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Sample records for cv hokkaido red

  1. Population structures of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on the Hokkaido Island, Japan, revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Takuya; Uraguchi, Kohji; Takahashi, Kenichi; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the population structures of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on the Hokkaido Island in Japan, we conducted analysis on 250 foxes from all over the island for 12 microsatellite loci. Assignment tests using the genotype data set showed that they were divided into 6 subpopulations. Of the 6, one was geographically isolated in the southern region and considered definitive subpopulation, whereas the other 5 were not. The slight differences among the latter 5 subpopulations were explained by the high adaptability and long dispersal of the red fox on the Hokkaido Island. Although there are few ecological data to explain the genetic differentiation of the southern population, we have proposed some hypotheses from the present ecological and geohistorical viewpoints. One convincing reason from the ecological viewpoint is the restriction of gene flow to southern Hokkaido from other areas due to geographical isolation resulting from the land shape. The other explanation is the geohistorical division of southern Hokkaido from other regions on the island during the last interglacial age, resulting in the isolation of the fox population.

  2. Persistent organic pollutants in red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) from Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Tsukue, Naomi; Yoshino, Tomoo; Matsumoto, Fumio; Nakano, Takeshi; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) from eastern Hokkaido is classified as a Special Natural Monument in Japan. In this study, we determined the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in red-crowned crane muscle tissues (n = 47). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had the highest median concentration (240ng/g lipid weight), followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) (150ng/g lipid weight), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs) (36ng/g lipid weight), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (16ng/g lipid weight), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (4.4ng/g lipid weight), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (1.8ng/g lipid weight), and finally, Mirex (1.5ng/g lipid weight). Additionally, a positive correlation was found among POP concentrations. No sex differences beyond body parameters were observed. Additionally, red-crowned cranes exhibited a high enantiomeric excess of (+)-alpha-HCH, with enantiomer fractions varying from 0.51 to 0.87 (average: 0.69). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation properties of inorganic mercury and organic mercury in the red-crowned crane Grus japonensis in east Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Okamoto, Erika; Kudo, Moe; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Endo, Tetsuya; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo

    2015-12-01

    The red-crowned (Japanese) crane Grus japonensis is native to east Hokkaido, Japan, in contrast to the East Asia mainland. Previously, we reported that red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury in the 1990s and that the contamination rapidly decreased to a moderate level in the 2000s. In the present study, we determined levels of organic mercury (O-Hg) in the liver and kidney of cranes in east Hokkaido in comparison with levels of total mercury (T-Hg). T-Hg levels in the kidneys were higher than those in the livers in adults but not in subadults and juveniles; however, the reverse was the case for O-Hg even for adults. The ratio of O-Hg to T-Hg in both the liver and kidney decreased as T-Hg increased in the three developmental stages. While the ratios of O-Hg to T-Hg in the liver and kidney of adults were significantly lower than those of juveniles, the ratios were similar for adults and juveniles in a lower range of T-Hg. The ratio of selenium (Se) to T-Hg decreased as T-Hg increased in both the liver and kidney, irrespective of stages. Mercury burdens in feathers were about 59% and 67% of the total body burdens for juveniles and adults, respectively. Furthermore, ratios of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to T-Hg varied greatly, with no relation to mercury level in the liver. The results suggest slow accumulation of inorganic mercury in the kidney of red-crowned cranes in east Hokkaido, Japan.

  4. Hokkaido Genotype of Puumala Virus in the Grey Red-backed Vole (Myodes rufocanus) and Northern Red-backed Vole (Myodes rutilus) in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Yashina, Liudmila N.; Abramov, Sergey A.; Dupal, Tamara A.; Danchinova, Galina A.; Malyshev, Boris S.; Hay, John; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Three species of Myodes voles known to harbor hantaviruses include the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), which serves as the reservoir host of Puumala virus (PUUV), the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe, and the grey red-backed vole (M. rufocanus) and royal vole (M. regulus) which carry two PUUV-like hantaviruses, designated Hokkaido virus (HOKV) and Muju virus (MUJV), respectively. To ascertain the hantavirus harbored by the northern red-backed vole (M. rutilus), we initially screened sera from 233 M. rutilus, as well as from 90 M. rufocanus and 110 M. glareolus, captured in Western and Eastern Siberia during June 2007 to October 2009, for anti-hantaviral antibodies. Thereafter, lung tissues from 44 seropositive voles were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Partial L-, M- and S-segment sequences, detected in M. rutilus and M. rufocanus, were closely related to HOKV, differing from previously published L-, M- and S-segment sequences of HOKV by 17.8–20.2%, 15.9–23.4% and 15.0–17.0% at the nucleotide level and 2.6–7.9%, 1.3–6.3% and 1.2–4.0% at the amino acid level, respectively. Alignment and comparison of hantavirus sequences from M. glareolus trapped in Tiumen Oblast showed very high sequence similarity to the Omsk lineage of PUUV. Phylogenetic analysis, using neighbor-joining, maximal likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that HOKV strains shared a common ancestry with PUUV and exhibited geographic-specific clustering. This report provides the first molecular evidence that both M. rutilus and M. rufocanus harbor HOKV, which might represent a genetic variant of PUUV. PMID:26003760

  5. Hokkaido genotype of Puumala virus in the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus) and northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus) in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Yashina, Liudmila N; Abramov, Sergey A; Dupal, Tamara A; Danchinova, Galina A; Malyshev, Boris S; Hay, John; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Three species of Myodes voles known to harbor hantaviruses include the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), which serves as the reservoir host of Puumala virus (PUUV), the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe, and the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus) and royal vole (Myodes regulus) which carry two PUUV-like hantaviruses, designated Hokkaido virus (HOKV) and Muju virus (MUJV), respectively. To ascertain the hantavirus harbored by the northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus), we initially screened sera from 233 M. rutilus, as well as from 90 M. rufocanus and 110 M. glareolus, captured in western and eastern Siberia during June 2007 to October 2009, for anti-hantaviral antibodies. Thereafter, lung tissues from 44 seropositive voles were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Partial L-, M- and S-segment sequences, detected in M. rutilus and M. rufocanus, were closely related to HOKV, differing from previously published L-, M- and S-segment sequences of HOKV by 17.8-20.2%, 15.9-23.4% and 15.0-17.0% at the nucleotide level and 2.6-7.9%, 1.3-6.3% and 1.2-4.0% at the amino acid level, respectively. Alignment and comparison of hantavirus sequences from M. glareolus trapped in Tyumen Oblast showed very high sequence similarity to the Omsk lineage of PUUV. Phylogenetic analysis, using neighbor-joining, maximal likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that HOKV strains shared a common ancestry with PUUV and exhibited geographic-specific clustering. This report provides the first molecular evidence that both M. rutilus and M. rufocanus harbor HOKV, which might represent a genetic variant of PUUV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  7. Refugia in glacial ages led to the current discontinuous distribution patterns of the dark red-backed vole Myodes rex on Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kuniko; Hailer, Frank; de Guia, Anna Pauline; Ichikawa, Hideo; Saitoh, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    The terrestrial mammalian fauna of the North Japanese island, Hokkaido, is more similar to that of Southern Siberia than to the main island of Japan, Honshu. Three species of the genus Myodes (Muridae, Rodentia) are found on Hokkaido, but not on Honshu. While Myodes rufocanus and M. rutilus are widely distributed across Hokkaido as well as the Eurasian continent, M. rex, which is endemic to Hokkaido and its adjacent islands, shows a discontinuous distribution pattern. We analyzed the phylogeographic history of M. rex using the mitochondrial DNA control region in order to interpret their discontinuous distribution pattern. Phylogenetic relationships among 54 distinct haplotypes showed that M. rex can be divided into four clades that occur on the northern, central, and southern regions of the Hokkaido mainland and on Rishiri Island, respectively. The phylogroups in the northern and central regions were largely separated in space, although several areas of sympatry were found. The phylogroup in the southern region, which was clearly separated from other phylogroups, showed markedly low genetic variability. All analyzed individuals from the population on Rishiri belonged to a separate lineage. Across a range of divergence rate estimates, we dated the basal divergence of all phylogroups to the mid to late Pleistocene, with subsequent signals of population expansion within lineages. We conclude that current phylogeographic structure in M. rex likely reflects Pleistocene survival in several separate refugia in situ. Past glacial ages have thus played an important role in shaping the current distribution patterns of mammalian species on Hokkaido.

  8. Isolation of Hokkaido virus, genus Hantavirus, using a newly established cell line derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae).

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Ozaki, Yuka; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    Hantaviruses belong to the family Bunyaviridae and are maintained in wild rodents. Although Vero E6 cells, which originate from African green monkey kidney, are used widely in hantavirus research, isolation of hantaviruses from this cell line is difficult. To develop an efficient method of propagation and isolation of hantaviruses we established a novel cell line, MRK101, derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), the natural host of Hokkaido virus (HOKV). The MRK101 cells showed a significantly higher susceptibility to Puumala virus (PUUV) hosted by Myodes glareolus than Vero E6 cells. Viral nucleocapsid protein in PUUV-infected MRK101 cells was detected earlier than in Vero E6 cells, and the viral titre in the culture fluid of MRK101 cells was higher than that of Vero E6 cells during the early phase of infection. In contrast, MRK101 cells showed no susceptibility to Hantaan virus. HOKV, which has not been isolated to date, was isolated successfully using MRK101 cells. Moreover, the newly isolated HOKV was successfully propagated in MRK101, but not Vero E6, cells. Phylogenic analyses of the S (small), M (medium) and L (large) segment sequences revealed that HOKV is related most closely to PUUV, but is distinct from other hantaviruses. These data suggest that the MRK101 cell line is a useful tool for the isolation and propagation of hantaviruses. Moreover, this is (to our knowledge) the first report of hantavirus isolation in a cell line that originated from the natural host.

  9. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

  10. Odour-active compounds in guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema).

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Bent, Leandra

    2013-09-01

    Solid phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC/MS, aroma extract dilution analysis and odour activity values were used to analyse volatile compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema) and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analysis led to the detection of 141 compounds, 121 of which were positively identified. The composition of guava fruit volatiles included 43 esters, 37 terpenes, 18 aldehydes, 16 alcohols, ten acids, six ketones, four furans and seven miscellaneous compounds. Seventeen odorants were considered as odour-active compounds, with (E)-β-ionone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal and limonene contributing most to the typical guava aroma of this cultivar. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-18

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image.

  12. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  13. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  14. Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

  15. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers

  16. Aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. Meeker (Rubus idaeus L.) red raspberries from Oregon and Washington.

