who completed the trial, 10 participants (77%) on iron reported side effects, compared with 5 (45%) on placebo, but there were no differences in side effects (p = 0.29), or compliance (p = 0.60) between iron groups. Nine (69%) participants on iron, and 11 (56%) on placebo correctly guessed their treatment allocation. Both iron doses were equally effective in normalising ferritin levels. Although reported side-effects were similar for both groups, a majority of participants correctly guessed their treatment group. PMID:24714351

  10. [The comparison of the effects and side effects of local anesthetic and opioid combinations in epidural patient controlled analgesia].

    PubMed

    Eti, Zeynep; Umuroğlu, Tümay; Takil, Arzu; Göğüş, Yilmaz

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and side effects of local anesthetic and opioid combinations in 457 patients who have received epidural patient-controlled analgesia (EPCA). Hemodynamic parameters, numeric rating scale, sedation scores, the degree of motor and sensory blockage, the presence of side effects, the parameters of PCA device were recorded from the postoperative pain records. 253 patients received 0.1 % bupivacaine + 3 microg/ml fentanyl (Group B1F3), 80 patients received 0.125 % bupivacaine + 3 microg/ml fentanyl (Group B12F3), 43 patients received 0.125 % bupivacaine + 4 microg/ml fentanyl (Group B12F4), 46 patients received 0.1 % bupivacaine + 0.1 mg/ml morphine (Group B1M1) and 35 patients received 0.125 % bupivacaine + 0.1 mg/ml morphine (Group B12M1). Nausea was significantly higher in group B1M1 compared to B12F3, in group B12M1 compared to B1F3 and B12F3 (p<0.05), vomiting was significantly higher in group B1M1 and B12M1 (p<0.05) compared to B12F3, pruritus was significantly higher in group B12F4 compared to B12F3 and B1F3, in group B1M1 compared to B1F3 and B12F3 and in group B12M1 compared to B1F3 and B12F3 (p<0.05). As a result, in EPCA, the combination of bupivacaine and fentanyl provides as effective analgesia as the combination of bupivacaine and morphine and 3 mg/ml fentanyl admixture may be preferred with less side effects such as nausea, vomiting and pruritus.

  11. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Antoinette R

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer may present with cutaneous symptoms. The skin manifestations of breast cancer are varied. Some of the more common clinical presentations of metastatic cutaneous lesions from breast cancer will be described. Paraneoplastic cutaneous dermatoses have been reported as markers of breast malignancy and include erythema gyratum repens, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita. Mammary Paget's disease, often associated with an underlying breast cancer, and Cowden syndrome, which has an increased risk of breast malignancy, each have specific dermatologic findings. Recognition of these distinct cutaneous signs is important in the investigation of either newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer. PMID:27178684

  12. Cardiovascular Side Effects of New Antidepressants and Antipsychotics: New Drugs, old Concerns?

    PubMed Central

    Pacher, Pal; Kecskemeti, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    The cardiovascular toxicity of older generation of tricyclic antidepressants (e.g. imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine) and neuroleptics (e.g. haloperidol, droperidol, thioridazine, pimozide) is well established. These drugs inhibit cardiovascular Na+, Ca2+ and K+ channels often leading to life-threatening arrhythmia. To overcome the toxicity of old generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, venlafaxin) and several new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) were introduced during the past decade. Although these new compounds are not more effective in treating psychiatric disorders than older medications, they gained incredible popularity since they have been reported to have fewer and more benign side effect profile (including cardiovascular) than predecessors. Surprisingly, an increasing number of case reports have demonstrated that the use of SSRIs and new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) is associated with cases of arrhythmias, prolonged QTc interval on electrocardiogram (ECG) and orthostatic hypotension in patients lacking cardiovascular disorders, raising new concerns about the putative cardiovascular safety of these compounds. In agreement with these clinical reports these new compounds indeed show marked cardiovascular depressant effects in different mammalian and human cardiovascular preparations by inhibiting cardiac and vascular Na+, Ca2+ and K+ channels. Taken together, these results suggest that the new generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics also have clinically important cardiac as well as vascular effects. Clinicians should be more vigilant about these potential adverse reactions and ECG control may be suggested during therapy, especially in patients with

  13. Kondo effect in a quantum dot side-coupled to a topological superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minchul; Lim, Jong Soo; López, Rosa

