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Sample records for cutting plane algorithm

  1. Displaying CFD Solution Parameters on Arbitrary Cut Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul

    2008-01-01

    USMC6 is a Fortran 90 computer program for post-processing in support of visualization of flows simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The name "USMC6" is partly an abbreviation of "TetrUSS - USM3D Solution Cutter," reflecting its origin as a post-processor for use with USM3D - a CFD program that is a component of the Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System and that solves the Navier-Stokes equations on tetrahedral unstructured grids. "Cutter" here refers to a capability to acquire and process solution data on (1) arbitrary planes that cut through grid volumes, or (2) user-selected spheroidal, conical, cylindrical, and/or prismatic domains cut from within grids. Cutting saves time by enabling concentration of post-processing and visualization efforts on smaller solution domains of interest. The user can select from among more than 40 flow functions. The cut planes can be trimmed to circular or rectangular shape. The user specifies cuts and functions in a free-format input file using simple and easy-to-remember keywords. The USMC6 command line is simple enough that the slicing process can readily be embedded in a shell script for assembly-line post-processing. The output of USMC6 is a data file ready for plotting.

  2. Finite pure integer programming algorithms employing only hyperspherically deduced cuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Three algorithms are developed that may be based exclusively on hyperspherically deduced cuts. The algorithms only apply, therefore, to problems structured so that these cuts are valid. The algorithms are shown to be finite.

  3. Cutting solid figures by plane - analytical solution and spreadsheet implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-07-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and cosine rules. The basic problem is to find the section of the figure by a plane that is defined by three points related to the figure. In this article, a formula is derived that gives the positions of the intersection points of such a plane and the figure edges, that is, the vertices of the section polygon. Spreadsheet implementations of the formula for cuboid and right rectangular pyramids are presented. The user can check his/her graphical solution, or proceed if he/she is not able to complete the section.

  4. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Martawirya, Y. Y.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule.

  5. iCut: an Integrative Cut Algorithm Enables Accurate Segmentation of Touching Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Gong, Hui; Xiong, Benyi; Xu, Xiaofeng; Li, Anan; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Qingtao; Wang, Simin; Luo, Qingming; Chen, Shangbin

    2015-01-01

    Individual cells play essential roles in the biological processes of the brain. The number of neurons changes during both normal development and disease progression. High-resolution imaging has made it possible to directly count cells. However, the automatic and precise segmentation of touching cells continues to be a major challenge for massive and highly complex datasets. Thus, an integrative cut (iCut) algorithm, which combines information regarding spatial location and intervening and concave contours with the established normalized cut, has been developed. iCut involves two key steps: (1) a weighting matrix is first constructed with the abovementioned information regarding the touching cells and (2) a normalized cut algorithm that uses the weighting matrix is implemented to separate the touching cells into isolated cells. This novel algorithm was evaluated using two types of data: the open SIMCEP benchmark dataset and our micro-optical imaging dataset from a Nissl-stained mouse brain. It has achieved a promising recall/precision of 91.2 ± 2.1%/94.1 ± 1.8% and 86.8 ± 4.1%/87.5 ± 5.7%, respectively, for the two datasets. As quantified using the harmonic mean of recall and precision, the accuracy of iCut is higher than that of some state-of-the-art algorithms. The better performance of this fully automated algorithm can benefit studies of brain cytoarchitecture. PMID:26168908

  6. Robust algorithms for anatomic plane primitive detection in MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, Maneesh; Zhan, Yiqiang; Peng, Zhigang; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2009-02-01

    One of primary challenges in the medical image data analysis is the ability to handle abnormal, irregular and/or partial cases. In this paper, we present two different robust algorithms towards the goal of automatic planar primitive detection in 3D volumes. The overall algorithm is a bottoms-up approach starting with the anatomic point primitives (or landmarks) detection. The robustness in computing the planar primitives is built in through both a novel consensus-based voting approach, and a random sampling-based weighted least squares regression method. Both these approaches remove inconsistent landmarks and outliers detected in the landmark detection step. Unlike earlier approaches focused towards a particular plane, the presented approach is generic and can be easily adapted to computing more complex primitives such as ROIs or surfaces. To demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of our approach, we present extensive results for automatic plane detection (Mig-Sagittal and Optical Triangle planes) in brain MR-images. In comparison to ground truth, our approach has marginal errors on about 90 patients. The algorithm also works really well under adverse conditions of arbitrary rotation and cropping of the 3D volume. In order to exhibit generalization of the approach, we also present preliminary results on intervertebrae-plane detection for 3D spine MR application.

  7. Numerical modelling of orthogonal cutting: application to woodworking with a bench plane.

    PubMed

    Nairn, John A

    2016-06-01

    A numerical model for orthogonal cutting using the material point method was applied to woodcutting using a bench plane. The cutting process was modelled by accounting for surface energy associated with wood fracture toughness for crack growth parallel to the grain. By using damping to deal with dynamic crack propagation and modelling all contact between wood and the plane, simulations could initiate chip formation and proceed into steady-state chip propagation including chip curling. Once steady-state conditions were achieved, the cutting forces became constant and could be determined as a function of various simulation variables. The modelling details included a cutting tool, the tool's rake and grinding angles, a chip breaker, a base plate and a mouth opening between the base plate and the tool. The wood was modelled as an anisotropic elastic-plastic material. The simulations were verified by comparison to an analytical model and then used to conduct virtual experiments on wood planing. The virtual experiments showed interactions between depth of cut, chip breaker location and mouth opening. Additional simulations investigated the role of tool grinding angle, tool sharpness and friction. PMID:27274800

  8. Comparison and improvement of algorithms for computing minimal cut sets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Constrained minimal cut sets (cMCSs) have recently been introduced as a framework to enumerate minimal genetic intervention strategies for targeted optimization of metabolic networks. Two different algorithmic schemes (adapted Berge algorithm and binary integer programming) have been proposed to compute cMCSs from elementary modes. However, in their original formulation both algorithms are not fully comparable. Results Here we show that by a small extension to the integer program both methods become equivalent. Furthermore, based on well-known preprocessing procedures for integer programming we present efficient preprocessing steps which can be used for both algorithms. We then benchmark the numerical performance of the algorithms in several realistic medium-scale metabolic models. The benchmark calculations reveal (i) that these preprocessing steps can lead to an enormous speed-up under both algorithms, and (ii) that the adapted Berge algorithm outperforms the binary integer approach. Conclusions Generally, both of our new implementations are by at least one order of magnitude faster than other currently available implementations. PMID:24191903

  9. Normalized Cut Algorithm for Automated Assignment of Protein Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, M. P.; Liang, S.; Zha, H.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel computational method for automatic assignment of protein domains from structural data. At the core of our algorithm lies a recently proposed clustering technique that has been very successful for image-partitioning applications. This grap.,l-theory based clustering method uses the notion of a normalized cut to partition. an undirected graph into its strongly-connected components. Computer implementation of our method tested on the standard comparison set of proteins from the literature shows a high success rate (84%), better than most existing alternative In addition, several other features of our algorithm, such as reliance on few adjustable parameters, linear run-time with respect to the size of the protein and reduced complexity compared to other graph-theory based algorithms, would make it an attractive tool for structural biologists.

  10. A Cutting Surface Algorithm for Semi-Infinite Convex Programming with an Application to Moment Robust Optimization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mehrotra, Sanjay; Papp, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    We present and analyze a central cutting surface algorithm for general semi-infinite convex optimization problems and use it to develop a novel algorithm for distributionally robust optimization problems in which the uncertainty set consists of probability distributions with given bounds on their moments. Moments of arbitrary order, as well as nonpolynomial moments, can be included in the formulation. We show that this gives rise to a hierarchy of optimization problems with decreasing levels of risk-aversion, with classic robust optimization at one end of the spectrum and stochastic programming at the other. Although our primary motivation is to solve distributionally robustmore » optimization problems with moment uncertainty, the cutting surface method for general semi-infinite convex programs is also of independent interest. The proposed method is applicable to problems with nondifferentiable semi-infinite constraints indexed by an infinite dimensional index set. Examples comparing the cutting surface algorithm to the central cutting plane algorithm of Kortanek and No demonstrate the potential of our algorithm even in the solution of traditional semi-infinite convex programming problems, whose constraints are differentiable, and are indexed by an index set of low dimension. After the rate of convergence analysis of the cutting surface algorithm, we extend the authors' moment matching scenario generation algorithm to a probabilistic algorithm that finds optimal probability distributions subject to moment constraints. The combination of this distribution optimization method and the central cutting surface algorithm yields a solution to a family of distributionally robust optimization problems that are considerably more general than the ones proposed to date.« less

  11. A Cutting Surface Algorithm for Semi-Infinite Convex Programming with an Application to Moment Robust Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, Sanjay; Papp, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    We present and analyze a central cutting surface algorithm for general semi-infinite convex optimization problems and use it to develop a novel algorithm for distributionally robust optimization problems in which the uncertainty set consists of probability distributions with given bounds on their moments. Moments of arbitrary order, as well as nonpolynomial moments, can be included in the formulation. We show that this gives rise to a hierarchy of optimization problems with decreasing levels of risk-aversion, with classic robust optimization at one end of the spectrum and stochastic programming at the other. Although our primary motivation is to solve distributionally robust optimization problems with moment uncertainty, the cutting surface method for general semi-infinite convex programs is also of independent interest. The proposed method is applicable to problems with nondifferentiable semi-infinite constraints indexed by an infinite dimensional index set. Examples comparing the cutting surface algorithm to the central cutting plane algorithm of Kortanek and No demonstrate the potential of our algorithm even in the solution of traditional semi-infinite convex programming problems, whose constraints are differentiable, and are indexed by an index set of low dimension. After the rate of convergence analysis of the cutting surface algorithm, we extend the authors' moment matching scenario generation algorithm to a probabilistic algorithm that finds optimal probability distributions subject to moment constraints. The combination of this distribution optimization method and the central cutting surface algorithm yields a solution to a family of distributionally robust optimization problems that are considerably more general than the ones proposed to date.

  12. Joint graph cut and relative fuzzy connectedness image segmentation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris; Miranda, Paulo A V; Falcão, Alexandre X; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2013-12-01

    We introduce an image segmentation algorithm, called GC(sum)(max), which combines, in novel manner, the strengths of two popular algorithms: Relative Fuzzy Connectedness (RFC) and (standard) Graph Cut (GC). We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that GC(sum)(max) preserves robustness of RFC with respect to the seed choice (thus, avoiding "shrinking problem" of GC), while keeping GC's stronger control over the problem of "leaking though poorly defined boundary segments." The analysis of GC(sum)(max) is greatly facilitated by our recent theoretical results that RFC can be described within the framework of Generalized GC (GGC) segmentation algorithms. In our implementation of GC(sum)(max) we use, as a subroutine, a version of RFC algorithm (based on Image Forest Transform) that runs (provably) in linear time with respect to the image size. This results in GC(sum)(max) running in a time close to linear. Experimental comparison of GC(sum)(max) to GC, an iterative version of RFC (IRFC), and power watershed (PW), based on a variety medical and non-medical images, indicates superior accuracy performance of GC(sum)(max) over these other methods, resulting in a rank ordering of GC(sum)(max)>PW∼IRFC>GC.

  13. Crossover Cutting During Hamstring Fatigue Produces Transverse Plane Knee Control Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, John A.; Caborn, David N.M.; Shapiro, Robert; Johnson, Darren L.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of eccentric work-induced hamstring fatigue on sagittal and transverse plane (axial) knee and ankle biodynamics and kinetics during a running crossover cut directional change (functional pivot shift). Design and Setting: A pretest-posttest, single-group intervention experimental design was employed. All data were collected in a biodynamics laboratory. Subjects: Twenty healthy athletic females were trained for 3 weeks in crossover cutting before testing. Measurements: Data were sampled during 3 unfatigued and 3 fatigued (20% eccentric isokinetic knee-flexor torque reduction) crossover cut trials. Three-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction-force data were sampled at 200 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively, and joint moment estimates were calculated. Data were standardized to initial force-plate heelstrike for comparisons of mean differences between conditions using paired t tests with Bonferroni adjustments. Pearson product-moment correlations compared kinematic and eccentric hamstring-torque relationships. Results: During internal rotation phase 1, between heelstrike and impact absorption, mean internal rotation velocity increased by 21.2°/s ± 114°/s. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak transverse plane knee rotation during propulsion decreased by 3.1° ± 9°. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak ankle plantar flexor moment onsets occurred 12.7 ± 53 milliseconds earlier, and this activation demonstrated a moderately positive relationship with the onset of mean peak knee internal rotation during propulsion and a weak negative relationship with mean peak hamstring torque/lean body weight. Conclusions: The increased knee internal rotation velocity during phase I indicates transverse plane dynamic knee-control deficits during hamstring fatigue. Earlier peak ankle plantar-flexor moments and decreased internal rotation during phase II in the presence of hamstring fatigue may represent compensatory attempts at dynamic

  14. Identification of pulmonary fissures using a piecewise plane fitting algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gu, Suicheng; Wilson, David; Wang, Zhimin; Bigbee, William L; Siegfried, Jill; Gur, David; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-10-01

    We describe an automated computerized scheme to identify pulmonary fissures depicted in chest computed tomography (CT) examinations from a novel perspective. Whereas CT images can be regarded as a cloud of points, the underlying idea is to search for surface-like structures in the three-dimensional (3D) Euclidean space by using an efficient plane fitting algorithm. The proposed plane fitting operation is performed in a number of small spherical lung sub-volumes to detect small planar patches. Using a simple clustering criterion based on their spatial coherence and surface area, the identified planar patches, assumed to represent fissures, are classified into different types of fissures, namely left oblique, right oblique and right horizontal fissures. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created "reference standard" and the results obtained by a previously developed approach on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. The experiments show that the average discrepancy is around 1.0mm in comparison with the reference standard, while the corresponding maximum discrepancy is 20.5mm. In addition, 94% of the fissure voxels identified by the computerized scheme are within 3mm of the fissures in the reference standard. As compared to a previously developed approach, we also found that the newly developed scheme had a smaller discrepancy with the standard reference. In efficiency, it takes approximately 8 min to identify the fissures in a chest CT examination on a typical PC. The developed scheme demonstrates a reasonable performance in terms of accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency.

  15. Decision making and experience level influence frontal plane knee joint biomechanics during a cutting maneuver.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Kristof; Brown, Tyler N; McLean, Scott G; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the combined impact of experience and decision making on frontal plane knee joint biomechanics during a cutting maneuver. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 12 recreationally active and 18 NCAA Division I female athletes during execution of anticipated and unanticipated single-leg land-and-cut maneuvers. Knee joint abduction angles and external knee joint abduction torques were calculated and discrete peak stance-phase variables were extracted. Angle and torque time-series data were also submitted to separate functional data analyses. Variables derived from the functional data analyses indicated that decision making influenced knee abduction angle and torque time series in the recreational group only. Specifically, these variables pointed to greater knee abduction at the end of stance as well as a greater, albeit delayed peak in knee abduction torque at the beginning of landing in the recreational athletes during the unanticipated condition. In addition, the recreational athletes displayed greater discrete peak knee abduction angles than the Division I athletes regardless of condition. Discrete peak knee abduction torque did not differ between groups or conditions.

  16. A hyperspectral images compression algorithm based on 3D bit plane transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Xiang, Libin; Zhang, Sam; Quan, Shengxue

    2010-10-01

    According the analyses of the hyper-spectral images, a new compression algorithm based on 3-D bit plane transform is proposed. The spectral coefficient is higher than the spatial. The algorithm is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of 1-D bit plane transform for it can only reduce the correlation when the neighboring pixels have similar values. The algorithm calculates the horizontal, vertical and spectral bit plane transform sequentially. As the spectral bit plane transform, the algorithm can be easily realized by hardware. In addition, because the calculation and encoding of the transform matrix of each bit are independent, the algorithm can be realized by parallel computing model, which can improve the calculation efficiency and save the processing time greatly. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves improved compression performance. With a certain compression ratios, the algorithm satisfies requirements of hyper-spectral images compression system, by efficiently reducing the cost of computation and memory usage.

  17. Liver Segmentation Based on Snakes Model and Improved GrowCut Algorithm in Abdominal CT Image

    PubMed Central

    He, Baochun; Ma, Zhiyuan; Zong, Mao; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A novel method based on Snakes Model and GrowCut algorithm is proposed to segment liver region in abdominal CT images. First, according to the traditional GrowCut method, a pretreatment process using K-means algorithm is conducted to reduce the running time. Then, the segmentation result of our improved GrowCut approach is used as an initial contour for the future precise segmentation based on Snakes model. At last, several experiments are carried out to demonstrate the performance of our proposed approach and some comparisons are conducted between the traditional GrowCut algorithm. Experimental results show that the improved approach not only has a better robustness and precision but also is more efficient than the traditional GrowCut method. PMID:24066017

  18. An Improved Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm for Sheet Cutting Scheduling with Process Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Yunqing; Qi, Dezhong; Li, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm for sheet cutting problem which involves n cutting patterns for m non-identical parallel machines with process constraints has been proposed in the integrated cutting stock model. The objective of the cutting scheduling problem is minimizing the weighted completed time. A mathematical model for this problem is presented, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm (ant colony—hierarchical genetic algorithm) is developed for better solution, and a hierarchical coding method is used based on the characteristics of the problem. Furthermore, to speed up convergence rates and resolve local convergence issues, a kind of adaptive crossover probability and mutation probability is used in this algorithm. The computational result and comparison prove that the presented approach is quite effective for the considered problem. PMID:24489491

  19. Extended algorithm for the design of diffractive optical elements around the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yong-Ping

    2007-08-01

    We present a multiplane algorithm for three-dimensional uniform illumination. The large-diameter diffractive optical element simulated by this algorithm homogeneously concentrates more than 86.5% of the incident energy into a 200 μm length of columnar space around the focal plane. The intensity profile in the whole space is nearly flattop, and the beam's quality measured by the root mean square is less than 20.6%. The algorithm is very useful if a great deal of tolerance is required for the installation error of the optical system or if it is used for some particular application, such as uniform illumination on an incline plane.

  20. Simple Common Plane contact algorithm for explicit FE/FD methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, O

    2006-12-18

    Common-plane (CP) algorithm is widely used in Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model contact forces between interacting particles or blocks. A new simple contact algorithm is proposed to model contacts in FE/FD methods which is similar to the CP algorithm. The CP is defined as a plane separating interacting faces of FE/FD mesh instead of blocks or particles used in the original CP method. The new method does not require iterations even for very stiff contacts. It is very robust and easy to implement both in 2D and 3D parallel codes.

  1. Simple Common Plane contact detection algorithm for FE/FD methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, O

    2006-07-19

    Common-plane (CP) algorithm is widely used in Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model contact forces between interacting particles or blocks. A new simple contact detection algorithm is proposed to model contacts in FE/FD methods which is similar to the CP algorithm. The CP is defined as a plane separating interacting faces of FE/FD mesh instead of blocks or particles in the original CP method. The method does not require iterations. It is very robust and easy to implement both in 2D and 3D case.

  2. Comparison of algorithms for out-of-plane artifacts removal in digital tomosynthesis reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Bliznakova, K; Bliznakov, Z; Buliev, I

    2012-07-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a method of limited angle reconstruction of tomographic images produced at variable heights, on the basis of a set of angular projections taken in an arc around human anatomy. Reconstructed tomograms from unprocessed original projection images, however, are invariably affected by tomographic noise such as blurred images of objects lying outside the plane of interest and superimposed on the focused image of the fulcrum plane. The present work investigates the performance of two approaches for generation of tomograms with a reduced noise: a generalised post-processing method, based on constructing a noise mask from all planes in the reconstructed volume, and its subsequent subtraction from the in-focus plane and a filtered Multiple Projection Algorithm. The comparison between the two algorithms shows that the first method provides reconstructions with very good quality in case of high contrast features, especially for those embedded into a heterogeneous background.

  3. Non-uniformity correction for infrared focal plane array with image based on neural network algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Yu, Junsheng; Zhou, Yun; Xing, Yanmin; Jiang, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    Non-uniformity response of detectors based on infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) result in fixed pattern noise (FPN) due to detector materials' non-uniformity and fabrication technology. Once fixed pattern noise added to the infrared image, focal plane image quality will have a serious impact. So non-uniformity correction (NUC) is a key technology in IRFPA application. This paper briefly introduces the traditional neural network algorithm and puts forward an improved algorithm for the neural network algorithm for NUC of infrared focal plane arrays. The main improvement is focused on the estimation method of desired image. The algorithm is used to analyze the image array, correcting data on the array both in space and in time. The correction image in the text is from the infrared data sequence which is more successful of three frames of data obtained. It was found that the estimated image corrected by new algorithm is closer to real image than the estimated image corrected by other algorithm. Moreover, we simulated the new proposed algorithm using Matlab. The results showed that the method of spatial and temporal co-correction of the images is more realistic than the original image.

  4. A hybrid heuristic algorithm to improve known-plaintext attack on Fourier plane encryption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wensi; Yang, Guanglin; Xie, Haiyan

    2009-08-01

    A hybrid heuristic attack scheme that combines the hill climbing algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to speed up the search procedure and to obtain a more accurate solution to the original key in the Fourier plane encryption algorithm. And a unit cycle is adopted to analyze the value space of the random phase. The experimental result shows that our scheme can obtain more accurate solution to the key that can achieve better decryption result both for the selected encrypted image and another unseen ciphertext image. The searching time is significantly reduced while without any exceptional case in searching procedure. For an image of 64x64 pixels, our algorithm costs a comparatively short computing time, about 1 minute, can retrieve the approximated key with the normalized root mean squared error 0.1, therefore, our scheme makes the known-plaintext attack on the Fourier plane image encryption more practical, stable, and effective.

  5. Cutting Solid Figures by Plane--Analytical Solution and Spreadsheet Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and…

  6. An adaptive guidance algorithm for an aerodynamically assisted orbital plane change maneuver. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blissit, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Using analysis results from the post trajectory optimization program, an adaptive guidance algorithm is developed to compensate for density, aerodynamic and thrust perturbations during an atmospheric orbital plane change maneuver. The maneuver offers increased mission flexibility along with potential fuel savings for future reentry vehicles. Although designed to guide a proposed NASA Entry Research Vehicle, the algorithm is sufficiently generic for a range of future entry vehicles. The plane change analysis provides insight suggesting a straight-forward algorithm based on an optimized nominal command profile. Bank angle, angle of attack, and engine thrust level, ignition and cutoff times are modulated to adjust the vehicle's trajectory to achieve the desired end-conditions. A performance evaluation of the scheme demonstrates a capability to guide to within 0.05 degrees of the desired plane change and five nautical miles of the desired apogee altitude while maintaining heating constraints. The algorithm is tested under off-nominal conditions of + or -30% density biases, two density profile models, + or -15% aerodynamic uncertainty, and a 33% thrust loss and for various combinations of these conditions.

  7. Reconstruction-plane-dependent weighted FDK algorithm for cone beam volumetric CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Hsieh, Jiang

    2005-04-01

    The original FDK algorithm has been extensively employed in medical and industrial imaging applications. With an increased cone angle, cone beam (CB) artifacts in images reconstructed by the original FDK algorithm deteriorate, since the circular trajectory does not satisfy the so-called data sufficiency condition (DSC). A few "circular plus" trajectories have been proposed in the past to reduce CB artifacts by meeting the DSC. However, the circular trajectory has distinct advantages over other scanning trajectories in practical CT imaging, such as cardiac, vascular and perfusion applications. In addition to looking into the DSC, another insight into the CB artifacts of the original FDK algorithm is the inconsistency between conjugate rays that are 180° apart in view angle. The inconsistence between conjugate rays is pixel dependent, i.e., it varies dramatically over pixels within the image plane to be reconstructed. However, the original FDK algorithm treats all conjugate rays equally, resulting in CB artifacts that can be avoided if appropriate view weighting strategy is exercised. In this paper, a modified FDK algorithm is proposed, along with an experimental evaluation and verification, in which the helical body phantom and a humanoid head phantom scanned by a volumetric CT (64 x 0.625 mm) are utilized. Without extra trajectories supplemental to the circular trajectory, the modified FDK algorithm applies reconstruction-plane-dependent view weighting on projection data before 3D backprojection, which reduces the inconsistency between conjugate rays by suppressing the contribution of one of the conjugate rays with a larger cone angle. Both computer-simulated and real phantom studies show that, up to a moderate cone angle, the CB artifacts can be substantially suppressed by the modified FDK algorithm, while advantages of the original FDK algorithm, such as the filtered backprojection algorithm structure, 1D ramp filtering, and data manipulation efficiency, can be

  8. Robustness of ‘cut and splice’ genetic algorithms in the structural optimization of atomic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froltsov, Vladimir A.; Reuter, Karsten

    2009-05-01

    We return to the geometry optimization problem of Lennard-Jones clusters to analyze the performance dependence of 'cut and splice' genetic algorithms (GAs) on the employed population size. We generally find that admixing twinning mutation moves leads to an improved robustness of the algorithm efficiency with respect to this a priori unknown technical parameter. The resulting very stable performance of the corresponding mutation + mating GA implementation over a wide range of population sizes is an important feature when addressing unknown systems with computationally involved first-principles based GA sampling.

  9. Introduction of a distance cut-off into structural alignment by the double dynamic programming algorithm.

    PubMed

    Toh, H

    1997-08-01

    Two approximations were introduced into the double dynamic programming algorithm, in order to reduce the computational time for structural alignment. One of them was the so-called distance cut-off, which approximately describes the structural environment of each residue by its local environment. In the approximation, a sphere with a given radius is placed at the center of the side chain of each residue. The local environment of a residue is constituted only by the residues with side chain centers that are present within the sphere, which is expressed by a set of center-to-center distances from the side chain of the residue to those of all the other constituent residues. The residues outside the sphere are neglected from the local environment. Another approximation is associated with the distance cut-off, which is referred to here as the delta N cut-off. If two local environments are similar to each other, the numbers of residues constituting the environments are expected to be similar. The delta N cut-off was introduced based on the idea. If the difference between the numbers of the constituent residues of two local environments is greater than a given threshold value, delta N, the evaluation of the similarity between the local environments is skipped. The introduction of the two approximations dramatically reduced the computational time for structural alignment by the double dynamic programming algorithm. However, the approximations also decreased the accuracy of the alignment. To improve the accuracy with the approximations, a program with a two-step alignment algorithm was constructed. At first, an alignment was roughly constructed with the approximations. Then, the epsilon-suboptimal region for the alignment was determined. Finally, the double dynamic programming algorithm with full structural environments was applied to the residue pairs within the epsilon-suboptimal region to produce an improved alignment.

  10. Fast inhomogeneous plane wave algorithm for the analysis of electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Chew, Weng Cho; Velamparambil, Sanjay

    2001-01-01

    The fast inhomogeneous plane wave algorithm has been developed to accelerate the solution of three-dimensional electromagnetic scattering problems in free space. By expanding the kernel of the Green's function using the Weyl identity and choosing a proper steepest descent path, the diagonalization of the translation matrix is achieved after the interpolation and extrapolation techniques are applied. The proposed algorithm is implemented on top of the scalable multipole engine, a portable implementation of the dynamic multilevel fast multipole algorithm for distributed-memory computers. The computational time per matrix vector multiplication is reduced to O(NlogN) and the memory requirement is reduced to O(N), where N is the number of unknowns in the discretized integral equation. The algorithm is validated by applying it to the solution of the electromagnetic scattering from the perfect electric conducting scatterers. This approach can be easily extended to more general problems with complicated Green's function expressed in terms of the plane wave spectral integrals, such as the ones encountered in the multilayered medium studies.

  11. Pattern-set generation algorithm for the one-dimensional multiple stock sizes cutting stock problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yaodong; Cui, Yi-Ping; Zhao, Zhigang

    2015-09-01

    A pattern-set generation algorithm (PSG) for the one-dimensional multiple stock sizes cutting stock problem (1DMSSCSP) is presented. The solution process contains two stages. In the first stage, the PSG solves the residual problems repeatedly to generate the patterns in the pattern set, where each residual problem is solved by the column-generation approach, and each pattern is generated by solving a single large object placement problem. In the second stage, the integer linear programming model of the 1DMSSCSP is solved using a commercial solver, where only the patterns in the pattern set are considered. The computational results of benchmark instances indicate that the PSG outperforms existing heuristic algorithms and rivals the exact algorithm in solution quality.

  12. Square-Cut: A Segmentation Algorithm on the Basis of a Rectangle Shape

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Jan; Kapur, Tina; Dukatz, Thomas; Kolodziej, Malgorzata; Zukić, Dženan; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We present a rectangle-based segmentation algorithm that sets up a graph and performs a graph cut to separate an object from the background. However, graph-based algorithms distribute the graph's nodes uniformly and equidistantly on the image. Then, a smoothness term is added to force the cut to prefer a particular shape. This strategy does not allow the cut to prefer a certain structure, especially when areas of the object are indistinguishable from the background. We solve this problem by referring to a rectangle shape of the object when sampling the graph nodes, i.e., the nodes are distributed non-uniformly and non-equidistantly on the image. This strategy can be useful, when areas of the object are indistinguishable from the background. For evaluation, we focus on vertebrae images from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) datasets to support the time consuming manual slice-by-slice segmentation performed by physicians. The ground truth of the vertebrae boundaries were manually extracted by two clinical experts (neurological surgeons) with several years of experience in spine surgery and afterwards compared with the automatic segmentation results of the proposed scheme yielding an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 90.97±2.2%. PMID:22363547

  13. Kidney segmentation in CT sequences using SKFCM and improved GrowCut algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Organ segmentation is an important step in computer-aided diagnosis and pathology detection. Accurate kidney segmentation in abdominal computed tomography (CT) sequences is an essential and crucial task for surgical planning and navigation in kidney tumor ablation. However, kidney segmentation in CT is a substantially challenging work because the intensity values of kidney parenchyma are similar to those of adjacent structures. Results In this paper, a coarse-to-fine method was applied to segment kidney from CT images, which consists two stages including rough segmentation and refined segmentation. The rough segmentation is based on a kernel fuzzy C-means algorithm with spatial information (SKFCM) algorithm and the refined segmentation is implemented with improved GrowCut (IGC) algorithm. The SKFCM algorithm introduces a kernel function and spatial constraint into fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) algorithm. The IGC algorithm makes good use of the continuity of CT sequences in space which can automatically generate the seed labels and improve the efficiency of segmentation. The experimental results performed on the whole dataset of abdominal CT images have shown that the proposed method is accurate and efficient. The method provides a sensitivity of 95.46% with specificity of 99.82% and performs better than other related methods. Conclusions Our method achieves high accuracy in kidney segmentation and considerably reduces the time and labor required for contour delineation. In addition, the method can be expanded to 3D segmentation directly without modification. PMID:26356850

  14. Bladder segmentation in MR images with watershed segmentation and graph cut algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaffert, Thomas; Renisch, Steffen; Schadewaldt, Nicole; Schulz, Heinrich; Wiemker, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    Prostate and cervix cancer diagnosis and treatment planning that is based on MR images benefit from superior soft tissue contrast compared to CT images. For these images an automatic delineation of the prostate or cervix and the organs at risk such as the bladder is highly desirable. This paper describes a method for bladder segmentation that is based on a watershed transform on high image gradient values and gray value valleys together with the classification of watershed regions into bladder contents and tissue by a graph cut algorithm. The obtained results are superior if compared to a simple region-after-region classification.

  15. Vibration suppression in cutting tools using collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators with an adaptive control algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Radecki, Peter P; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae; Bement, Matthew T

    2008-01-01

    The machining process is very important in many engineering applications. In high precision machining, surface finish is strongly correlated with vibrations and the dynamic interactions between the part and the cutting tool. Parameters affecting these vibrations and dynamic interactions, such as spindle speed, cut depth, feed rate, and the part's material properties can vary in real-time, resulting in unexpected or undesirable effects on the surface finish of the machining product. The focus of this research is the development of an improved machining process through the use of active vibration damping. The tool holder employs a high bandwidth piezoelectric actuator with an adaptive positive position feedback control algorithm for vibration and chatter suppression. In addition, instead of using external sensors, the proposed approach investigates the use of a collocated piezoelectric sensor for measuring the dynamic responses from machining processes. The performance of this method is evaluated by comparing the surface finishes obtained with active vibration control versus baseline uncontrolled cuts. Considerable improvement in surface finish (up to 50%) was observed for applications in modern day machining.