    PubMed

    Klesk, Keith; Qian, Michael; Martin, Robert R

    2004-08-11

    The aromas of cultivar Meeker red raspberry from Oregon and Washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Seventy-five aromas were identified [some tentatively (superscript T)] by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both, and 22 have not been previously reported in red raspberry. Twenty-one compounds had an equivalent odor impact in both: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone, hexanal, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, (E)-beta-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptaneT, 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-2-buten-1-one, ethanoic acid, (Z)-3-hexenalT, 3-methylmercaptopropionaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, 2,6-dimethyl-2,7-octadien-6-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl formateT, 2,3-butanedione, heptanalT, thiacyclopentadieneT, cyclohexane carbaldehydeT, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-olT, and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone. Oregon Meeker had 14 odorants with higher flavor dilution (FD) factors than Washington Meeker: 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-oneT, 1-octanol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dieneT, 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadieneT, ethyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetateT, ethyl propanoate, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanoneT, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl cyclohexane carboxylateT, 2-methylthiacyclopentadieneT, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetateT, and 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-olT. Washington Meeker had 16 odorants with higher FD factors than Oregon Meeker: 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(5H)-furanoneT, dimethyl sulfideT, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanoneT, 1-hexanolT, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl acetateT, methyl hexanoate, phenyl ethanoic acidT, neo-allo-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 2-nonanoneT, 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)propan-2-olT, phenylmethanolT, 5-octanolideT, 2-phenylethanol, 1-isopropyl-4-methylenebicyclo[3.1.0]hexaneT, and 2

  17. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the occurrence of phenylphenalenone-type compounds in red paracytic stomata and red epidermis tissue of Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red'.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Fuchser, Jens; Knop, Katrin; Menezes, Riya C; Buerkert, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The banana epidermis and in particular their stomata are conducive sites for the penetration of pathogenic fungi which can severely limit global banana production. The red pseudostem of the ornamental banana Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red' was used to study the chemical constituents of the epidermal cell layer using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-FT-ICR-MSI). The high resolution of this technique allowed phenylphenalenone-type compounds to be located in single plant cells. Some of these secondary metabolites were identified as constitutive compounds and found in specialized epidermal cells in banana pseudostem tissue. Especially the red paracytic stomata revealed higher signal intensities of certain phenylphenalenones than normal epidermis cells. The ease of detection of polycyclic aromatic compounds on the cellular level is discussed with regard to future investigations of plant-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of betalain extracts from intact plants and hairy root cultures of the red beetroot Beta vulgaris cv. Detroit dark red.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Vasil Georgiev; Weber, Jost; Kneschke, Eva-Maria; Denev, Petko Nedyalkov; Bley, Thomas; Pavlov, Atanas Ivanov

    2010-06-01

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments that are widely used as food colorants, and have a wide range of desirable biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer properties. They can be produced from various plants, notably beetroot, but betalain products obtained in this way also have some undesirable properties and are difficult to standardize. A potentially attractive alternative is to use hairy root cultures. In the study reported here, we found that betalain extracts obtained from hairy root cultures of the red beetroot B. vulgaris cv. Detroit Dark Red also had higher antioxidant activity than extracts obtained from mature beetroots: six-fold higher 2,2-dyphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability (90.7% inhibition, EC(50) = 0.11 mg, vs 14.2% inhibition, EC(50) = 0.70 mg) and 3.28-fold higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (4,100 microM TE/g dry extract, vs 1,250 microM TE/g dry extract). The high antioxidant activity of the hairy root extracts was associated with increased concentrations (more than 20-fold) of total phenolic concomitant compounds, which may have synergistic effects with betalains. The presence of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, catechin hydrate, and epicatechin were detected in both types of extract, but at different concentrations. Rutin was only present at high concentration (1.096 mg.g(-1) dry extract) in betalain extracts from the hairy root cultures, whereas chlorogenic acid was only detected at measurable concentrations in extracts from intact plants.

  19. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ali, Sara E; Hodaya, Rashad H; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Sultani, Haider N; Laub, Annegret; Eissa, Tarek F; Abou-Zaid, Fouad O F; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-05-08

    Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens

  20. Effect of maceration time on free and bound volatiles of red wines from cv. Karaoğlan (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes grown in Arapgir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaztekin, Murat; Kocabey, Nimet; Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan

    2015-03-01

    Skin maceration is an essential winemaking technique that affects sensory properties and aroma of red wines. The aim of this study was to investigate aroma profiles of red wines made from cv. Karaoğlan, a grape variety grown in Arapgir (Malatya, Turkey) and the effect of maceration time (5, 10, and 15 d) on free and bound aroma compounds and sensory properties. Three maceration times were applied in durations of 5, 10, and 15 d. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in Karaoğlan wines, and the effect of different maceration times on aroma composition were evaluated. Results indicate that extended maceration time significantly influenced the aroma composition of wines both qualitatively and quantitatively. A total of 59 free and 22 bound aroma compounds were identified in the final wines. The maximum of free aroma content was achieved with 5 d of maceration, while 15 d of maceration gave the highest amount of glycosidically bound aroma compounds. From sensorial point of view, the wine produced with 10 d of maceration had the best panel score compared to wines with 5 and 15 d of maceration. This is the first study referring to the composition of aroma compounds of red wines made from cv. Karaoğlan. It was concluded that this cultivar resulted in a good quality wine in terms of bound and free aroma compounds. This information of vinification practices that influence the chemical properties of wine is useful for grape growers and winemakers. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Synchrony between flower opening and petal-color change from red to blue in morning glory, Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kumi; Miki, Naoko; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kawachi, Miki; Katou, Kiyoshi; Okazaki, Yoshiji; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Kondo, Tadao

    2009-01-01

    Petal color change in morning glory Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue, from red to blue, during the flower-opening period is due to an unusual increase in vacuolar pH (pHv) from 6.6 to 7.7 in colored epidermal cells. We clarified that this pHv increase is involved in tonoplast-localized Na+/H+ exchanger (NHX). However, the mechanism of pHv increase and the physiological role of NHX1 in petal cells have remained obscure. In this study, synchrony of petal-color change from red to blue, pHv increase, K+ accumulation, and cell expansion growth during flower-opening period were examined with special reference to ItNHX1. We concluded that ItNHX1 exchanges K+, but not Na+, with H+ to accumulate an ionic osmoticum in the vacuole, which is then followed by cell expansion growth. This function may lead to full opening of petals with a characteristic blue color. PMID:19521056

  2. Synchrony between flower opening and petal-color change from red to blue in morning glory, Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kumi; Miki, Naoko; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kawachi, Miki; Katou, Kiyoshi; Okazaki, Yoshiji; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Kondo, Tadao

    2009-01-01

    Petal color change in morning glory Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue, from red to blue, during the flower-opening period is due to an unusual increase in vacuolar pH (pHv) from 6.6 to 7.7 in colored epidermal cells. We clarified that this pHv increase is involved in tonoplast-localized Na+/H+ exchanger (NHX). However, the mechanism of pHv increase and the physiological role of NHX1 in petal cells have remained obscure. In this study, synchrony of petal-color change from red to blue, pHv increase, K+ accumulation, and cell expansion growth during flower-opening period were examined with special reference to ItNHX1. We concluded that ItNHX1 exchanges K+, but not Na+, with H+ to accumulate an ionic osmoticum in the vacuole, which is then followed by cell expansion growth. This function may lead to full opening of petals with a characteristic blue color.

  3. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin.

  4. Bioactive compounds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Cv. Rio Red) respond differently to postharvest irradiation, storage, and freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Vanamala, Jairam; Cobb, Greg; Turner, Nancy D; Lupton, Joanne R; Yoo, Kil Sun; Pike, Leonard M; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2005-05-18

    In the present study, the effect of irradiation, storage, and freeze drying on grapefruit bioactive compounds was investigated. Grapefruits were exposed to one of two irradiation doses: 0 (control) or 300 Gy (137Cs, a proposed treatment against fruit flies) and then stored for up to 6 days. At the last storage time point (6 days after harvest), grapefruit pulp from control and irradiated fruits was freeze-dried. Bioactive compounds were extracted from Rio Red grapefruit pulp and analyzed with reverse phase liquid chromatography while volatile compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography. Freeze-dried pulp from irradiated fruits had a higher (P < or = 0.05) flavonoid content (naringin and narirutin) as compared to the freeze-dried pulp from the control fruits. Freeze-drying treatment reduced (P < or = 0.05) the lycopene content, but the reduction (P < or = 0.05) in beta-carotene content occurred only in the control fruit. Reduction in d-limonene and myrcene was observed in the irradiated fruits at 6 days after harvest and in the freeze-dried samples. These results warrant testing of the effect of postharvest treatments and processing on bioactive compounds in functional systems as they have varied effects on different bioactive compounds of grapefruit.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. "Red Pearl".

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Dayan; Vizoso, Paula; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meneses, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cold storage (CS) can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI) in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2) have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of "Red Pearl" nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh). RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. “Red Pearl”

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Dayan; Vizoso, Paula; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meneses, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cold storage (CS) can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI) in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2) have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of “Red Pearl” nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh). RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits. PMID:26483806

  7. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  8. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio

    PubMed Central

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F.; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  9. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio.

    PubMed

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  10. Identification of genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes in 'Red Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Red) and their expression and melatonin production during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qiong; Wang, Lin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Zhao, Yu; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Hao; Li, Qing-Tian; Zuo, Bi-Xiao; Kong, Jin

    2013-11-01

    Melatonin is present in many edible fruits; however, the presence of melatonin in apple has not previously been reported. In this study, the genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes including tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase were identified in 'Red Fuji' apple. Each gene has several homologous genes. Sequence analysis shows that these genes have little homology with those of animals and they only have limited homology with known genes of rice melatonin synthetic enzymes. Multiple origins of melatonin synthetic genes during the evolution are expected. The expression of these genes is fully coordinated with melatonin production in apple development. Melatonin levels in apple exhibit an inverse relationship with the content of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Two major melatonin synthetic peaks appeared on July 17 and on October 8 in both unbagged and bagged apple samples. At the periods mentioned above, apples experienced rapid expansion and increased respiration. These episodes significantly elevate reactive oxygen species production in the apple. Current data further confirmed that melatonin produced in apple was used to neutralize the toxic oxidants and protect the developing apple against oxidative stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of post-harvest ozone treatments on the skin phenolic extractability of red winegrapes cv Barbera and Nebbiolo (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Paissoni, Maria Alessandra; Río Segade, Susana; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Cravero, Francesco; Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Carboni, Cristian; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Rolle, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Recently the use of ozone as sanitizing agent has been proposed on winegrapes in order to control mycobiota after harvest. The aim of this work was to investigate possible indirect physico-chemical effects of ozone treatment on berry skin phenolic composition and extractability. Vitis vinifera L. cv Nebbiolo and Barbera, chosen for their different anthocyanin profiles, were post-harvest treated for 24 and 72h with gaseous ozone (30μL/L). Skin anthocyanin and flavanol extractability was assessed during maceration (6, 24, 48, 96, 168 and 240h) using a wine-like solution. In our experimental conditions, ozone did not affect significantly the final extraction yield of anthocyanins (TA), proanthocyanidins (PRO), and flavanols reactive to vanillin (FRV) in Barbera, although TA and FRV extractabilities were higher in control samples than in ozone-treated samples during the first stages of maceration. In Nebbiolo, the final TA extraction yield was positively influenced by the ozone treatment (68.6, 64.2, and 59.9% for 24h ozone-treated berries, 72h ozone-treated berries and control samples, respectively). Final PRO and FRV extractability also increased in both ozone-treated samples compared to the control (+8.6-9.1% for PRO and +7.3-11.7% for FRV). No significant differences were found among treatments for individual anthocyanins in both cultivars at the end of maceration. Therefore, the use of ozone as sanitizing agent in red varieties prior to winemaking process can be considered because it did not negatively affect the extractability of skin anthocyanins and flavanols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of red and blue light emitting diodes "CRB-LED" on in vitro organogenesis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Alshakr.

    PubMed

    Al-Mayahi, Ahmed Madi Waheed

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of light source on enhancement of shoot multiplication, phytochemicals, as well as, antioxidant enzyme activities of in vitro cultures of date palm cv. Alshakr. In vitro-grown buds were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and incubated under a conventional white fluorescent light (control), and combinations of red + blue light emitting diode (18:2) (CRB-LED). Results revealed that the treatment of CRB-LED showed a significant increase in the number of shoots compared with the white florescent light. Total soluble carbohydrate "TSCH" (7.10 mg g(-1) DW.), starch (1.63 mg g(-1) DW.) and free amino acids (2.90 mg g(-1) DW.) were significantly higher in CRB-LED (p < 0.05). Additionally, CRB-LED induced a higher peroxidase activity (25.50 U ml(-1)) compared with the white fluorescent light treatment (19.74 U ml(-1)) as control treatment. Potassium, magnesium and sodium contents in (3.62, 13.99 and 2.76 mg g(-1) DW.) were increased in in vitro shoots under CRB-LED treatment in comparison with fluorescent light (p < 0.05). Protein profile showed the appearance of newly bands with the molecular weight of 38 and 60 kDa at the treatment CRB-LED compared with control treatment. Our results demonstrate the positive effects of CRB-LED light during the course of date palm tissue cultures.