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the dynamical and transport features of a Kondo dot side coupled to a topological superconductor (TS). The Majorana fermion states (MFSs) formed at the ends of the TS are found to be able to alter the Kondo physics profoundly: For an infinitely long wire where the MFSs do not overlap (ɛm=0) a finite dot-MFS coupling (Γm) reduces the unitary-limit value of the linear conductance by exactly a factor 3/4 in the weak-coupling regime (ΓmTK), on the other hand, the spin-split Kondo resonance takes place due to the MFS-induced Zeeman splitting, which is a genuine many-body effect of the strong Coulomb interaction and the topological superconductivity. We find that the original Kondo resonance is fully restored once the MFSs are strongly hybridized (ɛm>Γm). This unusual interaction between the Kondo effect and the MFS can thus serve to detect the Majorana fermions unambiguously and quantify the degree of overlap between the MFSs in the TS.

  14. Modulation of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects by medications for mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Ayaka; Shimizu, Saki; Shin, Noriyuki; Sato, Maho; Sugiuchi, Tomone; Imaki, Junta; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2012-08-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are widely used not only for schizophrenia, but also for mood disorders such as bipolar disorder and depression. To evaluate the interactions between antipsychotics and drugs for mood disorders in modulating extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), we examined the effects of antidepressants and mood-stabilizing drugs on haloperidol (HAL)-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy in mice and rats. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoxetine and paroxetine, and the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine, which showed no EPS by themselves, significantly potentiated HAL-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) mirtazapine failed to augment, but rather attenuated HAL-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy. Mianserin also tended to reduce the EPS induction. In addition, neither treatment with lithium, sodium valproate nor carbamazepine potentiated HAL-induced EPS. Furthermore, treatment of animals with ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist), and SB-258585 (5-HT6 antagonist) significantly antagonized the EPS augmentation by fluoxetine. Intrastriatal injection of ritanserin or SB-258585, but not ondansetron, also attenuated the EPS induction. The present study suggests that NaSSAs are superior to SSRIs or TCAs in combined therapy for mood disorders with antipsychotics in terms of EPS induction. In addition, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT6 receptors seem to be responsible for the augmentation of antipsychotic-induced EPS by serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:22542492

  15. Label Propagation Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Based on Clinical Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for public health, and thus attracts attention from both academia and industry. Here we hypothesize that clinical side effects (SEs) provide a human phenotypic profile and can be translated into the development of computational models for predicting adverse DDIs. We propose an integrative label propagation framework to predict DDIs by integrating SEs extracted from package inserts of prescription drugs, SEs extracted from FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, and chemical structures from PubChem. Experimental results based on hold-out validation demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In addition, the new algorithm also ranked drug information sources based on their contributions to the prediction, thus not only confirming that SEs are important features for DDI prediction but also paving the way for building more reliable DDI prediction models by prioritizing multiple data sources. By applying the proposed algorithm to 1,626 small-molecule drugs which have one or more SE profiles, we obtained 145,068 predicted DDIs. The predicted DDIs will help clinicians to avoid hazardous drug interactions in their prescriptions and will aid pharmaceutical companies to design large-scale clinical trial by assessing potentially hazardous drug combinations. All data sets and predicted DDIs are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/ddi.html. PMID:26196247

  16. Label Propagation Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Based on Clinical Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for public health, and thus attracts attention from both academia and industry. Here we hypothesize that clinical side effects (SEs) provide a human phenotypic profile and can be translated into the development of computational models for predicting adverse DDIs. We propose an integrative label propagation framework to predict DDIs by integrating SEs extracted from package inserts of prescription drugs, SEs extracted from FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, and chemical structures from PubChem. Experimental results based on hold-out validation demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In addition, the new algorithm also ranked drug information sources based on their contributions to the prediction, thus not only confirming that SEs are important features for DDI prediction but also paving the way for building more reliable DDI prediction models by prioritizing multiple data sources. By applying the proposed algorithm to 1,626 small-molecule drugs which have one or more SE profiles, we obtained 145,068 predicted DDIs. The predicted DDIs will help clinicians to avoid hazardous drug interactions in their prescriptions and will aid pharmaceutical companies to design large-scale clinical trial by assessing potentially hazardous drug combinations. All data sets and predicted DDIs are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/ddi.html.