  16. Gender Differences among Sagittal Plane Knee Kinematic and Ground Reaction Force Characteristics during a Rapid Sprint and Cut Maneuver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C. Roger; Sizer, Phillip S.; Starch, David W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Slauterbeck, James

    2004-01-01

    Women are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during cutting sports than men. The purpose of this study was to examine knee kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) differences between genders during cutting. Male and female athletes performed cutting trials while force platform and video data were recorded (180 Hz).…

  17. Brain tumor segmentation in MR slices using improved GrowCut algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chunhong; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Shi, Zhifeng; Mao, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The detection of brain tumor from MR images is very significant for medical diagnosis and treatment. However, the existing methods are mostly based on manual or semiautomatic segmentation which are awkward when dealing with a large amount of MR slices. In this paper, a new fully automatic method for the segmentation of brain tumors in MR slices is presented. Based on the hypothesis of the symmetric brain structure, the method improves the interactive GrowCut algorithm by further using the bounding box algorithm in the pre-processing step. More importantly, local reflectional symmetry is used to make up the deficiency of the bounding box method. After segmentation, 3D tumor image is reconstructed. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method on MR slices with synthetic tumors and actual clinical MR images. Result of the proposed method is compared with the actual position of simulated 3D tumor qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, our automatic method produces equivalent performance as manual segmentation and the interactive GrowCut with manual interference while providing fully automatic segmentation.

  18. Matched view weighting in tilted-plane-based reconstruction algorithms to suppress helical artifacts and optimize noise characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangyang

    2003-11-01

    In multi-slice helical CT, the single-tilted-plane-based reconstruction algorithm has been proposed to combat helical and cone beam artifacts by tilting a reconstruction plane to fit a helical source trajectory optimally. Furthermore, to improve the noise characteristics or dose efficiency of the single-tilted-plane-based reconstruction algorithm, the multi-tilted-plane-based reconstruction algorithm has been proposed, in which the reconstruction plane deviates from the pose globally optimized due to an extra rotation along the 3rd axis. As a result, the capability of suppressing helical and cone beam artifacts in the multi-tilted-plane-based reconstruction algorithm is compromised. A matched view weighting approach is proposed here to optimize the capability of suppressing helical and cone beam artifacts and noise characteristics. A helical body phantom is employed to quantitatively evaluate the imaging performance of the matched view weighting approach, showing that the matched view weighting improves both the helical artifact suppression and noise characteristics or dose efficiency significantly in comparison to the case in which nonmatched view weighting is applied. The matched view weighting approach is of practical importance in the development of multi-slice helical CT, because it maintains the computational structure of fan beam filtered back-projection and demands no extra computational resources.

  19. Fast computation of minimal cut sets in metabolic networks with a Berge algorithm that utilizes binary bit pattern trees.

    PubMed

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Beurton-Aimar, Marie; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Minimal cut sets are a valuable tool for analyzing metabolic networks and for identifying optimal gene intervention strategies by eliminating unwanted metabolic functions and keeping desired functionality. Minimal cut sets rely on the concept of elementary flux modes, which are sets of indivisible metabolic pathways under steady-state condition. However, the computation of minimal cut sets is nontrivial, as even medium-sized metabolic networks with just 100 reactions easily have several hundred million elementary flux modes. We developed a minimal cut set tool that implements the well-known Berge algorithm and utilizes a novel approach to significantly reduce the program run time by using binary bit pattern trees. By using the introduced tree approach, the size of metabolic models that can be analyzed and optimized by minimal cut sets is pushed to new and considerably higher limits.

  20. A new efficient algorithm generating all minimal S-T cut-sets in a graph-modeled network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    A new algorithm finding all minimal s-t cut-sets in a graph-modeled network with failing links and nodes is presented. It is based on the analysis of the tree of acyclic s-t paths connecting a given pair of nodes in the considered structure. The construction of such a tree is required by many existing algorithms for s-t cut-sets generation in order to eliminate "stub" edges or subgraphs through which no acyclic path passes. The algorithm operates on the acyclic paths tree alone, i.e. no other analysis of the network's topology is necessary. It can be applied to both directed and undirected graphs, as well as partly directed ones. It is worth noting that the cut-sets can be composed of both links and failures, while many known algorithms do not take nodes into account, which is quite restricting from the practical point of view. The developed cut-sets generation technique makes the algorithm significantly faster than most of the previous methods, as proved by the experiments.

  1. Gender differences among sagittal plane knee kinematic and ground reaction force characteristics during a rapid sprint and cut maneuver.

    PubMed

    James, C Roger; Sizer, Phillip S; Starch, David W; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Slauterbeck, James

    2004-03-01

    Women are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during cutting sports than men. The purpose of this study was to examine knee kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) differences between genders during cutting. Male and female athletes performed cutting trials while force platform and video data were recorded (180 Hz). Differences (p < . 05) were observed between groups for knee flexion at contact and GRF at maximum knee flexion. Women averaged 5.8 degrees less flexion at contact and 1.0 N. (kg x m x s(-1))(-1) greater GRF at maximum flexion. Knee range of motion and peak GRF variables were not significantly different, but women had greater values. Women exhibited technique characteristics believed to increase ACL injury risk, but men exhibiting similar characteristics were also observed and could also be at risk.

  2. An algorithm for the calculation of the partial wave expansion of the Coulomb-distorted plane wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornyak, I.; Kruppa, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The partial wave expansion of the Coulomb-distorted plane wave is determined by the help of the complex generalized hypergeometric function 2F2(a , a ; a + l + 1 , a - l ; z) . An algorithm for the calculation of 2F2(a , a ; a + l + 1 , a - l ; z) is created and it is implemented as a FORTRAN-90 code. The code is fast and its accuracy is 14 significant decimal digits.

  3. In-Plane Stiffness Tailoring for the Improvement of Buckling and Strength of Composite Panels with Cut-Outs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, C. S.; Gurdal, Z.; Cammanho, P. P.; Gomes, V. S.

    2012-07-01

    The traditional engineering approach to the problem of stress concentrations around large cutouts in composite aerospace structures, e.g. for windows and doors in air- craft, is to locally increase the thickness in order to lower the stress peaks. Often, this practice results in a significant increase in the weight of the structure. A more effective solution, avoiding the mass increase, is to dissipate the stress concentrations by redistributing loads to supported regions, such as frames and stiffeners, by means of fibre-steered laminates with variable in-plane stiffness. The production of composites in this format is practical nowadays due to the capabilities of advanced fibre- placement technology. In this work, the potential of the fibre-steering concept for the purpose of stress alleviation around cutouts in composite laminates is explored. Numerical studies are performed on compression and shear loaded variable- stiffness panels of different configurations and hole-to- panel size ratios in order to identify the optimal configurations in terms of buckling and first-ply failure.

  4. Guided filter and adaptive learning rate based non-uniformity correction algorithm for infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng-Hui, Rong; Hui-Xin, Zhou; Han-Lin, Qin; Rui, Lai; Kun, Qian

    2016-05-01

    Imaging non-uniformity of infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) behaves as fixed-pattern noise superimposed on the image, which affects the imaging quality of infrared system seriously. In scene-based non-uniformity correction methods, the drawbacks of ghosting artifacts and image blurring affect the sensitivity of the IRFPA imaging system seriously and decrease the image quality visibly. This paper proposes an improved neural network non-uniformity correction method with adaptive learning rate. On the one hand, using guided filter, the proposed algorithm decreases the effect of ghosting artifacts. On the other hand, due to the inappropriate learning rate is the main reason of image blurring, the proposed algorithm utilizes an adaptive learning rate with a temporal domain factor to eliminate the effect of image blurring. In short, the proposed algorithm combines the merits of the guided filter and the adaptive learning rate. Several real and simulated infrared image sequences are utilized to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experiment results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only reduce the non-uniformity with less ghosting artifacts but also overcome the problems of image blurring in static areas.

  5. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Jorge A.; Haydel, K. Farish; Davila, Tania; Desai, Manisha; Haskell, William L.; Matheson, Donna; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT) algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA). Methods 268 7–11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4–7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points. Results WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p < .0001), but did not vary significantly by epoch length when using the ≥ 20 minute consecutive zero or Choi WT algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001). Across all epoch lengths, minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA also varied significantly across all sets of activity cut-points with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001). Conclusions The common practice of converting WT algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy. PMID:26938240

  6. Localization and segmentation of optic disc in retinal images using circular Hough transform and grow-cut algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Barman, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Automated retinal image analysis has been emerging as an important diagnostic tool for early detection of eye-related diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we have presented a robust methodology for optic disc detection and boundary segmentation, which can be seen as the preliminary step in the development of a computer-assisted diagnostic system for glaucoma in retinal images. The proposed method is based on morphological operations, the circular Hough transform and the grow-cut algorithm. The morphological operators are used to enhance the optic disc and remove the retinal vasculature and other pathologies. The optic disc center is approximated using the circular Hough transform, and the grow-cut algorithm is employed to precisely segment the optic disc boundary. The method is quantitatively evaluated on five publicly available retinal image databases DRIVE, DIARETDB1, CHASE_DB1, DRIONS-DB, Messidor and one local Shifa Hospital Database. The method achieves an optic disc detection success rate of 100% for these databases with the exception of 99.09% and 99.25% for the DRIONS-DB, Messidor, and ONHSD databases, respectively. The optic disc boundary detection achieved an average spatial overlap of 78.6%, 85.12%, 83.23%, 85.1%, 87.93%, 80.1%, and 86.1%, respectively, for these databases. This unique method has shown significant improvement over existing methods in terms of detection and boundary extraction of the optic disc. PMID:27190713

  7. Refinement-Cut: User-Guided Segmentation Algorithm for Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for (medical) image analysis is presented. More precise, the approach belongs to the category of interactive contouring algorithms, which provide real-time feedback of the segmentation result. However, even with interactive real-time contouring approaches there are always cases where the user cannot find a satisfying segmentation, e.g. due to homogeneous appearances between the object and the background, or noise inside the object. For these difficult cases the algorithm still needs additional user support. However, this additional user support should be intuitive and rapid integrated into the segmentation process, without breaking the interactive real-time segmentation feedback. I propose a solution where the user can support the algorithm by an easy and fast placement of one or more seed points to guide the algorithm to a satisfying segmentation result also in difficult cases. These additional seed(s) restrict(s) the calculation of the segmentation for the algorithm, but at the same time, still enable to continue with the interactive real-time feedback segmentation. For a practical and genuine application in translational science, the approach has been tested on medical data from the clinical routine in 2D and 3D. PMID:24893650

  8. A real-time guidance algorithm for aerospace plane optimal ascent to low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of onboard trajectory optimization and synthesis of suitable guidance laws for ascent to low Earth orbit of an air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle are addressed. A multimode propulsion system is assumed which incorporates turbojet, ramjet, Scramjet, and rocket engines. An algorithm for generating fuel-optimal climb profiles is presented. This algorithm results from the application of the minimum principle to a low-order dynamic model that includes angle-of-attack effects and the normal component of thrust. Maximum dynamic pressure and maximum aerodynamic heating rate constraints are considered. Switching conditions are derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another. A nonlinear transformation technique is employed to derived a feedback controller for tracking the computed trajectory. Numerical results illustrate the nature of the resulting fuel-optimal climb paths.

  9. Static scene statistical algorithm for nonuniformity correction in focal-plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catarius, Adrian M.; Seal, Michael D.

    2015-10-01

    A static scene statistical nonuniformity correction (S3NUC) method was developed based on the higher-order moments of a linear statistical model of a photodetection process. S3NUC relieves the requirement for calibrated targets or a moving scene for NUC by utilizing two data sets of different intensities but requires low scene intensity levels. The first-, second-, and third-order moments of the two data sets are used to estimate the gain and bias values for the detectors in a focal-plane array (FPA). These gain and bias values may then be used to correct the nonuniformities between detectors or to initialize other continuous calibration methods. S3NUC was successfully applied to simulated data as well as measured data at visible wavelengths.

  10. Nonuniformity correction algorithm based on a noise-cancellation system for infrared focal-plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, Sebastian E.; Torres, Sergio N.; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Hayat, Majeed M.; Wang, Qi

    2007-04-01

    In this paper a novel nonuniformity correction method that compensates for the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in infrared focal-plane array (IRFPA) sensors is developed. The proposed NUC method compensates for the additive component of the FPN statistically processing the read-out signal using a noise-cancellation system. The main assumption of the method is that a source of noise correlated to the additive noise of the IRFPA is available to the system. Under this assumption, a finite impulse response (FIR) filter is designed to synthesize an estimate of the additive noise. Moreover, exploiting the fact that the assumed source of noise is constant in time, we derive a simple expression to calculate the estimate of the additive noise. Finally, the estimate is subtracted to the raw IR imagery to obtain the corrected version of the images. The performance of the proposed system and its ability to compensate for the FPN are tested with infrared images corrupted by both real and simulated nonuniformity.

  11. AN IMAGE-PLANE ALGORITHM FOR JWST'S NON-REDUNDANT APERTURE MASK DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2015-01-10

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 μm. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, σ{sub CP} (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If σ{sub CP} < 10{sup –4} radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  12. An Image-plane Algorithm for JWST's Non-redundant Aperture Mask Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2015-01-01

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 μm. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, σCP (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If σCP < 10-4 radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  13. An Exact Algorithm to Compute the Double-Cut-and-Join Distance for Genomes with Duplicate Genes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mingfu; Lin, Yu; Moret, Bernard M E

    2015-05-01

    Computing the edit distance between two genomes is a basic problem in the study of genome evolution. The double-cut-and-join (DCJ) model has formed the basis for most algorithmic research on rearrangements over the last few years. The edit distance under the DCJ model can be computed in linear time for genomes without duplicate genes, while the problem becomes NP-hard in the presence of duplicate genes. In this article, we propose an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation to compute the DCJ distance between two genomes with duplicate genes. We also provide an efficient preprocessing approach to simplify the ILP formulation while preserving optimality. Comparison on simulated genomes demonstrates that our method outperforms MSOAR in computing the edit distance, especially when the genomes contain long duplicated segments. We also apply our method to assign orthologous gene pairs among human, mouse, and rat genomes, where once again our method outperforms MSOAR.

  14. An algorithm to extract effective magnetic parameters of thin film with in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neo, C. P.; Ding, J.

    2010-05-01

    The calculation of high frequency complex permeability of thin ferromagnetic film requires the measured values of its saturation magnetization, anisotropic magnetic field intensity, resistivity, and thickness. It is often observed that the calculated permeability using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) theory does not agree well with the measured permeability of thin film with in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, owing to the measured anisotropic magnetic field intensity, saturation magnetization, etc., are not effective values at high frequency. In this work, the Landau-Lifshitz ferromagnetic resonance model is modified to take the skin depth effect into consideration. In the comparison study, its calculated magnetic permeability curves (real and imaginary) agrees very well with those calculated from the LLG model. In addition, an algorithm process to extract effective magnetic parameters (saturation magnetization Ms, magnetic anisotropy field Ha, and damping factor α) has been developed. The algorithm process has been tested for the reported magnetic permeability curves of two magnetic films (Si/NiFe/FeCoB and CoZrRe). The extracted parameters are well agreed with those reported. It is also reported that the consideration of skin depth effect is necessary for samples with lower electrical resistivity.

  15. US-Cut: interactive algorithm for rapid detection and segmentation of liver tumors in ultrasound acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, Jan; Voglreiter, Philip; Dokter, Mark; Hofmann, Michael; Chen, Xiaojun; Zoller, Wolfram G.; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Hann, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound (US) is the most commonly used liver imaging modality worldwide. It plays an important role in follow-up of cancer patients with liver metastases. We present an interactive segmentation approach for liver tumors in US acquisitions. Due to the low image quality and the low contrast between the tumors and the surrounding tissue in US images, the segmentation is very challenging. Thus, the clinical practice still relies on manual measurement and outlining of the tumors in the US images. We target this problem by applying an interactive segmentation algorithm to the US data, allowing the user to get real-time feedback of the segmentation results. The algorithm has been developed and tested hand-in-hand by physicians and computer scientists to make sure a future practical usage in a clinical setting is feasible. To cover typical acquisitions from the clinical routine, the approach has been evaluated with dozens of datasets where the tumors are hyperechoic (brighter), hypoechoic (darker) or isoechoic (similar) in comparison to the surrounding liver tissue. Due to the interactive real-time behavior of the approach, it was possible even in difficult cases to find satisfying segmentations of the tumors within seconds and without parameter settings, and the average tumor deviation was only 1.4mm compared with manual measurements. However, the long term goal is to ease the volumetric acquisition of liver tumors in order to evaluate for treatment response. Additional aim is the registration of intraoperative US images via the interactive segmentations to the patient's pre-interventional CT acquisitions.

  16. Identification of Shearer Cutting Patterns Using Vibration Signals Based on a Least Squares Support Vector Machine with an Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Si, Lei; Wang, Zhongbin; Liu, Xinhua; Tan, Chao; Liu, Ze; Xu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Shearers play an important role in fully mechanized coal mining face and accurately identifying their cutting pattern is very helpful for improving the automation level of shearers and ensuring the safety of coal mining. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) has been proven to offer strong potential in prediction and classification issues, particularly by employing an appropriate meta-heuristic algorithm to determine the values of its two parameters. However, these meta-heuristic algorithms have the drawbacks of being hard to understand and reaching the global optimal solution slowly. In this paper, an improved fly optimization algorithm (IFOA) to optimize the parameters of LSSVM was presented and the LSSVM coupled with IFOA (IFOA-LSSVM) was used to identify the shearer cutting pattern. The vibration acceleration signals of five cutting patterns were collected and the special state features were extracted based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the kernel function. Some examples on the IFOA-LSSVM model were further presented and the results were compared with LSSVM, PSO-LSSVM, GA-LSSVM and FOA-LSSVM models in detail. The comparison results indicate that the proposed approach was feasible, efficient and outperformed the others. Finally, an industrial application example at the coal mining face was demonstrated to specify the effect of the proposed system. PMID:26771615

  17. Identification of Shearer Cutting Patterns Using Vibration Signals Based on a Least Squares Support Vector Machine with an Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Si, Lei; Wang, Zhongbin; Liu, Xinhua; Tan, Chao; Liu, Ze; Xu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Shearers play an important role in fully mechanized coal mining face and accurately identifying their cutting pattern is very helpful for improving the automation level of shearers and ensuring the safety of coal mining. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) has been proven to offer strong potential in prediction and classification issues, particularly by employing an appropriate meta-heuristic algorithm to determine the values of its two parameters. However, these meta-heuristic algorithms have the drawbacks of being hard to understand and reaching the global optimal solution slowly. In this paper, an improved fly optimization algorithm (IFOA) to optimize the parameters of LSSVM was presented and the LSSVM coupled with IFOA (IFOA-LSSVM) was used to identify the shearer cutting pattern. The vibration acceleration signals of five cutting patterns were collected and the special state features were extracted based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the kernel function. Some examples on the IFOA-LSSVM model were further presented and the results were compared with LSSVM, PSO-LSSVM, GA-LSSVM and FOA-LSSVM models in detail. The comparison results indicate that the proposed approach was feasible, efficient and outperformed the others. Finally, an industrial application example at the coal mining face was demonstrated to specify the effect of the proposed system. PMID:26771615

  18. Identification of Shearer Cutting Patterns Using Vibration Signals Based on a Least Squares Support Vector Machine with an Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Si, Lei; Wang, Zhongbin; Liu, Xinhua; Tan, Chao; Liu, Ze; Xu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Shearers play an important role in fully mechanized coal mining face and accurately identifying their cutting pattern is very helpful for improving the automation level of shearers and ensuring the safety of coal mining. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) has been proven to offer strong potential in prediction and classification issues, particularly by employing an appropriate meta-heuristic algorithm to determine the values of its two parameters. However, these meta-heuristic algorithms have the drawbacks of being hard to understand and reaching the global optimal solution slowly. In this paper, an improved fly optimization algorithm (IFOA) to optimize the parameters of LSSVM was presented and the LSSVM coupled with IFOA (IFOA-LSSVM) was used to identify the shearer cutting pattern. The vibration acceleration signals of five cutting patterns were collected and the special state features were extracted based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the kernel function. Some examples on the IFOA-LSSVM model were further presented and the results were compared with LSSVM, PSO-LSSVM, GA-LSSVM and FOA-LSSVM models in detail. The comparison results indicate that the proposed approach was feasible, efficient and outperformed the others. Finally, an industrial application example at the coal mining face was demonstrated to specify the effect of the proposed system.

  19. Research on object-plane constraints and hologram expansion in phase retrieval algorithms for continuous-wave terahertz inline digital holography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Qi; Cui, Shanshan

    2014-10-20

    In terahertz inline digital holography, zero-order diffraction light and conjugate images can cause the reconstructed image to be blurred. In this paper, three phase retrieval algorithms are applied to conduct reconstruction based on the same near-field diffraction propagation conditions and image-plane constraints. The impact of different object-plane constraints on CW terahertz inline digital holographic reconstruction is studied. The results show that in the phase retrieval algorithm it is not suitable to impose restriction on the phase when the object is not isolated in the transmission-type CW terahertz inline digital holography. In addition, the effects of zero-padding expansion, boundary replication expansion, and apodization operation on reconstructed images are studied. The results indicate that the conjugate image can be eliminated, and a better reconstructed image can be obtained by adopting an appropriate phase retrieval algorithm after the normalized hologram extending to the minimum area, which meets the applicable range of the angular spectrum reconstruction algorithm by means of boundary replication.

  20. Alpha-plane based automatic general type-2 fuzzy clustering based on simulated annealing meta-heuristic algorithm for analyzing gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Doostparast Torshizi, Abolfazl; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-09-01

    This paper considers microarray gene expression data clustering using a novel two stage meta-heuristic algorithm based on the concept of α-planes in general type-2 fuzzy sets. The main aim of this research is to present a powerful data clustering approach capable of dealing with highly uncertain environments. In this regard, first, a new objective function using α-planes for general type-2 fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is represented. Then, based on the philosophy of the meta-heuristic optimization framework 'Simulated Annealing', a two stage optimization algorithm is proposed. The first stage of the proposed approach is devoted to the annealing process accompanied by its proposed perturbation mechanisms. After termination of the first stage, its output is inserted to the second stage where it is checked with other possible local optima through a heuristic algorithm. The output of this stage is then re-entered to the first stage until no better solution is obtained. The proposed approach has been evaluated using several synthesized datasets and three microarray gene expression datasets. Extensive experiments demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach compared with some of the state-of-the-art techniques in the literature.

  1. Numerical phase retrieval from beam intensity measurements in three planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruel, Laurent

    2003-05-01

    A system and method have been developed at CEA to retrieve phase information from multiple intensity measurements along a laser beam. The device has been patented. Commonly used devices for beam measurement provide phase and intensity information separately or with a rather poor resolution whereas the MIROMA method provides both at the same time, allowing direct use of the results in numerical models. Usual phase retrieval algorithms use two intensity measurements, typically the image plane and the focal plane (Gerschberg-Saxton algorithm) related by a Fourier transform, or the image plane and a lightly defocus plane (D.L. Misell). The principal drawback of such iterative algorithms is their inability to provide unambiguous convergence in all situations. The algorithms can stagnate on bad solutions and the error between measured and calculated intensities remains unacceptable. If three planes rather than two are used, the data redundancy created confers to the method good convergence capability and noise immunity. It provides an excellent agreement between intensity determined from the retrieved phase data set in the image plane and intensity measurements in any diffraction plane. The method employed for MIROMA is inspired from GS algorithm, replacing Fourier transforms by a beam-propagating kernel with gradient search accelerating techniques and special care for phase branch cuts. A fast one dimensional algorithm provides an initial guess for the iterative algorithm. Applications of the algorithm on synthetic data find out the best reconstruction planes that have to be chosen. Robustness and sensibility are evaluated. Results on collimated and distorted laser beams are presented.

  2. Cutting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  3. 6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MIDSLOPE VICINITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MID-SLOPE VICINITY, CUT CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Cutting Candles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranucci, Ernest R.

    1973-01-01

    Different regular-polygon-shaped candles wound with a sheet of paper are cut through obliquely. When the papers are unwound, unique patterns are revealed. Investigation of these patterns leads to the discovery of geometric concepts. (JP)

  5. X-Z-Theta cutting method

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, L.F.

    1993-01-12

    A method for machining a workpiece. The method includes the use of a rotary cutting tool mounted on the end of a movable arm. The arm is adapted to move in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cutting tool. The cutting tool has cutting teeth to cut chips of material off of the workpiece in a predetermined size and shape to facilitate better removal of the chips from the workpiece. The teeth can be of different type and length to permit the tool to both rough cut and finish cut the workpiece during machining. The total depth of cut is divided by the number of tool teeth, so that the longest tool always performs the finishing cut.

  6. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  7. Experimental studies on the kinematics of cutting in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, T. G.; Saldana, C.; Yadav, S.; Du, F.

    2013-06-01

    Slow flow in granular materials is characterized by high solid fraction and sustained inter-particle interaction. The kinematics of trawling or cutting is encountered in processes such as locomotion of organisms in sand; trawl gear movement on a soil deposit; plow movement; movement of rovers, earth moving equipment etc. Additionally, this configuration is very akin to shallow drilling configuration encountered in the mining and petroleum industries. An experimental study has been made in order to understand velocity and deformation fields in cutting of a model rounded sand. Under nominal plane strain conditions, sand is subjected to orthogonal cutting at different tool-rake angles. High-resolution optical images of the region of cutting were obtained during the flow of the granular ensemble around the tool. Interesting kinematics underlying the formation of a chip and the evolution of the deformation field is seen in these experiments. These images are also analyzed using a PIV algorithm and detailed information of the deformation parameters such as velocity, strain rate and volume change is obtained.

  8. A sphere-cut-splice crossover for the evolution of cluster structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhanghui; Jiang, Xiangwei; Li, Jingbo; Li, Shushen

    2013-06-01

    A new crossover operator is proposed to evolve the structures of the atomic clusters. It uses a sphere rather than a plane to cut and splice the parent structures. The child cluster is constructed by the atoms of one parent which lie inside the sphere, and the atoms of the other parent which lie outside the sphere. It can reliably produce reasonable offspring and preserve the good schemata in parent structures, avoiding the drawbacks of the classical plane-cut-splice crossover in the global searching ability and the local optimization speed. Results of Lennard-Jones clusters (30 ⩽ N ⩽ 500) show that at the same settings the genetic algorithm with the sphere-cut-splice crossover exhibits better performance than the one with the plane-cut-splice crossover. The average number of local minimizations needed to find the global minima and the average number of energy evaluation of each local minimization in the sphere scheme is 0.8075 and 0.8386 of that in the plane scheme, respectively. The mean speed-up ratio for the entire testing clusters reaches 1.8207. Moreover, the sphere scheme is particularly suitable for large clusters and the mean speed-up ratio reaches 2.3520 for the clusters with 110 ⩽ N ⩽ 500. The comparison with other successful methods in previous studies also demonstrates its good performance. Finally, a further analysis is presented on the statistical features of the cutting sphere and a modified strategy that reduces the probability of using tiny and large spheres exhibits better global search.

  9. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2003-09-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  10. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2011-08-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  11. Algorithm for Constructing Contour Plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Silva, F.

    1984-01-01

    General computer algorithm developed for construction of contour plots. algorithm accepts as input data values at set of points irregularly distributed over plane. Algorithm based on interpolation scheme: points in plane connected by straight-line segments to form set of triangles. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  12. A Lagrangian Relax-and-Cut Approach for the Bounded Diameter Minimum Spanning Tree Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raidl, Günther R.; Gruber, Martin

    2008-09-01

    We consider the problem of finding for a given weighted graph a minimum cost spanning tree whose diameter does not exceed a specified upper bound. This problem is NP-hard and has several applications, e.g. when designing communication networks and quality of service is of concern. We model the problem as an integer linear program (ILP) using so-called jump inequalities. Since the number of these constraints grows exponentially with the problem size, solving this ILP directly is not feasible. Instead, we relax the jump constraints in a Lagrangian fashion and apply a cutting plane algorithm to separate violated inequalities. This relax-and-cut approach yields relatively tight lower bounds especially for larger problem instances on which exact techniques are not applicable. High quality feasible solutions, i.e. upper bounds, are obtained by a repair heuristic in combination with a powerful variable neighborhood descent strategy.

  13. Precision laser cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Anglin, C.D.; Ramos, T.J.

    1990-01-19

    Many materials that are otherwise difficult to fabricate can be cut precisely with lasers. This presentation discusses the advantages and limitations of laser cutting for refractory metals, ceramics, and composites. Cutting in these materials was performed with a 400-W, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Important cutting parameters such as beam power, pulse waveforms, cutting gases, travel speed, and laser coupling are outlined. The effects of process parameters on cut quality are evaluated. Three variables are used to determine the cut quality: kerf width, slag adherence, and metallurgical characteristics of recast layers and heat-affected zones around the cuts. Results indicate that ductile materials with good coupling characteristics (such as stainless steel alloys and tantalum) cut well. Materials lacking one or both of these properties (such as tungsten and ceramics) are difficult to cut without proper part design, stress relief, or coupling aids. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. 7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE AND EAST FACE OF CUT STONE TOWER - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  16. On triangulations of the plane by pencils of conics. II

    SciTech Connect

    Lazareva, V B; Shelekhov, A M

    2013-06-30

    The present work continues our previous paper in which all possible triangulations of the plane using three pencils of circles were listed. In the present article we find all projectively distinct triangulations of the plane by pencils of conics that are obtained by projecting regular three-webs, cut out on a nondegenerate cubic surface by three pencils of planes, whose axes lie on this surface. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  17. Planing of Watercraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Herbert

    1948-01-01

    The present report deals with the processes accompanying the planing of a planing boat or a seaplane on water . The study is largely based upon theoretical investigations; mathematical problems and proofs are not discussed. To analyze theoreticaly actual planing processes, giving due consideration to all aspects of the problem, is probably not possible. The theories therefore treat various simple limiting cases, which in their entirety give a picture of the planing processes and enable the interpretation of the experimental results. The discussion is concerned with the stationary planing attitude: the boat planes at a constant speed V on an originally smooth surface.

  18. Cutting state identification

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  19. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  20. Cuts and puncture wounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... MINOR CUTS Wash your hands with soap or antibacterial cleanser to prevent infection. Then, wash the cut ... Use direct pressure to stop the bleeding. Apply antibacterial ointment and a clean bandage that will not ...

  1. Device for cutting protrusions

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  2. The primal sagittal plane of the head: a new concept.

    PubMed

    Gateno, J; Jajoo, A; Nicol, M; Xia, J J

    2016-03-01

    To assess facial form, one has to determine the size, position, orientation, shape, and symmetry of the different facial units. Many of these assessments require a frame of reference. The customary coordinate system used for these assessments is the 'standard anatomical frame of reference', a three-dimensional Cartesian system made by three planes: the sagittal, the axial, and the coronal. Constructing the sagittal plane seems simple, but because of universal facial asymmetry, it is complicated. Depending on the method one selects, one can build hundreds of different planes, never knowing which one is correct. This conundrum can be solved by estimating the sagittal plane a patient would have had if his or her face had developed symmetrically. We call this the 'primal sagittal plane'. To estimate this plane we have developed a mathematical algorithm called LAGER (Landmark Geometric Routine). In this paper, we explain the concept of the primal sagittal plane and present the structure of the LAGER algorithm.

  3. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  4. Characterization of metal cutting dynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.

    1997-11-01

    A Hardinge CNC lathe has been fitted with sensors and a data acquisition system for the measurement, processing and storage of accelerations and forces associated with orthogonal cutting. This system has been completely validated. Orthogonal cutting experiments were designed in order to study the effects of critical cutting parameters on machining dynamics. Three major experimental sets were conducted. In the first set the depth of cut was increased in a stepwise fashion, while the workpiece surface speed, the spindle speed, and the tool feedrate were maintained invariant. In the second and third sets, the spindle speed and feedrate were varied, respectively, while maintaining all the other parameters invariant. In total over two hundred orthogonal cutting experiments were performed. In each experiment, the two non-zero components of the tool acceleration and the two non-zero components of the cutting force were measured. Despite high noise levels, mutual information calculations with smoothing kernels and false nearest neighbor algorithms proved to be sufficiently robust to provide upper bounds on attractor dimension for all fifty data sets studied. These results prove that the infinite dimensional cutting process has an associated attractor of dimension {le} 4. This result is important as a guide to model construction. An analysis of the power spectral sideband structure proved that sideband spacing is identical to the turning frequency. This result was further substantiated through envelope detection techniques. A linear delay model was shown to emulate the experimental power spectrum and possess predictive capacity.

  5. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  6. Experiments with Planing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sottorf, W

    1934-01-01

    A previous report discusses the experimental program of a systematic exploration of all questions connected with the planing problem as well as the first fundamental results of the investigation of a flat planing surface. The present report is limited to the conversion of the model test data to full scale.