  13. Survey of the Hokkaido development project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    As a part of the survey of the Hokkaido development project, geothermal resources and mineral resources are investigated in the north area of Tokachi. The temperature of geothermal water is 45-77 C in the bottom of the mines of which the depth is 1000-1300 m. Application fields of geothermal water are space heating, heat source for fishery facilities, bathing, etc. Presently it is used in 10 bathing places, 10 space heating facilities and 11 agricultural and fishery facilities. It is used mostly for public facilities and will be effective for general house hot water supply and preparation of sightseeing places in the future. As measures for effective utilization, hydrothermal systems used in health community plaza, horticultural greenhouse and general house hot water supply are designed, and great effectness in energy saving and economy is indicated. There exist zeolite deposits which produce 7000 tons/year in the Seta area of Kami-Shihoro-cho surveyed. Minable amount of zeolite in the Kami-Shihoro area is estimated at 800,000 m(sup 3). Production of natural zeolite in Japan is 140,000 tons/year, which is used mostly for agricultural soil conditioner and also for industrial drying, adsorptional separation and water treatment. With the expanding utilization field, it is expected to contribute to activation of the regional economy.

  14. Analysis of NIMBUS-7 SMMR Data. [Hokkaido, Japan snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Takeda, K.; Kozai, K.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements obtained with the SMMR OF NIMBUS-7 over Hokkaido snow field show that the relationship between snow depth and brightness temperature changes when snow depth becomes deeper than 50 cm. Average brightness temperature of the daytime indicates negative correlations with snow depth except for 6.6 GHz channel data which indicates weak positive correlation.

  15. Effects of cluster light exposure on 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine accumulation and degradation patterns in red wine grapes ( Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Cabernet Franc).

    PubMed

    Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Intrigliolo, Diego S; Lakso, Alan N; Sacks, Gavin L

    2008-11-26

    The effects of light exposure on 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) accumulation and degradation in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc berries were assessed by comparison of shaded and exposed clusters within the same vine throughout a growing season. Twenty-seven vines were shoot-thinned to create regions of high and low cluster-light exposure within each vine. Samples were collected at 10 time points starting from 5 to 130 days postbloom. The experimental design allowed for intravine comparison of IBMP levels between treatments at each time. Vine-to-vine variability of IBMP and the correlation of IBMP to malic acid were also evaluated. Cluster exposure reduced accumulation of IBMP at all preveraison time points by 21-44%, but did not increase postveraison degradation. Significant vine-to-vine variability in IBMP content was observed, with the highest level of IBMP in shaded berries in the most vigorous block of vines. Although IBMP concentration by weight decreased significantly due to dilution just prior to color change (veraison), no significant IBMP degradation per berry occurred until after color change (day 70 postbloom). By contrast, malic acid degradation began prior to color change, and malic acid concentrations were not affected by cluster exposure preveraison, but were affected postveraison. A survey of 13 sites in New York state (Seneca Lake) showed that IBMP concentrations at 2 weeks preveraison were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.936, p < 0.0001) to levels at harvest, whereas classic grape maturity indices at harvest were uncorrelated with IBMP at harvest. In summary, light exposure conditions critically influence IBMP accumulation but not IBMP degradation.

  16. Molecular identification of the Cryptosporidium deer genotype in the Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satomi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Matsuyama, Ryota; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2016-04-01

    The protozoan Cryptosporidium occurs in a wide range of animal species including many Cervidae species. Fecal samples collected from the Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), a native deer of Hokkaido, in the central, western, and eastern areas of Hokkaido were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect infections with Cryptosporidium and for sequence analyses to reveal the molecular characteristics of the amplified DNA. DNA was extracted from 319 fecal samples and examined with PCR using primers for small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA), actin, and 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) gene loci. PCR-amplified fragments were sequenced and phylogenetic trees were created. In 319 fecal samples, 25 samples (7.8 %) were positive with SSU-rRNA PCR that were identified as the Cryptosporidium deer genotype. Among Cryptosporidium-positive samples, fawns showed higher prevalence (16.1 %) than yearlings (6.4 %) and adults (4.7 %). The result of Fisher's exact test showed a statistical significance in the prevalence of the Cryptosporidium deer genotype between fawn and other age groups. Sequence analyses with actin and HSP70 gene fragments confirmed the SSU-rRNA result, and there were no sequence diversities observed. The Cryptosporidium deer genotype appears to be the prevalent Cryptosporidium species in the wild sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan.

  17. Characterization, quantification, and yearly variation of the naturally occurring polyphenols in a common red variety of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica cv. 'Redbor').

    PubMed

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2010-11-10

    This study focuses on the characterization and quantification of polyphenols in the edible leaves of red curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), variety 'Redbor F1 hybrid'. The kale was grown at an experimental field (59° 40' N) in the years 2007-2009. The analysis of kale extract by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS has allowed the determination of 47 different acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides and complex hydroxycinnamic acids. Those compounds included mono- to tetraglycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and cyanidin and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid. Among the compounds characterized, four flavonols, three anthocyanins, and three phenolic acids were identified in the Brassica family for the first time. Aglycones and conjugated polyphenols were quantified by HPLC-DAD using commercially available standards. The main flavonol, anthocyanin, and phenolic acid were kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-sinapoyl-feruloyl-diglucoside-5-glucoside, and disinapoyl-diglucoside, respectively, each representing 9.8, 10.3, and 4.9% of the total amount of 872 mg polyphenol equivalents per 100 g of fresh kale. Variations between individual plants and growing seasons were of the same order of magnitude for total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanins.

  18. Antioxidant profile and in vitro cardiac radical-scavenging versus pro-oxidant effects of commercial red grape juices ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aglianico N.).

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Manfra, Michele; Stiuso, Paola; Coppola, Luigi; Russo, Mariateresa; Gomez Monterrey, Isabel Maria; Campiglia, Pietro

    2012-09-26

    Several works have reported on the pharmaceutical usefulness of grape phytochemicals. Nevertheless, the scientific literature needs further studies to consider grape extracts as useful dietary supplements. The aim of the present work was to hypothesize for the first time the use of whole commercial red grape juices as food supplements potentially useful against both physiological and induced cardiac oxidative stress. First of all, the results indicated a good antioxidant stability of the juice sample to lyophilization that may be reasonably regarded as a suitable process for the formulation of food supplements. Then, the processed sample (lioRGJ) was tested on cardiac-derived H9C2 myocytes to ascertain its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and caspase-3 activity incubating cardiomyocytes with lioRGJ at increasing doses (0.01-1 μg). Experiments showed an appreciable direct radical-scavenging activity at a maximum sample dose of 0.01 μg that made the caspase-3 activity decrease by about 47% (P < 0.001). Cardiac cells were exposed to 1 μM doxorubicin and its combination with different doses of lioRGJ. A maximum sample aliquot of 0.01 μg seemed to effectively contrast the induced oxidant injury, decreasing the ROS levels by about 31% and depressing the caspase-3 activity by about 60% (P < 0.001). In both assays, pro-oxidant effects at higher sample concentrations were detected as indicated by the increase in both ROS generation and apoptotic activity. The data suggested the possible employment of the juice sample as a food supplement with prospective cardioprotective benefits, although further studies are needed to optimize its dosages to avoid harmful pro-oxidant effects.

  19. Effects of pH, sample size, and solvent partitioning on recovery of soluble phenolic acids and isoflavonoids in leaves and stems of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland).

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A

    2011-11-01

    Several extraction parameters were tested to determine optimal conditions for extracting phenolics from leaves and stems of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. Kenland), with the goal of using extracts in bioassays and in assessment of phenolic profiles. HPLC-UV profiles were compared before and after partitioning a methanolic extract of soluble phenolics with ethyl acetate-ethyl ether (1:1, v/v). The effect of extract pH on the partitioning of phenolics into the ethyl acetate-ethyl ether (EtOAc-Et2O) phase was evaluated, and several tissue weights were extracted to determine a minimum amount that could be extracted without loss of information. HPLC profiles of soluble phenolics were similar in the methanolic extracts and the partitioned EtOAc-Et2O extracts. However, recoveries in unpartitioned extracts were 2- to 4-fold greater than in the acidified, partitioned extracts. Also, recovery was considerably affected by the pH to which extracts were adjusted prior to partitioning. In extracts acidified to pH 2, recoveries were 2- to 7-fold higher than in extracts partitioned at pH 6. In extracts prepared from 250, 120, or 60 mg of tissue, peak areas of methanolic extracts were directly proportional to the amount of tissue extracted.

  20. The Vision and Challenges of Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University's Affiliated Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy.

  1. [Advanced radiation therapy project for cancer treatment--from Hokkaido to the world, the world access to Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Takao, Seishin; Shirato, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    Cancer is the most major cause of death in Japan recently. In this symposium, we explained advanced treatment technology for cancer treatment, now used and that will be used in near future at the Hokkaido University Hospital. Intensity Moderated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) are considered to be the most promising and advanced technologies for cancer treatment. Various kinds of radiation treatment equipment and methods have been developed and constructed at the Hokkaido University. One of the most worlds wide famous one is the real time tumor tracking radiotherapy system. The FIRST (Funding for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology) Program has been supporting us to produce cutting-edge technology. We hope that this symposium would help the audience to understand the latest technology for cancer treatment especially in the field of radiation therapy and also we wish the audience would recognize the importance of the research aspect that have been performed at Hokkaido University and its Hospital.

  2. Seventeenth-century uplift in eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Furakawa, R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Ikeda, Y.; Kashima, K.; Kawase, K.; Kelsey, H.M.; Moore, A.L.; Nanayama, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Odagiri, S.; Ota, Y.; Park, S.-C.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Shimokawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Shores of eastern Hokkaido rose by perhaps 1 m a few centuries ago. The uplifted area extended at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It included the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Fu??ren-ko and Onneto??, which open to the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Previous work at Akkeshi-ko and Onneto?? showed that such emergence occurred at least three times in the past 3000 years. Volcanic-ash layers date the youngest emergence to the seventeenth century AD. New evidence from Akkeshi-ko, Hichirippu and Fu??ren-ko clarifies the age and amount of this youngest emergence. Much of it probably dates from the century's middle decades. Some of the newly emerged land remained above high tides into the middle of the eighteenth century or later. The emergence in the last half of the seventeenth century probably exceeded 0.5 m (inferred from stratigraphy and diatom palaeoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the emergence are better explained by tectonic uplift than by bay-mouth blockage, tidal-flat accretion or sea-level fall. Eastern Hokkaido needs occasional uplift, moreover, to help reconcile its raised marine terraces with its chronic twentieth-century subsidence. Because it took place above forearc mantle, eastern Hokkaido's seventeenth-century uplift probably lacks analogy with coseismic uplift that occurs above typical plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones.

  3. [2008 G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit Meeting Syndrome Surveillance].