  17. The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

  18. The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2014-10-21

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT.

  19. Clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in two centers in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dufrechou, L; Nin, M; Curi, L; Larre Borges, P; Martínez Asuaga, M; Noboa, O; Orihuela, S; González-Martínez, F; Larre Borges, A

    2014-11-01

    Uruguay, with a total population of 3,345,000 inhabitants, is the Latin American country with the second highest number of renal replacement therapies. Long-term immunosuppressant therapy is essential for graft survival but results in reduced immunosurveillance, leading to an increased risk of complications. A variety of dermatological manifestations and a large increase in nonmelanoma skin cancers have been reported in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in renal and renopancreatic recipients in 2 reference centers in Uruguay. Two hundred and six renal or renopancreatic recipients between 21 and 77 years old were evaluated between September 2009 and September 2011. A total of 206 dermatoses were observed; 60% of the patients had at least 1 cutaneous manifestation. The most frequent dermatoses were cutaneous side effects due to immunosuppressive treatment (40.6%), followed by infections (26.1%), miscellaneous causes (18.9%), and malignant and premalignant lesions (14.4%). Transplant recipients represent a high-risk dermatological population. Physicians in transplant units should be aware of the importance of dermatological screening in order to promote early detection of skin cancer.

  20. Investigation of Blood Flow and the Effect of Vasoactive Substances in Cutaneous Blood Vessels of "Xenopus Laevis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Škorjanc, Aleš; Belušic, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized "Xenopus," a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB…

  1. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individual's immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection sites and elsewhere in the body. There are very few data purporting to the safety of aluminium adjuvants in allergy immunotherapy and particularly so in relation to longer term health effects. There are, if only few, published reports of adverse events following allergy immunotherapy and aluminium adjuvants are the prime suspects in the majority of such incidents. Aluminium adjuvants are clearly capable of initiating unwanted side effects in recipients of immunotherapy and while there is as yet no evidence that such are commonplace it is complacent to consider aluminium salts as harmless constituents of allergy therapies. Future research should establish the safety of the use of aluminium adjuvants in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy. PMID:24444186

  2. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individual’s immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection sites and elsewhere in the body. There are very few data purporting to the safety of aluminium adjuvants in allergy immunotherapy and particularly so in relation to longer term health effects. There are, if only few, published reports of adverse events following allergy immunotherapy and aluminium adjuvants are the prime suspects in the majority of such incidents. Aluminium adjuvants are clearly capable of initiating unwanted side effects in recipients of immunotherapy and while there is as yet no evidence that such are commonplace it is complacent to consider aluminium salts as harmless constituents of allergy therapies. Future research should establish the safety of the use of aluminium adjuvants in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy. PMID:24444186

  3. TRPV1 channels are involved in niacin-induced cutaneous vasodilation in mice.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Heather L; Inceoglu, Bora; Ma, Linlin; Zheng, Jie; Schaefer, Saul

    2015-02-01

    Niacin is effective in treating dyslipidemias but causes cutaneous vasodilation or flushing, a side effect that limits its clinical use. Blocking prostaglandins in humans reduces but does not consistently eliminate flushing, indicating additional mechanisms may contribute to flushing. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, when activated, causes cutaneous vasodilation and undergoes tachyphylaxis similar to that seen with niacin. Using a murine model, early phase niacin-induced flushing was examined and TRPV1 channel involvement demonstrated using pharmacologic blockade, desensitization, and genetic knockouts (TRPV1 KO). The TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 reduced the magnitude of the initial and secondary peaks and the rapidity of the vasodilatory response (slope). TRPV1 desensitization by chronic capsaicin reduced the initial peak and slope. TRPV1 KO mice had a lower initial peak, secondary peak, and slope compared with wild-type mice. Chronic niacin reduced the initial peak, secondary peak, and slope in wild-type mice but had no effect in knockout mice. Furthermore, chronic niacin diminished the response to capsaicin in wild-type mice. Overall, these data demonstrate an important role for TRPV1 channels in niacin-induced flushing, both in the acute response and with chronic administration. That niacin-induced flushing is a complex cascade of events, which should inform pharmacological intervention against this side effect.

  4. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-07-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study.