  7. Space-cutting model of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, M; Sato, M; Takahashi, J

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of substitution of trace elements such as Mg2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ into the columnar Ca2+ positions of hydroxyapatite was examined by computer graphics with a personal computer and a space-cutting method. Data on the structural coordinates of the hydroxyapatite were put into a protein graphics program in Angstrom units. The connection of each element, with front and rear, was displayed by the shade-line erasing method, and the solidity of the image was expressed by the degree of lightness from the light source. The space-cutting model was obtained by selecting the cutting plane with three atoms in the crystal. Rotating the graphics freely around the X, Y and Z axes gives a view from any direction. The computer graphics suggested visually how the lattice dimensions expand with Sr2+ and Ba2+ substitution and contract with Mg2+ substitution.

  8. New plane shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, A.

    1994-12-31

    A classical problem in fluid dynamics is the study of the stability of plane Couette flow. This flow experimentally sustains turbulence for Reynolds numbers greater than 1440 {+-} 40. (The Reynolds number is based on channel width and wall velocity difference). Since plane Couette flow is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers, obtaining non-trivial mathematical solutions to the plane Couette flow equations is difficult. However, M. Nagata finds a non-trivial number solution of the plane Couette flow equations at low Reynolds number. We confirm these solutions. We compute the minimum Reynolds number at which they exist. We study their stability. We also study the effect of a Coriolis force on plane Poiseuille flow.

  9. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing. PMID:606833

  10. When Students Cut Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    Masochism, the irrational self-infliction of pain, is more easily defined than understood. Once, a teacher used the word "cutting" only reference to a student skipping class. But, in recent years, it has taken on additional meaning. Cutting, or self-injury, is a deliberate self-harming behavior but without conscious suicidal ideation. To define…

  11. Varied line spacing plane holographic grating recorded by using uniform line spacing plane gratings.

    PubMed

    Qing, Ling; Gang, Wu; Bin, Liu; Qiuping, Wang

    2006-07-20

    Uniform line spacing plane gratings are introduced into a recording system to generate aspherical wavefronts for recording varied line spacing plane holographic gratings. Analytical expressions of groove parameters are derived to the fourth order. A ray-tracing validation algorithm is provided based on Fermat's principle and a local search method. The recording parameters are optimized to record a varied line spacing plane holographic grating with the aid of derived analytical expressions. A design example demonstrates the exactness of the analytical expressions and the superiority of recording optics with auxiliary gratings. PMID:16826244

  12. Laser Prepared Cutting Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Wegener; Claus, Dold; Marcel, Henerichs; Christian, Walter

    Laser pulses with a pulsewidth of a few picoseconds have recently received a lot of attention, solving the problem of manufacturing tools for new materials of superior mechanical properties. Processing thermally sensitive material, such as diamond and CBN structures, can be done without major material deterioration effects. The breakthrough of this new technology becomes possible, if the accuracy and life time requirements of those tools are met. The paper shows in three applications the potential of laser manufacturing of cutting tools. Manufacturing of cutting edges for CFRP cutting needs sharp and stable cutting edges, which are prepared in PCD tools by laser sources in the picosecond pulsewidth regime. Profiling of hybrid bond grinding wheels yields geometric flexibility, which is impossible by mechanical treatment so far. Touch dressing of grinding wheels substantially reduces cutting forces.

  13. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  14. Laser cutting of thick steel sheets using supersonic oxygen jets

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitsev, A V; Kovalev, O B; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat'ev, V B

    2007-09-30

    High-quality cutting of steel sheets of thickness up to 50 mm is performed upon a simultaneous action of laser radiation and a supersonic oxygen jet on the material. Parameters of the nozzle used for jet formation are determined by simulating numerically three-dimensional flows of a viscous and heat-conducting gas in a plane channel that is geometrically similar to the laser cut. (laser technologies)

  15. Wind velocity profile reconstruction from intensity fluctuations of a plane wave propagating in a turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Banakh, V A; Marakasov, D A

    2007-08-01

    Reconstruction of a wind profile based on the statistics of plane-wave intensity fluctuations in a turbulent atmosphere is considered. The algorithm for wind profile retrieval from the spatiotemporal spectrum of plane-wave weak intensity fluctuations is described, and the results of end-to-end computer experiments on wind profiling based on the developed algorithm are presented. It is shown that the reconstructing algorithm allows retrieval of a wind profile from turbulent plane-wave intensity fluctuations with acceptable accuracy.

  16. Measuring method of CCD installation verticality based on own system of intelligent laser cutting machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ping; Lu, Hongbo; Liu, Fuguo; Chen, Ziyuan; He, Pan; Jiang, Xueshi

    2016-01-01

    The installation verticality between the optical axis of CCD and the working plane of intelligent laser cutting machine is one of the most important factors in determining image quality of the processed object which comes from computer vision system. In this paper, an innovative method is proposed which can make it possible to use the equipment of own system of intelligent laser cutting machine to detect installation verticality between the optical axis of CCD and the working plane. Experimental results show that the method presented in this paper is a feasible solution for measuring the installation verticality between the optical axis of CCD and the working plane of intelligent laser cutting machine.

  17. Fixed sagittal plane imbalance.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis < 5 cm, pelvic tilt < 20 degrees, and lumbar lordosis equal to pelvic incidence ± 9 degrees. Conclusion Sagittal plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction.

  18. 2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  20. Linearized motion estimation for articulated planes.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ankur; Sheikh, Yaser; Kanade, Takeo

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the explicit application of articulation constraints for estimating the motion of a system of articulated planes. We relate articulations to the relative homography between planes and show that these articulations translate into linearized equality constraints on a linear least-squares system, which can be solved efficiently using a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system. The articulation constraints can be applied for both gradient-based and feature-based motion estimation algorithms and to illustrate this, we describe a gradient-based motion estimation algorithm for an affine camera and a feature-based motion estimation algorithm for a projective camera that explicitly enforces articulation constraints. We show that explicit application of articulation constraints leads to numerically stable estimates of motion. The simultaneous computation of motion estimates for all of the articulated planes in a scene allows us to handle scene areas where there is limited texture information and areas that leave the field of view. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of the algorithm in a variety of challenging real-world cases such as human body tracking, motion estimation of rigid, piecewise planar scenes, and motion estimation of triangulated meshes.

  1. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  2. Laser cutting system

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  8. a Unified Blending Framework for Panorama Completion via Graph Cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Yao, Jian; Xia, Menghan; Gui, Xinyuan; Lu, Xiaohu; Li, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified framework for efficiently completing streetview and indoor 360° panoramas due to the lack of bottom areas caused by the occlusion of the acquisition platform. To greatly reduce the severe distortion at the bottom of the panorama, we first reproject it onto the ground perspective plane containing the whole occluded region to be completed. Then, we formulate the image completion problem in an improved graph cuts optimization framework based on the statistics of similar patches by strengthening the boundary constraints. To further eliminate image luminance differences and color deviations and conceal geometrical parallax among the optimally selected patches for completion, we creatively apply a multi-bland image blending algorithm for perfect image mosaicking from the completed patches and the originally reprojected image. Finally, we back-project the completed and blended ground perspective image into the cylindrical-projection panorama followed by a simple feathering to further reduce artifacts in the panorama. Experimental results on some representative non-panoramic images and streetview and indoor panoramas demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method even in some challenging cases.

  9. Axial Plane Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wong, Zi Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues. PMID:25434770

  10. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  11. Axial Plane Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wong, Zi Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  13. Focal-plane architectures and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayadev, T. S.

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of focal plane architectures and signal processing functions currently used in infrared sensors. It then discusses the development of an algorithm derived from the models developed by biologists to explain the functions of insect eyes and the hardware realization of this algorithm using commercially available silicon chips. The conclusion of this study is that there are important lessons to be learned from the architecture of biological sensors, which may lead to new techniques in electro-optic sensor design.

  14. Ultrawide phononic band gap for combined in-plane and out-of-plane waves.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Osama R; Hussein, Mahmoud I

    2011-12-01

    We consider two-dimensional phononic crystals formed from silicon and voids, and present optimized unit-cell designs for (1) out-of-plane, (2) in-plane, and (3) combined out-of-plane and in-plane elastic wave propagation. To feasibly search through an excessively large design space (~10(40) possible realizations) we develop a specialized genetic algorithm and utilize it in conjunction with the reduced Bloch mode expansion method for fast band-structure calculations. Focusing on high-symmetry plain-strain square lattices, we report unit-cell designs exhibiting record values of normalized band-gap size for all three categories. For the case of combined polarizations, we reveal a design with a normalized band-gap size exceeding 60%.

  15. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  18. The Principle and Applications of Multi-Plane Separation for Balancing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y.; Sheen, G.-J.; Tang, P.-H.

    1997-11-01

    Two-plane separation is a conventional technique of balancing machines for rigid rotors such that each sensor measures the separated effects of equivalent imbalances in two planes. However, some complex rigid rotors such as multicylinder crankshafts need to be balanced by multi-plane correction for reducing mass concentration at two planes. This study verifies the principle of plane separation by using an exact-point influence coefficient approach. From the analysis a generalized algorithm of multiplane separation can be developed. Thus, an unlimited technique of plane separation is provided to improve balancing machines for complex rotors which have several planes in need of correction.

  19. A parallel trajectory optimization tool for aerospace plane guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.; Park, Kihong

    1991-01-01

    A parallel trajectory optimization algorithm is being developed. One possible mission is to provide real-time, on-line guidance for the National Aerospace Plane. The algorithm solves a discrete-time problem via the augmented Lagrangian nonlinear programming algorithm. The algorithm exploits the dynamic programming structure of the problem to achieve parallelism in calculating cost functions, gradients, constraints, Jacobians, Hessian approximations, search directions, and merit functions. Special additions to the augmented Lagrangian algorithm achieve robust convergence, achieve (almost) superlinear local convergence, and deal with constraint curvature efficiency. The algorithm can handle control and state inequality constraints such as angle-of-attack and dynamic pressure constraints. Portions of the algorithm have been tested. The nonlinear programming core algorithm performs well on a variety of static test problems and on an orbit transfer problem. The parallel search direction algorithm can reduce wall clock time by a factor of 10 for this part of the computation task.

  20. Geometrical analysis of circular-cut spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Geometrical studies of circular cut spiral bevel gears are reported. Tooth profile changes heel to toe are studied in the transverse plane. Pressure angle changes are determined. The radiuses of curvature of the tooth surfaces generated by various cutter profiles are also determined. The consequences of cutter profile changes are explored. Crown gears are emphasized and the implications for conical gears are discussed.

  1. Lateral stability in sideward cutting movements.

    PubMed

    Stacoff, A; Steger, J; Stüssi, E; Reinschmidt, C

    1996-03-01

    Sideward cutting movements occur frequently in sports activities, such as basketball, soccer, and tennis. These activities show a high incidence of injuries to the lateral aspect of the ankle. Consequently, the lateral stability of sport shoes seems important. The purpose of this study was to show the effect of different shoe sole properties (hardness, thickness, torsional stiffness) and designs on the lateral stability during sideward cutting movements. A film analysis was conducted including 12 subjects performing a cutting movement barefoot and with five different pairs of shoes each filmed in the frontal plane. A standard film analysis was conducted; for the statistical analysis, various parameters such as the range of motion in inversion and the angular velocity of the rearfoot were used. The results showed a large difference between the barefoot and shod conditions with respect to the lateral stability. Two shoes performed significantly better (P < 0.05) than the others with a decreased inversion movement and less slipping inside the shoe. The two shoes differed mainly in the shoe sole design (hollow inner core) and the upper (high-cut). It is concluded that lateral stability may be improved by altering the properties and design of the shoe sole as well as the upper.

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  3. Cutting assembly. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Treuhaft, M.B.; Oser, M.S.

    1981-06-25

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  4. Radial cutting torch

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.C.

    1997-01-08

    The project`s aim is to complete development of the Radial Cutting Torch, a pyrotechnic cutter, for use in all downhole tubular cutting operations in the petroleum industry. Project objectives are to redesign and pressure test nozzle seals to increase product quality, reliability, and manufacturability; improve the mechanical anchor to increase its temperature tolerance and its ability to function in a wider variety of wellbore fluids; and redesign and pressure test the RCT nozzle for operation at pressures from 10 to 20 ksi. The proposal work statement is included in the statement of work for the grant via this reference.

  5. Investigation of formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W.

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation investigation on the plastic flow behaviour of silicon during nanometric cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare Chavoshi, Saeed; Goel, Saurav; Luo, Xichun

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out to acquire an in-depth understanding of the flow behaviour of single crystal silicon during nanometric cutting on three principal crystallographic planes and at different cutting temperatures. The key findings were that (i) the substrate material underneath the cutting tool was observed for the first time to experience a rotational flow akin to fluids at all the tested temperatures up to 1200 K. (ii) The degree of flow in terms of vorticity was found higher on the (1 1 1) crystal plane signifying better machinability on this orientation in accord with the current pool of knowledge (iii) an increase in the machining temperature reduces the spring-back effect and thereby the elastic recovery and (iv) the cutting orientation and the cutting temperature showed significant dependence on the location of the stagnation region in the cutting zone of the substrate.

  8. Electron beam cutting

    DOEpatents

    Mochel, M.E.; Humphreys, C.J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions. 2 figs.

  9. Electron beam cutting

    DOEpatents

    Mochel, Margaret E.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions.

  10. Kids Who Cut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  11. Think before You Cut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettifor, Ann

    2010-01-01

    With the main political parties set on reducing public spending, one might be forgiven for supposing that "savage" cuts are the only way forward. However, the author believes there are alternatives, and that is why public education about the financial system is so important. Today, UK is trying to clear up a mess--a mess made by the greedy and…

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula

    2000-04-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  13. Cuts endanger more services.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-06-01

    WHEN BARNSLEY council put out its tender for the 0-19 service last autumn, it laid down strict criteria. A ceiling of £4.8 million a year was put on any bids for the service, which incorporates school nursing teams and health visitors. That represented a cut of more than £1 million on the existing contract. PMID:27266736

  14. A Cut below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Today, thousands of California students worry about vanishing college affordability and access, especially for historically under-represented and marginalized populations. The author reports on how students and faculty throughout California are grappling with the effects of draconian state cuts to postsecondary education that have topped more than…

  15. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  16. A Comparison of Numerical and Analytical Radiative-Transfer Solutions for Plane Albedo of Natural Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three numerical algorithms were compared to provide a solution of a radiative transfer equation (RTE) for plane albedo (hemispherical reflectance) in semi-infinite one-dimensional plane-parallel layer. Algorithms were based on the invariant imbedding method and two different var...

  17. Carbon nanotube plane fastener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, Kaori; Ajioka, Shoichi; Nakayama, Yoshikazu

    2011-12-01

    We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.

  18. Materials, devices, techniques, and applications for Z-plane focal plane array technology II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 12, 13, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John C.

    1990-11-01

    Various papers on materials, devices, techniques, and applications for X-plane focal plane array technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: application of Z-plane technology to the remote sensing of the earth from GEO, applications of smart neuromorphic focal planes, image-processing of Z-plane technology, neural network Z-plane implementation with very high interconnection rates, using a small IR surveillance satellite for tactical applications, establishing requirements for homing applications, Z-plane technology. Also discussed are: on-array spike suppression signal processing, algorithms for on-focal-plane gamma circumvention and time-delay integration, current HYMOSS Z-technology, packaging of electrons for on- and off-FPA signal processing, space/performance qualification of tape automated bonded devices, automation in tape automated bonding, high-speed/high-volume radiometric testing of Z-technology focal planes, 128-layer HYMOSS-module fabrication issues, automation of IRFPA production processes.

  19. Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi

    Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  1. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  2. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Ramos, T.J.

    1982-09-30

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece.

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  5. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  6. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pus. For Bleeding From a Large Cut or Laceration: Wash the wound thoroughly with water. This will ... immediate medical attention for all large cuts or lacerations, or if: you're unable to stop the ...

  7. The Three Planes of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the language sciences place together four different forms of mental activity on one plane of language, which results in confusion. This paper presents arguments from metaphysics, hermeneutics, and semiotics to demonstrate that there are actually three planes of language (a biologically-based information processing plane, a literal…

  8. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  9. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  10. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  11. The algorithm and program complex for splitting on a parts the records of acoustic waves recorded during the work of plasma actuator flush-mounted in the model plane nozzle with the purpose of analyzing their robust spectral and correlation characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernousov, A. D.; Malakhov, D. V.; Skvortsova, N. N.

    2014-03-01

    Currently acute problem of developing new technologies by reducing the noise of aircraft engines, including the directional impact on the noise on the basis of the interaction of plasma disturbances and sound generation pulsations. One of the devices built on this principle being developed in GPI RAS. They are plasma actuators (group of related to each other gaps, built on the perimeter of the nozzle) of various shapes and forms. In this paper an algorithm was developed which allows to separate impulses from the received experimental data, acquired during the work of plasma actuator flush-mounted in the model plane nozzle. The algorithm can be adjusted manually under a variety of situations (work of actuator in a nozzle with or without airflow, adjustment to different frequencies and pulse duration of the actuator). And program complex is developed on the basis of MatLab software, designed for building sustainable robust spectral and autocovariation functions of acoustic signals recorded during the experiments with the model of a nozzle with working actuator.

  12. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains how our weather occurs, and why Solar radiation is responsible. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  13. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how they form. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  14. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  15. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  16. Cutting the Cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  17. Cross-Cutting Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cross-cutting fault scarps among graben features in northern Tempe Terra. Graben form in regions where the crust of the planet has been extended; such features are common in the regions surrounding the vast 'Tharsis Bulge' on Mars.

    Location near: 43.7oN, 90.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  18. Cutting the Cord-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  19. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  20. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  1. Simultaneous shaping of amplitude and phase of light in the entire output plane with a phase-only hologram.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    An iterative beam shaping algorithm is proposed to simultaneously shape the amplitude and phase of an optical beam. The proposed algorithm consists of one input plane and two completely overlapped output planes which refer to the output plane in real space. The two output planes are imposed with both amplitude and phase constraints, and the constrained areas in the two output planes are complementary. As a result, both the amplitude and phase in the entire output plane are controllable and arbitrary target complex amplitudes can be achieved with the proposed algorithm. The computing result of the proposed algorithm is a phase-only distribution which can be conveniently realized with a spatial light modulator or a fabricated diffractive optical element. Both simulations and experiments have verified the high performance of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Simultaneous shaping of amplitude and phase of light in the entire output plane with a phase-only hologram

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    An iterative beam shaping algorithm is proposed to simultaneously shape the amplitude and phase of an optical beam. The proposed algorithm consists of one input plane and two completely overlapped output planes which refer to the output plane in real space. The two output planes are imposed with both amplitude and phase constraints, and the constrained areas in the two output planes are complementary. As a result, both the amplitude and phase in the entire output plane are controllable and arbitrary target complex amplitudes can be achieved with the proposed algorithm. The computing result of the proposed algorithm is a phase-only distribution which can be conveniently realized with a spatial light modulator or a fabricated diffractive optical element. Both simulations and experiments have verified the high performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26486183

  3. Cutting with diamond wire: Cutting procedures and suggested uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, H. B.

    Diamond impregnated wire is the most versatile cutting tool yet devised. When a wire is properly charged with diamond particles and is drawn back and forth over a material surface, it does a remarkable cutting job. In a number of cases, wire sawing is the only way to perform these operations successfully: (1) for materials which are so fragile that other means of cutting will cause breakage, damage to crystal structure or otherwise impair the specimens, often rendering them useless, (2) for cutting materials which are so expensive that kerf loss becomes a major factor, a wire of the proper diameter with carefully graded diamonds, results in the minimum loss of material, (3) for cutting materials which may be damaged by the frictional heat generated by the high speed abrasive wheels, band saws and other cutting devices, causing hair cracks and craze.

  4. Making the cut

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    ‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive characteristics are traced back to a corpus of literature produced in the 1960s and 1970s in North American psychiatric inpatient institutions; analysis shows how pre-1960 works were substantially different. Finally, these gendered and behavioural assertions are shown to be the result of historically specific processes of exclusion and emphasis. PMID:23741086

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  6. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  7. Cross-Cutting Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 25 August 2003

    The several linear cross-cutting grabens and collapse features observed in this THEMIS image illustrate the relative timing of a series of complex geologic processes as more recent events produce features that overlap and intersect older ones. Some impact craters are observed to be cut grabens, suggesting an older impact event compared to impact craters that appear fresh and unmodified.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.1, Longitude 236.3 East (123.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. An algorithm for solving the system-level problem in multilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balling, R. J.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1994-01-01

    A multilevel optimization approach which is applicable to nonhierarchic coupled systems is presented. The approach includes a general treatment of design (or behavior) constraints and coupling constraints at the discipline level through the use of norms. Three different types of norms are examined: the max norm, the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (KS) norm, and the 1(sub p) norm. The max norm is recommended. The approach is demonstrated on a class of hub frame structures which simulate multidisciplinary systems. The max norm is shown to produce system-level constraint functions which are non-smooth. A cutting-plane algorithm is presented which adequately deals with the resulting corners in the constraint functions. The algorithm is tested on hub frames with increasing number of members (which simulate disciplines), and the results are summarized.

  9. NCC-RANSAC: A Fast Plane Extraction Method for 3-D Range Data Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiangfei; Ye, Cang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new plane extraction (PE) method based on the random sample consensus (RANSAC) approach. The generic RANSAC-based PE algorithm may over-extract a plane, and it may fail in case of a multistep scene where the RANSAC procedure results in multiple inlier patches that form a slant plane straddling the steps. The CC-RANSAC PE algorithm successfully overcomes the latter limitation if the inlier patches are separate. However, it fails if the inlier patches are connected. A typical scenario is a stairway with a stair wall where the RANSAC plane-fitting procedure results in inliers patches in the tread, riser, and stair wall planes. They connect together and form a plane. The proposed method, called normal-coherence CC-RANSAC (NCC-RANSAC), performs a normal coherence check to all data points of the inlier patches and removes the data points whose normal directions are contradictory to that of the fitted plane. This process results in separate inlier patches, each of which is treated as a candidate plane. A recursive plane clustering process is then executed to grow each of the candidate planes until all planes are extracted in their entireties. The RANSAC plane-fitting and the recursive plane clustering processes are repeated until no more planes are found. A probabilistic model is introduced to predict the success probability of the NCC-RANSAC algorithm and validated with real data of a 3-D time-of-flight camera–SwissRanger SR4000. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method extracts more accurate planes with less computational time than the existing RANSAC-based methods. PMID:24771605

  10. NCC-RANSAC: a fast plane extraction method for 3-D range data segmentation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiangfei; Ye, Cang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new plane extraction (PE) method based on the random sample consensus (RANSAC) approach. The generic RANSAC-based PE algorithm may over-extract a plane, and it may fail in case of a multistep scene where the RANSAC procedure results in multiple inlier patches that form a slant plane straddling the steps. The CC-RANSAC PE algorithm successfully overcomes the latter limitation if the inlier patches are separate. However, it fails if the inlier patches are connected. A typical scenario is a stairway with a stair wall where the RANSAC plane-fitting procedure results in inliers patches in the tread, riser, and stair wall planes. They connect together and form a plane. The proposed method, called normal-coherence CC-RANSAC (NCC-RANSAC), performs a normal coherence check to all data points of the inlier patches and removes the data points whose normal directions are contradictory to that of the fitted plane. This process results in separate inlier patches, each of which is treated as a candidate plane. A recursive plane clustering process is then executed to grow each of the candidate planes until all planes are extracted in their entireties. The RANSAC plane-fitting and the recursive plane clustering processes are repeated until no more planes are found. A probabilistic model is introduced to predict the success probability of the NCC-RANSAC algorithm and validated with real data of a 3-D time-of-flight camera-SwissRanger SR4000. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method extracts more accurate planes with less computational time than the existing RANSAC-based methods.

  11. Rapid near-optimal aerospace plane trajectory generation and guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Corban, J. E.; Markopoulos, N.

    1991-01-01

    Effort was directed toward the problems of the real time trajectory optimization and guidance law development for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) applications. In particular, singular perturbation methods were used to develop guidance algorithms suitable for onboard, real time implementation. The progress made in this research effort is reported.

  12. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  13. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  14. Analysis of acoustic signals on welding and cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Takao; Ogawa, Yoji; Sumitomo, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    The sounds emitted during the welding and cutting processes are closely related to the processing phenomena, and sometimes they provide useful information for evaluation of their processing conditions. The analyses of acoustic signals from arc welding, plasma arc cutting, oxy-flame cutting, and water jet cutting are carried out in details in order to develop effective signal processing algorithm. The sound from TIG arc welding has the typical line spectrum which principal frequency, is almost the same as that of supplied electricity. The disturbance of welding process is clearly appeared oil the acoustic emission. The sound exposure level for CO{sub 2} or MIG welding is higher than that for TIG welding, and the relative intensity of the typical line spectrum caused by supplied electricity becomes low. But the sudden transition of welding condition oil produces an apparent change of sound exposure level. On the contrary, the acoustics from cutting processes are much louder than those of arc welding and show more chaotic behavior because the supplied fluid velocity and temperature of arc for cutting processes are much higher than those for welding processes. Therefore, it requires a special technique to extract the well meaning signals from the loud acoustic sounds. Further point of view, the reduction of acoustic exposure level becomes an important research theme with the growth of application fields of cutting processes.

  15. Prediction of dynamic cutting force and regenerative chatter stability in inserted cutters milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongqun; Liu, Qiang; Yuan, Songmei; Huang, Kaisheng

    2013-05-01

    Currently, the modeling of cutting process mainly focuses on two aspects: one is the setup of the universal cutting force model that can be adapted to a broader cutting condition; the other is the setup of the exact cutting force model that can accurately reflect a true cutting process. However, there is little research on the prediction of chatter stablity in milling. Based on the generalized mathematical model of inserted cutters introduced by ENGIN, an improved geometrical, mechanical and dynamic model for the vast variety of inserted cutters widely used in engineering applications is presented, in which the average directional cutting force coefficients are obtained by means of a numerical approach, thus leading to an analytical determination of stability lobes diagram (SLD) on the axial depth of cut. A new kind of SLD on the radial depth of cut is also created to satisfy the special requirement of inserted cutter milling. The corresponding algorithms used for predicting cutting forces, vibrations, dimensional surface finish and stability lobes in inserted cutter milling under different cutting conditions are put forward. Thereafter, a dynamic simulation module of inserted cutter milling is implemented by using hybrid program of Matlab with Visual Basic. Verification tests are conducted on a vertical machine center for Aluminum alloy LC4 by using two different types of inserted cutters, and the effectiveness of the model and the algorithm is verified by the good agreement of simulation result with that of cutting tests under different cutting conditions. The proposed model can predict the cutting process accurately under a variety of cutting conditions, and a high efficient and chatter-free milling operation can be achieved by a cutting condition optimization in industry applications.

  16. Study on nanometric cutting of germanium by molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the nanometric cutting of germanium. The phenomena of extrusion, ploughing, and stagnation region are observed from the material flow. The uncut thickness which is defined as the depth from bottom of the tool to the stagnation region is in proportion to the undeformed chip thickness on the scale of our simulation and is almost independent of the machined crystal plane. The cutting resistance on (111) face is greater than that on (010) face due to anisotropy of germanium. During nanometric cutting, both phase transformation from diamond cubic structure to β-Sn phase and direct amorphization of germanium occur. The machined surface presents amorphous structure. PMID:23289482

  17. Theory and experiment testing flux-line cutting physics

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, John R.; Weigand, Marcus; Durrell, J. H.; Campbell, A. M.

    2011-03-29

    We discuss predictions of five proposed theories for the critical state of type-II superconductors accounting for both flux cutting and flux transport (depinning). The theories predict different behaviours for the ratio E{sub y}/E{sub z} of the transverse and parallel components of the in-plane electric field produced just above the critical current of a type-II superconducting slab as a function of the angle of an in-plane applied magnetic field. We present experimental results measured using an epitaxially grown YBCO thin film favouring one of the five theories, i.e. the extended elliptic critical-state model. We conclude that when the current density J is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the local magnetic flux density B, both flux cutting and flux transport occur simultaneously when J exceeds the critical current density J{sub c}, indicating an intimate relationship between flux cutting and depinning. We also conclude that the dynamical properties of the superconductor when J exceeds J{sub c} depend in detail upon two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting ({rho}{sub c}) and flux flow ({rho}{sub f}) and their ratio r = {rho}{sub c}/{rho}{sub f}.

  18. Research on optimal path planning algorithm of task-oriented optical remote sensing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunhe; Xu, Shengli; Liu, Fengjing; Yuan, Jingpeng

    2015-08-01

    GEO task-oriented optical remote sensing satellite, is very suitable for long-term continuous monitoring and quick access to imaging. With the development of high resolution optical payload technology and satellite attitude control technology, GEO optical remote sensing satellites will become an important developing trend for aerospace remote sensing satellite in the near future. In the paper, we focused on GEO optical remote sensing satellite plane array stare imaging characteristics and real-time leading mission of earth observation mode, targeted on satisfying needs of the user with the minimum cost of maneuver, and put forward the optimal path planning algorithm centered on transformation from geographic coordinate space to Field of plane, and finally reduced the burden of the control system. In this algorithm, bounded irregular closed area on the ground would be transformed based on coordinate transformation relations in to the reference plane for field of the satellite payload, and then using the branch and bound method to search for feasible solutions, cutting off the non-feasible solution in the solution space based on pruning strategy; and finally trimming some suboptimal feasible solutions based on the optimization index until a feasible solution for the global optimum. Simulation and visualization presentation software testing results verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the strategy.

  19. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  20. Cutting and Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self-injury, is when a person ... about how one girl helps herself not self-harm. What are signs of self-injury in others? ...

  1. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  2. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  3. Joint and segmental mechanics differ between cutting maneuvers in skilled athletes.

    PubMed

    Havens, Kathryn L; Sigward, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Cutting is necessary for participation in multidirectional sports but is also associated with non-contact ACL injury. Whole body demands of deceleration and redirection increase with greater cut angles. However, it is not known how these demands relate to differences in joint and segmental mechanics. Understanding the relationship between whole body and joint mechanics necessary for cutting and those related to risk for injury is important for the development of injury prevention training programs. The purpose of this study is to determine how joint and segmental mechanics change to meet increasing deceleration and redirection demands during cutting. Lower limb and trunk kinematics and kinetics were evaluated during the execution of two sidestep cutting maneuvers (to 45 and 90 degrees) in twenty-five healthy soccer players. A two-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) determined that differences existed between task directions but not sexes when considering all dependent variables and covarying for approach velocity (α≤0.05). Post hoc analyses revealed that the larger deceleration and redirection demands of the 90-degree cut did not translate into larger angles, moments and power across all lower extremity joints. In the sagittal plane, the knee appeared to primarily accommodate the greater deceleration demands of the sharper cut. These data further suggest that the hip may play a different role during cutting to smaller and larger angles and also illustrate a pattern of engagement in the sagittal and frontal planes that has not been described previously. PMID:25194689

  4. To cut... or not to cut (applications of comparative physical maps in molecular evolution)

    SciTech Connect

    Hannenhalli, S.; Pevzner, P.

    1996-12-31

    Studies of genomes evolving by rearrangements lead to cornbinatorial problem of sorting permutation by reversals. Kececioglu and Sankoff conjectured that for every permutation there exists an optimal sorting by reversals which does not cut long strips in the permutation. We prove this conjecture and further study the problem of sorting by reversals for permutations without strips of size one, called singletons. We give a polynomial algorithm for sorting such permutations, thus demonstrating that singletons present the major obstacle on the way towards an efficient algorithm for sorting by reversals. Using this result, we prove the strong Kecedoglu-Sankoff conjecture: for every permutation there exists an optimal sorting by reversals that never increases the number of breakpoints. Finally we present a new algorithm for sorting by reversals based on the notion of the spin of a permutation. For permutations with O(log n) singletons the algorithm runs in polynomial time and suggests a desired trade-off of resolution for cross-hybridization physical mapping in molecular evolution studies. We describe applications of this algorithm to analyze rearrangements in maize and green algae, in particular we find a most parsimonious rearrangement scenario for Chlamydomonas moewusii versus Chlamydomonas reinhardtii representing the most complicated known case of rearrangements in organelles.