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Tamie; Yoshida, Makiko; Shimada, Chie; Hori, Narumi; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Yasui, Yoshinori; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Matsui, Tamano; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Tada, Yuki; Taya, Keiko; Imamura, Tomoaki; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2009-05-01

    We conducted syndromic surveillance for the Hokkaido, Japan, Toyako Group of Eight (G8) summit meeting in July 2008 as a counter-measure to bioterrorism attacks and other health emergencies. Surveys were conducted from June 23, two weeks before the summit, to July 23 two weeks after it, with part of those for prescription drugs fully automated, and part by manual input over the World-Wide-Web. Those for ambulance transfer were done similarly. We bought over-the-counter (OTC) sales data from two private research firms in Japan and had the monitor, who had contacts with a private research company, report health conditions via personal computer (PC) or cellphone. We had a virtual conference daily at 9:00 with the local Hokkaido government, local public health center, local Hokkaido public laboratory, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to decide whether local public health centers would be required to investigate. Fully automated syndromic surveillance was conducted by 23 pharmacies for prescriptions drugs, and 71 pharmacies provided manual corporate input. One fire department covering Toyako and a VIP support team used fully automated syndromic surveillance and seven Toyako fire departments used manual input. For 79 pharmacies providing OTC sales data, data provision was delayed one day and analysis could not be automated. Four hundred and seventy two households corporate web search for their health conditions. It also automatically analyzed and feed backed. No notable outbreak occurred during the summit, but public health centers investigated seven aberration detected by syndrome surveillance for ambulance transfer. Although a fully automated system was concidered best for early outbreak detection manual input and analysis were also required. Routine, fully automatied syndromic surveillance remains to be realized in Japan.

  4. A new project on development and application of comprehensive downscaling methods over Hokkaido.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatsu, M.; Yamada, T. J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Komatsu, A.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Sugimoto, S.; Miyazaki, S.

    2012-04-01

    A new project on development and application of comprehensive downscaling methods over Hokkaido started as one of the branches of "Research Program on climate change adaptation" funded by Ministry of Education, Sports, Culture, Science, and Technology of Japan in 2010. Our group will develop two new downscaling algorithms in order to get more information on the uncertainty of high/low temperatures or heavy rainfall. Both of the algorithms called "sampling downscaling" and "hybrid downscaling" are based upon the mixed use of statistical and dynamical downscaling ideas. Another point of the project is to evaluate the effect of land-use changes in Hokkaido, where the major pioneering began only about a century ago. Scientific outcomes on climate changes in Hokkaido from the project will be provided to not only public sectors in Hokkaido but also people who live in Hokkaido through a graphical-user-interface system just like a weather forecast system in a forecast-center's webpage.

  5. Genetic uniformity of Echinococcus multilocularis collected from different intermediate host species in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Kamiya, Masao

    2007-02-01

    DNA from several isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis were digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Within the six wild isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis from Norway rats in Hokkaido, although several bands were common among isolates, fingerprinting patterns were specific to each isolate. In the case of E. multilocularis, regardless of hosts from which each isolate has been isolated, the five isolates collected from Hokkaido, showed the same fingerprinting pattern. These results indicate that there was very little genetic difference among these isolates. Although the fingerprinting pattern of E. multilocularis from St. Lawrence Is. was similar to that of the Hokkaido isolates, some bands were different from those in the Hokkaido isolates. Echinococcus multilocularis in Hokkaido seems to be closely-related genetically to that from St. Lawrence Is.

  6. Studies on a solar power satellite at Hokkaido University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kiyohiko; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Ohmiya, Manabu

    1990-11-01

    The paper describes solar power satellite (SPS) studies carried out at Hokkaido University from 1981. The SPS transforms solar energy into electrical energy using a huge solar array on a geostationary orbit, and transmits the energy down to the earth by a 2.45 GHz microwave beam. On the earth, the microwave beam is received using a 'rectenna'. A circular microstrip antenna has been proposed for transmission and reception of the microwave power. The circular microstrip antenna does not resonate at integer multiple frequencies of a dominant frequency (2.45 GHz). Higher harmonics which interfere with radio communication systems are reduced by the circular microstrip antenna. Then, it is possible to construct simple antenna systems because additional bandpass filters to prevent unwanted radiation are unnecessary.

  7. CV-990 LSRA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-27

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), is serviced on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, before a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  8. CV-990 LSRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), is serviced on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, before a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  9. Extreme inundation flows during the Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Vasily V.; Synolakis, Costas Emmanuel

    The tsunami generated by the July 12, 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki Mw=7.8 earthquake produced in Japan the worst local tsunami-related death toll in fifty years, with estimated 10-18m/sec overland flow velocities and 30m runup. These extreme values are the largest recorded in Japan this century and are among the highest ever documented for non-landslide generated tsunamis. We model this event to confirm the estimated overland flow velocities, and we find that, given reasonable ground deformation data, current state-of-the-art shallow-water wave models can predict tsunami inundation correctly including extreme runup, current velocities and overland flow. We find that even small local topographic structures affect the runup to first-order, and that the resolution of the bathymetric data is more important than the grid resolution. Our results qualitatively suggest that—for this event—coastal inundation is more correlated with inundation velocities than with inundation heights, explaining also why threshold-type modeling has substantially underpredicted coastal inundation for this and other recent events.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Nonaka, Nariaki; Mizuno, Ayako; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2007-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA variation in the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and the control region was examined in the red fox Vulpes vulpes from Japan, with special focus on the population divergence between Hokkaido and northern Honshu. Resultant haplotypes from Hokkaido were subdivided into two distinct groups (I and II), with an average genetic distance of 0.027 for cyt b. Divergence time is roughly estimated to be 1-2 million years ago, given that the conventional divergence rate of the mammalian cyt b gene is 2% per million years. Notably, Group II was only found in Hokkaido, whereas Group I comprised haplotypes from Honshu, Kyushu (Japan), eastern Russia, and Europe, as indicated by a comparison of our own data to the literature. On the other hand, judging from constructed trees, Group I haplotypes from Hokkaido appeared to differ from those from other parts of Japan, i.e., Honshu and Kyushu. This implies that Blakiston's Line, which demarcates the boundary between Hokkaido and Honshu, has been an effective barrier and has allowed the structuring of genetic variation in maternal lineages. Thus, these results suggest that the Hokkaido population, which is sometimes referred to as the distinct subspecies V. v. schrencki, has its own genetic background with multiple migration events and differs from the parapatric subspecies V. v. japonica found in Honshu and Kyushu.

  11. Detecting Seismicity Rate Transients in the Hokkaido Corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; McGuire, J. J.; Ogata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Transient aseismic processes alter the stress state of a region and can cause seismicity rate anomalies in space and time detectable by models such as the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988). The presence of such anomalies in subduction zones can therefore indicate stress changes are occurring due to processes such as afterslip or slow slip events. The Hokkaido corner in northeastern Japan is a good region to investigate these anomalies and their relationship to frictional conditions on the plate interface. This area consists of several asperities that rupture in great earthquakes such as the 2003 M8.3 Tokachi-oki earthquake. The abundance of high quality seismic and geodetic data for that event have led to the development of detailed coseismic and postseismic slip models (e.g., Yamanaka and Kikuchi, 2003; Miyazaki et al., 2004), from which stress changes can be inferred and compared to spatial and temporal variations in seismicity rate behavior. For example, an analysis of central Japan seismicity suggests that high aftershock productivities tend to cluster on the updip boundaries of major asperities (Ogata, 2005). Elevated stressing rates due to afterslip can also cause increased levels of background seismicity on the fault patches where afterslip is occurring. Therefore, mapping where these anomalies occur can lead to a better understanding of where and how stress is accumulating on the megathrust. We have developed a method that can directly map seismicity rate anomalies to the stressing rate changes due to aseismic processes. Because aftershocks often obscure changes in the background seismicity caused by these processes, we combine two models commonly used to estimate the time dependence of underlying driving mechanisms, the stochastic ETAS model and the physically based rate- and state-dependent friction model (Dieterich, 1994), into a single seismicity rate model that can explain both aftershock activity as well as changes in

  12. Ground backscatter characteristics model for SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinats, Alexey; Nishitani, Nozomu; Ratovsky, Konstantin

    For the first time we present a model of diurnal and seasonal variations of ground backscatter signal propagation characteristics. There are minimal group range, corresponding elevation angle and other parameters. Model is developed for geographic location and specifications of SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar. The model is based on HF ground backscatter signal calculation technique developed in the framework of waveguide approach. IRI-2007 model is used for calculation of background ionosphere. The main topic is a comparison of the presented model with an extensive dataset collected by SuperDARN Hokkaido radar during the whole its operation history since the late 2006 until 2014. The model is designed for both IRI testing and improvement of SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar data interpretation. This work was done under financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 14-05-00259-а and 14-05-00588-а).

  13. Population Structure and Evolution after Speciation of the Hokkaido Salamander (Hynobius retardatus)

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Masatoshi; Igawa, Takeshi; Michimae, Hirofumi; Miura, Toru; Nishimura, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    The Hokkaido salamander (Hynobius retardatus) is endemic to Hokkaido Island, Japan, and shows intriguing flexible phenotypic plasticity and regional morphological diversity. However, to date, allozymes and partial mitochondria DNA sequences have provided only an outline of its demographic histories and the pattern of its genetic diversification. To understand the finer details of the population structure of this species and its evolution since speciation, we genotyped five regional populations by using 12 recently developed microsatellite polymorphic markers. We found a clear population structure with low gene flow among the five populations, but a close genetic relationship between the Teshio and Kitami populations. Our demographic analysis suggested that Teshio and Erimo had the largest effective population sizes among the five populations. These findings regarding the population structure and demography of H. retardatus improve our understanding of the faunal phylogeography on Hokkaido Island and also provide fundamental genetic information that will be useful for future studies. PMID:27257807

  14. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  15. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  16. Faint CV Monitoring at CBA Pretoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monard, L. A. G. B.

    2006-05-01

    The regular monitoring of faint cataclysmic variables (CV) is one of five observing programs that are run at CBA Pretoria. It started off in 2002 with about 120 CVs and related objects in the program. The intention was to observe those targets as often as possible with unfiltered CCD. There were continuous additions of more CVs by digging deeper in the CV atlas, new finds, and reclassified stars while some were taken off the list. At the end of 2004 the number of CVs in the observing program exceeded 200. With only one telescope and one observer and so many other things to observe, the actual number of snapshot CV observations have been much less than hoped. Despite this, the program has shown to be very successful. Publications have been referring to reported findings from this program while even more publications resulted from observing campaigns (time resolved photometry) dedicated to CVs that were found in outburst by observations at CBA Pretoria. In most cases they were the first real-time outburst detection of that CV. The present paper will not deal with those published or alerted finds but will show observing results of other CVs from the list just to give an indication of the broader meaningfulness of such a program. A selection of fifteen light curves obtained after three years of monitoring will be shown and discussed. The choice of the 15 stars was based on their possible interest and the fact that they have been positively observed on most occasions, since they were mostly brighter than magnitude 18 CR (unfiltered with red zero-point).

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency rickets in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kumihiro; Mukai, Tokuo; Suzuki, Shigeru; Fujieda, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    Resurgence of vitamin D deficiency rickets has been recognized worldwide. While many cases of this disease have been reported in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan, no prevalence data is available. Here, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency rickets in Hokkaido. A specially designed questionnaire was sent to 84 major pediatric departments of hospitals in Hokkaido to collect information of the confirmed cases between July 1999 and June 2004. Sixty-seven hospitals responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 20 hospitals reported 31 confirmed cases. All the patients were infants and toddlers, less than 4 years of age. The prevalence of cases in a recent year was estimated to be nine in 100,000 children under four years of age. Most of the 31 cases in our study were breast-fed. Eleven cases showed signs of malnutrition due to unbalanced diet or dietary restriction. Furthermore, the prevalence of cases was higher in the northeastern region than in the southwestern region. The number of cases increased gradually from the end of winter to spring. This is the first report ascertaining the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency rickets in Hokkaido, Japan. Limited exposure to sunlight and inadequate diet in early childhood are key risk factors of this disease. Thus, it is crucial to introduce active recommendations for vitamin D supplementation based on age, residential area, and to advocate public awareness for preventing this disease.