  5. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study. PMID:23277700

  6. Occurrence and current management of side effects in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated frontline with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2013-06-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent the gold standard therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia and, after being used in imatinib resistant patients, dasatinib and nilotinib are now also used in frontline. In this article, we review data about occurrence of side effects in several trials testing imatinib or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors first line. Literature data about high-dose imatinib used front-line as single treatment or with different combinations is also examined. A literature search for relevant studies was undertaken mainly in PubMed. This review is aimed to summarize the safety of different treatments and to discuss the current management of most common side effects. Literature evidence supports the fact that side effects associated to TKIs seem to differ between agents, but most of side effects reported occur early within the treatment course. Second generation frontline TKIs reduce the incidence of most of side effects reported with imatinib and peculiar events observed are typically manageable through drug dose reduction or treatment interruption.

  7. Measurement of daily physical activity using the SenseWear Armband: Compliance, comfort, adverse side effects and usability.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Renae J; Tsai, Ling Ling Y; Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the acceptability of wearing physical activity-monitoring devices. This study aimed to examine the compliance, comfort, incidence of adverse side effects, and usability when wearing the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for daily physical activity assessment. In a prospective study, 314 participants (252 people with COPD, 36 people with a dust-related respiratory disease and 26 healthy age-matched people) completed a purpose-designed questionnaire following a 7-day period of wearing the SWA. Compliance, comfort levels during the day and night, adverse side effects and ease of using the device were recorded. Non-compliance with wearing the SWA over 7 days was 8%. The main reasons for removing the device were adverse side effects and discomfort. The SWA comfort level during the day was rated by 11% of participants as uncomfortable/very uncomfortable, with higher levels of discomfort reported during the night (16%). Nearly half of the participants (46%) experienced at least one adverse skin irritation side effect from wearing the SWA including itchiness, skin irritation and rashes, and/or bruising. Compliance with wearing the SWA for measurement of daily physical activity was found to be good, despite reports of discomfort and a high incidence of adverse side effects. PMID:26879695

  8. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumatic oro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoor, P A Fazal; Rafeeq, Mohammed; Dubey, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with unpredictably recurring seizure. Uncontrolled attacks can put patients at risk of suffering oro-facial trauma. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) provide satisfactory control of seizures in most of the patients with epilepsy. However use of AED has been found to cause many side effects inclusive of side effects in the oral cavity also. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 150 epileptic children, who were on anti epileptic medication for one year. Results: Gingival over growth was seen as common side effect of the AED drugs. Lip and cheek biting were the most common soft tissue injury, while tooth fracture was the most common hard tissue dental injury. Conclusion: General physicians, physicians & dentists should be well aware of the potential side effects of AED. A Dentist should be well versed and trained to manage oro-facial injuries in the emergency department. How to cite the article: Ghafoor PA, Rafeeq M, Dubey A. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumaticoro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):126-8. PMID:24876713

  9. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Raymond W.; Michalak, Erin E.; Bond, David J.; Tam, Edwin M.; Axler, Auby; Yatham, Lakshmi N.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant) in working patients with MDD. PMID:22611491

  10. Effects of Causes and Causes of Effects: Some Remarks From the Sociological Side

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Herbert L.

    2014-01-01

    Sociology is pluralist in subject matter, theory, and method, and thus a good place to entertain ideas about causation associated with their use under the law. I focus on two themes of their article: (1) the legal lens on causation that “considers populations in order to make statements about individuals” and (2) the importance of distinguishing between effects of causes and causes of effects. PMID:25477697

  11. Modelling the glucocorticoid receptor and producing therapeutic agents with anti-inflammatory effects but reduced side-effects.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Andrew; Ray, David William

    2007-03-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones exert a wide spectrum of metabolic and immunological effects. They are synthesized from a cholesterol precursor and are structurally related to the other steroid hormones, progesterone, aldosterone and oestrogen. They act through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The GR is an intracellular receptor; the hydrophobic ligand accesses its receptor by diffusion across the plasma membrane. The ligand-activated GR translocates to the nucleus to regulate expression of its target genes. The GR, in common with the rest of the receptor family, can be functionally divided into an N-terminal transcription activation domain, a central DNA binding domain and a C-terminal ligand binding domain, which also includes a second transactivation domain. Although synthetic glucocorticoids are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known, their use is limited owing to the range and severity of their side-effects. The structure of the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor has now been solved, and a series of studies has shown that even subtle changes to the ligand structure alter the final conformation of the ligand-receptor complex, with consequences for further protein recruitment and for the function of the receptor. This, coupled with the successful development of selective oestrogen receptor agonists, has led to concerted efforts to find selective GR ligands, with preserved beneficial anti-inflammatory activity, but reduced side-effect profile. Current efforts have identified several useful tool compounds, and further molecules are in development in several pharmaceutical companies.