  5. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    PubMed

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  6. Three-dimensional sheaf of ultrasound planes reconstruction (SOUPR) of ablated volumes.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for 3-D reconstruction of tumor ablations using ultrasound shear wave imaging with electrode vibration elastography. Radio-frequency ultrasound data frames are acquired over imaging planes that form a subset of a sheaf of planes sharing a common axis of intersection. Shear wave velocity is estimated separately on each imaging plane using a piecewise linear function fitting technique with a fast optimization routine. An interpolation algorithm then computes velocity maps on a fine grid over a set of C-planes that are perpendicular to the axis of the sheaf. A full 3-D rendering of the ablation can then be created from this stack of C-planes; hence the name "Sheaf Of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction" or SOUPR. The algorithm is evaluated through numerical simulations and also using data acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom. Reconstruction quality is gauged using contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements and changes in quality from using increasing number of planes in the sheaf are quantified. The highest contrast of 5 dB is seen between the stiffest and softest regions of the phantom. Under certain idealizing assumptions on the true shape of the ablation, good reconstruction quality while maintaining fast processing rate can be obtained with as few as six imaging planes suggesting that the method is suited for parsimonious data acquisitions with very few sparsely chosen imaging planes.

  7. Three Dimensional Sheaf of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction (SOUPR) of Ablated Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for three dimensional reconstruction of tumor ablations using ultrasound shear wave imaging with electrode vibration elastography. Radiofrequency ultrasound data frames are acquired over imaging planes that form a subset of a sheaf of planes sharing a common axis of intersection. Shear wave velocity is estimated separately on each imaging plane using a piecewise linear function fitting technique with a fast optimization routine. An interpolation algorithm then computes velocity maps on a fine grid over a set of C-planes that are perpendicular to the axis of the sheaf. A full three dimensional rendering of the ablation can then be created from this stack of C-planes; hence the name “Sheaf Of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction” or SOUPR. The algorithm is evaluated through numerical simulations and also using data acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom. Reconstruction quality is gauged using contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements and changes in quality from using increasing number of planes in the sheaf are quantified. The highest contrast of 5 dB is seen between the stiffest and softest regions of the phantom. Under certain idealizing assumptions on the true shape of the ablation, good reconstruction quality while maintaining fast processing rate can be obtained with as few as 6 imaging planes suggesting that the method is suited for parsimonious data acquisitions with very few sparsely chosen imaging planes. PMID:24808405

  8. Cutting Force Control Applying Sensorless Cutting Force Monitoring Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Daisuke; Kakinuma, Yasuhiro; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Intelligent machine tools require the functions of high-accurate process monitoring and adaptive control to fit the optimum process condition in each workpieces. For realizing these functions, the various techniques to monitor the cutting process and control it using additional sensors have been proposed and widely studied. Authors propose the sensorless cutting force control method using parallel disturbance observer. The performance of our proposed method is evaluated through simulation and experiments using a linear motor driving table.

  9. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  10. A general algorithm for the construction of contour plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Silva, F.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm is described that performs the task of drawing equal level contours on a plane, which requires interpolation in two dimensions based on data prescribed at points distributed irregularly over the plane. The approach is described in detail. The computer program that implements the algorithm is documented and listed.

  11. Required composition uniformity of Hg1-xCdxTe substrate for focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Vishnu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of theoretically predicted spatial NETD and mean temporal NETD as a function of the composition uniformity of Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te substrate used in the fabrication of IR detector arrays. The prediction of the spatial NETD is based on the residual spatial noise left behind in the FPA after implementing a linear two point nonuniformity compensation algorithm. The effect of using an optical filter on the spatial NETD is also included to show that the specifications on the composition uniformity of the Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te substrate can be partially relaxed by using an optical filter whose cut-off wavelength is less than the cutoff wavelength of the photodiodes of mean response. The composition uniformity leading to temporal noise rather than the spatial noise limited performances are suggested to be indicating the required composition uniformity of Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te substrate for focal plane arrays (FPA). The results are presented for both MWIR and LWIR HgCdTe hybrid FPAs.

  12. The solar system's invariable plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The dynamics of solar system objects, such as dwarf planets and asteroids, has become a well-established field of celestial mechanics in the past thirty years, owing to the improvements that have been made in observational techniques and numerical studies. In general, the ecliptic is taken as the reference plane in these studies, although there is no dynamical reason for doing so. In contrast, the invariable plane as originally defined by Laplace, seems to be a far more natural choice. In this context, the latest study of this plane dates back to Burkhardt. Aims: We define and determine the orientation of the invariable plane of the solar system with respect to both the ICRF and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and evaluate the accuracy of our determination. Methods: Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406, and INPOP10a over their entire available time span, we computed the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution to it made by each of the planets, the dwarf planets Pluto and Ceres, and the two asteroids Pallas and Vesta. We then deduced the orientation of the invariable plane from these ephemerides. Results: We update the previous results on the determination of the orientation of the invariable plane with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. We show that the inclusion of these last three bodies significantly improves the accuracy of determination of the invariable plane, whose orientation over a 100 y interval does not vary more than 0.1 mas in inclination, and 0.3 mas in longitude of the ascending node. Moreover, we determine the individual contributions of each body to the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the inclination and longitude of the node with respect to this latter plane. Conclusions: Owing to the high accuracy

  13. Laser cutting of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, T.; Muenchausen, R.; Sanchez, J.

    1998-12-01

    The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of safely and efficiently cutting and drilling metal cases containing a variety of high explosives (HE) using a Nd:YAG laser. Spectral analysis of the optical emission, occurring during the laser-induced ablation process, is used to identify the removed material. By monitoring changes in the optical emission during the cutting process, the metal-He interface can be observed in real time and the cutting parameters adjusted accordingly. For cutting the HE material itself, the authors have demonstrated that this can be safely and efficiently accomplished by means of a ultraviolet (UV) laser beam obtained from the same Nd:YAG laser using the third or fourth harmonics. They are currently applying this technology to UXO identification and ordnance demilitarization.

  14. Cutting thin sections of bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Medical equipment for obtaining repetitive planoparallel sections of bone to study healing of bone structure under high gravity stress is described. Device consists of modified saw with diamond cutting edges. Construction of device and manner of use are explained.

  15. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  16. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  17. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  18. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  19. EPA rule could cut pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a rule on November 14 that it claims could nearly eliminate dioxin discharges into waterways and reduce other toxic pollutants into the air and water from 155 pulp and paper mills.EPA estimates that results will include a 96% reduction in dioxin and a nearly 60% reduction in toxic air pollutants. Also, volatile organic compounds and sulfur emissions could be cut in half, with particulate matter cut by 37%.

  20. Underwater welding, cutting and inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.L. . Ohio Underwater Welding Center)

    1995-02-01

    Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear power plant components are also a requirement. This article summarizes recent developments in this emerging underwater technology.

  1. Economic technology of laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  2. Prediction of Cutting Forces Using ANNs Approach in Hard Turning of AISI 52100 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Makhfi, Souad; Habak, Malek; Velasco, Raphael; Haddouche, Kamel; Vantomme, Pascal

    2011-05-04

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) was used to predict cutting forces in the case of machining the hard turning of AISI 52100 bearing steel using cBN cutting tool. Cutting forces evolution is considered as the key factors which affect machining. Predicting cutting forces evolution allows optimizing machining by an adaptation of cutting conditions. In this context, it seems interesting to study the contribution that could have artificial neural networks (ANNs) on the machining forces prediction in both numerical and experiment studies. Feed-forward multi-layer neural networks trained by the error back-propagation (BP) algorithm are used. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization algorithm was used for finding out weights. The training of the network is carried out with experimental machining data.The input dataset used are cutting speed, feed rate, cutting depth and hardness of the material. The output dataset used are cutting forces (Ft-cutting force, Fa- feed force and Fr- radial force).Results of the neural networks approach, in comparison with experimental data are discussed in last part of this paper.

  3. Helicoidal plane of dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Osborn, J W

    1982-03-01

    A helicoidal plane of postcanine occlusion has been patchily reported in many recent and fossil dentitions of man, and has been suggested as a taxonomic marker distinguishing between the dentitions of Homo and Australopithecines. The present paper describes the helicoidal plane in 19 out of 23 modern human (probably Indian) worn dentitions, in both gracile and robust Australopithecines and in extant anthropoids. It is suggested that tooth wear converts the plane of occlusion present in little-worn teeth, the Monson curve, into a helicoidal plane when 1) the diet is more abrasive, 2) the enamel is thinner and less abrasion resistant, and 3) a longer time separates the eruption of the three molar teeth in a jaw quadrant. A model demonstrates that during the power stroke of a chewing cycle the working side molars move in much the same direction whether the molar occlusal plan follows a Monson curve or a helicoidal plane. The difference is that in the former case the three molars work at the same time while in the latter case they work in sequence from anterior to posterior, thereby concentrating force on one tooth at a time. Because the occlusal plane changes during the life of individuals consuming an abrasive diet, the condition of most anthropoids and hominids, it is argued that the Monson curve has functional significance not because of its influence on occlusal relations and/or jaw movement but because the molar teeth are embedded in bone roughly perpendicular to it, a direction which resists tilting of the teeth during mastication. It is concluded that the helicoidal plane probably has little if any value as a taxonomic marker.

  4. Apparatus for washing drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, W. G.

    1985-10-15

    An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

  5. Effects of Two Football Stud Types on Knee and Ankle Kinetics of Single-Leg Land-Cut and 180° Cut Movements on Infilled Synthetic Turf.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hunter J; Brock, Elizabeth; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C; Zhang, Songning

    2015-10-01

    Higher ACL injury rates have been recorded in cleats with higher torsional resistance in American football, which warrants better understanding of shoe/stud-dependent joint kinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in knee and ankle kinetics during single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts on synthetic infilled turf while wearing 3 types of shoes. Fourteen recreational football players performed single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts in nonstudded running shoes (RS) and in football shoes with natural (NTS) and synthetic turf studs (STS). Knee and ankle kinetic variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated-measures ANOVA (P < .05). A significant shoe-by-movement interaction was found in loading response peak knee adduction moments, with NTS producing smaller moments compared with both STS and RS only in 180° cuts. Reduced peak negative plantar flexor powers were also found in NTS compared with STS. The single-leg land cut produced greater loading response and push-off peak knee extensor moments, as well as peak negative and positive extensor and plantar flexor powers, but smaller loading peak knee adduction moments and push-off peak ankle eversion moments than 180° cuts. Overall, the STS and 180° cuts resulted in greater frontal plane knee loading and should be monitored for possible increased ACL injury risks.

  6. Genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  7. The Laplace Planes of Uranus and Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite orbits close to an oblate planet precess about its equatorial plane, while distant satellites precess around the plane of the planet's heliocentric orbit. In between, satellites in nearly circular orbits precess about a warped intermediate surface called the Laplace 'plane.' Herein we derive general formulas for locating the Laplace plane. Because Uranus and Pluto have high obliquities, their Laplace planes are severely warped. We present maps of these Laplace planes, of interest in telescopic searches for new satellites. The Laplace plane of the Solar System as a whole is similarly distorted, but comets in the inner Oort cloud precess too slowly to sense the Laplace plane.

  8. Fresnel diffraction in the case of an inclined image plane.

    PubMed

    Modregger, Peter; Lübbert, Daniel; Schäfer, Peter; Köhler, Rolf; Weitkamp, Timm; Hanke, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2008-03-31

    An extension of the theoretical formalism of Fresnel diffraction to the case of an inclined image plane is proposed. The resulting numerical algorithm speeds up computation times by typically three orders of magnitude, thus opening the possibility of utilizing previously inapplicable image analysis algorithms for this special type of a non shift-invariant imaging system. This is exemplified by adapting an iterative phase retrieval algorithm developed for electron microscopy to the case of hard x-ray imaging with asymmetric Bragg reflection (the so-called "Bragg Magnifier"). Numerical simulations demonstrate the convergence and feasibility of the iterative phase retrieval algorithm for the case of x-ray imaging with the Bragg Magnifier.

  9. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  10. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  11. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Plane waves as tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  13. Biased normalized cuts for target detection in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuewen; Dorado-Munoz, Leidy P.; Messinger, David W.; Cahill, Nathan D.

    2016-05-01

    The Biased Normalized Cuts (BNC) algorithm is a useful technique for detecting targets or objects in RGB imagery. In this paper, we propose modifying BNC for the purpose of target detection in hyperspectral imagery. As opposed to other target detection algorithms that typically encode target information prior to dimensionality reduction, our proposed algorithm encodes target information after dimensionality reduction, enabling a user to detect different targets in interactive mode. To assess the proposed BNC algorithm, we utilize hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from the SHARE 2012 data campaign, and we explore the relationship between the number and the position of expert-provided target labels and the precision/recall of the remaining targets in the scene.

  14. Tooth profile analysiis of circular-cut, spiral-bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Lin, Y.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of tooth profile changes in the transverse plane of circular-cut, spiral-bevel crown gears is presented. The analysis assumes a straight-line profile in the mid-transverse plane. The profile variation along the centerline is determined by using expressions for the variation of the spiral angle along the tooth centerline, together with the profile description at the mid-transverse plane. It is shown that the tooth surface is a hyperboloid and that significant variations in the pressure angle are possible.

  15. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  16. Space-Plane Spreadsheet Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Basic Hypersonic Data and Equations (HYPERDATA) spreadsheet computer program provides data gained from three analyses of performance of space plane. Equations used to perform analyses derived from Newton's second law of physics, derivation included. First analysis is parametric study of some basic factors affecting ability of space plane to reach orbit. Second includes calculation of thickness of spherical fuel tank. Third produces ratio between volume of fuel and total mass for each of various aircraft. HYPERDATA intended for use on Macintosh(R) series computers running Microsoft Excel 3.0.

  17. Cutting inlays with a laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaczyna, Irena; Grabczewski, Zbigniew

    1995-03-01

    To cut inlay from a stack of glued veneer a CO2 HEBAR-1A laser was used. For setting optimal working parameters of the set used in industrial production of inlay the following elements were defined: the shape and dimensions of the cutting fissure, the dependence between the width of the cutting fissure and the speed with which the laser beam moves and the total thickness of the stack of veneer sheets, the application of the laser for cutting various patterns. Computer aided designing and computer steering of the laser beam enables fast and precise production of large numbers of inlay elements not only from wood but also from other materials like glass, stone, metal, etc. Taking into consideration the high running cost of such a laser set and its very big production only few factories or even one factory in the given area could produce inlay ready for gluing. Further investigation should be carried out on this field particularly considering the lowering of costs not only in inlay production but generally where cutting of wood is concerned.

  18. Anticipatory Effects on Lower Extremity Neuromechanics During a Cutting Task

    PubMed Central

    Meinerz, Carolyn M.; Malloy, Philip; Geiser, Christopher F.; Kipp, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Context  Continued research into the mechanism of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury helps to improve clinical interventions and injury-prevention strategies. A better understanding of the effects of anticipation on landing neuromechanics may benefit training interventions. Objective  To determine the effects of anticipation on lower extremity neuromechanics during a single-legged land-and-cut task. Design  Controlled laboratory study. Setting  University biomechanics laboratory. Participants  Eighteen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age = 19.7 ± 0.8 years, height = 167.3 ± 6.0 cm, mass = 66.1 ± 2.1 kg). Intervention(s)  Participants performed a single-legged land-and-cut task under anticipated and unanticipated conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Three-dimensional initial contact angles, peak joint angles, and peak internal joint moments and peak vertical ground reaction forces and sagittal-plane energy absorption of the 3 lower extremity joints; muscle activation of selected hip- and knee-joint muscles. Results  Unanticipated cuts resulted in less knee flexion at initial contact and greater ankle toe-in displacement. Unanticipated cuts were also characterized by greater internal hip-abductor and external-rotator moments and smaller internal knee-extensor and external-rotator moments. Muscle-activation profiles during unanticipated cuts were associated with greater activation of the gluteus maximus during the precontact and landing phases. Conclusions  Performing a cutting task under unanticipated conditions changed lower extremity neuromechanics compared with anticipated conditions. Most of the observed changes in lower extremity neuromechanics indicated the adoption of a hip-focused strategy during the unanticipated condition. PMID:26285089

  19. Support plane method applied to ground objects recognition using modelled SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdev, Denis A.; Fursov, Vladimir A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the object recognition problem was solved using support plane method. The modelled SAR images were used as features vectors in the recognition algorithm. Radar signal backscattering of objects in different observing poses is presented in SAR images. For real time simulation, we used simple mixture model of Lambertian-specular reflectivity. To this end, an algorithm of ray tracing is extended for simulating SAR images of 3D man-made models. The suggested algorithm of support plane is very effective in objects recognition using SAR images and RCS diagrams.

  20. Improved analytical model for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxu; Li, Bin; Xiong, Liangshan

    2014-09-01

    The analytical model of residual stress in orthogonal cutting proposed by Jiann is an important tool for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting. In application of the model, a problem of low precision of the surface residual stress prediction is found. By theoretical analysis, several shortages of Jiann's model are picked out, including: inappropriate boundary conditions, unreasonable calculation method of thermal stress, ignorance of stress constraint and cyclic loading algorithm. These shortages may directly lead to the low precision of the surface residual stress prediction. To eliminate these shortages and make the prediction more accurate, an improved model is proposed. In this model, a new contact boundary condition between tool and workpiece is used to make it in accord with the real cutting process; an improved calculation method of thermal stress is adopted; a stress constraint is added according to the volumeconstancy of plastic deformation; and the accumulative effect of the stresses during cyclic loading is considered. At last, an experiment for measuring residual stress in cutting AISI 1045 steel is conducted. Also, Jiann's model and the improved model are simulated under the same conditions with cutting experiment. The comparisons show that the surface residual stresses predicted by the improved model is closer to the experimental results than the results predicted by Jiann's model.

  1. TransCut: interactive rendering of translucent cutouts.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongping; Sun, Xin; Ren, Zhong; Lin, Stephen; Tong, Yiying; Guo, Baining; Zhou, Kun

    2013-03-01

    We present TransCut, a technique for interactive rendering of translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. As the object is fractured or cut open, the user can directly examine and intuitively understand the complex translucent interior, as well as edit material properties through painting on cross sections and recombining the broken pieces—all with immediate and realistic visual feedback. This new mode of interaction with translucent volumes is made possible with two technical contributions. The first is a novel solver for the diffusion equation (DE) over a tetrahedral mesh that produces high-quality results comparable to the state-of-art finite element method (FEM) of Arbree et al. but at substantially higher speeds. This accuracy and efficiency is obtained by computing the discrete divergences of the diffusion equation and constructing the DE matrix using analytic formulas derived for linear finite elements. The second contribution is a multiresolution algorithm to significantly accelerate our DE solver while adapting to the frequent changes in topological structure of dynamic objects. The entire multiresolution DE solver is highly parallel and easily implemented on the GPU. We believe TransCut provides a novel visual effect for heterogeneous translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. PMID:23307612

  2. The Nichols Wing Cutting Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, James B

    1923-01-01

    Described here is wing cutting equipment for the economical production of metal wings for wind tunnel models. The machine will make any size of constant-section wing or strut up to one-sixth inch chord by 36-inch span and up to a thickness of one and one-quarter inches. It cuts a smooth, true model that is accurate to within two-thousandths of an inch on any ordinate. The holding jaws are so designed as to leave the model free of chip marks, and the only hand finishing necessary after the cutting is a rub with amunite to remove burrs. The actual change on ordinate in this finishing rub is less than .0002 inches.

  3. Haptic feedback for multilayer cutting.

    PubMed

    Rianto, Sugeng; Li, Ling; Hartley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    An approach in effectively estimating the force feedback for a tactile haptic based on multi-proxy rendering for 3D surface cuttings for a virtual surgery simulation is described in this paper. The force-models representing haptic force-feedback are approximated using D'Alembert's principle in the mechanic case of spring-damper-stiffness interaction of the surfaces. We also propose a combination between mesh refinement and adaptive re-meshing to create a progressive cutting over the layering surfaces. Experimental results prove that the physical interaction to create cutting paths over the multilayer surfaces can be deliver smoothly with haptic in real time with 3D visual stereo on a PC.

  4. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  5. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, K.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Bäker, M.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  6. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine 14 are provided for cutting a workpiece 12 such as concrete. A gun barrel 16 is provided for repetitively loading projectiles 22 therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank 28. A thermal storage tank 32,32A is disposed between the propellant storage tank 28 and the gun barrel 16 for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel 16 for repetitively firing projectiles 22 therefrom toward the workpiece 12. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles 22 is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece 12 by fracturing thereof.

  7. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine are provided for cutting a workpiece such as concrete. A gun barrel is provided for repetitively loading projectiles therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank. A thermal storage tank is disposed between the propellant storage tank and the gun barrel for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel for repetitively firing projectiles therefrom toward the workpiece. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece by fracturing thereof. 10 figs.

  8. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  9. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  10. Polarizabilities of an Annular Cut in the Thick Wall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1996-05-01

    The electric and magnetic polarizabilities of an aperture are its important characteristics used in the theory of aperture coupling and diffraction of EM waves. The polarizabilities of the aperture having a form of a ring-shaped cut in the plane wall of an arbitrary thickness are calculated by solving corresponding electrostatic or magnetostatic problems using a combination of analytical, variational and numerical methods. The dependences of the polarizabilities on the aperture parameters and on the wall thickness are presented. The results are applied to estimate the beam coupling impedances of button-type beam position monitors.

  11. Effect of Planning on Trunk Motion and Knee Moments During a Side Step Cut Task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, Jeff; Gorniak, Stacey; Nicholson, Kristen

    2004-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that alterations in knee biomechanics associated with unanticipated cutting tasks place athletes at higher risk of knee injuries. Besier et al observed alterations in knee moments during unanticipated cutting tasks that were consistent with in-vitro ACL injury mechanisms. During similar tasks, Patla et al observed lateral trunk lean and decreased foot placement, suggesting that full body center of mass control is perturbed during such tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare the trunk and knee frontal plane moments and evaluate a relationship between the two during unanticipated cutting tasks. The results of this study suggest that there is a relationship between the trunk and knee frontal plane moments during the first 200-400ms of the stance phase of gait.

  12. Model aids cuttings transport prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Gavignet, A.A. ); Sobey, I.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Drilling of highly deviated wells can be complicated by the formation of a thick bed of cuttings at low flow rates. The model proposed in this paper shows what mechanisms control the thickness of such a bed, and the model predictions are compared with experimental results.

  13. Cuts to science spending spared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federal science funding was one area spared further cuts over the next 5 years when the House rejected the Penny-Kasich Deficit Plan by a vote of 219-213 on November 22. Known for its two House cosponsors Timothy Penny (D-Minn.) and John Kasich (R-Ohio), the plan called for additional cuts of $103 billion in federal spending over 5 years. The proposal was an amendment to HR3400, Clinton's spending-reduction bill, which would cut federal spending by over $11 billion in the next 5 years. HR3400 was passed by the House during the same vote.In addition to savings from President Clinton's plan to reduce the federal work force by 252,000, the Penny-Kasich amendment offered ninety proposals to cut federal spending. One of the major policy changes called for was the merging of the Departments of Energy and Commerce, NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy into a new Department of Science. This consolidation, said the plan's sponsors, “could result in $1 billion of reduced spending due to administrative consolidation and elimination of programmatic duplication.”

  14. Automated internal pipe cutting device

    DOEpatents

    Godlewski, William J.; Haffke, Gary S.; Purvis, Dale; Bashar, Ronald W.; Jones, Stewart D.; Moretti, Jr., Henry; Pimentel, James

    2003-01-21

    The invention is a remotely controlled internal pipe cutting device primarily used for cutting pipes where the outside of the pipe is inaccessible at the line where the cut is to be made. The device includes an axial ram within a rotational cylinder which is enclosed in a housing. The housing is adapted for attachment to an open end of the pipe and for supporting the ram and cylinder in cantilever fashion within the pipe. A radially movable cutter, preferably a plasma arc torch, is attached to the distal end of the ram. A drive mechanism, containing motors and mechanical hardware for operating the ram and cylinder, is attached to the proximal end of the housing. The ram and cylinder provide for moving the cutter axially and circumferentially, and a cable assembly attached to a remote motor provide for the movement of the cutter radially, within the pipe. The control system can be adjusted and operated remotely to control the position and movement of the cutter to obtain the desired cut. The control system can also provide automatic standoff control for a plasma arc torch.

  15. Twisted sectors from plane partitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Shouvik; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Li, Wei; Peng, Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Twisted sectors arise naturally in the bosonic higher spin CFTs at their free points, as well as in the associated symmetric orbifolds. We identify the coset representations of the twisted sector states using the description of W_{∞} representations in terms of plane partitions. We confirm these proposals by a microscopic null-vector analysis, and by matching the excitation spectrum of these representations with the orbifold prediction.

  16. MIPAS focal-plane optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, Henk; Smorenburg, C.; Visser, H.

    1993-11-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) has been selected by ESA for the ENVISAT-Mission, scheduled for launch in 1998. The instrument will measure the concentration of a number of atmospheric trace gases in the earth atmosphere in a spectral region from 4.15 - 14.6 micrometers . Within this region measurements are performed with high spectral resolution. The MIPAS optical system consists of scan mirrors, a telescope, a Michelson interferometer, an afocal reducer and a focal plane assembly. TNO Institute of Applied Physics is involved in the design and development of the afocal reducer and the focal plane assembly. The beam reducing optics of the afocal reducer consist of 2 concave and one convex mirror. Both the housing and the mirrors are made of aluminum to ensure temperature invariance. The optics of the focal plane assembly consist of aluminum mirrors, dichroic beamsplitters and Ge lenses in front of the detectors. The optical/mechanical design is developed to the level that phase C2/D activities can start.

  17. SETI in the Ecliptic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Kilston, S.; Shostak, S.

    2008-05-01

    The strong advantages of SETI searches in the ecliptic plane have been pointed out by Kilston, Shostak, and Henry (2008). In our poster we show one possible history of civilizations in the galaxy, from birth, through galactic colonization, up to death - and even beyond. Should this scenario be correct, the pattern suggests that the best hope for success in SETI is exploration of the possibility that there are a few extremely ancient but non-colonizing civilizations; civilizations that, aeons ago, detected the existence of Earth (oxygen, and hence life) and of its Moon (stabilizing Earth's rotation) via observations of transits of the Sun (hence, ecliptic, which is stable over millions of years [Laskar et al. 2004]), and have been beaming voluminous information in our direction ever since, in their faint hope (now realized) that a technological "receiving” species would appear. To maintain such a targeted broadcast would be extremely cheap for an advanced civilization. A search of a swath centered on our ecliptic plane should easily find such civilizations, if they exist. We hope to carry out such a search, using the Allen Telescope Array. http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/poster.SETI.pdf References: Kilston, Steven; Shostak, Seth; & Henry, Richard Conn; "Who's Looking at You, Kid?: SETI Advantages near the Ecliptic Plane," AbSciCon 2008, April 14-17, Santa Clara, CA.; Laskar, J., et al., A&A 428, 261, 2004 This work was supported by Maryland Space Grant Consortium.

  18. Determining the pivotal plane of fluid lipid membranes in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Deserno, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Each leaflet of a curved lipid membrane contains a surface at which the area strain vanishes, the so-called pivotal plane. Its distance z0 from the bilayer's midplane arises in numerous contexts, for instance the connection between monolayer and bilayer moduli, stress-profile moments, or area-difference elasticity theories. Here, we propose two precise methods for determining the location of the pivotal plane in computer simulations, both of which rely on monitoring the lipid imbalance across a curved bilayer. The first method considers the ratio of lipid number between the two leaflets of cylindrical or spherical vesicles; it hence requires lipid flip-flop for equilibration. The second method looks at the leaflet difference across local sections cut out from a buckled membrane; this observable equilibrates even in the absence of flip-flop. We apply our methods to two different coarse-grained lipid models, the generic three-bead solvent-free Cooke model and a ten-bead representation of dimyristoylphosphocholine with the explicit solvent MARTINI model. The Cooke model is amenable to both methods and gives results that agree at the percent level. Using it, we also show that the pivotal plane moves outward as lipid curvature becomes more positive. The MARTINI model can only be analyzed with the buckling method; the obtained value z0 = 0.850(11) nm lies about 0.4 nm inwards of the glycerol backbone and is hence unexpectedly small. We attribute this to limitations of the coarse-grained description, suggesting that the location of the pivotal plane might be a good indicator for how well lipid models capture the microscopic origins of curvature elasticity. Finally, we also show that the pivotal plane position itself moves as the membrane is bent. The leading correction is linear in curvature, dependent on the Poisson ratio, and can matter when analyzing experimental results obtained from highly curved inverse hexagonal phases.

  19. An automatic and fast centerline extraction algorithm for virtual colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangxiang; Gu, Lixu

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new refined centerline extraction algorithm, which is based on and significantly improved from distance mapping algorithms. The new approach include three major parts: employing a colon segmentation method; designing and realizing a fast Euclidean Transform algorithm and inducting boundary voxels cutting (BVC) approach. The main contribution is the BVC processing, which greatly speeds up the Dijkstra algorithm and improves the whole performance of the new algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the new centerline algorithm was more efficient and accurate comparing with existing algorithms. PMID:17281406

  20. Knife and impact cutting of lamb bone.

    PubMed

    King, M J

    1999-05-01

    The forces and hence fracture energies required to cut bone are presented in this paper and the merits of cutting with a high speed blade are considered. A plain knife blade was used to cut cancellous and compact lamb bone using three different methods. A microtome was used to produce a range of cut thicknesses which enabled the fracture energy to be separated into friction, surface fracture and plastic deformation energies. A tensile test machine was used to produce thicker off-cuts so that the energy required to cut through full sections of bone could be determined. A high speed rail gun was used to cut at speeds up to 130 m/s. The energy required to cut bone did not change with blade speed. However, the energies measured during the cutting varied over a wide range. In situations in which the surface of the cut bone exhibited a very uneven surface high energy was required, whereas when the resulting cut surface was planar the cutting energy was low. A light weight blade which impacts the bone at high speed will transmit a small impulse to the carcass which may be absorbed without transmitting strain to the muscle/connective tissue. This may allow the development of a high speed knife which will cut bone without excessively damaging the meat surrounding the cut. PMID:22062140

  1. Measurement of Cut Front Properties in Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, Ulrich; Hermanns, Torsten; Molitor, Thomas; Pereira, Milton; Schulz, Wolfgang

    Cut-front properties are a key variable in laser-cutting and thus of major importance for self-optimization. Within the Cluster of Excellence at RWTH Aachen University, several achievements were made in setting up sensor-systems that provide information on the operating-point of this melt-based manufacturing process. These achievements contribute to a gradual increase in system-transparency which is seen as an enabler for self-optimization. Instead of searching for a single measurand to characterize the course of the process, an approach is being presented which establishesa surrogate criterion to allow determination of the current operating-point. In the depicted area, this is done by joining sources of information from process observation, determining boundary-conditions such as actual feed-rate and modeling of process-variables. Although process-variables like properties of the cutting-front are influenced through more than one process parameter, a concept for a sensor-system is reported showing the correlation between properties of the melt-front and the current feed-rate. The results are compared to a solution derived from process-simulation.

  2. Cutting

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... to do. But you can't get your mind off feeling upset, and your body has this knot of emotional pain. Before you ...

  3. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  4. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  5. Fabrication of a Cryogenic Bias Filter for Ultrasensitive Focal Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A fabrication process has been developed for cryogenic in-line filtering for the bias and readout of ultrasensitive cryogenic bolometers for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The design is a microstripline filter that cuts out, or strongly attenuates, frequencies (10 50 GHz) that can be carried by wiring staged at cryogenic temperatures. The filter must have 100-percent transmission at DC and low frequencies where the bias and readout lines will carry signal. The fabrication requires the encapsulation of superconducting wiring in a dielectric-metal envelope with precise electrical characteristics. Sufficiently thick insulation layers with high-conductivity metal layers fully surrounding a patterned superconducting wire in arrayable formats have been demonstrated. A degenerately doped silicon wafer has been chosen to provide a metallic ground plane. A metallic seed layer is patterned to enable attachment to the ground plane. Thick silicon dioxide films are deposited at low temperatures to provide tunable dielectric isolation without degrading the metallic seed layer. Superconducting wiring is deposited and patterned using microstripline filtering techniques to cut out the relevant frequencies. A low Tc superconductor is used so that it will attenuate power strongly above the gap frequency. Thick dielectric is deposited on top of the circuit, and then vias are patterned through both dielectric layers. A thick conductive film is deposited conformally over the entire circuit, except for the contact pads for the signal and bias attachments to complete the encapsulating ground plane. Filters are high-aspect- ratio rectangles, allowing close packing in one direction, while enabling the chip to feed through the wall of a copper enclosure. The chip is secured in the copper wall using a soft metal seal to make good thermal and electrical contact to the outer shield.