  18. Familial sarcoidosis in Finland and Hokkaido, Japan--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pietinalho, A; Ohmichi, M; Hirasawa, M; Hiraga, Y; Löfroos, A B; Selroos, O

    1999-06-01

    Two or more cases of sarcoidosis in one family is not unusual. To compare the frequencies of familial sarcoidosis in Finland and Hokkaido, Japan, and to analyse the type of associations reported, we collected data on all patients visiting hospitals for sarcoidosis in 1984 in Finland (1378 patients) and Hokkaido (208 patients), including information about familial sarcoidosis. We also analysed the familial cases seen among 571 sarcoidosis patients diagnosed at the Mjölbolsta hospital in Finland from 1955 to 1987 and among 686 Japanese patients seen in Sapporo from 1964 to 1988. In 1984, 50 sarcoidosis patients visiting Finnish hospitals and nine sarcoidosis patients in Hokkaido reported as familial cases. Of the sarcoidosis patients seen in Finland at the Mjolbolsta hospital in 1955-1987, 27 had a family member with the same disease, while this number was 20 in the Sapporo hospital in 1964-1988. Those surveys give a prevalence of familial sarcoidosis in Finland of 3.6-4.7% and in Hokkaido of 2.9-4.3%. Among familial cases, the dominating relationships were sister-brother and mother-child relationships.

  19. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  20. Earth observation views of Hokkaido,Japan taken from OV-105 during STS-99

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-27

    STS099-722-077 (11-22 February 2000) ---Both topography and bathymetry combine with wind and sea currents to produce a pattern of sea ice in the extreme southern Sea of Okhotsk, in this scene photographed by one of the STS-99 crew members aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The rugged shoreline of north Hokkaido and the Kurile Archipelago have channeled northerly winds and surface waters into a gyre here, clearly depicted in the pattern of sea ice.

  1. Tick Surveillance for Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Takuya; Andoh, Masako; Maeda, Ken; Watarai, Masahisa; Sato, Kozue; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013, a total of 4325 host-seeking adult ticks belonging to the genus Ixodes were collected from various localities of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Tick lysates were subjected to real-time PCR assay to detect borrelial infection. The assay was designed for specific detection of the Relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi and for unspecific detection of Lyme disease-related spirochetes. Overall prevalence of B. miyamotoi was 2% (71/3532) in Ixodes persulcatus, 4.3% (5/117) in Ixodes pavlovskyi and 0.1% (1/676) in Ixodes ovatus. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks were significantly higher than in I. ovatus. Co-infections with Lyme disease-related spirochetes were found in all of the tick species. During this investigation, we obtained 6 isolates of B. miyamotoi from I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi by culture in BSK-M medium. Phylogenetic trees of B. miyamotoi inferred from each of 3 housekeeping genes (glpQ, 16S rDNA, and flaB) demonstrated that the Hokkaido isolates were clustered with Russian B. miyamotoi, but were distinguishable from North American and European B. miyamotoi. A multilocus sequence analysis using 8 genes (clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA) suggested that all Japanese B. miyamotoi isolates, including past isolates, were genetically clonal, although these were isolated from different tick and vertebrate sources. From these results, B. miyamotoi-infected ticks are widely distributed throughout Hokkaido. Female I. persulcatus are responsible for most human tick-bites, thereby I. persulcatus is likely the most important vector of indigenous relapsing fever from tick bites in Hokkaido. PMID:25111141

  2. Tick surveillance for relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takano, Ai; Toyomane, Kochi; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Takuya; Andoh, Masako; Maeda, Ken; Watarai, Masahisa; Sato, Kozue; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    During 2012-2013, a total of 4325 host-seeking adult ticks belonging to the genus Ixodes were collected from various localities of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Tick lysates were subjected to real-time PCR assay to detect borrelial infection. The assay was designed for specific detection of the Relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi and for unspecific detection of Lyme disease-related spirochetes. Overall prevalence of B. miyamotoi was 2% (71/3532) in Ixodes persulcatus, 4.3% (5/117) in Ixodes pavlovskyi and 0.1% (1/676) in Ixodes ovatus. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks were significantly higher than in I. ovatus. Co-infections with Lyme disease-related spirochetes were found in all of the tick species. During this investigation, we obtained 6 isolates of B. miyamotoi from I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi by culture in BSK-M medium. Phylogenetic trees of B. miyamotoi inferred from each of 3 housekeeping genes (glpQ, 16S rDNA, and flaB) demonstrated that the Hokkaido isolates were clustered with Russian B. miyamotoi, but were distinguishable from North American and European B. miyamotoi. A multilocus sequence analysis using 8 genes (clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA) suggested that all Japanese B. miyamotoi isolates, including past isolates, were genetically clonal, although these were isolated from different tick and vertebrate sources. From these results, B. miyamotoi-infected ticks are widely distributed throughout Hokkaido. Female I. persulcatus are responsible for most human tick-bites, thereby I. persulcatus is likely the most important vector of indigenous relapsing fever from tick bites in Hokkaido.

  3. [Investigation of quality control and average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography in Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Kurowarabi, Kunio; Abe, Hiroko; Horita, Hiroshi; Kaneta, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire survey about mammography in Hokkaido was mailed to 121 facilities from August to September 2009. We surveyed the conditions of digital mammography with regard to quality control (QC) and average glandular dose at 79 facilities in Hokkaido in 2009, and the results of the survey were compared with those of 2004. We found that digital mammography techniques were widely used across Hokkaido and that computed radiography (CR) systems were quite widespread, with 70% of facilities having them. The average glandular dose ranged from 1.04 to 2.3 mGy (mean: 1.73 mGy) for digital equipment. The results revealed several problems. Although the use of 1-, 2-, and 3-megapixel (MP) liquid crystal displays (LCDs) was not uncommon, 5-MP LCDs were used in most cases when reading digital mammograms. Facilities that have mammography equipment are unlikely to have quality control instruments for mammography. Although daily QC is performed in most facilities, further quality control for digital mammography should be developed, including that for monitors. In a second study, we evaluated the 1 Shot Phantom M Plus (1 Shot Phantom), which enables objective evaluation by providing for one physical measurement rather than a subjective visual analysis. The results indicated that the 1 Shot Phantom was very useful for digital mammography systems in daily QC testing because it enabled objectivity.

  4. Molecular characterization of Fasciola flukes obtained from wild sika deer and domestic cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Shiroma, Tomoko; Kariya, Tatsuya; Nakao, Ryo; Ohari, Yuma; Hayashi, Kei; Fukumoto, Shinya

    2017-10-01

    The number of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) continues to increase in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The major concern for the livestock industry is the transmission of pathogens between sika deer and cattle. Fasciolosis is an important disease that can occur in both animals. The aim of this study was to examine the possible mutual transmission of this disease in Hokkaido Prefecture. A total of 105 Fasciola flukes were obtained from sika deer and 96 from domestic cattle. The Fasciola flukes in Japan are reported to possess no mature sperm. However, in this study, 14 flukes from sika deer and eight flukes from cattle contained mature sperm in their seminal vesicles. All the Fasciola flukes from the two host animals had Fh/Fg type in nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) gene, with a mixed fragment pattern derived from F. hepatica and F. gigantica, which are considered to be hybrid Fasciola flukes. However, almost all the flukes had Fsp1 haplotype in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, indicating that their maternal lineage was F. hepatica. A new haplotype, Fsp3, was detected in one fluke obtained from cattle and differed in one nucleotide from Fsp1. Therefore, the Fasciola flukes detected in both host species had almost identical molecular characteristics. These findings suggest the mutual transmission of Fasciola flukes between sika deer and domestic cattle in Hokkaido. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Measuring the inequalities in radiotherapy health resources in Japan: comparison of the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Narumi, Masakazu; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Aoki, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and compare the geographical inequalities in radiotherapy health resources between the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts of Japan. The numbers of radiotherapy facilities, radiologists, and radiological technologists were used to represent radiotherapy health resources. The target areas were 11 prefectures in the Hokkaido-Tohoku and Tokyo districts. The Gini coefficient (GC) was used to measure inequalities in health resources in relation to the population and area of each secondary medical care zone. Correlation analysis was performed to clarify the relation between the GC and the all-cancer mortality rate per 100,000 people. The mean population and area GCs of Yamagata Prefecture were the smallest, whereas the mean population GC of Tokyo and the mean area GC of Hokkaido were the largest. The mean GCs of radiotherapy facilities and radiological technologists were higher in the Tokyo district than in the Hokkaido-Tohoku district. No significant correlation was found between GC and cancer mortality. Geographical inequalities in radiotherapy health resources tended to be larger in the Tokyo district than in the Hokkaido-Tohoku district. It is expected that the radiotherapy system will be substantially improved by the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs.

  6. Quaternary forest and climate history of Hokkaido, Japan, from marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Yaeko

    Pollen data from Quaternary marine sediments deposited in central Hokkaido, northern Japan provide insight into northeast Asian vegetation and climatic changes over the last few million years. During the Early Pleistocene, coniferous forest, dominated by Picea and Cryptomeria japonica, and taiga composed of Larix and Picea developed under cool/wet and cold/dry climates, respectively. Strong climatic contrasts are inferred from Late Pleistocene interglacial and glacial pollen assemblages which precede the last glacial cycle. In the former, cool temperate broad-leaf forest, mainly composed of Fagus, reflects a warmer and wetter climate than now. In the latter, taiga similar to that now found in northern Sakhalin apparently flourished in Hokkaido. The composition of pollen assemblages correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 5, changed from cool temperate forest of Quercus, Ulmus and Juglans (Substage 5e), to Picea-Larix taiga (Substage 5d), cool temperate forest of Quercus and Ulmus (Substage 5c) and Picea-Abies forest (Substage 5b). Compared with present conditions, climate during Stage 5 in northern Japan apparently fluctuated from warmer/wetter to colder/drier. Taiga composed of Picea, Pinus and Larix indicating colder/dry conditions during Stage 4, was replaced by Picea-Abies forest and Picea-Larix taiga in Stage 3, suggesting relatively cool and cold/dry environments. Taiga and mixed forest with taiga and cool temperate components characterize Stage 2. Holocene forests with Juglans-Betula and Quercus-Juglans were succeeded by Picea and Abies during the early Holocene warm interval ˜7000 BP. Subsequently, Quercus-Ulmus and Abies-Alnus assemblages reflect climatic deterioration. 'Pan-mixed' forest has been developed in Hokkaido since 2000 BP.

  7. A retrospective survey of the prevalence of complex vertebral malformation carriers in 9 Holstein dairy herds in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Hajime; Nishiyama, Tetsu; Kanae, Yutaka; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Endoh, Daiji; Hayashi, Masanobu; Kurosawa, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    The carrier rates of Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in 9 Holstein dairy herds in Hokkaido, number of usages of CVM carrier semen for breeding and gene frequencies of CVM carriers were measured. The mean CVM carrier rates of 140 cows from 4 herds in 1994 and 315 cows from 5 herds in 2003 were 10.8%(range 4.7-30.0%) and 5.1%(range 0.0-6.1%), respectively. The rate of use of CVM carrier semen in the Hokkaido district was 5.6% in 2002. The gene frequencies calculated from CVM carriers among the 315 cows and number of CVM carrier semen samples used were 0.032 and 0.028, and the occurrence of homozygous CVM in 2003 was estimated to be 0.1% in the local districts of Hokkaido, Japan.