  12. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications.

  13. Effects and Side Effects of DRO as Treatment for Self-Injurious Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Glynnis Edwards; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This case study presents a 9-year-old boy who exhibited severe stereotypic self-injurious behavior. An escalating differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule, mediated through token reinforcement, eliminated self-injurious behavior quickly for up to 30-minute periods, and was more effective than social reinforcement. Crying behavior…

  14. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  15. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the…

  16. Cirrus cloud seeding: a climate engineering mechanism with reduced side effects?

    PubMed

    Storelvmo, T; Boos, W R; Herger, N

    2014-12-28

    Climate engineering, the intentional alteration of Earth's climate, is a multifaceted and controversial topic. Numerous climate engineering mechanisms (CEMs) have been proposed, and the efficacies and potential undesired consequences of some of them have been studied in the safe environments of numerical models. Here, we present a global modelling study of a so far understudied CEM, namely the seeding of cirrus clouds to reduce their lifetimes in the upper troposphere, and hence their greenhouse effect. Different from most CEMs, the intention of cirrus seeding is not to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. This particular CEM rather targets the greenhouse effect, by reducing the trapping of infrared radiation by high clouds. This avoids some of the caveats that have been identified for solar radiation management, for example, the delayed recovery of stratospheric ozone or drastic changes to Earth's hydrological cycle. We find that seeding of mid- and high-latitude cirrus clouds has the potential to cool the planet by about 1.4 K, and that this cooling is accompanied by only a modest reduction in rainfall. Intriguingly, seeding of the 15% of the globe with the highest solar noon zenith angles at any given time yields the same global mean cooling as a seeding strategy that involves 45% of the globe. In either case, the cooling is strongest at high latitudes, and could therefore serve to prevent Arctic sea ice loss. With the caveat that there are still significant uncertainties associated with ice nucleation in cirrus clouds and its representation in climate models, cirrus seeding appears to represent a powerful CEM with reduced side effects.

  17. Treatment of depression with the CRH-1-receptor antagonist R121919: endocrine changes and side effects.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Heike E; Zobel, Astrid W; Nickel, Thomas; Ackl, Nibal; Uhr, Manfred; Sonntag, Annette; Ising, Marcus; Holsboer, Florian

    2003-01-01

    A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system has been hypothesized to account for a myriad of cardinal symptoms of affective disorders. Specifically, increased CRH signalling via CRH type 1 receptors is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of major depression and anxiety disorders. Consequently, a number of drugs have been developed in order to target the postulated increase in CRH/CRH 1 receptor signalling. One of these compounds, R121919, binds with high affinity to CRH1 receptors antagonising the action of CRH. R121919 was recently tested in an open-label study conceptualized as a safety and tolerability study. As part of this study, a thorough endocrine evaluation and detailed clinical laboratory analysis were assessed several times during 30 days of treatment with two different dose regimens of R121919 (5-40 mg vs. 40-80 mg) in 24 patients with a major depressive episode. During treatment with the experimental drug no serious side effects were noted. In particular, there were no adverse effects or impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the renin-angiotensin system, prolactin or vasopressin secretion. Furthermore, no changes in the serum corticotropin and cortisol concentrations and in the responsivity of corticotropin and cortisol following a CRH stimulation test were noted. No effects of R121919 on clinical laboratory parameters including liver enzymes, EEG and ECG were observed. These results encourage the development of other CRH-1-R antagonists as a novel class of antidepressive drugs.