  6. Point-to-plane and plane-to-plane electrostatic charge injection atomization for insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghazi

    An electrostatic charge injection atomizer was fabricated and used to introduce and study the electrostatic charge injection atomization methods for highly viscous vegetable oils and high conductivity low viscosity aviation fuel, JP8. The total, spray and leakage currents and spray breakup characteristics for these liquids were investigated and compared with Diesel fuel data. Jet breakup and spray atomization mechanism showed differences for vegetable oils and lower viscosity hydrocarbon fuels. For vegetable oils, a bending/spinning instability phenomenon was observed similar to the phenomenon found in liquid jets of high viscosity polymer solutions. The spray tip lengths and cone angles were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and correlated with the appropriate empirical formulas. The different stages of the breakup mechanisms for such oils, as a function of specific charges and flow rates, were discussed. In order to make this method of atomization more suitable for practical use in high flow rate applications, a blunt face electrode (plane-to-plane) was used as the charge emitter in place of a single pointed electrode (point-to-plane). This allowed the use of a multi-orifice emitter that maintained a specific charge with the flow rate increase which could not be achieved with the needle electrode. The effect of the nozzle geometry, liquid physical properties and applied bulk flow on the spray charge, total charge, maximum critical spray specific charge and electrical efficiency compared with the needle point-to-plane atomizer results was presented. Our investigation revealed that the electrical efficiency of the atomizer is dominated by the charge forced convection rate rather than charge transport by ion motilities and liquid motion by the electric field. As a result of the electric coulomb forces between the electrified jets, the multi-orifice atomizer provided a unique means of dispersing the fuel in a hollow cone with wide angles making the new

  7. Anisotropy in Alpedrete granite cutting (Rift, Grain and Hardway directions) and effect on bush hammered heritage ashlars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Many monuments and cities that are part of humanity's heritage have been built with carved granite ashlars. This dimension stone is one of the most used due to its abundance and durability. Traditional quarrymen have used anisotropic planes to cut granite blocks in the quarry for improved cutting performance. These planes are called Rift, Grain and Hardway (R, G, H) according to the ease of cutting. The aim of this study is to determine the response of each of the three orthogonal cutting planes R, G and H to the craft styling with bush hammer, based on their decay. Alpedrete granite was selected for this research, it is a monzogranite quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrana (Spanish Central System) foothills, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is one of the most representative of Madrid's heritage granites. Alpedrete granite is also used as building stone in other European cities. From an Alpedrete granite bush hammered ashlar, three thin sections were cut parallel to the H plane; these thin sections cut R and G bush hammered planes. Also three thin sections have been cut parallel to the R plane at a distance of 2 mm, 10 mm and 30 mm from the bush hammered surface. All thin sections have been treated with fluorescein. In each of the thin sections a micrograph mosaic was performed covering the entire area (about 10 cm2, 300 photomicrographs) and printed with 120 increases. The length and spacing of inter-, intra- and trans-crystalline microcracks were quantified and measured. Microcracks were subdivided based on affected minerals in each R, G and H planes. Through these observations it was found that Alpedrete Granite R plane (easier to cut) is determined by exfoliation microcracks orientation. That is, R plane is parallel to the exfoliations microcracks, which are intra-crystalline and straight. The cutting of stones in the R plane is due to the coalescence of straight microcracks in the plane. This plane minimizes the effort and cost of subsequent carving so it

  8. A Cartesian cut cell method for rarefied flow simulations around moving obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechristé, G.; Mieussens, L.

    2016-06-01

    For accurate simulations of rarefied gas flows around moving obstacles, we propose a cut cell method on Cartesian grids: it allows exact conservation and accurate treatment of boundary conditions. Our approach is designed to treat Cartesian cells and various kinds of cut cells by the same algorithm, with no need to identify the specific shape of each cut cell. This makes the implementation quite simple, and allows a direct extension to 3D problems. Such simulations are also made possible by using an adaptive mesh refinement technique and a hybrid parallel implementation. This is illustrated by several test cases, including a 3D unsteady simulation of the Crookes radiometer.

  9. STRUCTURAL ANNOTATION OF EM IMAGES BY GRAPH CUT

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hang; Auer, Manfred; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-05-08

    Biological images have the potential to reveal complex signatures that may not be amenable to morphological modeling in terms of shape, location, texture, and color. An effective analytical method is to characterize the composition of a specimen based on user-defined patterns of texture and contrast formation. However, such a simple requirement demands an improved model for stability and robustness. Here, an interactive computational model is introduced for learning patterns of interest by example. The learned patterns bound an active contour model in which the traditional gradient descent optimization is replaced by the more efficient optimization of the graph cut methods. First, the energy function is defined according to the curve evolution. Next, a graph is constructed with weighted edges on the energy function and is optimized with the graph cut algorithm. As a result, the method combines the advantages of the level set method and graph cut algorithm, i.e.,"topological" invariance and computational efficiency. The technique is extended to the multi-phase segmentation problem; the method is validated on synthetic images and then applied to specimens imaged by transmission electron microscopy(TEM).

  10. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  11. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  12. Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at Lockheed Martin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Lockheed Martin has been an active participant in NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) programs over the past several years. SLI, part of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), was restructured in November 2002 to focus the overall theme of safer, more affordable space transportation along two paths the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) and the Next Generation Launch Technology programs. The Orbital Space Plane program has the goal of providing rescue capability from the International Space Station by 2008 or earlier and transfer capability for crew (and contingency cargo) by 2012. The Next Generation Launch Technology program is combining research and development efforts from the 2d Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2GRLV) program with cutting-edge, advanced space transportation programs (previously designated 31d Generation) into one program aimed at enabling safe, reliable, cost-effective reusable launch systems by the middle of the next decade. Lockheed Martin is one of three prime contractors working to bring Orbital Space Plane system concepts to a system design level of maturity by December 2003. This paper and presentation will update the aerospace community on the progress of the OSP program, from an industry perspective, and provide insights into Lockheed Martin's role in enabling the vision of a safer, more affordable means of taking people to and from space.

  13. Mapping optically variable quasars towards the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Verdugo, T.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A. C.; de Diego, J. A.; Motta, V.; Vega, L.; Downes, J. J.; Mateu, C.; Vivas, A. K.; Briceño, C.; Abad, C.; Vieira, K.; Hernández, J.; Nuñez, A.; Gatuzz, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the CIDA Equatorial Variability Survey (CEVS), looking for quasar (hereafter QSO) candidates near the Galactic plane. The CEVS contains photometric data from extended and adjacent regions of the Milky Way disk (˜ 500 sq. deg.). In this work 2.5 square degrees with moderately high temporal sampling in the CEVS were analyzed. The selection of QSO candidates was based on the study of intrinsic optical photometric variability of 14,719 light curves. We studied samples defined by cuts in the variability index (V_{index}>66.5), periodicity index (Q > 2), and the distribution of these sources in the plane (A_T,γ), using a slight modification of the first-order of the structure function for the temporal sampling of the survey. Finally, 288 sources were selected as QSO candidates. The results shown in this work are a first attempt to develop a robust method to detect QSO towards the Galactic plane in the era of massive surveys such as VISTA and Gaia.

  14. Estimation of vocal fold plane in 3D CT images for diagnosis of vocal fold abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hewavitharanage, Sajini; Gubbi, Jayavardhana; Thyagarajan, Dominic; Lau, Ken; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Vocal folds are the key body structures that are responsible for phonation and regulating air movement into and out of lungs. Various vocal fold disorders may seriously impact the quality of life. When diagnosing vocal fold disorders, CT of the neck is the commonly used imaging method. However, vocal folds do not align with the normal axial plane of a neck and the plane containing vocal cords and arytenoids does vary during phonation. It is therefore important to generate an algorithm for detecting the actual plane containing vocal folds. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically estimate the vocal fold plane using vertebral column and anterior commissure localization. Gray-level thresholding, connected component analysis, rule based segmentation and unsupervised k-means clustering were used in the proposed algorithm. The anterior commissure segmentation method achieved an accuracy of 85%, a good estimate of the expert assessment. PMID:26736949

  15. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  16. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  17. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  18. Cutting Forces Analysis in Whirling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jae Hwan; Han, Chang Woo; Kim, Sun Il; Jung, Hee Chul; Lee, Young Moon

    Whirling is a cutting process in which a series of cutting edges remove material by turning over the rotating workpiece. In this process, the whirling ring with a number of cutting teeth combined with the rotation and advancement of workpiece, produces pitches of worm. Mechanics of chip formation of the process, however, has not been fully estabilished. To estimate the cutting force during the process, the kinematics and the maximum undeformed chip thickness to be removed by each cutting edge should be thoroughly analyzed. In this study, using the recently developed model of undeformed chip thickness and the DEFORM software, cutting forces of the whirling process are estimated. The effects of cutting forces on tool are analyzed using the ADAMS software. The validity of the simulations has been verified with a series of cutting experiments.

  19. Anti-plane transverse waves propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, A-Li; Yan, Dong-Jia; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, anti-plane transverse wave propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures is studied. The localization factor is introduced to characterize the wave propagation behavior. The transfer matrix method based on the nonlocal piezoelectricity continuum theory is used to calculate the localization factor. Additionally, the stiffness matrix method is applied to compute the wave transmission spectra. A cut-off frequency is found, beyond which the elastic waves cannot propagate through the periodic structure. The size effect or the influence of the ratio of the internal to external characteristic lengths on the cut-off frequency and the wave propagation behavior are investigated and discussed. PMID:26518526

  20. Anti-plane transverse waves propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, A-Li; Yan, Dong-Jia; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, anti-plane transverse wave propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures is studied. The localization factor is introduced to characterize the wave propagation behavior. The transfer matrix method based on the nonlocal piezoelectricity continuum theory is used to calculate the localization factor. Additionally, the stiffness matrix method is applied to compute the wave transmission spectra. A cut-off frequency is found, beyond which the elastic waves cannot propagate through the periodic structure. The size effect or the influence of the ratio of the internal to external characteristic lengths on the cut-off frequency and the wave propagation behavior are investigated and discussed.

  1. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or engraved blocks for use in retailers'...

  2. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or engraved blocks for use in retailers'...

  3. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or engraved blocks for use in retailers'...

  4. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or engraved blocks for use in retailers'...

  5. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newspaper cuts. 6.92 Section 6.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or engraved blocks for use in retailers'...

  6. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's budget was…

  7. Cutting a Tapered Edge on Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Resilience and flexibility of felt, rubber, or other padding materials allow them to be clamped in form block, cut straight down, and then released to produce straight clean tapered edge. With material held in slanted position, edge can be cut straight down; hence cut depth is minimum.

  8. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; McKay, R.; Sleege, G.; Petry, D.

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1270m above see level. The array currently consists of four 12 m telescopes, structurally resembling the Davis-Cotton design of the Whipple 10 m telescope. The VERITAS focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.148 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed pre-amplifiers improving the signal to noise ratio and allow single photoelectron measurements in situ at operating voltage. Current monitor circuits in the focus box provide real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient conditions of the focus box. A charge injection system installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system by injecting pulses of variable amplitude and length into pre-amplifier stage. A detailed description of the VERITAS focal plane instruments will be given in this presentation.

  9. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; Ginsburg, Adam; Harvey, Paul; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  10. A precise angular spectrum of plane-waves diffraction theory for leaky wave materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, W. D.; Hunsinger, B. J.

    1988-08-01

    This paper describes a computational leaky-wave diffraction-theory technique which very accurately describes leaky wave propagation; it combines the method of Kharusi and Farnell (1971) based on the angular spectrum of plane-wave formalism with the measured values of velocity and attenuation provided by the slowness surface measurement method of Murray and Ash (1977). The technique was shown to predict accurately the magnitude and phase of beam profiles propagating over long distances in bare-surface 100-plane-cut semiinsulating GaAs. The technique was also shown to be a good predictor of beam profile propagation through metallic grating structures required in acoustic charge transport device application.

  11. Nonuniformity compensation for IR focal plane array sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Er, Meng H.; Gan, Yu H.; Fong, Yew C.

    1997-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that cooled and uncooled IR focal plane array sensors are progressing to a field-worthy level for commercial and defense applications. They offer higher sensitivity, amenability to signal processing and mechanical simplicity. However these sensors contain large detector-to- detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations. These variations result in a severe problem called fixed pattern noise that can mask/distort the image obtained from the sensor. The correction process is generally termed as nonuniformity compensation. Conventional two-point compensation techniques are accurate enough, but require built-in controllable temperature references along with mechanical and electro-optical shutters. Therefore this compensation technique detracts the mechanical simplicity of using IR focal plane arrays. Scene-based nonuniformity techniques dispenses with the requirement of temperature references and shutters, but are not accurate enough for certain applications. This paper discusses two-point and scene-based nonuniformity compensation algorithms and proposes an empirical formula to automatically calculate the scene constants, which is an essential step towards practical applications. This paper reports the analyzed results of testing the algorithms on a number of IR images. A practical problem of 'artifacts' which arise when using scene-based nonuniformity compensation is also discussed. A common hardware scheme to implement both the algorithms is also presented in this paper.

  12. Topological Expansion in the Complex Cubic Log-Gas Model: One-Cut Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleher, Pavel; Deaño, Alfredo; Yattselev, Maxim

    2016-09-01

    We prove the topological expansion for the cubic log-gas partition function Z_N(t)= int _Γ \\cdots int _Γ prod _{1≤ jplane extending from e^{π i}∞ to e^{π i/3}∞ . The complex cubic log-gas model exhibits two phase regions on the complex t-plane, with one cut and two cuts, separated by analytic critical arcs of the two types of phase transition: split of a cut and birth of a cut. The common point of the critical arcs is a tricritical point of the Painlevé I type. In the present paper we prove the topological expansion for log Z_N(t) in the one-cut phase region. The proof is based on the Riemann-Hilbert approach to semiclassical asymptotic expansions for the associated orthogonal polynomials and the theory of S-curves and quadratic differentials.

  13. Resolution improvements in integral microscopy with Fourier plane recording.

    PubMed

    Llavador, A; Sola-Pikabea, J; Saavedra, G; Javidi, B; Martínez-Corral, M

    2016-09-01

    Integral microscopes (IMic) have been recently developed in order to capture the spatial and the angular information of 3D microscopic samples with a single exposure. Computational post-processing of this information permits to carry out a 3D reconstruction of the sample. By applying conventional algorithms, both depth and also view reconstructions are possible. However, the main drawback of IMic is that the resolution of the reconstructed images is low and axially heterogeneous. In this paper, we propose a new configuration of the IMic by placing the lens array not at the image plane, but at the pupil (or Fourier) plane of the microscope objective. With this novel system, the spatial resolution is increased by factor 1.4, and the depth of field is substantially enlarged. Our experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:27607682

  14. Near-infrared optical imaging of human brain based on the semi-3D reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Meng, Wei; Qin, Zhuanping; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2013-03-01

    In the non-invasive brain imaging with near-infrared light, precise head model is of great significance to the forward model and the image reconstruction. To deal with the individual difference of human head tissues and the problem of the irregular curvature, in this paper, we extracted head structure with Mimics software from the MRI image of a volunteer. This scheme makes it possible to assign the optical parameters to every layer of the head tissues reasonably and solve the diffusion equation with the finite-element analysis. During the solution of the inverse problem, a semi-3D reconstruction algorithm is adopted to trade off the computation cost and accuracy between the full 3-D and the 2-D reconstructions. In this scheme, the changes in the optical properties of the inclusions are assumed either axially invariable or confined to the imaging plane, while the 3-D nature of the photon migration is still retained. This therefore leads to a 2-D inverse issue with the matched 3-D forward model. Simulation results show that comparing to the 3-D reconstruction algorithm, the Semi-3D reconstruction algorithm cut 27% the calculation time consumption.

  15. Cutting costs without drawing blood.

    PubMed

    Copeland, T

    2000-01-01

    When looking for ways to cut costs, most managers reach for the head-count hatchet, and the markets usually roar with approval. But a company can almost always create far more sustainable value by rigorously evaluating the small-ticket capital items that often get rubber-stamped. Drawing on his experience as a consultant and providing numerous anecdotes, the author contends that those "little" requests often prove to be gold plated or unnecessary. A disciplined evaluation involves asking only eight questions and conducting postmortems--regular audits of units' capital spending. But the payoff is enormous. Because cutting the capital budget increases cash flow, the author argues that a permanent cut of just 15% in the planned level of capital spending could boost some companies' market capitalization by as much as 30%. The first three questions--Is this your investment to make? Does it really have to be new? How are our competitors meeting compliance needs?--are asked of operating managers as they assemble capital project requests. The next three are asked by senior managers of themselves and their colleagues as they examine proposals: Is the left hand duplicating investments made by the right? Are trade-offs between profit and capital spending well understood? Are there signs of budget massage? At the end of the review process, senior managers ask: Are we fully using shared assets? How fine-grained are our capacity measures? The author's suggestions for the postmortem include searching for systematic problems with whole classes of expenditures and making sure audit teams come up with specific recommendations for change. PMID:11143151

  16. Cutting of bent vortex lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenleithner, P.

    1982-07-01

    One of the major problems in the application of type II superconductors is the appearance of resistivity in case where a current-carrying specimen is in a longitudinal magnetic field. This is explained by the onset of flux-line cutting events, followed by cross-joining of the line parts. The calculation given here shows the amount of repulsive force and energy between two curved vortex lines and examines the general stability of the vortex-vortex system. First, the actual interaction potential between curved vortices is computed. It includes all electromagnetic and core overlap terms of interactions and self-interaction, and allows computation of the system energy under all curved vortex-line configurations. A computer program is used to find the form of lowest free energy. To do this, special trial functions are established to describe the three-dimensional form of the vortex-vortex system. In these functions parameters determine the qualitative and quantitative form. The asymptotic boundary conditions are built into the nature of the trial functions. The computer program now minimizes the free energy with respect to these parameters. The resulting repulsive energy and force are more than ten times less than the known results for straight flux lines, especially for small asymptotic cutting angles. There is no sharp maximum in the plot of repulsive force versus flux-line separation. A remarkable results is the loss of general stability below a separation distance of several London penetration depths, depending on the cutting angle and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. The explanation lies in the local attraction of central sections of the vortices as a result of configurational adaption. This explains the onset of resistance at small currents and small magnetic fields.

  17. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  18. Free-piston cutting machine

    DOEpatents

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  19. Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R.

    2013-10-15

    On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.

  20. Algorithmic advances in stochastic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    Practical planning problems with deterministic forecasts of inherently uncertain parameters often yield unsatisfactory solutions. Stochastic programming formulations allow uncertain parameters to be modeled as random variables with known distributions, but the size of the resulting mathematical programs can be formidable. Decomposition-based algorithms take advantage of special structure and provide an attractive approach to such problems. We consider two classes of decomposition-based stochastic programming algorithms. The first type of algorithm addresses problems with a ``manageable`` number of scenarios. The second class incorporates Monte Carlo sampling within a decomposition algorithm. We develop and empirically study an enhanced Benders decomposition algorithm for solving multistage stochastic linear programs within a prespecified tolerance. The enhancements include warm start basis selection, preliminary cut generation, the multicut procedure, and decision tree traversing strategies. Computational results are presented for a collection of ``real-world`` multistage stochastic hydroelectric scheduling problems. Recently, there has been an increased focus on decomposition-based algorithms that use sampling within the optimization framework. These approaches hold much promise for solving stochastic programs with many scenarios. A critical component of such algorithms is a stopping criterion to ensure the quality of the solution. With this as motivation, we develop a stopping rule theory for algorithms in which bounds on the optimal objective function value are estimated by sampling. Rules are provided for selecting sample sizes and terminating the algorithm under which asymptotic validity of confidence interval statements for the quality of the proposed solution can be verified. Issues associated with the application of this theory to two sampling-based algorithms are considered, and preliminary empirical coverage results are presented.

  1. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  2. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP)

    PubMed Central

    Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors and the upper lip. Conclusion: FAOP can complement an existing and established orthodontic treatment plan, facilitating the visualization of functional and aesthetic demands by giving a greater focus on the position of incisors in the relationship established among the incisors, molars and the upper lip stomion. PMID:27653271

  3. The center-cut solution.

    PubMed

    Firnstahl, T W

    1993-01-01

    Timothy Firnstahl owns five successful restaurants in Seattle, but he recently came very close to owning none. In the early 1990s, he found himself, like so many restauranteurs, facing rising costs, inefficient management, and a recession. Confronting financial annihilation, Firnstahl had to act quickly: since he had no peripherals to trim, he cut off the head of his company. Remarkably, it worked. Firnstahl's problem was his new and innovative restaurant, Sharps Fresh Roasting. The heart of the Sharps concept was a unique long-roasting technique that made lean, inexpensive meats taste as juicy and delicious as fattier, expensive cuts. The process also lent itself to faster service and lower labor costs. But it wasn't working. Sharps wasn't breaking even, and his other restaurants couldn't make up the difference. He needed a solution fast. Firnstahl got his answer from Mikhail Gorbachev: slash the centralized command and liberate the company. In doing so, he would also transfer virtually all power and responsibility to his line managers. And after five months of intensive study and planning, he accomplished what he set out to do. He fired most of his corporate staff, empowered his restaurant managers with "100% Power and Responsibility," and, finally, undertook a massive promotion campaign. A year later, Sharps Fresh Roasting is the gold mine Firnstahl always believed it could be. He's done away with bureaucracy and turned business around in a down market. All this because his managers are managing themselves. PMID:10126155

  4. Chemical scissors cut phosphorene nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xihong; Wei, Qun

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorene, a recently fabricated two-dimensional puckered honeycomb structure of phosphorus, showed promising properties for applications in nano-electronics. In this work, we report a chemical scissors effect on phosphorene, using first-principles method. It was found that chemical species, such as H, OH, F, and Cl, can act as scissors to cut phosphorene. Phosphorus nanochains and nanoribbons can be obtained. The scissors effect results from the strong bonding between the chemical species and phosphorus atoms. Other species such as O, S and Se fail to cut phosphorene nanostructures due to their weak bonding with phosphorus. The electronic structures of the produced P-chains reveal that the hydrogenated chain is an insulator while the pristine chain is a one-dimensional Dirac material, in which the charge carriers are massless fermions travelling at an effective speed of light ˜8 × 105 m s-1. The obtained zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons show either metallic or semiconducting behaviors, depending on the treatment of the edge phosphorus atoms.

  5. Simulated annealing approach to the max cut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sandip

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we address the problem of partitioning the nodes of a random graph into two sets, so as to maximize the sum of the weights on the edges connecting nodes belonging to different sets. This problem has important real-life counterparts, but has been proven to be NP-complete. As such, a number of heuristic solution techniques have been proposed in literature to address this problem. We propose a stochastic optimization technique, simulated annealing, to find solutions for the max cut problem. Our experiments verify that good solutions to the problem can be found using this algorithm in a reasonable amount of time.

  6. Influences of sequential cuts on micro-cutting process studied by smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongwei; Liu, Chuang; Cui, Tao; Tian, Ye; Shi, Chengli; Li, Jianping; Huang, Hu

    2013-11-01

    Machined surface properties have a great influence on the service life of component. The residual stress in machined surface layer is affected by the micro-cutting process. Sequential cuts influence the machined surface layer. In this paper, a mesh-less method called SPH (smooth particle hydrodynamic) is used to investigate the effect of sequential cuts and residual stress on chip formation, cutting force and the residual stress in machined surface for oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). In micro-cutting process the cutting edge radius plays a crucial role. The effect of the cutting edge radius on residual stress is also investigated in this paper. The simulation results showed that the chip curled severely and the minimum chip thickness decreased in the second cut because of residual stress in the machined surface after the first cut. Meanwhile, the cutting force in the second cut was smaller than the first cut, while the thrust force was nearly the same during two cuts. In addition, the tensile residual stress beneath the machined surface layer would change to compressive stress after the second cut. Therefore, the residual stress in machined surface can be changed through sequential cuts with proper machining parameters to get high quality machined surface.

  7. Plane-wave fluorescence tomography with adaptive finite elements.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit; Bangerth, Wolfgang; Hwang, Kildong; Rasmussen, John; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2006-01-15

    We present three-dimensional fluorescence yield tomography of a tissue phantom in a noncontact reflectance imaging setup. The method employs planar illumination with modulated light and frequency domain fluorescence measurements made on the illumination plane. An adaptive finite-element algorithm is used to handle the ill-posed and computationally demanding inverse image reconstruction problem. Tomographic images of fluorescent targets buried at 1-2 cm depths from the illumination surface demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence tomography from reflectance tomography in clinically relevant tissue volumes.

  8. Mechanism for control plane authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to propose an ``Authentication Information Element`` that can be used to carry authentication information within the ATM signaling protocols. This information may be used by either signaling entity to validate the claimed identity of the other, and to verify the integrity of a portion of a message`s contents. By specifying a generic authentication IE, authentication information can be generated by any signature algorithm, and can be appended to any ATM signaling message. Procedures for the use of this information element are also provided.

  9. ImagePlane: An Automated Image Analysis Pipeline for High-Throughput Screens Using the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Flygare, Steven; Campbell, Michael; Ross, Robert Mars; Moore, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract ImagePlane is a modular pipeline for automated, high-throughput image analysis and information extraction. Designed to support planarian research, ImagePlane offers a self-parameterizing adaptive thresholding algorithm; an algorithm that can automatically segment animals into anterior–posterior/left–right quadrants for automated identification of region-specific differences in gene and protein expression; and a novel algorithm for quantification of morphology of animals, independent of their orientations and sizes. ImagePlane also provides methods for automatic report generation, and its outputs can be easily imported into third-party tools such as R and Excel. Here we demonstrate the pipeline's utility for identification of genes involved in stem cell proliferation in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Although designed to support planarian studies, ImagePlane will prove useful for cell-based studies as well. PMID:23822514

  10. Computer-aided design of millimeter-wave E-plane filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Y.-C.; Itoh, T.; Bui, L. Q.

    1983-02-01

    A computer-aided design (CAD) algorithm has been developed for a class of E-plane bandpass filters. The analysis portion of the algorithm is based on the residue-calculus technique and a generalized scattering parameter method. It is mathematically exact and numerically very efficient. Filters designed with this method have been fabricated and tested in Ka-band. Good agreement with design has been obtained.

  11. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

  12. Unsupervised color image segmentation using graph cuts with multi-components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Jin, Lianghai; Song, Enmin; Dong, Zhuoli

    2013-10-01

    A novel unsupervised color image segmentation method based on graph cuts with multi-components is proposed, which finds an optimal segmentation of an image by regarding it as an energy minimization problem. First, L*a*b* color space is chosen as color feature, and the multi-scale quaternion Gabor filter is employed to extract texture feature of the given image. Then, the segmentation is formulated in terms of energy minimization with an iterative process based on graph cuts, and the connected regions in each segment are considered as the components of the segment in each iteration. In addition, canny edge detector combined with color gradient is used to remove weak edges in segmentation results with the proposed algorithm. In contrast to previous algorithms, our method could greatly reduce computational complexity during inference procedure by graph cuts. Experimental results demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed method.

  13. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  14. Cut performance levels and testing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job.

  15. House cuts NASA, NSF budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The House passed its version of the Fiscal Year 1990 spending bill July 20, voting less money than requested for NASA, NSF, and other independent agencies. An appropriation of $1.6 billion was approved for the space station despite an effort to cut funding for the project on the House floor.With a voice vote the House approved a Veterans Affairs-Housing and Urban Development- Independent Agencies subcommittee (VAHUDIA) package totaling $65.1 billion, nearly $2.5 billion more than requested in President Bush's budget. NSF received $1.99 billion in the bill, $150 million less than requested, and NASA $12.26 billion, more than a billion less than the President asked for. The Department of Housing and Urban Development ($2.23 billion more than requested) and the Department of Veteran's Affairs ($908 million more than requested) were the big winners in the bill.

  16. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  17. Duel-Plane Optical Disdrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsky, B. E.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Acquiring better drop-size distributions of rainfall will improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. In order to fully capture the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, a robust, calibration free, low-cost instrument that provides an accurate drop-size distribution is required. Therefore, The University of Iowa Lidar Group has developed and built a new duel-plane optical disdrometer that meets these criteria. Two sheets of laser light, vertically spaced by 1 cm are produced by two 670nm laser beams passing through a collecting lens and culminating lens, respectively. The two sheets of laser light then pass through a convex lens located 20 cm from the lasers that focuses the light on a photo detector. A computer reads in and stores the voltages at 10 kHz. The velocity, diameter, shape and drop-size distribution of raindrops are extracted from the voltage measurements. Rainfall data collected in Iowa City, IA tested our disdrometer's robustness and accuracy of providing drop-size distributions. Our distrometer is advantageous because it is simple, low-cost, and requires no calibration.

  18. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  19. Galactic plane gamma-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tumer, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the SAS 2 data together with the COS B results shows that the distribution of galactic gamma-radiation has several similarities to that of other large-scale tracers of galactic structure. The radiation is primarily confined to a thin disc which exhibits offsets from b = 0 degrees similar to warping at radio frequencies. The principal distinction of the gamma-radiation is a stronger contrast in intensity between the region from 310 to 45 degrees in longitude and the regions away from the center that can be attributed to a variation in cosmic-ray density as a function of position in Galaxy. The diffuse galactic gamma-ray energy spectrum shows no significant variation in direction, and the spectrum seen along the plane is the same as that for the galactic component of the gamma-radiation at high altitudes. The uniformity of the galactic gamma-ray spectrum, the smooth decrease in intensity as a function of altitude, and the absence of any galactic gamma-ray sources at high altitudes indicate a diffuse origin for bulk of the galactic gamma-radiation rather than a collection of localized sources.

  20. Harmonic plane wave propagation in gyroelectric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillion, Pierre

    2006-05-01

    We analyse the behaviour of harmonic plane waves in unbounded gyroelectric media once the refractive index in the direction of propagation is known from the Fresnel equation. We get, for the electric and magnetic fields, analytical expressions simple enough to use in a plane wave spectrum representation of more structured electromagnetic fields in these media. We also discuss the reflection and refraction of harmonic plane waves at the boundary between an isotropic medium and a gyroelectric material.

  1. Is soccer kick performance better after a "faking" (cutting) maneuver task?

    PubMed

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2011-03-01

    Cutting in soccer is a common skill used to avoid the opponent's pressure but the potential effects of such a skill on instep kicking performance have not been previously investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in lower limb biomechanics between straight approach soccer kicks and kicks performed following a cutting maneuver task. Ten young amateur soccer players performed, in a random order, instep kicks after a two-step straight approach run and kicks after a double "faking" cutting maneuver task. The results showed that kicking after a cutting maneuver task displayed significantly lower ball speed values compared with the straight approach instep kicking (16.73 vs. 19.78 m/s, respectively; p < 0.05). Moreover, analysis of variance showed significant differences between the two kicking conditions in ankle, knee and hip joint displacements. The present study indicated that performing instep kicks after a double-cutting maneuver reduces ball and foot speed probably due to increasing joint frontal and transverse plane rotations. Improvements in the performance of the cutting maneuver task through training might result in better transfer of energy and speed to the kicking task thus permitting players to perform more powerful kicks under realistic game conditions. PMID:21560750

  2. New Modelling Strategies For Metal Cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Pedro A. R.; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Atkins, Anthony G.

    2007-05-17

    This paper draws from the 'plasticity and friction only' view of metal cutting to the presentation of new modelling strategies based on the interaction between finite elements and modern ductile fracture mechanics. The overall presentation is supported by specially designed orthogonal metal cutting experiments that were performed on Lead test specimens under laboratory-controlled conditions. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and experimental results comprise a wide range of topics such as material flow, cutting forces and specific cutting pressure. The paper demonstrates that while material flow and chip formation can be successfully modelled by traditional 'plasticity and friction only' analyses, the contribution of the fracture work involved in the formation of new surfaces is essential for obtaining good estimates of cutting forces and of the specific cutting pressure.

  3. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  4. Plane wave spectrum of electromagnetic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doicu, A.; Wriedt, T.

    1997-02-01

    A plane wave spectrum method of Gaussian beams can be derived by using Davis' approximations for the vector potential. An equivalent vector potential is introduced by considering the inverse Fourier transform of the spectrum function of the original vector potential in a given plane. The electromagnetic field, which corresponds to the equivalent vector potential, satisfies Maxwell's equations and can be written as a sum of plane waves. The beam shape coefficients, or the expansion coefficients in terms of regular spherical vector wave functions, are expressed as simple integrals. This version of the plane wave spectrum method offers the possibility to compute higher-order corrections for Gaussian beams.

  5. Defect characterization in the diamond cutting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Zeren, Muzaffer . E-mail: zeren@kou.edu.tr; Karagoez, Sadi

    2006-08-15

    In this study, a general defect characterization in the diamond cutting tools used in natural stone cutting has been investigated. Transverse rupture tests were carried out with different matrix and diamond compositions. In these defect characterization studies on diamond cutting tool materials various microstructural analyses were performed using the techniques of light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersed X-ray spectrography (EDX) and image analysis (IA)

  6. Cutting sound enhancement system for mining machines

    DOEpatents

    Leigh, Michael C.; Kwitowski, August J.