  8. Mesorbitolina (Cretaceous larger foraminifera) from the Yezo Group in Hokkaido, Japan and its stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic significance

    PubMed Central

    Iba, Yasuhiro; Sano, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an Aptian (Early Cretaceous) larger foraminiferal species Orbitolina (Mesorbitolina) parva from the limestone olistoliths in the lower part of the Yezo Group in the Yubari–Ashibetsu area, central Hokkaido and from limestone pebbles in the lowermost part of the Yezo Group in the Nakagawa area, northern Hokkaido. This is the first report of this species from the circum-North Pacific regions. Based on its occurrences, the shallow-marine carbonates, re-deposited in the lower part of the Yezo Group, are precisely assigned in age to the Late Aptian. Comparison of the lower part of the Yezo Group in central and northern Hokkaido indicates differences of the Aptian–Albian depositional history between the two areas. This study reveals that after Late Aptian, Mesogean key taxa (typical Cretaceous Tethyan biota) demised in the Northwest Pacific. PMID:25792785

  9. Molecular survey of rickettsial agents in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sashika, Mariko; Abe, Go; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2010-09-01

    Rickettsial infection in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan was analyzed by molecular methods. Genus-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis based on the Rickettsia citrate synthase (gltA) gene showed that 13 of 699 raccoons (1.9%) examined were positive for Rickettsia. Twelve of the 13 partial gltA sequence amplicons were successfully analyzed. The nucleotide sequence of one amplicon was identical to both Rickettsia heilongjiangensis and R. japonica, one was identical to R. felis, and the rest to R. helvetica. This is the first report on the detection of rickettsial agents in peripheral blood of raccoons.

  10. Physics education of Japanese national colleges of technology in local community of Hokkaido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushino, Akihiro; Matsui, Hidenori

    2014-03-01

    The national colleges of technology in Japan, called KOSEN, were established about 50 years ago aiming to educate 15 to 20 years old students to become engineers who were necessary in period of high economic growth of Japan. In present, environment surrounding us has changed. Examples are low birth rate in Japan and the great earthquake in Tohoku area. There are 4 KOSENs in Hokkaido and we jointly make many efforts to contribute to local community in science. We present our efforts in physics education.

  11. Antibodies to flaviviruses in wild ducks captured in Hokkaido, Japan: risk assessment of invasive flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Osa, Yuichi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2009-06-01

    Recently, the distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) has expanded into new territories. The invasion of WNV into Japan is of great concern. The migration of birds is suggested to be involved in the expanded distribution of these flaviviruses. In this study, 92 wild ducks--20 Anas poecilorhyncha (migratory breeders), 50 Anas platyrhynchos (undetermined), 16 Anas acuta (winter visitors), and 6 Anas penelope (winter visitors)--were captured in autumn of 2005 and 2006, in the central part of Hokkaido, a low JEV activity area. A seroepidemiologic analysis of flavivirus infections was conducted with 90% and 50% focus reduction neutralization tests (FRNT(90) and FRNT(50)). Of the 92 serum samples, 1 (1.1%) and 5 (5.4%) tested positive for WNV-specific and JEV-specific antibodies, respectively, in the FRNT(90), and 61 (66.3%) and 79 (85.9%) tested positive for WNV and JEV, respectively, in the FRNT(50). These results indicate that wild ducks in this study had been exposed to flaviviruses. The results together with the recognized distribution of flaviviruses and migratory routes of individual duck species strongly suggested that the birds captured in this study had been exposed to flaviviruses, including WNV, on the flyway, not in Hokkaido.

  12. Seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and peripheral testosterone concentration in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Minami W; Shimozuru, Michito; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryohei; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-06-01

    Feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) have been increasing in number since 1979 and are currently subject to pest control in Hokkaido. One of the reasons for the increase in numbers is thought to be the high reproductive potential of raccoons, but little is known about their reproduction. The main aim of this study was to clarify seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and peripheral testosterone concentration of raccoons in Hokkaido. In the present study, external characteristics and histology of the testis and epididymis and the plasma testosterone concentration were investigated in 68 feral, male raccoons culled for pest control and once a month in one live, captive male. The feral males exhibited seasonal changes in spermatogenesis, showing active spermatogenesis in autumn, winter and spring (October-June) with noted spermatogenesis and inactive spermatogenesis in summer (July-September) with lower mean levels of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis. Even in the inactive period, spermatozoa were observed in about half of the individuals (14/26); therefore, individuals producing spermatozoa existed every month throughout the year. Testosterone concentrations were significantly high in the winter mating season. In the captive male, the testosterone concentrations were low from June to August, and spermatozoa could not be observed from July to September. These results suggest that raccoons exhibit seasonality of reproduction, but the time and duration of spermatogenetic decline varies widely among individuals. This individual variation in the inactive period is a feature of male raccoon reproduction and is unique among seasonally breeding mammals.

  13. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of predator- and prey-induced phenotypic plasticity in the Hokkaido salamander (Hynobius retardatus).

    PubMed

    Matsunami, Masatoshi; Kitano, Jun; Kishida, Osamu; Michimae, Hirofumi; Miura, Toru; Nishimura, Kinya

    2015-06-01

    Predator- and prey-induced phenotypic plasticity is widely observed among amphibian species. Although ecological factors inducing diverse phenotypic responses have been extensively characterized, we know little about the molecular bases of variation in phenotypic plasticity. Larvae of the Hokkaido salamander, Hynobius retardatus, exhibit two distinct morphs: the presence of their prey, Rana pirica tadpoles, induces a broad-headed attack morph, and the presence of predatory dragonfly nymphs (Aeshna nigroflava) induces a defence morph with enlarged external gills and a high tail. To compare the genes involved in predator- and prey-induced phenotypic plasticity, we carried out a de novo transcriptome analysis of Hokkaido salamander larvae exposed to either prey or predator individuals. First, we found that the number of genes involved in the expression of the defence morph was approximately five times the number involved in the expression of the attack morph. This result is consistent with the fact that the predator-induced plasticity involves more drastic morphological changes than the prey-induced plasticity. Second, we found that particular sets of genes were upregulated during the induction of both the attack and defence morphs, but others were specific to the expression of one or the other morph. Because both shared and unique molecular mechanisms were used in the expression of each morph, the evolution of a new plastic phenotype might involve both the co-option of pre-existing molecular mechanisms and the acquisition of novel regulatory mechanisms.

  15. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.

  16. Epidemiological survey of Theileria orientalis infection in grazing cattle in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ota, Naomi; Mizuno, Daisuke; Kuboki, Noritaka; Igarashi, Ikuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashina, Hidenari; Hanzaike, Teruko; Fujii, Kei; Onoe, Sadao; Hata, Hiroshi; Kondo, Seiji; Matsui, Shirou; Koga, Masao; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2009-07-01

    Theileria orientalis is one of the benign species of Theileria that is widely distributed in Japan and is sometimes responsible for serious economic losses in the livestock industry. In the present study, we surveyed the current status of T. orientalis infection in grazing cattle in the eastern areas of Hokkaido (Taiki, Otofuke, Shintoku, and Shin-Hidaka districts) using molecular methods, as well as traditional methods, of diagnosis. The genes encoding the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) and p23 of T. orientalis were identified using highly detectable polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of the MPSP-PCR assay indicated that grazing cattle in these districts, after about 1.5 months pasturage, showed high rates of infection, ranging from 10.0-64.8%. Although the main MPSP and p23 genotypes detected were the Ikeda- or Chitose-types, an MPSP gene closely relating to that found in Okinawa prefecture, and a p23 gene closely relating to the Australian (Warwick) Buffeli-type gene, were found in the cattle in Shintoku and Shin-Hidaka districts. The present survey indicated that there were at least five types of T. orientalis classified by their MPSP genes in Hokkaido, Japan, and that T. orientalis infection rates are still high in this region.

  17. Planktonic foraminiferal zonation in the Cretaceous Yezo Group, Central Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Hiroshi; Takashima, Reishi; Hatsugai, Takayuki; Saito, Tsunemasa; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Ennyu, Atsuhito; Sakai, Toshiaki

    2003-06-01

    The mudstone of the Yezo Group exposed in Central Hokkaido yields abundant microfossils of calcareous nannofossils, foraminifers, radiolarians and dinoflagellates. Benthic foraminifers consisting of both agglutinated and calcareous species occur abundantly and consistently throughout the sequence, while specimens of planktonic foraminifers are generally fewer than benthics in all samples. We recognized the following 13 planktonic foraminiferal zones assigned to the late Aptian to early Campanian in the Oyubari and Haboro-Kotanbetsu areas; (1) Globigerinelloides spp., (2) Ticinella primula, (3) Biticinella breggiensis, (4) Rotalipora subicinensis- Rotalipora ticinensis, (5) Rotalipora appenninica, (6) Rotalipora globotruncanoides, (7) Rotalipora cushmani (8), Whiteinella archaeocretacea (9) Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica, (10) Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana, (11) Marginotruncana sinuosa, (12) Contusotruncana fornicata, (13) Globotruncana arca. The Globigerinelloides spp. to H. helvetica Zones (late Aptian to early Turonian) can be correlated with standard zones in the Tethyan regions, whereas the assemblages from the M. pseudolinneiana to G. arca zones lack tropical zonal markers of Dicarinella concavata, D. asymetrica and Globotruncanita elevata in many studied sections. The scarcity or lack of tropical zonal species during the late Turonian to early Campanian suggests that the Oyubari and Haboro-Kotanbetsu regions in Hokkaido were located in the Transitional to Boreal biogeographical provinces.

  18. P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropy of the Hokkaido subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiongwei; Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Jiabiao; Ruan, Aiguo

    2016-04-01

    We present the first three-dimensional P wave radial anisotropy tomography of the Hokkaido subduction zone, as well as P wave azimuthal anisotropy and S wave tomography, which are determined by inverting 298,430 P wave and 233,934 S wave arrival times from 14,245 local earthquakes recorded by 344 seismic stations. Our results reveal significant velocity heterogeneity, seismic anisotropy, and upwelling flows beneath the study region. In the mantle wedge, prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exhibit trench-normal fast-velocity directions (FVDs) and a negative radial anisotropy (i.e., vertical velocity > horizontal velocity), which may reflect upwelling mantle flows. Fan-shaped FVDs are found at depths of 65-90 km, and a detailed 3-D mantle flow pattern is revealed, which may be caused by a combination of oblique subduction of the Pacific plate and collision of the Kuril arc with the Honshu arc beneath southern Hokkaido. The radial anisotropy changes at ~100 km depth, which may reflect variations in temperature and fluid conditions there. The subducting Pacific slab exhibits a positive radial anisotropy (i.e., horizontal velocity > vertical velocity), which may reflect the original fossil anisotropy when the Pacific plate formed at the mid-ocean ridge.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Hokkaido Jomon skeletons: remnants of archaic maternal lineages at the southwestern edge of former Beringia.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Noboru; Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Kitano, Takashi; Matsumura, Hirofumi; Fujiyama, Ryuzo; Sawada, Junmei; Tanaka, Masashi

    2011-11-01

    To clarify the colonizing process of East/Northeast Asia as well as the peopling of the Americas, identifying the genetic characteristics of Paleolithic Siberians is indispensable. However, no genetic information on the Paleolithic Siberians has hitherto been reported. In the present study, we analyzed ancient DNA recovered from Jomon skeletons excavated from the northernmost island of Japan, Hokkaido, which was connected with southern Siberia in the Paleolithic period. Both the control and coding regions of their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were analyzed in detail, and we confidently assigned 54 mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Haplogroups N9b, D4h2, G1b, and M7a were observed in these individuals, with N9b being the predominant one. The fact that all these haplogroups, except M7a, were observed with relatively high frequencies in the southeastern Siberians, but were absent in southeastern Asian populations, implies that most of the Hokkaido Jomon people were direct descendants of Paleolithic Siberians. The coalescence time of N9b (ca. 22,000 years) was before or during the last glacial maximum, implying that the initial trigger for the Jomon migration in Hokkaido was increased glaciations during this period. Interestingly, Hokkaido Jomons lack specific haplogroups that are prevailing in present-day native Siberians, implying that diffusion of these haplogroups in Siberia might have been after the beginning of the Jomon era, about 15,000 years before present. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Genetic diversity of the MHC class-II DQA gene in brown bears (Ursus arctos) on Hokkaido, Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Goda, Naoki; Mano, Tsutomu; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2009-08-01

    To investigate genetic diversity of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene in the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population on Hokkaido Island, northern Japan, we cloned and sequenced parts of exon 2 and intron 2 of the MHC class-II DQA gene from 32 brown bears. According to strict criteria for allele identification established by mammalian MHC nomenclature committees, four DQA types (Urar-DQA*01 to Urar-DQA*04) were identified. Of the four, however, Urar-DQA*04 had a 12-bp deletion not detected in a cDNA analysis, indicating that this is a pseudogene at a distinct locus generated by gene duplication. The nucleotide sequences of the other three DQA alleles, which were expressed (because detected from cDNA), were very similar, indicating lower DQA variation In the Hokkaido brown bear population than in other mammals. We attribute this low genetic diversity to (1) some limited effect of possible balancing selection; (2) bottlenecks and inbreeding after migration and isolation of the Hokkaido brown bear population from the Eurasian Continent; (3) a much slower evolutionary rate in DQA than in other MHC genes in the Hokkaido brown bear population.