  18. Laser parameters, focusing optics, and side effects in femtosecond laser corneal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamann, Karsten; Nuzzo, Valeria; Peyrot, Donald A.; Deloison, Florent; Savoldelli, Michèle; Legeais, Jean-Marc

    2008-02-01

    Nowadays, femtosecond lasers are routinely used in refractive eye surgery. Until recently, commercialised clinical systems were exclusively based on ytterbium or neodymium-doped solid state lasers emitting sub-picosecond pulses at a wavelength of about 1 μm and repetition rates of a few 10 kHz. These systems use pulse energies in the μJ range and focussing optics of NA = 0.3 to 0.5. Recent developments have provided a variety of alternative and equally viable approaches: systems are now available using nJ pulses at high numerical apertures and MHz repetition rates - an approach so far only used for femtosecond cell surgery - and fibre laser technology is now being used for femtosecond laser corneal surgery. Recent research has also provided more insight in side effects occurring in present systems: self focusing phenomena and so far unexplained periodical structures have been observed even at high numerical apertures (NA >> 0.5) and moderate pulse energies. The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with strongly scattering tissue has been studied in view of extending the application of femtosecond lasers to keratoplasty for opaque corneas and to glaucoma surgery. The use of new laser wavelengths and adaptive optics has been proposed. Despite the reputation of femtosecond surgical systems for their precision, repeatability and the absence of secondary effects or complications, a closer examination reveals the presence of subtle phenomena which merit further investigation. We present three of these phenomena: the influence of optical aberration on the quality of the incision, the occurrence of filamentation effects, and the deposit of microscopic glass fragments when performing penetrating incisions.

  19. Cirrus cloud seeding: a climate engineering mechanism with reduced side effects?

    PubMed

    Storelvmo, T; Boos, W R; Herger, N

    2014-12-28

    Climate engineering, the intentional alteration of Earth's climate, is a multifaceted and controversial topic. Numerous climate engineering mechanisms (CEMs) have been proposed, and the efficacies and potential undesired consequences of some of them have been studied in the safe environments of numerical models. Here, we present a global modelling study of a so far understudied CEM, namely the seeding of cirrus clouds to reduce their lifetimes in the upper troposphere, and hence their greenhouse effect. Different from most CEMs, the intention of cirrus seeding is not to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. This particular CEM rather targets the greenhouse effect, by reducing the trapping of infrared radiation by high clouds. This avoids some of the caveats that have been identified for solar radiation management, for example, the delayed recovery of stratospheric ozone or drastic changes to Earth's hydrological cycle. We find that seeding of mid- and high-latitude cirrus clouds has the potential to cool the planet by about 1.4 K, and that this cooling is accompanied by only a modest reduction in rainfall. Intriguingly, seeding of the 15% of the globe with the highest solar noon zenith angles at any given time yields the same global mean cooling as a seeding strategy that involves 45% of the globe. In either case, the cooling is strongest at high latitudes, and could therefore serve to prevent Arctic sea ice loss. With the caveat that there are still significant uncertainties associated with ice nucleation in cirrus clouds and its representation in climate models, cirrus seeding appears to represent a powerful CEM with reduced side effects. PMID:25404685

  20. Stem Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Benderitter, Marc; Caviggioli, Fabio; Chapel, Alain; Coppes, Robert P.; Guha, Chandan; Klinger, Marco; Malard, Olivier; Stewart, Fiona; Tamarat, Radia; Luijk, Peter Van

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Targeted irradiation is an effective cancer therapy but damage inflicted to normal tissues surrounding the tumor may cause severe complications. While certain pharmacologic strategies can temper the adverse effects of irradiation, stem cell therapies provide unique opportunities for restoring functionality to the irradiated tissue bed. Recent Advances: Preclinical studies presented in this review provide encouraging proof of concept regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells for treating the adverse side effects associated with radiotherapy in different organs. Early-stage clinical data for radiation-induced lung, bone, and skin complications are promising and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate stem cell type to stimulate tissue regeneration. Critical Issues: While therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated in a variety of animal models and human trials, a range of additional concerns regarding stem cell transplantation for ameliorating radiation-induced normal tissue sequelae remain. Safety issues regarding teratoma formation, disease progression, and genomic stability along with technical issues impacting disease targeting, immunorejection, and clinical scale-up are factors bearing on the eventual translation of stem cell therapies into routine clinical practice. Future Directions: Follow-up studies will need to identify the best possible stem cell types for the treatment of early and late radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Additional work should seek to optimize cellular dosing regimes, identify the best routes of administration, elucidate optimal transplantation windows for introducing cells into more receptive host tissues, and improve immune tolerance for longer-term engrafted cell survival into the irradiated microenvironment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 338–355. PMID:24147585