    1992-01-01

    A cutting sound enhancement system (10) for transmitting an audible signal from the cutting head (101) of a piece of mine machinery (100) to an operator at a remote station (200), wherein, the operator using a headphone unit (14) can monitor the difference in sounds being made solely by the cutting head (101) to determine the location of the roof, floor, and walls of a coal seam (50).

  7. Directed self-assembly cut mask assignment for unidirectional design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jiaojiao; Yu, Bei; Gao, Jhih-Rong; Pan, David Z.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, directed self-assembly (DSA) has emerged as a promising lithography solution for cut manufacturing. We perform a comprehensive study on the DSA aware mask optimization problem to provide a DSA friendly design on cut layers. We first formulate the problem as an integer linear programming (ILP) to assign cuts to different guiding templates, targeting both conflict minimization and line-end extension minimization. As ILP may not be scalable for very large size problems, we then propose two speed-up strategies. The first one is to decompose the initial problem into smaller ones and solve them separately, followed by solution merging without much loss of quality. The second one is using the set cover algorithm to decide the DSA guiding pattern assignment, and then legalize the template placement. Our approaches can be naturally extended to handle arbitrary DSA guiding template patterns with complicated shapes. Experimental results show that our methodologies can significantly improve the DSA friendly, i.e., both the unresolved pattern number and the line-end extensions can be reduced.

  8. Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

  9. Cutting food in terrestrial carnivores and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    Insects and mammals cut their food up into small pieces to facilitate ingestion and chemical digestion. Teeth and jaws act as cutting tools, but, unlike engineering tools designed for a specific purpose, must generally cope with substantial variation in food properties and work at many scales. Knowing how teeth and jaws work effectively requires an understanding of the cutting on the edges and the mechanisms that remove cut material. Variability and heterogeneity of diet properties are not well known, and, for example, may be higher and overlap more in the browsing and grazing categories of plant diets. A reinterpretation of tooth function in large mammal browsers and grazers is proposed. PMID:27274799

  10. Wear mechanism of diamond coated cutting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Leyendecker, T.; Lemmer, O.; Esser, S.

    1995-12-31

    Since Diamond Coatings were introduced into the market in 1989, five years experience in industrial applications of diamond coated cutting tools enables to present an overview of tool life and wear behavior of diamond coated cutting tools due to different cutting conditions and workpiece-materials. Machining reinforced plastics, presintered ceramic compacts, aluminum alloys, metal-matrix composites and graphite, different wear behavior occurs at the cutting edges of diamond coated tools. Having a good adhesion fatigue and chemical wear of Diamond coatings determines life time of the tools. By a profound pretreatment procedure CVD Diamond coated tools can compete with conventional PCD-tools.

  11. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  12. Extending the size-parameter range for plane-wave light scattering from infinite homogeneous circular cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Hau-Riege, S

    2005-04-12

    We have developed an algorithm that extends the possible size-parameter range for the calculation of plane-wave light scattering from infinite homogeneous circular cylinders using a Mie-type analysis. Our algorithm is based on the calculation of the ratios of Bessel functions instead of calculating the Bessel functions or their logarithmic derivatives directly. We have found that this algorithm agrees with existing methods (when those methods converge). We have also found that our algorithm converges in cases of very large size parameters, in which case other algorithms often do not.

  13. Improved speckle projection profilometry for out-of-plane shape measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Bing; Xie Huimin; Gao Jianxin; Asundi, Anand

    2008-10-10

    An improved speckle projection profilometry that combines the projection of computer generated random speckle patterns using an ordinary LCD projector and the two-dimensional digital image correlation technique for in-plane displacements measurement is proposed for accurate out-of-plane shape and displacement measurements. The improved technique employs a simple yet effective calibration technique to determine the linear relationship between the out-of-plane height and the measured in-plane displacements. In addition, the iterative spatial domain cross-correlation algorithm, i.e., the improved Newton-Raphson algorithm using the zero-normalized sum of squared differences correlation criterion and the second-order shape function was employed in image correlation analysis for in-plane displacement determination of the projected speckle patterns, which provides more reliable and accurate matching with a higher correlation coefficient. Experimental results of both a regular cylinder and a human hand demonstrate that the proposed technique is easy to implement and can be applied to a practical out-of-plane shape and displacement measurement with high accuracy.

  14. Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.

    PubMed

    Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree.

  15. Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.

    2006-05-01

    Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

  16. The best of both worlds: automated CMP polishing of channel-cut monochromators

    SciTech Connect

    Kasman, Elina; Erdmann, Mark; Stoupin, Stanislav

    2015-09-03

    The use of a channel-cut monochromator is the most straightforward method to ensure that the two reflection surfaces maintain alignment between crystallographic planes without the need for complicated alignment mechanisms. Three basic characteristics that affect monochromator performance are: subsurface damage which contaminates spectral purity; surface roughness which reduces efficiency due to scattering; and surface figure error which imparts intensity structure and coherence distortion in the beam. Standard chemical-mechanical polishing processes and equipment are used when the diffracting surface is easily accessible, such as for single-bounce monochromators. Due to the inaccessibly of the surfaces inside a channel-cut monochromator for polishing, these optics are generally wet-etched for their final processing. This results in minimal subsurface damage, but very poor roughness and figure error. A new CMP channel polishing instrument design is presented which allows the internal diffracting surface quality of channel-cut crystals to approach that of conventional single-bounce monochromators

  17. Experimental test of theory for the stability of partially saturated vertical cut slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morse, Michael M.; Lu, N.; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.; Take, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Culmann's vertical-cut analysis to unsaturated soils. To test the extended theory, unsaturated sand was compacted to a uniform porosity and moisture content in a laboratory apparatus. A sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the vertical cut failed. Digital images of the slope cross section and upper surface were acquired concurrently. A recently developed particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to quantify soil displacement. The PIV analysis showed strain localization at varying distances from the sliding door prior to failure. The areas of localized strain were coincident with the location of the slope crest after failure. Shear-strength and soil-water-characteristic parameters of the sand were independently tested for use in extended analyses of the vertical-cut stability and of the failure plane angle. Experimental failure heights were within 22.3% of the heights predicted using the extended theory.

  18. The Location of the Maximum Temperature on the Cutting Edges of a Drill

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Ni, J

    2005-01-07

    This study analyzes the temperature profile along the cutting edges of a drill and describes how the temperature on the chisel edge can exceed the temperature on the primary cutting edges. A finite element model predicts the temperature distribution in the drill, where the heat flux loads applied to the finite element model are determined from analytical equations. The model for the heat flux loads considers both the heat generated on the shear plane and the heat generated on the rake face of the tool to determine the amount of heat flowing into the tool on each segment of the cutting edges. Contrary to the conventional belief that the maximum temperature occurs near the outer corner of the drill, the model predicts that the maximum temperature occurs on the chisel edge, which is consistent with experimental measurements of the temperature profile.

  19. Automatic Recognition of Fetal Facial Standard Plane in Ultrasound Image via Fisher Vector.

    PubMed

    Lei, Baiying; Tan, Ee-Leng; Chen, Siping; Zhuo, Liu; Li, Shengli; Ni, Dong; Wang, Tianfu

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of the standard plane is the prerequisite of biometric measurement and diagnosis during the ultrasound (US) examination. In this paper, a new algorithm is developed for the automatic recognition of the fetal facial standard planes (FFSPs) such as the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. Specifically, densely sampled root scale invariant feature transform (RootSIFT) features are extracted and then encoded by Fisher vector (FV). The Fisher network with multi-layer design is also developed to extract spatial information to boost the classification performance. Finally, automatic recognition of the FFSPs is implemented by support vector machine (SVM) classifier based on the stochastic dual coordinate ascent (SDCA) algorithm. Experimental results using our dataset demonstrate that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 93.27% and a mean average precision (mAP) of 99.19% in recognizing different FFSPs. Furthermore, the comparative analyses reveal the superiority of the proposed method based on FV over the traditional methods.

  20. The effect of cutting speed on residual stresses when orthogonal cutting TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaofeng; Wang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Lei

    2015-09-01

    As one of the most important parameters in mental cutting, cutting speed has a significant influence on residual stress. Finite element method and experiment method are used to study the relationship between cutting speed and residual stress when orthogonal cutting TC4 titanium alloy. The result of simulation and experiment shows that: when the cutting speed is low, the residual stress in axial direction is compressive stress and gradually converts to tensile stress with the increase of cutting speed, but it will convert to compressive stress again if the cutting speed continues to increase; the residual stress in tangential direction is constant to compressive stress and it will decrease with the increase of cutting speed.

  1. An Integrated Method Based on PSO and EDA for the Max-Cut Problem.

    PubMed

    Lin, Geng; Guan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The max-cut problem is NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with many real world applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated method based on particle swarm optimization and estimation of distribution algorithm (PSO-EDA) for solving the max-cut problem. The integrated algorithm overcomes the shortcomings of particle swarm optimization and estimation of distribution algorithm. To enhance the performance of the PSO-EDA, a fast local search procedure is applied. In addition, a path relinking procedure is developed to intensify the search. To evaluate the performance of PSO-EDA, extensive experiments were carried out on two sets of benchmark instances with 800 to 20,000 vertices from the literature. Computational results and comparisons show that PSO-EDA significantly outperforms the existing PSO-based and EDA-based algorithms for the max-cut problem. Compared with other best performing algorithms, PSO-EDA is able to find very competitive results in terms of solution quality.

  2. An Integrated Method Based on PSO and EDA for the Max-Cut Problem

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Geng; Guan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The max-cut problem is NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with many real world applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated method based on particle swarm optimization and estimation of distribution algorithm (PSO-EDA) for solving the max-cut problem. The integrated algorithm overcomes the shortcomings of particle swarm optimization and estimation of distribution algorithm. To enhance the performance of the PSO-EDA, a fast local search procedure is applied. In addition, a path relinking procedure is developed to intensify the search. To evaluate the performance of PSO-EDA, extensive experiments were carried out on two sets of benchmark instances with 800 to 20000 vertices from the literature. Computational results and comparisons show that PSO-EDA significantly outperforms the existing PSO-based and EDA-based algorithms for the max-cut problem. Compared with other best performing algorithms, PSO-EDA is able to find very competitive results in terms of solution quality. PMID:26989404

  3. Variations in the short wavelength cut-off of the solar UV spectra.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Turner, J

    2006-03-01

    Cloud and solar zenith angle (SZA) are two major factors that influence the magnitude of the biologically damaging UV (UVBD) irradiances for humans. However, the effect on the short wavelength cut-off due to SZA and due to clouds has not been investigated for biologically damaging UV for cataracts. This research aims to investigate the influence of cloud and SZA on the short wavelength cut-off of the spectral UVBD for cataracts. The spectral biologically damaging UV for cataracts on a horizontal plane was calculated by weighting the spectral UV measured with a spectroradiometer with the action spectrum for the induction of cataracts in a porcine lens. The UV spectra were obtained on an unshaded plane at a latitude of 29.5 degrees S. The cut-off wavelength (lambdac) was defined as the wavelength at which the biologically damaging spectral irradiance was 0.1% of the maximum biologically damaging irradiance for that scan. For the all sky conditions, the short wavelength cut-off ranged by 12 nm for the SZA range of 5 to 80 degrees and the maximum in the spectral UVBD ranged by 15 nm. Similarly, for the cloud free cases, the short wavelength cut-off ranged by 9 nm for the same SZA range. Although, cloud has a large influence on the magnitude of the biologically damaging UV for cataracts, the influence of cloud on the short wavelength cut-off for the biologically damaging UV for cataracts is less than the influence of the solar zenith angle.

  4. Combination of Ultrasonic Vibration and Cryogenic Cooling for Cutting Performance Improvement of Inconel 718 Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S. Y.; Chung, C. T.; Cheng, Y. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a thermo-elastic-plastic coupling model, based on a combination skill of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling, under large deformation for Inconel 718 alloy machining process. The improvement extent on cutting performance and tool life promotion may be examined from this investigation. The critical value of the strain energy density of the workpiece will be utilized as the chip separation and the discontinuous chip segmentation criteria. The forced convection cooling and a hydrodynamic lubrication model will be considered and formulated in the model. Finite element method will be applied to create a complete numerical solution for this ultrasonic vibration cutting model. During the analysis, the cutting tool is incrementally advanced forward with superimposed ultrasonic vibration in a back and forth step-by-step manner, from an incipient stage of tool-workpiece engagement to a steady state of chip formation, a whole simulation of orthogonal cutting process under plane strain deformation is thus undertaken. High shear strength induces a fluctuation phenomenon of shear angle, high shear strain rate, variation of chip types and chip morphology, tool-chip contact length variation, the temperature distributions within the workpiece, chip and tool, periodic fluctuation in cutting forces can be determined from the developed model. A complete comparison of machining characteristics between some different combinations of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling with conventional cutting operation can be acquired. Finally, the high-speed turning experiment for Inconel 718 alloy will be taken in the laboratory to validate the accuracy of the model, and the progressive flank wear, crater wear, notching and chipping of the tool edge can also be measured in the experiments.

  5. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2016-07-12

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  6. Aero-space plane figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Martin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The design environment of the aerospace plane is variable rich, intricately networked and sensitivity intensive. To achieve a viable design necessitates addressing three principal elements: knowledge of the 'figures of merit' and their relationships, the synthesis procedure, and the synergistic integration of advanced technologies across the discipline spectrum. This paper focuses on the 'figures of merit' that create the design of an aerospace plane.

  7. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  8. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  9. Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks

    DOEpatents

    Wyss, Gregory D.

    2000-01-01

    Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

  10. Algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Lomax, Harvard

    1987-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable activity in algorithm development for the Navier-Stokes equations. This has resulted in a wide variety of useful new techniques. Some examples for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented, divided into two parts. One is devoted to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the other to the compressible form.

  11. The study on the image quality of varied line spacing plane grating by computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shouqiang; Zhang, Weiping; Liu, Lei; Yang, Qingyi

    2014-11-01

    Varied line spacing plane gratings have the features of self-focusing , aberration-reduced and easy manufacturing ,which are widely applied in synchrotron radiation, plasma physics and space astronomy, and other fields. In the study of diffracting imaging , the optical path function is expanded into maclaurin series, aberrations are expressed by the coefficient of series, most of the aberration coefficients are similar and the category is more, can't directly reflects image quality in whole. The paper will study on diffraction imaging of the varied line spacing plane gratings by using computer simulation technology, for a method judging the image quality visibly. In this paper, light beam from some object points on the same object plane are analyzed and simulated by ray trace method , the evaluation function is set up, which can fully scale the image quality. In addition, based on the evaluation function, the best image plane is found by search algorithm .

  12. Numerical simulations of aerodynamic contribution of flows about a space-plane-type configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushima, Kisa; Takanashi, Susume; Fujii, Kozo; Obayashi, Shigeru

    1987-01-01

    The slightly supersonic viscous flow about the space-plane under development at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) in Japan was simulated numerically using the LU-ADI algorithm. The wind-tunnel testing for the same plane also was conducted with the computations in parallel. The main purpose of the simulation is to capture the phenomena which have a great deal of influence to the aerodynamic force and efficiency but is difficult to capture by experiments. It includes more accurate representation of vortical flows with high angles of attack of an aircraft. The space-plane shape geometry simulated is the simplified model of the real space-plane, which is a combination of a flat and slender body and a double-delta type wing. The comparison between experimental results and numerical ones will be done in the near future. It could be said that numerical results show the qualitatively reliable phenomena.

  13. Extracting oblique planes from serial CT sections.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, M L; Glenn, W V; Azaawi, Y M

    1980-10-01

    Although geometric principles describing planes oblique to an orthogonal image data set are well understood, no implementation has been offered for their practical specification, extraction, and display in a clinical environment. Fast image generation and ease of user specification-requisite credentials for successful clinical implementations-are handicapped by the large volume of data to process. Other difficulties further complicate an interactive solution. Once oblique planes are generated, their orientation is often difficult to perceive without visual cues that aid their registration with standard image formats. In addition, Moire patterns introduced by digital aliasing often currupt resultant views. In this paper, techniques are outlined for simplifying oblique plane specification, a methodology is presented for image construction, and an interactive approach is illustrated to register images for such general view planes. Finally, digital aliasing of oblique planes is discussed, and a solution is given for this application.

  14. Optimization of Straight Cylindrical Turning Using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanth, Rajanampalli Seshasai Srinivasa; Hans Raj, Kandikonda

    2016-06-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, that mimics the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, is increasingly gaining acceptance in the field of process optimization, as it is capable of handling nonlinearity, complexity and uncertainty. Straight cylindrical turning is a complex and nonlinear machining process which involves the selection of appropriate cutting parameters that affect the quality of the workpiece. This paper presents the estimation of optimal cutting parameters of the straight cylindrical turning process using the ABC algorithm. The ABC algorithm is first tested on four benchmark problems of numerical optimization and its performance is compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm. Results indicate that, the rate of convergence of ABC algorithm is better than GA and ACO. Then, the ABC algorithm is used to predict optimal cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius to achieve good surface finish. Results indicate that, the ABC algorithm estimated a comparable surface finish when compared with real coded genetic algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  15. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  16. Simplified cut core inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    Although filter inductor designers have routinely tended to specify molypermalloy powder cores for use in high frequency power converters and pulse-width modulated switching regulators, there are sigificant advantages in specifying C cores and cut toroids fabricated from grain oriented silicon steels which should not be overlooked. Such steel cores can develop flux densities of 1.6 tesla, with useful linearity to 1.2 tesla, whereas molypermalloy cores carrying d.c. current have useful flux density capabilities only to about 0.3 tesla. The use of silicon steel cores thus makes it possible to design more compact cores, and therefore inductors of reduced volume, or conversely to provide greater load capacity in inductors of a given volume. Information is available which makes it possible to obtain quick and close approximations of significant parameters such as size, weight and temperature rise for silicon steel cores for breadboarding. Graphs, nomographs and tables are presented for this purpose, but more complete mathematical derivations of some of the important parameters are also included for a more rigorous treatment.

  17. Cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Googin, J.M.; Napier, B. Jr.

    1982-01-28

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and a boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  18. Cutting tool form compensaton system and method

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F.; Klages, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed.

  19. Cutting tool form compensation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Klages, E.J.

    1993-10-19

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed. 9 figures.

  20. Plywood Inlays Thourgh CO2 Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Margarida C.; Araujo, J. L.; Teixeira, M. Ribau; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-07-01

    Furniture with inlays is rather expensive. This is so on two accounts: Firstly, furniture with inlays is generally manufactured with solid wood.Secondly,wood carving and figure cutting are both time consuming and they produce a high rate of rejections. To add to it all the cutting and carving of minute figures requires an outstanding craftmanship. In fact the craftman is in most instance the artist and also the manufacturer. While desiring that the high artistic level is maintained in the industry the search for new method to produce inlays for furniture in not son expensive materials and to produce them in a repetitive and flexible way laser cutting of plywood was found to be quite suitable. This paper presents the charts for CO2 laser cutting of both positive and negatives in several types of plywood. The main problem is not so much the cutting of the positive and negatives pieces but to be able to cut the piece in a way that the fitting is done without any problems caused by the ever present charring effect, which takes palce at the edges of the cut pieces. To minimise this aspect positive and negative pieces have to be cut under stringent focusing conditions and with slight different scales. The condittions for our machine are presented.

  1. Microwave interferometer controls cutting depth of plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.

    1969-01-01

    Microwave interferometer system controls the cutting of plastic materials to a prescribed depth. The interferometer is mounted on a carriage with a spindle and cutting tool. A cross slide, mounted on the carriage, allows the interferometer and cutter to move toward or away from the plastic workpiece.

  2. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  3. Don't Camouflage Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Nicholas M.

    1982-01-01

    Instead of shielding the public from the effects of budget cuts by making small across-the-board cuts on many programs, school administrators should slash whole programs. This will maintain the system's overall educational effectiveness while making clear the consequences of the public's political actions. (Author/RW)

  4. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  5. Cut Next Winter's Heating Bill Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use, such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and…

  6. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  7. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  8. President's Budget Would Cut Education Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's budget cut on education spending. The president's blueprint for federal education spending in the next fiscal year includes a high-profile plan to boost math and science education, new money for private school vouchers, a renewed push to improve high schools--and the most drastic cut in Department of…

  9. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  10. Overhead and operations: cutting where it counts.

    PubMed

    Shorr, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    To remain a profitable entity, whether a retail operation, manufacturing plant, or a medical practice, the common denominator is the same: where can you cut your costs, increase your revenue, and maintain additional profitability? Learning where to cut your operational expenses is as important to your business's profit-ability as bringing in additional dollars. PMID:25807622

  11. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Honker Cut. 117.161 Section 117.161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin County (Eightmile Road) bridge, mile...

  12. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bishop Cut. 117.143 Section 117.143 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin County highway bridge, mile 1.0 between...

  13. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

  14. The invariable plane of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

    2012-04-01

    The invariable plane of the solar system is defined as the plane perpendicular to the total angular momentum of the system and passing through its centre of mass. The idea of using the invariable plane as a reference plane in the study of the dynamics of solar system bodies goes back at least to Laplace [3]. The latest study on this plane dates back to Burkhardt [2]. The aim of this work is to determine at best the orientation of the invariable plane with respect to both the ICRS and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and to evaluate the accuracy of its determination. Such a determination is of fundamental interest in the topic of solar system studies, as suggested by the WGCCRE 2009 [1] for the determination of planet's and satellites' rotational elements. Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406 [6] and INPOP10a[4] over their entire available time span, we compute the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution of each planet. We then deduce the orientation of the invariable plane for each ephemeris, and establish their relative differences. Preliminary results can be found in [5]. Here we update them with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. Moreover, we give the orbital elements (inclination, longitude of the ascending node) with respect to the invariable plane. As given its accuracy of determination, and its fundamental dynamical meaning, the invariable plane provides a permanent natural reference plane that should be used when studying solar system dynamics, instead of the ecliptic. Thus, we recommend referring to it when working on long-term dynamics.

  15. T-L Plane Abstraction-Based Energy-Efficient Real-Time Scheduling for Multi-Core Wireless Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Ki-Seong; Pham, Ngoc-Son; Lee, Sun-Ro; Lee, Chan-Gun

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency is considered as a critical requirement for wireless sensor networks. As more wireless sensor nodes are equipped with multi-cores, there are emerging needs for energy-efficient real-time scheduling algorithms. The T-L plane-based scheme is known to be an optimal global scheduling technique for periodic real-time tasks on multi-cores. Unfortunately, there has been a scarcity of studies on extending T-L plane-based scheduling algorithms to exploit energy-saving techniques. In this paper, we propose a new T-L plane-based algorithm enabling energy-efficient real-time scheduling on multi-core sensor nodes with dynamic power management (DPM). Our approach addresses the overhead of processor mode transitions and reduces fragmentations of the idle time, which are inherent in T-L plane-based algorithms. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm compared to other energy-aware scheduling methods on T-L plane abstraction. PMID:27399722

  16. T-L Plane Abstraction-Based Energy-Efficient Real-Time Scheduling for Multi-Core Wireless Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Ki-Seong; Pham, Ngoc-Son; Lee, Sun-Ro; Lee, Chan-Gun

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency is considered as a critical requirement for wireless sensor networks. As more wireless sensor nodes are equipped with multi-cores, there are emerging needs for energy-efficient real-time scheduling algorithms. The T-L plane-based scheme is known to be an optimal global scheduling technique for periodic real-time tasks on multi-cores. Unfortunately, there has been a scarcity of studies on extending T-L plane-based scheduling algorithms to exploit energy-saving techniques. In this paper, we propose a new T-L plane-based algorithm enabling energy-efficient real-time scheduling on multi-core sensor nodes with dynamic power management (DPM). Our approach addresses the overhead of processor mode transitions and reduces fragmentations of the idle time, which are inherent in T-L plane-based algorithms. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm compared to other energy-aware scheduling methods on T-L plane abstraction. PMID:27399722

  17. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-07-01

    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  18. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript (Frolov et al 2014 New J. Phys. 16 art. no.) , we developed a novel optimization method for the placement, sizing, and operation of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide series compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this sequel manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (˜2700 nodes and ˜3300 lines). The results from the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions, including nonlocality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverage sequential linearization of power flow constraints, and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, we can use the algorithm to solve a Polish transmission grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (i) uniform load growth, (ii) multiple overloaded configurations, and (iii) sequential generator retirements.

  19. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.

  20. Efficient Algorithm for Locating and Sizing Series Compensation Devices in Large Transmission Grids: Solutions and Applications (PART II)

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

    2014-01-14

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~2700 nodes and ~3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements

  1. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polishmore » grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.« less

  2. Characterization and correction for scatter in 3D PET using rebinned plane integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.; Ordonez, C.E.; Chen, C.T. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1994-12-01

    The scatter characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) positron emission tomography (PET) in terms of the plane-integral scatter response function (SRF) are studied. To obtain the plane-integral SRF and study its properties, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out which generated coincidence events from point sources located at different positions in water-filled spheres of various sizes. In each simulation, the plane-integral SRF is obtained by rebinning the detected true and scatter events into two separate sets of plane integrals and then dividing the plane integrals of scatter events by the plane integral of true events of the plane in which the point source is located. A spherical PET scanner was assumed for these simulations. Examination of the SRF shows that the SRF in 3D PET can be modeled not by an exponential function as in the case of 2D PET, but by a Gaussian with its peak shifted away from the primary peak. Using this plane-integral SRF, a scatter correction method was developed for 3D PET that first converts an attenuation-corrected 3D PET data set into plane integrals, then obtains the scatter components in the rebinned plane integrals by integral transformation of the rebinned plane integrals with the SRF, and finally subtracts the scatter components from the rebinned plane integrals to yield the scatter-corrected plane integrals. From the scatter-corrected plane integrals, a 3D image was reconstructed by using a 3D filtered-backprojection algorithm. To test the method, a cylindrical PET scanner imaging an ellipsoid phantom with a 3-cm cold bar at the center was simulated, and 3D images of the phantom with and without scatter correction were reconstructed. Comparison of the two images shows that this method compensates reasonably well for scatter events. The advantages of the proposed method are that it treats the scatter in 3D PET in a truly 3D manner and that it is computationally efficient.

  3. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates and thermal stress formed at cutting sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.

    2012-02-01

    Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates is carried out and thermal stress field developed in the cutting region is predicted using the finite element code. Temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. The morphological changes in the cutting section are examined by incorporating optical and scanning electron microscopes. It is found that temperature predictions agree well with the thermocouple data. High values of von Mises stress are observed at the cutting edges and at the mid-thickness of the Kevlar laminate due to thermal compression formed in this region. The laser cut edges are free from whiskers; however, striation formation and some small sideways burning is observed at the kerf edges.

  4. Portable propellant cutting assembly, and method of cutting propellant with assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A. (Inventor); Hoskins, Shawn W. (Inventor); Payne, Brett D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A propellant cutting assembly and method of using the assembly to cut samples of solid propellant in a repeatable and consistent manner is disclosed. The cutting assembly utilizes two parallel extension beams which are shorter than the diameter of a central bore of an annular solid propellant grain and can be loaded into the central bore. The assembly is equipped with retaining heads at its respective ends and an adjustment mechanism to position and wedge the assembly within the central bore. One end of the assembly is equipped with a cutting blade apparatus which can be extended beyond the end of the extension beams to cut into the solid propellant.

  5. Determination of the occlusal plane using a custom-made occlusal plane analyzer: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bedia, Sumit V; Dange, Shankar P; Khalikar, Arun N

    2007-11-01

    In fixed prosthodontic procedures, when it has been determined that restoration of all or most of the posterior teeth is necessary, the use of the Broderick occlusal plane analyzer provides an easy and practical method to determine an occlusal plane that will fulfill esthetic and functional occlusion requirements. However, several manufacturers of semiadjustable articulators offer no such occlusal plane analyzers for use with these instruments. This article demonstrates the use of a custom-made Broderick occlusal plane analyzer with a semiadjustable articulator to determine the correct curve of Spee for the occlusal plane.

  6. The lateral plane delivers higher dose than the frontal plane in biplane cardiac catheterization systems.

    PubMed

    Aldoss, Osamah; Patel, Sonali; Harris, Kyle; Divekar, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to compare radiation dose between the frontal and lateral planes in a biplane cardiac catheterization laboratory. Tube angulation progressively increases patient and operator radiation dose in single-plane cardiac catheterization laboratories. This retrospective study captured biplane radiation dose in a pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory between April 2010 and January 2014. Raw and time-indexed fluoroscopic, cineangiographic and total (fluoroscopic + cineangiographic) air kerma (AK, mGy) and kerma area product (PKA, µGym(2)/Kg) for each plane were compared. Data for 716 patients were analyzed: 408 (56.98 %) were male, the median age was 4.86 years, and the median weight was 17.35 kg. Although median beam-on time (minutes) was 4.2 times greater in the frontal plane, there was no difference in raw median total PKA between the two planes. However, when indexed to beam-on time, the lateral plane had a higher median-indexed fluoroscopic (0.75 vs. 1.70), cineangiographic (16.03 vs. 24.92), and total (1.43 vs. 5.15) PKA (p < 0.0001). The median time-indexed total PKA in the lateral plane is 3.6 times the frontal plane. This is the first report showing that the lateral plane delivers a higher dose than the frontal plane per unit time. Operators should consciously reduce the lateral plane beam-on time and incorporate this practice in radiation reduction protocols.

  7. Estimating cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scintilla, L. D.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-07-01

    A three-dimensional, semi-stationary, simplified thermal numerical model was developed. The average cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting of 90MnCrV8 was estimated by computing the conductive power loss. Basing on heat affected zone extension experimentally measured and using an inverse methodology approach, the unknown thermal load on the cutting front during laser cutting was calculated. The accuracy of the numerical power loss estimation was evaluated comparing the results from simulation with the ones from analytical models. A good agreement was found for all the test cases considered in this study. The conduction losses estimation was used for justifying the lower quality of disk laser cuts due to the lower average cut front temperature. This results in the increase of viscosity of molten material and in the subsequent more difficult ejection of the melted material from the cut kerf.

  8. Mist, substrate water potential and cutting water potential influence rooting of stem cuttings of loblolly pine.

    PubMed

    Lebude, Anthony V; Goldfarb, Barry; Blazich, Frank A; Wise, Farrell C; Frampton, John

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the influence of cutting water potential (Psicut) on rooting of juvenile hardwood (dormant) and softwood (succulent) stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) propagated under varying substrate water potentials (Psisub) and volumes of mist application. Mist treatment and Psisub contributed to the Psicut of unrooted stem cuttings. When Psisub was held constant across mist treatments, mist treatment contributed strongly to Psicut. Substrate water potential affected rooting percentage when mist treatment was sub-optimal or excessive, otherwise mist treatment had a stronger effect than Psisub on rooting percentage. Cuttings rooted best when subjected to moderate cutting water potentials (-0.5 to -1.2 MPa) during the initial 4 or 5 weeks of the rooting period. Cuttings experiencing either severe water deficit or no water deficit rooted poorly. We conclude that the rooting environment should impose a moderate water stress on loblolly pine stem cuttings to achieve optimum rooting.

  9. Advanced approaches to focal plane integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. D.; Smith, E. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Both visible and infrared focal plane assemblies have common architectural driving parameters which guide their design approaches. The key drivers for advanced focal plane assemblies (FPA) are: the detector type and performance required; the number of detector chips; the packaging density; and the geometry. The impact of these drivers is seen to determine the engineering compromises necessary to establish FPA design approach. Several new designs are discussed which show a range of applications from single detector assemblies to monolithic detector chips with on-chip signal processing. The main objective of many advanced designs is to integrate the focal plane components in order to reduce power and reduce the number of interconnections.

  10. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  11. Predicting head cut erosion and migration in concentrated flows typical of upland areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Carlos V.; Bennett, Sean J.; Stein, Otto R.

    2002-12-01

    Soil erosion due to head cut development and migration can devastate agricultural lands, yet current prediction technology does not address this important erosion process. Here an analytical model of this erosional phenomenon is presented. Realistic, physically based approximations to the laws governing mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the neighborhood of the scour hole result in closed-form predictive algorithms for the magnitude of the plunge pool erosion and the rate of head cut migration. The model introduces a special treatment of nonventilated overfall conditions, is limited to homogeneous, unbounded soil layers, and is validated by available experimental measurements.

  12. Cytoplasm segmentation on cervical cell images using graph cut-based approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Chin, Chien Ting; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to segment the cytoplasm in cervical cell images using graph cut-based algorithm. First, the A* channel in CIE LAB color space is extracted for contrast enhancement. Then, in order to effectively extract cytoplasm boundaries when image histograms present non-bimodal distribution, Otsu multiple thresholding is performed on the contrast enhanced image to generate initial segments, based on which the segments are refined by the multi-way graph cut method. We use 21 cervical cell images with non-ideal imaging condition to evaluate cytoplasm segmentation performance. The proposed method achieved a 93% accuracy which outperformed state-of-the-art works.