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia sp. NV-1 detected from wild American Mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Ishinabe, Satoki; Jinnai, Michio; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne protozoan disease affecting many mammalian species worldwide, caused by the intraerythrocytic multiplication of Babesia spp. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Babesia sp. in 13 American mink from Hokkaido, Japan. One of 13 animals was positive, as indicated by nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes from species of Babesia and Theileria. Sequencing of the PCR product of SSU rDNA revealed 99% homology to the isolates of Babesia sp. SAP#131 found in raccoons in Hokkaido, whereas that of the CCT7 gene showed 80% homology to the isolates of Babesia gibsoni in dogs as determined by BLAST analysis. We refer to the cognate sequence as Babesia sp. NV-1. Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA and CCT7 genes from Babesia sp. NV-1 revealed them to be most closely related to the Babesia sp. SAP#131 from a raccoon in Hokkaido and to canine B. gibsoni, respectively. Here, we provide the first molecular evidence of the Babesia sp. NV-1 parasite in feral American mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

  2. Craniometric variation of the Ainu: an assessment of differential gene flow from northeast Asia into northern Japan, Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Yoshida, Kohzo; Ishida, Hajime

    2008-11-01

    In and after the latest Neolithic period in Japan (approximately B.P. 2,300 years), there were two distinct waves of migration from eastern Asia. One is well known as successive episodes in which indigenous inhabitants of main-island Japan were intruded on by new arrivals with advanced technology, and of a different genetic stock. Another migration of people and culture, identified as the Okhotsk culture, reached the northeastern part of Hokkaido. As opposed to main-island Japan, the morphological continuity from the Neolithic to recent inhabitants in Hokkaido (Ainu) is notable, so that the evidence of admixture easily could have escaped notice. In this study, the effects of gene flow from an outside source on the pattern of among-group variation of Hokkaido Ainu are examined by means of two models. One is the R-matrix model comparing observed and expected craniometric variation for estimating differential external gene flow into a region. The other is a simple simulation model that estimates admixture in a population with two parental populations. The two approaches give similar results. The results suggest the possibility of admixture between the migrants from Northeast Asia, the Okhotsk culture people, and the indigenous inhabitants in Hokkaido during the 5th to 12th centuries A.D., at least in northeastern Hokkaido. Such gene flow may have a certain degree of effect on the genetic structure of recent Ainu. The findings further suggest morphological heterogeneity in Northeast Asia during the Holocene that has relevance for understanding the morphological heterogeneity seen through time in the New World.

  3. EMG telemetry studies on upstream migration of chum salmon in the Toyohira River, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Yuya; Konno, Yoshifumi; Konishi, Koji; Miyoshi, Koji; Sakashita, Taku; Nii, Hisaya; Nakao, Katsuya; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    The movements of 28 adult chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) tagged with electromyogram (EMG) transmitters were tracked along the Toyohira river, Hokkaido, Japan, in October of 2007 and 2008 to investigate and evaluate the upstream migratory behavior through the protection bed and fishway of ground sills. The approach time of fish that ascended successfully through the protection bed and fishway was shorter than that of unsuccessful fish. The unsuccessful fish were observed to swim in currents with high water velocity and shallow water depth at swimming speeds that exceeded their critical swimming speed (U (crit)) during the approach to these structures. In consequence, unsuccessful fish frequently alternated between burst and maximum sustained speeds without ever ascending the fishway, and eventually became exhausted. It is important that fishway are constructed to enable chum salmon to find a passage way easily, so that they can migrate upstream rapidly without wasting excessive energy.

  4. Clinical experience of Hokkaido University-PACS and FCR-angiography.

    PubMed

    Terae, S; Hawkin, S; Sato, Y; Kikuchi, Y; Abe, S; Miyasaka, K

    1994-05-01

    Three years' experience with Hokkaido University-PACS (HU-PACS) is reported. In particular, this paper describes the suitability of FCR-angiography for HU-PACS, which has been in clinical use since March 1991. Image quality of FCR-arteriograms was evaluated in the head-and-face region and the abdominal region independently. The image quality in both regions was excellent. Quality of transferred images to image workstation for HU-PACS with 10:1 data compression was also evaluated, and no appreciable image degradation or loss of information was found in the transferred images. There was no significant difference in the examination time required for one patient in abdominal angiography between conventional angiography and FCR-angiography. In summary, FCR-angiography is suitable for HU-PACS as its image acquisition modality.

  5. Diagenetic transformation of clinoptilolite to analcime in silicic tuffs of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, S.

    1996-09-01

    Diagenetic clinoptilolite and analcime are present in the diagenesis of Tertiary marine silicic tuffs in the MITI-Toyokoro borehole, Hokkaido, Japan. Chemical analysis, SEM and petrographic observations show the mechanism of clinoptilolite to analcime transformation. Na-K clinoptilolite (Na : K=6:4), an alteration product of volcanic glass, is detected at depths of 1230 to 2710 m. A more Na-rich clinoptilolite (Na : K=9:1) discovered at depths between 2590 and 2710 m is a result of a cation exchange mechanism. The formation of analcime at greater depths is due to a microdissolution-precipitation mechanism, that is Na-rich clinoptilolite dissolved and analcime precipitated as a result of increasing burial. At 2710 m analcime occurs next to the Na-rich clinoptilolite and it is assumed that the Na-rich clinoptilolite is an intermediate phase.

  6. Osteological and genetic analysis of the extinct Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai) from Hokkaido Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Shigehara, Nobuo; Ichikawa, Hideo; Kato, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    The Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai Kishida, 1931 ) is an extinct subspecies that inhabited Hokkaido in Japan until the middle of the Meiji Period. Because there are very few preserved skeletons, no osteological and/or genetic analyses of the Ezo wolf have been conducted. In this study, 20 cranial and eight mandibular characters were measured on Ezo wolf skeletons, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was analyzed to assess genetic relationships between the Ezo wolf and other wolf lineages, including the Japanese wolf on Honshu. The morphological study showed that the Ezo wolf is larger than the Japanese wolf and similar in size to the grey wolf of the Asian and American Continents. MtDNA control sequences (751 bp) from two Ezo wolves were identical to those from the Canadian grey wolf. The morphological and genetic characters indicate that the ancestor of the Ezo wolf was genetically related to that of the grey wolf in Canada.

  7. Diurnal and seasonal behavior of the Hokkaido East SuperDARN ground backscatter: simulation and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinats, Alexey V.; Nishitani, Nozomu; Ponomarenko, Pavlo; Ratovsky, Konstantin G.

    2016-02-01

    We studied regular diurnal and seasonal behaviors of ground backscatter propagation characteristics corresponding to the Hokkaido East Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) (43.53° N, 143.61° E). Firstly, we simulated key propagation characteristics using a high frequency (HF) calculation technique based on the waveguide approach and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-2012 model as background ionosphere. The minimum slant range, skip distance, corresponding elevation angle, and true reflection height were considered in this study. The behaviors of these characteristics were well explained by diurnal and seasonal variations in the critical frequency and maximum height of corresponding ionosphere layer in HF reflection point. We estimated the accuracy of the standard SuperDARN mapping technique and proposed a means for its improvement. Secondly, we constructed an algorithm for mass data processing and extracted diurnal dependencies of the minimum slant range, corresponding elevation angle, and effective reflection height from the Hokkaido East SuperDARN dataset for a period from 2007 to 2014. The algorithm uses the simulated characteristics for distinguishing regular ground backscatter echoes propagating in the E and F2 HF channels. Observed monthly mean and simulated values of the characteristics were compared, and the result showed that the accuracy of IRI-2012 significantly depends on solar activity level and orientation of HF propagation path. In general, the difference between observed and simulated values decreased with increases in solar activity and azimuth. We also analyzed the occurrence of echoes originating behind the radar and found that they most frequently appear in winter and equinoxes before sunrise in beam #0 and after sunset in beam #15. The probability of their observation for a specific local time could reach up to 35 %.

  8. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Torii, Shiho; Wakamori, Shiho; Nagai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Mine, Junki; Fujimoto, Yuri; Nagashima, Naofumi; Yoshino, Fumi; Sugita, Yukihiko; Nomura, Takushi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years.

  9. Analysis of the strong wind in North-western Hokkaido, JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, K.; Kimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Strong winds can be observed in some areas in the north-western Hokkaido, Japan. The strong north-westerly through Japan Sea blows especially in winter, and it brings heavy snow. Some meteorological observation stations can be seen along the coast of the Japan Sea in this region. For example, Rumoi is famous of the strong wind in winter. It is one of the biggest towns in this area, and its population is over 20,000. We analyzed wind speed and direction in this area. According to the data of Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) by Japan Meteorological Agency, the annual mean wind speed at Rumoi shows 5.0m/s. ESE and WSW winds are frequent in summer, and in winter, the most frequent wind directions are between NW and WSW. We also simulated the wind in this area with the numerical meteorological simulation, that is the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Mountains approach to the shore along the west coast of north-western Hokkaido. It is assumed two main factors determined wind speed and direction: the influence of the sea and the mountains. When wind conflicts on the mountain, wind speed and direction are changed. The factor of topography such as a river and a small valley changes affects the local wind. The seasonal cyclone tracks also affect the local wind. We have performed the comparison between the real wind observation and the result of numerical simulation. It is generally said that the southeast wind blows from the Pacific Ocean in summer, and in winter, the northwest wind from the Siberian anticyclone: they are affected by monsoon in Japan. However AMeDAS observation result in Rumoi does not sometimes accord with these general wind direction. The characteristics of the wind in this area have been clarified by our analysis with WRF simulation.

  10. Histological differences of skin among three body regions in male and female Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis).