  13. Mathematical simulation and optimization of cutting modes in turning of titanium alloy workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoljubova, M.; Afonasov, A.; Kozlov, V.; Sumtsova, O.

    2016-04-01

    A predictive modeling technique of optimal cutting modes in machining of workpieces made of titanium alloys, different from the well-known ones, is offered. The influence of various factors on the process of cutting for the purpose of defining optimal parameters of machining in accordance with certain effectiveness criteria is examined in the present paper. Mathematical models of optimization, algorithms and computer programmes, visual graphical forms presenting dependences of effectiveness criteria on the master schedule parameters have been worked out. Verification of mathematical models in laboratory and working conditions has been carried out.

  14. Estimation of the laser cutting operating cost by support vector regression methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jović, Srđan; Radović, Aleksandar; Šarkoćević, Živče; Petković, Dalibor; Alizamir, Meysam

    2016-09-01

    Laser cutting is a popular manufacturing process utilized to cut various types of materials economically. The operating cost is affected by laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, nozzle diameter and focus point position as well as the workpiece material. In this article, the process factors investigated were: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. The aim of this work is to relate the operating cost to the process parameters mentioned above. CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel of medical grade AISI316L has been investigated. The main goal was to analyze the operating cost through the laser power, cutting speed, air pressure, focal point position and material thickness. Since the laser operating cost is a complex, non-linear task, soft computing optimization algorithms can be used. Intelligent soft computing scheme support vector regression (SVR) was implemented. The performance of the proposed estimator was confirmed with the simulation results. The SVR results are then compared with artificial neural network and genetic programing. According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved through the SVR compared to other soft computing methodologies. The new optimization methods benefit from the soft computing capabilities of global optimization and multiobjective optimization rather than choosing a starting point by trial and error and combining multiple criteria into a single criterion.

  15. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    SciTech Connect

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1991-04-08

    This invention is comprised of a method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  16. Ultrasonic technology improves drill cuttings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Avern, N.; Copercini, A.

    1997-07-01

    Advancements are being made by employing ultrasonics for onsite cuttings size reduction for slurrification prior to disposal. The size reduction proficiency of this new ultrasonics slurrification system as a medium to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings presents operators with a system that can enhance existing disposal techniques. This article presents results from a recent field trial, where ultrasonic processors were used to Agip (UK) Limited to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings prior to disposal into the water column and natural dispersement.

  17. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1992-11-17

    A method is described for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation. 1 figure.

  18. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    A method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  19. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOEpatents

    Tench, Robert J.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.; Balooch, Mehdi; Balhorn, Rodney L.; Allen, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumentation and techniques to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution, to cut-off identified parts of such objects, to move around and manipulate such cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM, such that plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges thereon. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring hardness of materials.

  20. Making the Cut: Lattice Kirigami Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel M.; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.

    2014-12-01

    In this Letter we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami—folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper.

  1. Learning-based scan plane identification from fetal head ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Annangi, Pavan; Gupta, Mithun; Yu, Bing; Padfield, Dirk; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Krishnan, Kajoli

    2012-03-01

    Acquisition of a clinically acceptable scan plane is a pre-requisite for ultrasonic measurement of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors, such as biparietal diameter and head circumference, is performed at the level of the thalami and cavum septum pelucidi. In an accurate scan plane, the head can be modeled as an ellipse, the thalami looks like a butterfly, the cavum appears like an empty box and the falx is a straight line along the major axis of a symmetric ellipse inclined either parallel to or at small angles to the probe surface. Arriving at the correct probe placement on the mother's belly to obtain an accurate scan plane is a task of considerable challenge especially for a new user of ultrasound. In this work, we present a novel automated learning-based algorithm to identify an acceptable fetal head scan plane. We divide the problem into cranium detection and a template matching to capture the composite "butterfly" structure present inside the head, which mimics the visual cues used by an expert. The algorithm uses the stateof- the-art Active Appearance Models techniques from the image processing and computer vision literature and tie them to presence or absence of the inclusions within the head to automatically compute a score to represent the goodness of a scan plane. This automated technique can be potentially used to train and aid new users of ultrasound.

  2. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  3. Plane Strain Testing with Passive Restraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnenko, Roman; Labuz, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    A plane strain condition for testing rock is developed through passive restraint in the form of a thick-walled cylinder. The so-called biaxial frame generates the intermediate principal stress that imposes a triaxial state of stress on a prismatic specimen. Major and minor principal stresses and corresponding strains are accurately measured, providing data to calculate the elastic (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio), inelastic (dilatancy angle), and strength (friction angle and cohesion) parameters of the rock. Results of experiments conducted on Indiana limestone in plane strain compression are compared with the results of axisymmetric compression and extension. With proper system calibration, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are consistent among the tests. The plane strain apparatus enforces in-plane deformation with the three principal stresses at failure being different, and it allows one to determine the Paul-Mohr-Coulomb failure surface, which includes an intermediate stress effect.

  4. Three-dimensional Allan fault plane analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, K.S.; Taylor, D.R.; Schnell, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Allan fault-plane analysis is a useful tool for determining hydrocarbon migration paths and the location of possible traps. While initially developed for Gulf coast deltaic and interdeltaic environments, fault-plane analysis has been successfully applied in many other geologic settings. Where the geology involves several intersecting faults and greater complexity, many two-dimensional displays are required in the investigation and it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately visualize both fault relationships and migration routes. Three-dimensional geospatial fault and structure modeling using computer techniques, however, facilitates both visualization and understanding and extends fault-plane analysis into much more complex situations. When a model is viewed in three dimensions, the strata on both sides of a fault can be seen simultaneously while the true structural character of one or more fault surfaces is preserved. Three-dimensional analysis improves the speed and accuracy of the fault plane methodology.

  5. a Min-Cut Based Filter for Airborne LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, Serkan; Shan, Jie

    2016-06-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a routinely employed technology as a 3-D data collection technique for topographic mapping. Conventional workflows for analyzing LiDAR data require the ground to be determined prior to extracting other features of interest. Filtering the terrain points is one of the fundamental processes to acquire higher-level information from unstructured LiDAR point data. There are many ground-filtering algorithms in literature, spanning several broad categories regarding their strategies. Most of the earlier algorithms examine only the local characteristics of the points or grids, such as the slope, and elevation discontinuities. Since considering only the local properties restricts the filtering performance due to the complexity of the terrain and the features, some recent methods utilize global properties of the terrain as well. This paper presents a new ground filtering method, Min-cut Based Filtering (MBF), which takes both local and global properties of the points into account. MBF considers ground filtering as a labeling task. First, an energy function is designed on a graph, where LiDAR points are considered as the nodes on the graph that are connected to each other as well as to two auxiliary nodes representing ground and off-ground labels. The graph is constructed such that the data costs are assigned to the edges connecting the points to the auxiliary nodes, and the smoothness costs to the edges between points. Data and smoothness terms of the energy function are formulated using point elevations and approximate ground information. The data term conducts the likelihood of the points being ground or off-ground while the smoothness term enforces spatial coherence between neighboring points. The energy function is optimized by finding the minimum-cut on the graph via the alpha-expansion algorithm. The resulting graph-cut provides the labeling of the point cloud as ground and off-ground points. Evaluation of the proposed method on

  6. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Li-Yan; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jing-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The log-polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014_CXJJ-DH_12), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JB141303 and 201413B), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant. No CXY1350(4)).

  7. The effect of lateral banking on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during lateral cutting movements.

    PubMed

    Wannop, John W; Graf, Eveline S; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2014-02-01

    There are many aspects of cutting movements that can limit performance, however, the implementation of lateral banking may reduce some of these limitations. Banking could provide a protective mechanism, placing the foot and ankle in orientations that keep them out of dangerous positions. This study sought to determine the effect of two banking angles on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during two athletic maneuvers. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected on 10 recreational athletes performing v-cuts and side shuffle movements on different banked surfaces (0°, 10°, 20°). Each sample surface was rigidly attached to the force platform. Joint moments were calculated and compared between conditions using a repeated measures ANOVA. Banking had a pronounced effect on the ankle joint. As banking increased, the amount of joint loading in the transverse and frontal planes decreased likely leading to a reduction in injury risk. Also an increase in knee joint loading in the frontal plane was seen during the 20° bank during the v-cut. Conversely loading in the sagittal plane at the ankle joint increased with banking and coupled with a reorientation of the ground reaction vector may facilitate a performance increase. The current study indicates that the 10° bank may be the optimal bank, in that it decreases ankle joint loading, as well as increases specific performance variables while not increasing frontal plane knee joint loading. If banking could be incorporated in footwear it may be able to provide a protective mechanism for athletes.

  8. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  9. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications.

  10. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  11. Minimum-fuel aerodynamic orbital plane change maneuvers. [for Space Shuttle Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. K.; Pierson, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    Several minimum-fuel, aerodynamically controlled, orbital plane change problems are formulated and solved as optimal control problems. A gradient projection algorithm is used to iteratively modify both the control functions, angle of attack and bank angle, and two control parameters to obtain the optimal trajectory. The atmospheric flight profile is combined with two Keplerian (two-body vacuum flight) arcs so that a complete orbit-to-orbit analysis results. The vehicle used in this investigation is the Space Transportation System Shuttle Orbiter. The effects of heat load constraint level and plane change angle are analysed.

  12. Multiple-plane particle image velocimetry using a light-field camera.

    PubMed

    Skupsch, Christoph; Brücker, Christoph

    2013-01-28

    Planar velocity fields in flows are determined simultaneously on parallel measurement planes by means of an in-house manufactured light-field camera. The planes are defined by illuminating light sheets with constant spacing. Particle positions are reconstructed from a single 2D recording taken by a CMOS-camera equipped with a high-quality doublet lens array. The fast refocusing algorithm is based on synthetic-aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV). The reconstruction quality is tested via ray-tracing of synthetically generated particle fields. The introduced single-camera SAPIV is applied to a convective flow within a measurement volume of 30 x 30 x 50 mm³.

  13. Chevron cutting: Experiment with new runway mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyran, K. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    Chevron cutting is shown to occur in different forms depending on the type of tire and the rubber on the running surface. Hardest wear is shown by the main tires of the B-747. Four defects occurred, in the form of two rip separation and two breakouts of the running surface. Tires capped by Thompson are more affected than any of the other rubber-capping fabrics. For Thompson tires, Chevron Cutting is greatly reduced with a fiberglass-rubber mixture. For Goodyear tires, it is eliminated with spiral wrap rubbercapping; resistance to damages through cuts seems to be more positive for Goodyear tires. For Mader tires, the extent of Chevron Cutting is generally smaller than for Thompson cappings.

  14. Hydro Impact Basin Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    August 9, 2011 -- Ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HIB expands NASA's capability to test and certify future spacecraft for wa...

  15. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  16. FTA Basic Event & Cut Set Ranking.

    1999-05-04

    Version 00 IMPORTANCE computes various measures of probabilistic importance of basic events and minimal cut sets to a fault tree or reliability network diagram. The minimal cut sets, the failure rates and the fault duration times (i.e., the repair times) of all basic events contained in the minimal cut sets are supplied as input data. The failure and repair distributions are assumed to be exponential. IMPORTANCE, a quantitative evaluation code, then determines the probability ofmore » the top event and computes the importance of minimal cut sets and basic events by a numerical ranking. Two measures are computed. The first describes system behavior at one point in time; the second describes sequences of failures that cause the system to fail in time. All measures are computed assuming statistical independence of basic events. In addition, system unavailability and expected number of system failures are computed by the code.« less

  17. Ribbon cutting opens new ELV offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges welcomes the audience to a ribbon- cutting ceremony at the E&O Building at KSC. Home for NASA's unmanned missions since 1964, the building has been renovated to house the Expendable Launch Vehicle Program.

  18. Threaded pilot insures cutting tool alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, R.; Schneider, W. E.

    1966-01-01

    Threaded pilot allows machining of a port component, or boss, after the reciprocating hole has been threaded. It is used to align cutting surfaces with the boss threads, thus insuring precision alignment.

  19. Climate science hit by job cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Climate researchers in Australia are bracing themselves for heavy job cuts as the country's national scientific agency - the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - said last month it will reprioritize towards innovation.

  20. Laser cutting system for nuclear fuel disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    A significant advancement in fuel reprocessing technology has been made by utilizing a multikilowatt, carbon dioxide laser to perform cutting operations necessary to remove unprocessible hardware from reactor fuel assemblies. 10 figs.

  1. Freon, T-B1 cutting fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    Improved cutting fluid completely controls the heat generated from machining operations, thus providing longer tool life. Fluid is especially useful in the working of plastics and replaces less efficient contaminating oils.

  2. Cutting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Kirk J.; Gu, Zhenning; Shaver, Jonah; Chen, Zheyi; Flor, Erica L.; Schmidt, Daniel J.; Chan, Candace; Hauge, Robert H.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2005-07-01

    A two-step process is utilized for cutting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The first step requires the breakage of carbon-carbon bonds in the lattice while the second step is aimed at etching at these damage sites to create short, cut nanotubes. To achieve monodisperse lengths from any cutting strategy requires control of both steps. Room-temperature piranha and ammonium persulfate solutions have shown the ability to exploit the damage sites and etch SWNTs in a controlled manner. Despite the aggressive nature of these oxidizing solutions, the etch rate for SWNTs is relatively slow and almost no new sidewall damage is introduced. Carbon-carbon bond breakage can be introduced through fluorination to ~C2F, and subsequent etching using piranha solutions has been shown to be very effective in cutting nanotubes. The final average length of the nanotubes is approximately 100 nm with carbon yields as high as 70-80%.

  3. New opportunities for cutting with lasers.

    PubMed

    Renner, Thomas; Mairhörmann, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    Laser microcutting is a leading technology for the manufacture of surgical instruments and medical implants. This article assesses its capabilities for stents and surgical-needle manufacture and for other tube-cutting applications that require microscaled designs.

  4. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin... signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the San Joaquin County Department of Public Works...

  5. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin... signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the San Joaquin County Department of Public Works...

  6. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin... hours notice is given to the San Joaquin County Department of Public Works at Stockton....

  7. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin... signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the San Joaquin County Department of Public Works...

  8. 33 CFR 117.161 - Honker Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.161 Honker Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin... signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the San Joaquin County Department of Public Works...

  9. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin... hours notice is given to the San Joaquin County Department of Public Works at Stockton....

  10. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin... hours notice is given to the San Joaquin County Department of Public Works at Stockton....

  11. 33 CFR 117.143 - Bishop Cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.143 Bishop Cut. The draw of the San Joaquin... hours notice is given to the San Joaquin County Department of Public Works at Stockton....

  12. Microbiological status of fresh beef cuts.

    PubMed

    Stopforth, J D; Lopes, M; Shultz, J E; Miksch, R R; Samadpour, M

    2006-06-01

    Fresh beef samples (n = 1,022) obtained from two processing plants in the Midwest (July to December 2003) were analyzed for levels of microbial populations (total aerobic plate count, total coliform count, and Escherichia coli count) and for the presence or absence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. A fresh beef cut sample was a 360-g composite of 6-g portions excised from the surface of 60 individual representative cuts in a production lot. Samples of fresh beef cuts yielded levels of 4.0 to 6.2, 1.1 to 1.8, and 0.8 to 1.0 log CFU/g for total aerobic plate count, total coliform count, and E. coli count, respectively. There did not appear to be substantial differences or obvious trends in bacterial populations on different cuts. These data may be useful in establishing a baseline or a benchmark of microbiological levels of contamination of beef cuts. Mean incidence rates of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on raw beef cuts were 0.3 and 2.2%, respectively. Of the 1,022 samples analyzed, cuts testing positive for E. coli O157:H7 included top sirloin butt (0.9%) and butt, ball tip (2.1%) and for Salmonella included short loins (3.4%), strip loins (9.6%), rib eye roll (0.8%), shoulder clod (3.4%), and clod, top blade (1.8%). These data provide evidence of noticeable incidence of pathogens on whole muscle beef and raise the importance of such contamination on product that may be mechanically tenderized. Levels of total aerobic plate count, total coliform count, and E. coli count did not (P > or = 0.05) appear to be associated with the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh beef cuts. E. O157:H7 was exclusively isolated from cuts derived from the sirloin area of the carcass. Salmonella was exclusively isolated from cuts derived from the chuck, rib, and loin areas of the carcass. Results of this study suggest that contamination of beef cuts may be influenced by the region of the carcass from which they are derived.

  13. Material cutting, shaping, and forming: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented concerning cutting, shaping, and forming of materials, and the equipment and techniques required for utilizing these materials. The use of molds, electrical fields, and mechanical devices are related to forming materials. Material cutting methods by devices including borers and slicers are presented along with chemical techniques. Shaping and fabrication techniques are described for tubing, honeycomb panels, and ceramic structures. The characteristics of the materials are described. Patent information is included.

  14. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  15. Artificial Intelligence Based Selection of Optimal Cutting Tool and Process Parameters for Effective Turning and Milling Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, Kunaparaju; John Rozario Jegaraj, J.; Ramesh Kumar, Katta; Venkateshwara Rao, Ghanta

    2016-06-01

    With the increased trend in automation of modern manufacturing industry, the human intervention in routine, repetitive and data specific activities of manufacturing is greatly reduced. In this paper, an attempt has been made to reduce the human intervention in selection of optimal cutting tool and process parameters for metal cutting applications, using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Generally, the selection of appropriate cutting tool and parameters in metal cutting is carried out by experienced technician/cutting tool expert based on his knowledge base or extensive search from huge cutting tool database. The present proposed approach replaces the existing practice of physical search for tools from the databooks/tool catalogues with intelligent knowledge-based selection system. This system employs artificial intelligence based techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm for decision making and optimization. This intelligence based optimal tool selection strategy is developed using Mathworks Matlab Version 7.11.0 and implemented. The cutting tool database was obtained from the tool catalogues of different tool manufacturers. This paper discusses in detail, the methodology and strategies employed for selection of appropriate cutting tool and optimization of process parameters based on multi-objective optimization criteria considering material removal rate, tool life and tool cost.

  16. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  17. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  18. Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weijian; Miller, Jae-Eun Kang; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios; Paninski, Liam; Yuste, Rafael; Peterka, Darcy S

    2016-01-20

    Recording the activity of large populations of neurons is an important step toward understanding the emergent function of neural circuits. Here we present a simple holographic method to simultaneously perform two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal populations across multiple areas and layers of mouse cortex in vivo. We use prior knowledge of neuronal locations, activity sparsity, and a constrained nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm to extract signals from neurons imaged simultaneously and located in different focal planes or fields of view. Our laser multiplexing approach is simple and fast, and could be used as a general method to image the activity of neural circuits in three dimensions across multiple areas in the brain. PMID:26774159

  19. Planck 2015 results. XII. Full focal plane simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the 8th full focal plane simulation set (FFP8), deployed in support of the Planck 2015 results. FFP8 consists of 10 fiducial mission realizations reduced to 18 144 maps, together with the most massive suite of Monte Carlo realizations of instrument noise and CMB ever generated, comprising 104 mission realizations reduced to about 106 maps. The resulting maps incorporate the dominant instrumental, scanning, and data analysis effects, and the remaining subdominant effects will be included in future updates. Generated at a cost of some 25 million CPU-hours spread across multiple high-performance-computing (HPC) platforms, FFP8 is used to validate and verify analysis algorithms and their implementations, and to remove biases from and quantify uncertainties in the results of analyses of the real data.

  20. Plane parallel radiance transport for global illumination in vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Mobley, C.; Keating, B.; Wu, E.H.

    1997-01-05

    This paper applies plane parallel radiance transport techniques to scattering from vegetation. The leaves, stems, and branches are represented as a volume density of scattering surfaces, depending only on height and the vertical component of the surface normal. Ordinary differential equations are written for the multiply scattered radiance as a function of the height above the ground, with the sky radiance and ground reflectance as boundary conditions. They are solved using a two-pass integration scheme to unify the two-point boundary conditions, and Fourier series for the dependence on the azimuthal angle. The resulting radiance distribution is used to precompute diffuse and specular `ambient` shading tables, as a function of height and surface normal, to be used in rendering, together with a z-buffer shadow algorithm for direct solar illumination.

  1. SU-E-J-245: Sensitivity of FDG PET Feature Analysis in Multi-Plane Vs. Single-Plane Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S; Jeraj, R; Galavis, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Sensitivity of PET-derived texture features to reconstruction methods has been reported for features extracted from axial planes; however, studies often utilize three dimensional techniques. This work aims to quantify the impact of multi-plane (3D) vs. single-plane (2D) feature extraction on radiomics-based analysis, including sensitivity to reconstruction parameters and potential loss of spatial information. Methods: Twenty-three patients with solid tumors underwent [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans under identical protocols. PET data were reconstructed using five sets of reconstruction parameters. Tumors were segmented using an automatic, in-house algorithm robust to reconstruction variations. 50 texture features were extracted using two Methods: 2D patches along axial planes and 3D patches. For each method, sensitivity of features to reconstruction parameters was calculated as percent difference relative to the average value across reconstructions. Correlations between feature values were compared when using 2D and 3D extraction. Results: 21/50 features showed significantly different sensitivity to reconstruction parameters when extracted in 2D vs 3D (wilcoxon α<0.05), assessed by overall range of variation, Rangevar(%). Eleven showed greater sensitivity to reconstruction in 2D extraction, primarily first-order and co-occurrence features (average Rangevar increase 83%). The remaining ten showed higher variation in 3D extraction (average Range{sub var}increase 27%), mainly co-occurence and greylevel run-length features. Correlation of feature value extracted in 2D and feature value extracted in 3D was poor (R<0.5) in 12/50 features, including eight co-occurrence features. Feature-to-feature correlations in 2D were marginally higher than 3D, ∣R∣>0.8 in 16% and 13% of all feature combinations, respectively. Larger sensitivity to reconstruction parameters were seen for inter-feature correlation in 2D(σ=6%) than 3D (σ<1%) extraction. Conclusion: Sensitivity

  2. Algorithms for physical segregation of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Rajive

    The capability for on-line measurement of the quality characteristics of conveyed coal now enables mine operators to take advantage of the inherent heterogeneity of those streams and split them into wash and no-wash stocks. Relative to processing the entire stream, this reduces the amount of coal that must be washed at the mine and thereby reduces processing costs, recovery losses, and refuse generation levels. In this dissertation, two classes of segregation algorithms, using time series models and moving windows are developed and demonstrated using field and simulated data. In all of the developed segregation algorithms, a "cut-off" ash value was computed for coal scanned on the running conveyor belt by the ash analyzer. It determined if the coal was sent to the wash pile or to the nowash pile. Forecasts from time series models, at various lead times ahead, were used in one class of the developed algorithms, to determine the cut-off ash levels. The time series models were updated from time to time to reflect changes in process. Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques were used to determine if an update was necessary at a given time. When an update was deemed necessary, optimization techniques were used to determine the next best set of model parameters. In the other class of segregation algorithms, "few" of the immediate past observations were used to determine the cut-off ash value. These "few" observations were called the window width . The window width was kept constant in some variants of this class of algorithms. The other variants of this class were an improvement over the fixed window width algorithms. Here, the window widths were varied rather than kept constant. In these cases, SPC was used to determine the window width at any instant. Statistics of the empirical distribution and the normal distribution were used in computation of the cut-off ash value in all the variants of this class of algorithms. The good performance of the developed algorithms

  3. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  4. THE GALACTIC PLANE INFRARED POLARIZATION SURVEY (GPIPS): DATA RELEASE 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pavel, M. D.; Cashman, L. R. E-mail: pavelmi@bu.edu

    2012-06-01

    The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS) covers 76 deg{sup 2} of the first Galactic quadrant midplane, 18 Degree-Sign {<=} l {<=} 56 Degree-Sign and -1 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} +1 Degree-Sign , in H-band (1.6 {mu}m) linear polarimetry to reveal the plane-of-the-sky orientation of the magnetic field in diffuse and denser atomic and molecular clouds. The Survey consists of 3237 overlapping 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 arcmin fields observed using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope. Here, the first community release of GPIPS data for 559 fields (17% of the Survey) is announced and basic characteristics are described. Data products consist of H-band stellar photometry and polarimetry as well as combined images. The formats and contents of the products are described and quality cuts are explored to provide insight into opportunities and limitations of the data. The Survey probes to distances as far as the Galactic bulge, revealing magnetic field properties that correlate with spiral arms and also show significant small-scale structure. The polarizations are classified into three 'usage' samples, based on stellar brightness and polarimetric uncertainty. The brightest, lowest uncertainty polarizations are suitable for individual use and direct magnetic field mapping. The next two fainter samples are useful, once averaged, for probing magnetic fields to greater distances, albeit with lower resolution. Based on this release, the full GPIPS data set will number about 5.6 million stars, with more than 1 million in the high-quality sample. This increases, by many orders of magnitude, the number of polarimetric probes of the Milky Way's magnetic field.

  5. Research on spatial-variant property of bistatic ISAR imaging plane of space target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Feng; Wang, Jun-Ling; Gao, Mei-Guo

    2015-04-01

    The imaging plane of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is the projection plane of the target. When taking an image using the range-Doppler theory, the imaging plane may have a spatial-variant property, which causes the change of scatter’s projection position and results in migration through resolution cells. In this study, we focus on the spatial-variant property of the imaging plane of a three-axis-stabilized space target. The innovative contributions are as follows. 1) The target motion model in orbit is provided based on a two-body model. 2) The instantaneous imaging plane is determined by the method of vector analysis. 3) Three Euler angles are introduced to describe the spatial-variant property of the imaging plane, and the image quality is analyzed. The simulation results confirm the analysis of the spatial-variant property. The research in this study is significant for the selection of the imaging segment, and provides the evidence for the following data processing and compensation algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401024), the Shanghai Aerospace Science and Technology Innovation Foundation, China (Grant No. SAST201240), and the Basic Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology (Grant No. 20140542001).

  6. Evaluation of excitation strategy with multi-plane electrical capacitance tomography sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Mingxu; Ye, Jiamin; Wang, Haigang; Zhang, Jiaolong; Yang, Wuqiang

    2016-11-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an imaging technique for measuring the permittivity change of materials. Using a multi-plane ECT sensor, three-dimensional (3D) distribution of permittivity may be represented. In this paper, three excitation strategies, including single-electrode excitation, dual-electrode excitation in the same plane, and dual-electrode excitation in different planes are investigated by numerical simulation and experiment for two three-plane ECT sensors with 12 electrodes in total. In one sensor, the electrodes on the middle plane are in line with the others. In the other sensor, they are rotated 45° with reference to the other two planes. A linear back projection algorithm is used to reconstruct the images and a correlation coefficient is used to evaluate the image quality. The capacitance data and sensitivity distribution with each measurement strategy and sensor model are analyzed. Based on simulation and experimental results using noise-free and noisy capacitance data, the performance of the three strategies is evaluated.

  7. An image-data-compression algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Cluster Compression Algorithm (CCA) preprocesses Landsat image data immediately following satellite data sensor (receiver). Data are reduced by extracting pertinent image features and compressing this result into concise format for transmission to ground station. This results in narrower transmission bandwidth, increased data-communication efficiency, and reduced computer time in reconstructing and analyzing image. Similar technique could be applied to other types of recorded data to cut costs of transmitting, storing, distributing, and interpreting complex information.

  8. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping.

    PubMed

    Kannas, Theodoros M; Kellis, Eleftherios; Amiridis, Ioannis G

    2011-12-01

    Kannas, TM, Kellis, E, and Amiridis, IG. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3334-3341, 2011-The need for the generation of higher joint power output during performance of dynamic activities led us to investigate the force-length relationship of the plantar flexors during consecutive stretch-shortening cycles of hopping. The hypothesis of this study was that hopping (consecutive jumps with the knee as straight as possible) on an inclined (15°) surface might lead to a better jumping performance compared with hopping on a plane surface (0°). Twelve active men performed 3 sets of 10 consecutive hops on both an incline and plane surface. Ground reaction forces; ankle and knee joint kinematics; electromyographic (EMG) activity from the medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA); and architectural data from the MG were recorded. The results showed that participants jumped significantly higher (p < 0.05) when hopping on an inclined surface (30.32 ± 8.18 cm) compared with hopping on a plane surface (27.52 ± 4.97 cm). No differences in temporal characteristics between the 2 types of jumps were observed. Incline hopping induced significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension at takeoff compared with plane hopping (p < 0.05). The fascicle length of the MG was greater at initial contact with the ground during incline hopping (p < 0.05). Moreover, the EMG activities of Sol and TA during the propulsion phase were significantly higher during incline compared with that during plane hopping (p < 0.05). It does not seem unreasonable to suggest that, if the aim of hopping plyometrics is to improve plantar flexor explosivity, incline hopping might be a more effective exercise than hopping on a plane surface.

  9. Metal cutting analogy for establishing Friction Stir Welding process parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Sylvester Allen

    A friction stir weld (FSW) is a solid state joining operation whose processing parameters are currently determined by lengthy trial and error methods. To implement FSWing rapidly in various applications will require an approach for predicting process parameters based on the physics of the process. Based on hot working conditions for metals, a kinematic model has been proposed for calculating the shear strain and shear strain rates during the FSW process, validation of the proposed model with direct measuring is difficult however. Since the shear strain and shear strain rates predicted for the FSW process, are similar to those predicted in metal cutting, validation of the FSW algorithms with microstructural studies of metal chips may be possible leading to the ability to predict FSW processing parameters.

  10. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

  11. Min-cut segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brian L.; Barrett, William A.; Swingle, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Handwritten tabular documents, such as census, birth, death and marriage records, contain a wealth of information vital to genealogical and related research. Much work has been done in segmenting freeform handwriting, however, segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents is still an unsolved problem. Tabular documents present unique segmentation challenges caused by handwriting overlapping cell-boundaries and other words, both horizontally and vertically, as "ascenders" and "descenders" overlap into adjacent cells. This paper presents a method for segmenting handwriting in tabular documents using a min-cut/max-flow algorithm on a graph formed from a distance map and connected components of handwriting. Specifically, we focus on line, word and first letter segmentation. Additionally, we include the angles of strokes of the handwriting as a third dimension to our graph to enable the resulting segments to share pixels of overlapping letters. Word segmentation accuracy is 89.5% evaluating lines of the data set used in the ICDAR2013 Handwriting Segmentation Contest. Accuracy is 92.6% for a specific application of segmenting first and last names from noisy census records. Accuracy for segmenting lines of names from noisy census records is 80.7%. The 3D graph cutting shows promise in segmenting overlapping letters, although highly convoluted or overlapping handwriting remains an ongoing challenge.

  12. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PLANING MILL. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. densityCut: an efficient and versatile topological approach for automatic clustering of biological data

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jiarui; Shah, Sohrab; Condon, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Many biological data processing problems can be formalized as clustering problems to partition data points into sensible and biologically interpretable groups. Results: This article introduces densityCut, a novel density-based clustering algorithm, which is both time- and space-efficient and proceeds as follows: densityCut first roughly estimates the densities of data points from a K-nearest neighbour graph and then refines the densities via a random walk. A cluster consists of points falling into the basin of attraction of an estimated mode of the underlining density function. A post-processing step merges clusters and generates a hierarchical cluster tree. The number of clusters is selected from the most stable clustering in the hierarchical cluster tree. Experimental results on ten synthetic benchmark datasets and two microarray gene expression datasets demonstrate that densityCut performs better than state-of-the-art algorithms for clustering biological datasets. For applications, we focus on the recent cancer mutation clustering and single cell data analyses, namely to cluster variant allele frequencies of somatic mutations to reveal clonal architectures of individual tumours, to cluster single-cell gene expression data to uncover cell population compositions, and to cluster single-cell mass cytometry data to detect communities of cells of the same functional states or types. densityCut performs better than competing algorithms and is scalable to large datasets. Availability and Implementation: Data and the densityCut R package is available from https://bitbucket.org/jerry00/densitycut_dev. Contact: condon@cs.ubc.ca or sshah@bccrc.ca or jiaruid@cs.ubc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153661

  14. Segmentation of the thalamus in multi-spectral MR images using a combination of atlas-based and gradient graph cut methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datteri, Ryan; Barillot, Christian; Dawant, Benoit M.; Lecoeur, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    Two popular segmentation methods used today are atlas based and graph cut based segmentation techniques. The atlas based method deforms a manually segmented image onto a target image, resulting in an automatic segmentation. The graph cut segmentation method utilizes the graph cut paradigm by treating image segmentation as a max-flow problem. A specialized form of this algorithm was developed by Lecoeur et al [1], called the spectral graph cut algorithm. The goal of this paper is to combine both of these methods, creating a more stable atlas based segmentation algorithm that is less sensitive to the initial manual segmentation. The registration algorithm is used to automate and initialize the spectral graph cut algorithm as well as add needed spatial information, while the spectral graph cut algorithm is used to increase the robustness of the atlas method. To calculate the sensitivity of the algorithms, the initial manual segmentation of the atlas was both dilated and eroded 2 mm and the segmentation results were calculated. Results show that the atlas based segmentation segments the thalamus well with an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 0.87. The spectral graph cut method shows similar results with an average DSC measure of 0.88, with no statistical difference between the two methods. The atlas based method's DSC value, however, was reduced to 0.76 and 0.67 when dilated and eroded respectively, while the combined method retained a DSC value of 0.81 and 0.74, with a statistical difference found between the two methods.

  15. Combinatorial Intricacies of Labeled Fano Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniga, Metod

    2016-08-01

    Given a seven-element set $X = \\{1,2,3,4,5,6,7\\}$, there are 30 ways to define a Fano plane on it. Let us call a line of such Fano plane, that is to say an unordered triple from $X$, ordinary or defective according as the sum of two smaller integers from the triple is or is not equal to the remaining one, respectively. A point of the labeled Fano plane is said to be of order $s$, $0 \\leq s \\leq 3$, if there are $s$ {\\it defective} lines passing through it. With such structural refinement in mind, the 30 Fano planes are shown to fall into eight distinct types. Out of the total of 35 lines, nine ordinary lines are of five different kinds, whereas the remaining 26 defective lines yield as many as ten distinct types. It is shown, in particular, that no labeled Fano plane can have all points of zeroth order, or feature just one point of order two. A connection with prominent configurations in Steiner triple systems is also pointed out.

  16. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  17. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  18. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  19. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (n = 93).

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A C J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in J Autism Dev Disord 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off resembled the original algorithm ASD cut-off: highly specific for psychopathy and controls, lower sensitivity than Hus and Lord (2014; i.e. ASD .61, AD .53). The revised algorithm AD cut-off improved sensitivity over the original algorithm. Discriminating ASD from schizophrenia was still challenging, but the better-balanced sensitivity (.53) and specificity (.78) of the revised algorithm AD cut-off may aide clinicians' differential diagnosis. Findings support using the revised algorithm, being conceptually conform the other modules, thus improving comparability across the lifespan.

  20. Discrete element thermomechanical modelling of rock cutting with valuation of tool wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojek, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents a thermomechanical discrete element model of rock cutting process. The thermomechanical formulation of the discrete element method considers mechanical and thermal phenomena and their reciprocal influence. The thermal model developed for transient heat conduction problems takes into account conductive heat transfer at the contact between particles and convection on the free surface. The thermal and mechanical problems are coupled by consideration of: (1) heat generated due to friction which is calculated in the mechanical problem and passed to the thermal solution, (2) influence of thermal expansion on mechanical interaction between particles. Estimation of temperature dependent wear has been included into the contact model. The coupled problem is solved using the staggered scheme.The thermomechanical algorithm has been implemented in a discrete element program and applied to simulation of rock cutting with single pick of a dredge cutter head. Numerical results confirm good performance of the developed algorithm.

  1. Fabrication of low cost cutting wheel via thermal spray process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anasyida, A. S.; Nurulakmal, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study is mainly focused on development of metal cutting wheel. The process involved hard particles (abrasives) being bonded on the wheel to enhance the cutting capability by thermal spraying process and followed by polymer bonding. The purpose of this work is to produce low cost cutting wheel and study the performance of cutting behavior. Two different types of powders; silicon carbide (SiC) as bonding agent and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) as abrasives were used. Wear loss and depth of cut as function of load, cutting time and cutting speed were evaluated. The results showed that the speed and load were the main factors that affected the cutting efficiency and the optimum cutting process can be performed at low cutting speed and high load or at high cutting speed and low load.

  2. Plane-wave expansion method for calculating band structure of photonic crystal slabs with perfectly matched layers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shouyuan; Chen, Caihua; Prather, Dennis W

    2004-09-01

    We present a new algorithm for calculation of the band structure of photonic crystal slabs. This algorithm combines the plane-wave expansion method with perfectly matched layers for the termination of the computational region in the direction out of the plane. In addition, the effective-medium tensor is applied to improve convergence. A general complex eigenvalue problem is then obtained. Two criteria are presented to distinguish the guided modes from the PML modes. As such, this scheme can accurately determine the band structure both above and below the light cone. The convergence of the algorithm presented has been studied. The results obtained by using this algorithm have been compared with those obtained by the finite-difference time-domain method and found to agree very well.

  3. Detection of moving objects in image plane for robot navigation using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Tien; Sun, Chung-Hsun; Chiou, Ming-Jang

    2012-12-01

    This article presents an algorithm for moving object detection (MOD) in robot visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This MOD algorithm is designed based on the defining epipolar constraint for the corresponding feature points on image plane. An essential matrix obtained using the state estimator is utilized to represent the epipolar constraint. Meanwhile, the method of speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is employed in the algorithm to provide a robust detection for image features as well as a better description of landmarks and of moving objects in visual SLAM system. Experiments are carried out on a hand-held monocular camera to verify the performances of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the integration of MOD and SURF is efficient for robot navigating in dynamic environments.

  4. S-Wave Dispersion Relations: Exact Left Hand E-Plane Discontinuity from the Born Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bessis, D.; Temkin, A.

    1999-01-01

    We show, for a superposition of Yukawa potentials, that the left hand cut discontinuity in the complex E plane of the (S-wave) scattering amplitude is given exactly, in an interval depending on n, by the discontinuity of the Born series stopped at order n. This also establishes an inverse and unexpected correspondence of the Born series at positive high energies and negative low energies. We can thus construct a viable dispersion relation (DR) for the partial (S-) wave amplitude. The high numerical precision achievable by the DR is demonstrated for the exponential potential at zero scattering energy. We also briefly discuss the extension of our results to Field Theory.

  5. Out of plane analysis for composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, P. C.; Saff, C. R.; Sanger, Kenneth B.; Mahler, M. A.; Kan, Han Pin; Kautz, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    Simple two dimensional analysis techniques were developed to aid in the design of strong joints for integrally stiffened/bonded composite structures subjected to out of plane loads. It was found that most out of plane failures were due to induced stresses arising from rapid changes in load path direction or geometry, induced stresses due to changes in geometry caused by buckling, or direct stresses produced by fuel pressure or bearing loads. While the analysis techniques were developed to address a great variety of out of plane loading conditions, they were primarily derived to address the conditions described above. The methods were developed and verified using existing element test data. The methods were demonstrated using the data from a test failure of a high strain wingbox that was designed, built, and tested under a previous program. Subsequently, a set of design guidelines were assembled to assist in the design of safe, strong integral composite structures using the analysis techniques developed.

  6. Electromagnetic diffraction by plane reflection diffraction gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocker, R. P.; Marathay, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    A plane wave theory was developed to study electromagnetic diffraction by plane reflection diffraction gratings of infinite extent. A computer program was written to calculate the energy distribution in the various orders of diffraction for the cases when the electric or magnetic field vectors are parallel to the grating grooves. Within the region of validity of this theory, results were in excellent agreement with those in the literature. Energy conservation checks were also made to determine the region of validity of the plane wave theory. The computer program was flexible enough to analyze any grating profile that could be described by a single value function f(x). Within the region of validity the program could be used with confidence. The computer program was used to investigate the polarization and blaze properties of the diffraction grating.

  7. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  8. Optimal plane change by low aerodynamic forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinh, Nguyen X.; Ma, Der-Ming

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the exact dimensionless equations of motion and the necessary conditions for the computation of the optimal trajectories of a hypervelocity vehicle flying through a nonrotating spherical planetary atmosphere. It is shown that there are two types of maneuvers with nearly identical plane change. In the hard maneuver, the vehicle is pulled down to low altitude for aerodyamic plane change before exit at the prescribed final speed. In the slow maneuver which is described in detail in this paper, the vehicle remains in orbital flight with a small incremental plane change during each passage through the perigee. This maneuver requires several revolutions, and the technique for computation is similar to that in the problem of contraction of orbit.

  9. Turbulent boundary layers over nonstationary plane boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, A. T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of predicting integral parameters and skin-friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers developing over moving-ground-planes are evaluated using test information from three different wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These data include test information from the VSTOL tunnel which is presented for the first time. The three methods evaluated were: (1) relative integral parameter method, (2) relative power law method, and (3) modified law of the wall method. Methods (1) and (2) can be used to predict moving-ground-plane shape factors with an expected accuracy of + or - 10%. They may also be used to predict moving-ground-plane displacement and momentum thicknesses with lower expected accuracy. This decrease in accuracy can be traced to the failure of approximations upon which these methods are based to prove universal when compared with VSTOL tunnel test results.

  10. A miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuqing; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Gai; Pan, Yi; Li, Qiang

    2004-12-01

    This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system (RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.

  11. Are rotating planes of satellite galaxies ubiquitous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, John I.; Cooper, Michael C.; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We compare the dynamics of satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to simple models in order to test the hypothesis that a large fraction of satellites corotate in coherent planes. We confirm the previously reported excess of corotating satellite pairs located near diametric opposition with respect to their host, but show that this signal is unlikely to be due to rotating discs (or planes) of satellites. In particular, no overabundance of corotating satellites pairs is observed within ˜20°-50° of direct opposition, as would be expected for planar distributions inclined relative to the line of sight. Instead, the excess corotation for satellite pairs within ˜10° of opposition is consistent with random noise associated with undersampling of an underlying isotropic velocity distribution. Based upon the observed dynamics of the luminous satellite population, we conclude that at most 10 per cent of isolated hosts harbour corotating satellite planes (as traced by bright satellites).

  12. Prediction of heat transfer to a thin liquid film in plane and radially spreading flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W. L.; Swanson, T. D.

    1990-01-01

    The energy equation is incorporated in the solution algorithm of Rahman et al. (1990) to compute the heat transfer to a thin film in the presence or absence of gravity. For a plane flow under zero gravity, it is found that, for both isothermal and uniformly heated walls, the heat transfer coefficient gradually decreases downstream, with Nu-asterisk (the Nusselt number in terms of film height) remaining approximately constant except for regions very close to the entrance. In the case of radial flow under zero gravity, Nu-asterisk is found to decrease monotonically when the plane is uniformly heated. Two different flow regimes are identified in the presence of gravity for both plane and radial flows. The results of the study may be applicable to the design of space-based cooling systems.

  13. Note: A novel integrated microforce measurement system for plane-plane contact research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Rostoucher, D.; Gauthier, M.

    2010-11-01

    The evaluation of plane-plane contact force has become a big issue in micro-/nano research, for example in microassembly. However with the lack of effective experimental equipments, the research on plane-plane contact has been limited to theoretical formulations or virtual simulation. In this paper, a microforce sensor and precision parallel robot integrated system is proposed for the microforce measurement of plane-plane contact. In the proposed system, the two objects are fixed on the parallel robot end-platform and the microforce sensor probe tip, respectively, and the high precision robot system is employed to provide six degree-of-freedom motions between both objects. So it is convenient for the microforce measurement between the planar objects with different orientations. As a significant application, the proposed system is utilized for measurements of pull-off force between planar objects, in which the validation of the system is demonstrated in practice. The proposed microforce measurement system is generic, which can be extended to a variety of microforce measurements in plane-plane contact.

  14. Universal adaptive λ tracker for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robots moving on a plane in three-dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Alicja

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a universal adaptive (lambda) -tracking control algorithm for wheeled mobile robots moving on the plane in the 3D space. The introduce control algorithm maybe considered as a dynamic version of the PD controller requiring only a knowledge of the robot kinematics. This controller preserves the convergence of the position tracking error of mobile robots to the ball of radius (lambda) > 0, where (lambda) is arbitrary but prespecified. Theoretical considerations are illustrated with simulations.

  15. Hyperspectral modeling of an infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) are increasingly used to measure multi- or hyperspectral images. Therefore, it is crucial to control and modelize their spectral response. The purpose of this paper is to propose a modeling approach, adjustable by experimental data, and applicable to the main cooled detector technologies. A physical model is presented, taking into account various optogeometrical properties of the detector, such as disparities of the pixels cut-off wavelengths. It describes the optical absorption phenomenon inside the pixel, by considering it as a stack of optical bulk layers. Then, an analytical model is proposed, based on the interference phenomenon occurring into the structure. This model considers only the three major waves interfering. It represents a good approximation of the physical model and a complementary understanding of the optical process inside the structure. This approach is applied to classical cooled FPAs as well as to specific instruments such as Microspoc (MICRO SPectrometer On Chip), a concept of miniaturized infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, integrated on a classical Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride FPA, and cooled by a cryostat.

  16. Hybrid Extrinsic Silicon Focal Plane Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerrenig, D. H.; Meinhardt, T.; Lowe, J.

    1981-02-01

    Large-area focal planes require mechanical assembly techniques which must be compatible with optical alignment, minimum deadspace, and cryogenic requirements in order to achieve optimum performance. Hybrid extrinsic silicon has been found particularly suitable for such an application. It will be shown that by choosing a large-area extrinsic silicon detector array which is hybrid-mated to a multiplicity of multiplexers a very cost-effective and high-density focal plane module can be assembled. Other advantages of this approach are inherent optical alignment and excellent performance.

  17. Trajectory optimization for the national aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    During the past six months the research objectives outlined in the last semi-annual report were accomplished. Specifically, these are: three-dimensional (3-D) fuel-optimal ascent trajectory of the aerospace plane and the effects of thrust vectoring control (TVC) on the fuel consumption and trajectory shaping were investigated; the maximum abort landing area (footprint) was studied; preliminary assessment of simultaneous design of the ascent trajectory and the vehicle configuration for the aerospace plane was also conducted. The work accomplished in the reporting period is summarized.

  18. Horizons and plane waves: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-11-06

    We review the attempts to construct black hole/string solutions in asymptotically plane wave spacetimes. First, we demonstrate that geometries admitting a covariantly constant null Killing vector cannot admit event horizons, which implies that pp-waves can't describe black holes. However, relaxing the symmetry requirements allows us to generate solutions which do possess regular event horizons while retaining the requisite asymptotic properties. In particular, we present two solution generating techniques and use them to construct asymptotically plane wave black string/brane geometries.

  19. Computer Model Of Focal Plane Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thvedt, Tom A.; Willoughby, Charles T.; Salcido, Michael M.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1987-11-01

    This paper presents a computer program for simulation of an infrared focal plane array. Standard equations are used to support a menu driven program developed for an IBM personal computer. The terms and equations for each section are presented and samples of actual screen displays of a currently available device are also included. The program is intended to provide the user with a better capability to understand and to study the tradeoffs of fabrication parameters versus the focal plane array performance (i.e. CTE, both spatial and temporal dynamic range, MTF, and noise) used for an optical sensor system analysis. Only surface channel devices are considered in the simulation.

  20. Adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm for point-based rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping P.

    2015-03-01

    Surgical simulation is a major application in computer graphics and virtual reality, and most of the existing work indicates that interactive real-time cutting simulation of soft tissue is a fundamental but challenging research problem in virtual surgery simulation systems. More specifically, it is difficult to achieve a fast enough graphic update rate (at least 30 Hz) on commodity PC hardware by utilizing traditional triangle-based rendering algorithms. In recent years, point-based rendering (PBR) has been shown to offer the potential to outperform the traditional triangle-based rendering in speed when it is applied to highly complex soft tissue cutting models. Nevertheless, the PBR algorithms are still limited in visual quality due to inherent contrast distortion. We propose an adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm as a postprocessing module for PBR, providing high visual rendering quality as well as acceptable rendering efficiency. Our approach is based on a perceptible image quality technique with automatic parameter selection, resulting in a visual quality comparable to existing conventional PBR algorithms. Experimental results show that our adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm produces encouraging results both visually and numerically compared to representative algorithms, and experiments conducted on the latest hardware demonstrate that the proposed PBR framework with the postprocessing module is superior to the conventional PBR algorithm and that the proposed contrast enhancement algorithm can be utilized in (or compatible with) various variants of the conventional PBR algorithm.

  1. Electrical impedance tomography method for reconstruction of biological tissues with continuous plane-stratification.

    PubMed

    Dolgin, M; Einziger, P D

    2006-01-01

    A novel electrical impedance tomography method is introduced for reconstruction of layered biological tissues with continuous plane-stratification. The algorithm implements the recently proposed reconstruction scheme for piecewise constant conductivity profiles, based on an improved Prony method in conjunction with Legendre polynomial expansion (LPE). It is shown that the proposed algorithm is capable of successfully reconstructing continuous conductivity profiles with moderate (WKB) slop. Features of the presented reconstruction scheme include, an inherent linearity, achieved by the linear LPE transform, a locality feature, assigning analytically to each spectral component a local electrical impedance associated with a unique location, and effective performance even in the presence of noisy measurements.

  2. Image registration under translation and rotation in two-dimensional planes using Fourier slice theorem.

    PubMed

    Pohit, M; Sharma, J

    2015-05-10

    Image recognition in the presence of both rotation and translation is a longstanding problem in correlation pattern recognition. Use of log polar transform gives a solution to this problem, but at a cost of losing the vital phase information from the image. The main objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm based on Fourier slice theorem for measuring the simultaneous rotation and translation of an object in a 2D plane. The algorithm is applicable for any arbitrary object shift for full 180° rotation.

  3. Plasma Cutting and Carbon-Arc Cutting. Welding Module 8. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching the two units of a module in operating plasma cutting and carbon-arc cutting equipment. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The materials included in the module have been…

  4. Effect of Cutting Velocity / Stem Size on the Efficiency of NRCRI Cassave Stem Cutting Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikejiofor, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The developed NRCRI (National Root Crops Research Institute) cassava stem cutting machine was evaluated. The cassava stems from the variety TME 419 were used. The sizes of the stem used were 1.8, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.6cm. Also, different cutting velocities of 1.20, 1.23 and 1.32m/s were used. The stakes produced has length of 2.5cm. Analysis of variance in RCBD was used to evaluate the effect of the cutting velocity and the stem size on the efficiency of the cutting machine. The result of the analysis showed that the cutting velocity had very highly significant effect, while the stem size had no significant effect at 5% level on the efficiency of the cutting machine. The data obtained also showed that the highest and least cutting efficiencies of 99.42 and 94.71% were obtained with the machine cutting velocities of 1.2 and 1.32m/s respectively.

  5. Rationalizing IT Rationing: 10 Ways to Cut the IT Budget (and What Not to Cut)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Whether because of falling stock values affecting institutional endowments, cutbacks in state spending, or declines in private giving, higher education has reduced spending, and information technology (IT) organizations have participated in the budget cuts. This is the tale of one institution's quest to cut technology costs while maintaining a…

  6. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  7. Optimisation Of The Cutting Up Of A Strip Of Float Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Clerck, G.; Renard, G.; Smets, J.; Stappaerts, P.; Glaverbel, S. A.

    1986-07-01

    A description is given of an installation which makes it Possible to manage the cutting into Plates of float glass emerging from the annealing tunnel of a production unit, taking account of the pre-established quality criteria and the requirements imposed by the order book. This unit comprises first of all a device for detecting volume defects, based on scanning of the strip by a laser beam, which makes it possible to obtain, in real time, an electronic image of a section of the strip, showing the position and dimensions of the various defects. Secondly, this image is used in a data processing device which allocates to it an optimisation algorithm which Provides an optimal cutting diagram taking account of all the quality characteristics and the reauirements of orders. All the onerations are carried out fairly quickly, so that the cutting un can be controlled by the computer which, by another route, also controls sending of the cut sheets to the various packing stations, each corresponding to a different customer. Finally, this same computer checks the actual packaging of the cut sheets of glass.

  8. Algorithmic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, W.

    1990-12-13

    In this paper complex adaptive systems are defined by a self- referential loop in which objects encode functions that act back on these objects. A model for this loop is presented. It uses a simple recursive formal language, derived from the lambda-calculus, to provide a semantics that maps character strings into functions that manipulate symbols on strings. The interaction between two functions, or algorithms, is defined naturally within the language through function composition, and results in the production of a new function. An iterated map acting on sets of functions and a corresponding graph representation are defined. Their properties are useful to discuss the behavior of a fixed size ensemble of randomly interacting functions. This function gas'', or Turning gas'', is studied under various conditions, and evolves cooperative interaction patterns of considerable intricacy. These patterns adapt under the influence of perturbations consisting in the addition of new random functions to the system. Different organizations emerge depending on the availability of self-replicators.

  9. Development of a Numerical Model for Orthogonal Cutting. Discussion about the Sensitivity to Friction Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Juan, M.; de la Iglesia, J. M.; Martín, O.; Santos, F. J.

    2009-11-01

    In despite of the important progresses achieved in the knowledge of cutting processes, the study of certain aspects has undergone the very limitations of the experimental means: temperature gradients, frictions, contact, etc… Therefore, the development of numerical models is a valid tool as a first approach to study of those problems. In the present work, a calculation model under Abaqus Explicit code is developed to represent the orthogonal cutting of AISI 4140 steel. A bidimensional simulation under plane strain conditions, which is considered as adiabatic due to the high speed of the material flow, is chosen. The chip separation is defined by means of a fracture law that allows complex simulations of tool penetration in the workpiece. The strong influence of friction on cutting is proved, therefore a very good definition of materials behaviour laws could be obtained, but an erroneous value of friction coefficient could notably reduce the reliability. Considering the difficulty of checking the friction models used in the simulation, from the tests carried out habitually, the most efficacious way to characterize the friction would be to combine simulation models with cutting tests.

  10. Spectral responses of gyrotropic chiral sculptured thin films to obliquely incident plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, Matthew D.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Polo, John A., Jr.

    Gyrotropic chiral sculptured thin films (STFs) exhibit optical activity due to their structural chirality, local anisotropy, and magneto-optic gyrotropy. We adapted two algorithms for nongyrotopic chiral STFs to investigate the circular-polarization-sensitivity of gyrotropic chiral STFs to incident plane waves. The impacts of gyrotropy and oblique angles of incidence on the reflectances and the transmittances were examined, and several conclusions drawn. In particular, we found that the incorporation of gyrotropy results in a blueshift of the Bragg regime.

  11. A plane stress finite element model for elastic-plastic mode I/II crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mark Anthony

    A finite element program has been developed to perform quasi-static, elastic-plastic crack growth simulations. The model provides a general framework for mixed-mode I/II elastic-plastic fracture analysis using small strain assumptions and plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric finite elements. Cracks are modeled explicitly in the mesh. As the cracks propagate, automatic remeshing algorithms delete the mesh local to the crack tip, extend the crack, and build a new mesh around the new tip. State variable mapping algorithms transfer stresses and displacements from the old mesh to the new mesh. The von Mises material model is implemented in the context of a non-linear Newton solution scheme. The fracture criterion is the critical crack tip opening displacement, and crack direction is predicted by the maximum tensile stress criterion at the crack tip. The implementation can accommodate multiple curving and interacting cracks. An additional fracture algorithm based on nodal release can be used to simulate fracture along a horizontal plane of symmetry. A core of plane strain elements can be used with the nodal release algorithm to simulate the triaxial state of stress near the crack tip. Verification and validation studies compare analysis results with experimental data and published three-dimensional analysis results. Fracture predictions using nodal release for compact tension, middle-crack tension, and multi-site damage test specimens produced accurate results for residual strength and link-up loads. Curving crack predictions using remeshing/mapping were compared with experimental data for an Arcan mixed-mode specimen. Loading angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were analyzed. The maximum tensile stress criterion was able to predict the crack direction and path for all loading angles in which the material failed in tension. Residual strength was also accurately predicted for these cases.

  12. SIGPI. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patenaude, C.J.

    1992-01-13

    SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependent components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.

  13. SIGPI. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patenaude, C.J.

    1992-01-14

    SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependent components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.

  14. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOEpatents

    Tench, R.J.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Balooch, M.; Balhorn, R.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1995-10-31

    Instrumentation and techniques are described to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution. This instrument and method are also used to cut-off identified parts of objects, to move around and manipulate the cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM. The plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring the hardness of materials. 10 figs.

  15. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance.

    2000-02-21

    Version 00 SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependentmore » components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.« less

  16. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO{sub 2} is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO{sub 2} and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO{sub 2

  17. Cutting fluid study for single crystal silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chargin, D.

    1998-05-05

    An empirical study was conducted to evaluate cutting fluids for Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) of single crystal silicon. The pH of distilled waster was adjusted with various additives the examine the effect of pH on cutting operations. Fluids which seemed to promote ductile cutting appeared to increase tool wear as well, an undesirable tradeoff. High Ph sodium hydroxide solutions showed promise for further research, as they yielded the best combination of reduced tool wear and good surface finish in the ductile regime. Negative rake tools were verified to improve the surface finish, but the negative rake tools used in the experiments also showed much higher wear than conventional 0{degree} rake tools. Effects of crystallographic orientation on SPDT, such as star patterns of fracture damage forming near the center of the samples, were observed to decrease with lower feedrates. Silicon chips were observed and photographed, indicative of a ductile materials removal process.

  18. Approaches to cutting/packing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Arenales, M.; Morabito, R.

    1994-12-31

    Cutting and Packing Problems (CPP) consist of geometrically combining ordered pieces into large objects such that an objective function is optimized. Depending on the number of dimensions involved, we may have one-dimensional CPP (e.g. Bin Packing Problem), two-dimensional CPP (e.g. Pallet Loading Problem), three-dimensional CPP (e.g. Container Loading Problem), and so on. The authors proposed a solution approach to two-dimensional guillotine cutting problems, and extended it to constrained three-dimensional problems. This approach, based on an and/or-graph representation of the solution space, can also be applied to non-guillotine cutting problems. This present work unifies and generalizes the previous ones.

  19. Clustering Fiber Traces Using Normalized Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Anders; Knutsson, Hans; Park, Hae-Jeong; Shenton, Martha E.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for unsupervised segmentation of white matter fiber traces obtained from diffusion weighted MRI data. Fiber traces are compared pairwise to create a weighted undirected graph which is partitioned into coherent sets using the normalized cut (N cut) criterion. A simple and yet effective method for pairwise comparison of fiber traces is presented which in combination with the N cut criterion is shown to produce plausible segmentations of both synthetic and real fiber trace data. Segmentations are visualized as colored stream-tubes or transformed to a segmentation of voxel space, revealing structures in a way that looks promising for future explorative studies of diffusion weighted MRI data. PMID:20209048

  20. Homicidal Cut Throat: The Forensic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Samaraweera, Jeewana C

    2016-01-01

    The forensic pathologists have a challenging task during the ascertainment of the manner of death in cut throat injuries when presented with no proper history or witnesses. We report a rare homicide, where a person was killed by the father of his gay partner. A 51-year-old married man was found dead in his car on the driving seat at a road. There were blood stains on the dash board and windscreen. No weapon had been recovered. At autopsy, a deep, oblique, long incised injury was found on the front of the neck. There were no hesitant or defense injuries. The cause of death was cut throat. The findings were compatible with a homicidal cut throat by a right handed person from behind after head being restrained firmly. Findings were compatible with the history provided by the suspect. PMID:27134896

  1. Flow stress model in metal cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the plastic deformation that occurs in metal cutting, based on dislocation mechanics, is presented. The model explains the fundamental deformation structure that develops during machining and is based on the well known Cottrell-Stokes Law, wherein the flow stress is partitioned into two parts; an athermal part which occurs in the shear fronts (or shear bands); and a thermal part which occurs in the lamella regions. The deformation envokes the presence of a cellular dislocation distribution which always exists in the material ahead of the shear process. This 'alien' dislocation distribution either exists in the metal prior to cutting or is produced by the compressive stress field which operates in front of the shear process. The magnitude of the flow stress and direction of the shear are shown to be correlated to the stacking fault energy of the metal being cut. The model is tested with respect to energy consumption rates and found to be consistent with observed values.

  2. Genetic engineering for cut-flower improvement.

    PubMed

    Zuker, A; Tzfira, T; Vainstein, A

    1998-01-01

    The application of modern biotechnological approaches to cut flowers has clearly become instrumental and rewarding for the floriculture industry. In recent years, several gene-transfer procedures have been developed for some of the major commercial cut flowers. Using Agrobactrium or microprojectile bombardment, several basic protocols are now available. However, despite the great progress and interest in gene transfer to these crops, their transformation is routine in only a limited number of laboratories, and its application is still considered to be an "art form". This review summarizes the reported gene-transfer procedures for the main cut-flower crops, with an emphasis on the unique factors of each method and the recent progress in introducing new traits of horticultural interest into these species.

  3. 43 CFR 5463.1 - Time for cutting and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Expiration of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5463.1 Time for cutting and removal. Time for cutting and removal of timber or other... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time for cutting and removal....

  4. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms... outward to minimize the entrance of unfiltered air into the cutting and packaging room. The...

  5. 43 CFR 5463.1 - Time for cutting and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Expiration of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5463.1 Time for cutting and removal. Time for cutting and removal of timber or other... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time for cutting and removal....

  6. 43 CFR 5463.1 - Time for cutting and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Expiration of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5463.1 Time for cutting and removal. Time for cutting and removal of timber or other... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time for cutting and removal....

  7. 43 CFR 5463.1 - Time for cutting and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Expiration of Time for Cutting and Removal § 5463.1 Time for cutting and removal. Time for cutting and removal of timber or other... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time for cutting and removal....

  8. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The latest development in and different aspects of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are reviewed in the book. This book provides all readers, including fresh-cut academic researchers, fresh-cut R&D personnel, and fresh-cut processing engineers, with unique, essential...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting....

  10. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over...

  11. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over...

  12. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over...

  13. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over...

  14. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over...

  15. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms... outward to minimize the entrance of unfiltered air into the cutting and packaging room. The...

  16. Photothermal nanoblade for patterned cell membrane cutting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teslaa, Tara; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    We report a photothermal nanoblade that utilizes a metallic nanostructure to harvest short laser pulse energy and convert it into a highly localized and specifically shaped explosive vapor bubble. Rapid bubble expansion and collapse punctures a lightly-contacting cell membrane via high-speed fluidic flows and induced transient shear stress. The membrane cutting pattern is controlled by the metallic nanostructure configuration, laser pulse polarization, and energy. Highly controllable, sub-micron sized circular hole pairs to half moon-like, or cat-door shaped, membrane cuts were realized in glutaraldehyde treated HeLa cells. PMID:21164656

  17. UK physics hit by fresh funding cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-08-01

    Physicists have reacted angrily to plans by one of the UK's leading research councils to slash funding for a number of key national facilities. The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) will cut support for the Diamond light source and make "reductions in facility operations" at the ISIS neutron source and the Central Laser Facility. STFC chief executive Keith Mason blames the cuts on the fall in the value of the pound, which has led to a 15.1% rise in the STFC's subscriptions to CERN and other international facilities from £214.9m last year to £247.3m in 2009-2010.

  18. Features of plastics edge cutting machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handozhko, A. V.; Shcherbakov, A. N.; Zaharov, L. A.; Gavrilenko, T. V.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the features of pieces from thermoplastic materials in the form of electrical insulators cut by a disk edge tool. The problems in question are possible defects arising during machining and technological conditions that reduce their quantity. The necessity of required machining conditions matching substantiated in accordance with a specific grade of the material which is treated. Equipment and machining attachments, developed for experimental studies, determine the rational conditions of plastic electrical insulators machining. As a result of experiments the dependences of cut face quality parameters of plastics are obtained by machining conditions. The obtained results allowed us to make valid conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Photothermal nanoblade for patterned cell membrane cutting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teslaa, Tara; Teitell, Michael A; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2010-10-25

    We report a photothermal nanoblade that utilizes a metallic nanostructure to harvest short laser pulse energy and convert it into a highly localized and specifically shaped explosive vapor bubble. Rapid bubble expansion and collapse punctures a lightly-contacting cell membrane via high-speed fluidic flows and induced transient shear stress. The membrane cutting pattern is controlled by the metallic nanostructure configuration, laser pulse polarization, and energy. Highly controllable, sub-micron sized circular hole pairs to half moon-like, or cat-door shaped, membrane cuts were realized in glutaraldehyde treated HeLa cells. PMID:21164656

  20. Response to White and Cutting critique.

    PubMed

    Hurlow, J

    2012-04-01

    Response to White and Cutting critique In their letter, published in the March issue of JWC, White and Cutting raised concerns about clinical visualisation of wound biofilm in the absence of a definitive assay or validation of visual observations with microscopic confirmation. While I acknowledge that science plays a critical role in extending our knowledge of the role of biofilm in wound healing, clinicians cannot ignore patients' needs, or the patterns we observe as experts in our practice, while we await such scientific developments.