    PubMed

    Minaguchi, Jun A; Abe, Ayako; Ueda, Hiromi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige

    2012-01-01

    The Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus Nippon yesoensis), the largest and most abundant of the sika deer subspecies in Japan, has recently attracted new attention as a target for leather production, in addition to its meat value. To provide fundamental data for facilitating the effective use of skin for leather, the histological properties of skin at the shoulder, back and abdominal regions of male and female deer were compared. The results showed that the thickness of the outer skin layer was not significantly different across all regions irrespective of sex. Regarding collagen composition, we found that large-diameter collagen fibrils were heavily distributed in the shoulder of male deer, whereas small-diameter collagen fibrils were largely confined to the abdomen of female deer. We hope this regional histological data will lead to more efficient processing of Hokkaido sika deer skin for leather production.

  11. Phylogeographic origin of Hokkaido house mice (Mus musculus) as indicated by genetic markers with maternal, paternal and biparental inheritance.

    PubMed

    Terashima, M; Furusawa, S; Hanzawa, N; Tsuchiya, K; Suyanto, A; Moriwaki, K; Yonekawa, H; Suzuki, H

    2006-02-01

    We examined intraspecies genetic variation in house mice (Mus musculus molossinus) from the northern third of the Japanese Islands, in order to obtain evidence of the history of mouse colonization that might have shaped the current genetic diversity. We extended the previous sampling of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence and added information from the Y-linked Sry gene and ribosomal RNA gene surveys. We distinguish mitochondrial haplotypes characteristic of the North Asian musculus subspecies group (involving M. m. musculus and M. m. molossinus) as 'MUS', and that of the Southeast Asian castaneus subspecies group as 'CAS' (although the mice resemble MUS morphologically). There was a clear geographic partition of MUS and CAS types into southern and northern Hokkaido, respectively. Conversely, on Tohoku, the MUS and CAS types were interspersed without clear geographic subdivision. In contrast to the mtDNA data, all Hokkaido and Tohoku mice examined were found to possess a unique type for the Y-linked Sry gene, specific to Korea and Japan. Restriction site analysis of nuclear rDNA probe showed a consistent distribution of MUS and CAS types, as major and minor components, respectively, in the Hokkaido and Tohoku mice. These data support the previous notion that the Hokkaido and Tohoku mice experienced genetic hybridization between primary residents of CAS origin and MUS newcomers arriving via a southern route. The invasion of the MUS type could correspond with the evidence for arrival of prehistoric peoples. There are, however, alternative interpretations, including genetic admixture between MUS arriving by a southern route and CAS from a northern route.

  12. [Concentrations of persistent organochlorine pesticides in whole blood of pregnant women in Hokkaido study on environment and children's health].

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ayako; Miyasita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Washino, Noriaki; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Sasaki, Seiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Mizutani, Futoshi; Chisaki, Youichi; Kishi, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the levels of exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women in Hokkaido. Whole-blood samples were obtained from 70 pregnant women aged 17 to 39 years in Hokkaido and analyzed to quantify 29 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Among 29 target compounds, 20 were detected in the whole-blood samples. Mirex, Parlar-26, and Parlar-50, which have never been used in Japan, were identified in all samples, as well as 11 compounds that have been used in Japan. Log-transformed concentrations of compounds with detection rates above 60% linearly correlated with each other (p<0.01). p,p'-DDE exhibited the highest concentration, with a geometric mean of 730 pg/g wet weight. From the results of the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test, body weight or age was positively associated with the concentrations of several compounds. We detected 22 organochlorine pesticides including pesticides with no history of use in Japan in the whole-blood samples from pregnant women in Hokkaido. Through long-distance transport mechanisms, these pollutants may distribute widely, and further surveillance of human blood, in addition to foods and the environment, should be conducted.

  13. Statistical characteristics of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances revealed from the Hokkaido East and Ekaterinburg HF radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinats, Alexey V.; Nishitani, Nozomu; Ponomarenko, Pavlo; Berngardt, Oleg I.; Ratovsky, Konstantin G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a statistical study of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) using the Hokkaido East (43.53° N, 143.61° E) and Ekaterinburg (56.42° N, 58.53° E) high-frequency (HF) radar data. Radar datasets are available from 2007 to 2014 for the Hokkaido and from 2013 to 2014 for the Ekaterinburg radar. In the case of the Hokkaido East radar, we have utilized the elevation angle information to study the MSTIDs propagating at the heights of the E and F ionospheric regions separately. We have analyzed the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the following medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID) parameters: propagation direction, apparent horizontal velocity and wavelength, period, and relative amplitude. The F region MSTID azimuthal patterns were observed to be quite similar by the two radars. The E region northwestward MSTIDs (from 280° to 320°) were typical of summer daytime. Comparison with the horizontal wind model (HWM07) has showed that the dominant MSTID propagation directions match the anti-wind direction well, at least during sunlight hours. We have also found that the wavelength and period tend to decrease with an increase in solar activity. On the contrary, the relative amplitude increases with an increase in solar activity. Moreover, the relative amplitude tends to increase with increasing auroral electrojet (AE) index, as do the wavelength and velocity.

  14. Magnetotelluric Study on the Donan Geothermal Field, Southern Part of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, M.; Mogi, T.

    2016-12-01

    We performed a MT study in the Donan geothermal field where deep seated hot granitic rocks are distributing as a source of geothermal resources. But no prominent fracture zone were found in this area. Imaging a fracture zone and clarifying geothermal reservoirs are purpose of the study. Quaternary volcanoes, such as Hokkaido Komagatake and Esan in the southern part, and Karibayama in the northern part, are situated in the surroundings of the Donan area, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. Even though recent volcanic activity is not seen in the central part, geothermal gradient is high. The geological structure of this region is dominated by the movement of basement blocks aligning in the north-south, and folds and fractures have developed. Many hot springs and geothermal manifestations are seen in this region where called "Yakumo-Nigorikawa geothermal zone." The Mori geothermal power plant, located at south area, is operating in the Nigorikawa caldera formed about 12,000 years ago. Like Nigorikawa, the Yakumo area, located at the central part of the Donan area, have been thought as promising geothermal area, and many geothermal study were performed in the 1990th. Six drilling holes were excavated and they showed that hot granitic rock are distributing at around below 1000m depth, and temperature is higher than 200 degrees in this area. We carried out new magnetotelluric (MT) survey at 20 stations in the Yakumo area. We constructed 2-D and 3-D resistivity model with MT data. Because the anomalous phases exceeding 90 degree were seen in some sites at frequency less than 0.1Hz, we only used the data at frequency range of 320Hz and 0.1Hz in this study. We used Ogawa and Uchida (1996) as a 2D inversion and Han et al. (2008) that have applied approximate sensitivity, as 3D inversion respectively. From the resistivity models, the remarkable low resistivity zone extending from deep to shallower is seen at the center of the survey area, that is inclined from south to north. A

  15. Shallow repeating slow-slip-events along the convergent block boundary in northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, S.; Heki, K.; Kimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese Islands are divided into several crustal blocks [e.g. Loveless and Meade, 2010 JGR]. In the Northern Hokkaido, the boundary between the Amurian and the North American Plates run north-south between 44.0N and 45.4N. The east-west block convergence is considered to be as fast as ~1 cm/year there, but few large earthquakes are known to have occurred along this boundary. Recently, a slow slip event (SSE) is reported to have occurred in a segment at ~45.0N over a 4 months period from 2012 summer to the early 2013 [Ohzono et al., 2014 GJI]. The maximum surface movements was about 15 mm, and the moment magnitude of the SSE would not exceed 6.0 (fault slip is estimated as 10 cm). This suggests that plate convergence takes place as episodic SSEs in this block boundary. In this research, we looked for signatures of repeating SSEs along this block boundary using continuous GNSS data of the dense array GEONET in Japan. In order to detect faint signatures of SSEs in the coordinate time series, we adopted the method using AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion) similar to Nishimura et al. [2013 JGR] and Nishimura [2014 PEPS]. As a result, we were able to find numbers of SSE signals in various segments along the boundary. The detected SSEs are all fairly small, and surface movements did not exceed a few millimeters (except the 2012-2013 SSE reported in Ohzono et al. [2014]). We also searched earthquakes that may have triggered these SSEs. Although the 2012 SSE seems to have been triggered by a deep earthquake beneath Sakhalin on Aug. 14, 2012, no clear triggering earthquakes were identified for other SSEs. SSEs in subduction zones are known to recur fairly regularly, e.g. biannually repeating SSE in the SW part of the Ryukyu Arc [Heki and Kataoka, 2008 JGR]. However, shallow SSEs along the block boundary in the northern Hokkaido did not show such regular occurrences. We plan to confirm these SSE occurrences by comparing GNSS data with the Hi-Net tiltmeter records.

  16. Copepod community succession during warm season in Lagoon Notoro-ko, northeastern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshizumi; Ichikawa, Hideaki; Kitamura, Mitsuaki; Nishino, Yasuto; Taniguchi, Akira

    2015-06-01

    Lagoon Notoro-ko, located on the northeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, and connected to the Okhotsk Sea by a human-made channel, is strongly influenced by local hydrography, as water masses in the lagoon are seasonally influenced by the Soya Warm Current and the East Sakhalin Current. We here report on the succession of copepod communities during the warm season in relation to water mass exchange. Copepods were categorized into four seasonal communities (spring/early-summer, mid-summer, late-summer/fall, and early-winter) via a cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarities. Spring/early-summer and early-winter communities were characterized by the temperate-boreal calanoid Pseudocalanus newmani, comprising 34.9%-77.6% of the total abundance of copepods during times of low temperature/salinity, as influenced by the prevailing East Sakhalin Current. Late-summer/fall communities were characterized by the neritic warm-water calanoid Paracalanus parvus s.l., comprising 63.9%-96.3% of the total abundance, as influenced by the Soya Warm Current. Mid-summer communities comprised approximately equal abundances of P. parvus, Eurytemora herdmani, Scolecithricella minor, and Centropages abdominalis (12.8%-28.2%); this community is transitional between those of the spring/early-summer and late-summer/fall. Copepod community succession in Lagoon Notoro-ko can be largely explained by seasonal changes in water masses.

  17. Concentrations of organotin compounds in the stranded killer whales from Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Harino, Hiroya; Ohji, Madoka; Brownell, Robert L; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2008-07-01

    We measured the concentrations of butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT) compounds in blubber, liver, lung, and muscle of seven stranded killer whales (Orcinus orca) collected from Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan. BTs in blubber (n = 6), liver (n = 4), lung (n = 1), and muscle (n = 4) of adult whale were in the range of 37-90, 385-676, 15, and 26-53 microg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Concentrations of PTs in blubber, liver, lung, and muscle were <1 to 58, <1 to 14, 7 and <1 to 4 microg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Detected frequencies of PTs were low in all tissues. Higher percentages of monobutyltin (MBT) in blubber, lung, and muscle were observed, while the percentage of dibutyltin (DBT) was high in liver. Detected frequencies of triphenyltin (TPT) were highest among tissues. Total BT concentrations in blubber and liver of a whale calf were lower than those in adult whales. MBT and DBT in the liver of the calf were the same (42%). MBT in blubber was the dominant compound among BTs.

  18. Endogenous growth of a Miocene submarine dacite cryptodome, Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yoshihiko; McPhie, Jocelyn

    1998-09-01

    Momo-iwa, Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan, is a dacite cryptodome 200-300 m across and 190 m high. The dome is inferred to have intruded wet, poorly consolidated sediment in a shallow marine environment. The internal structure of the dome is concentric, with a massive core, banded rim, and narrow brecciated border, all of which are composed of compositionally uniform feldspar-phyric dacite. Boundaries between each of the zones are distinct but gradational. The massive core consists of homogeneous coherent (unfractured) dacite and is characterized by radial columnar joints 60-200 cm across. The banded rim encircles the massive core and is 40 m wide. It is characterized by large-scale flow banding parallel to the dome surface. The flow banding comprises alternating partly crystalline and more glassy bands 80-150 cm thick. The outermost brecciated border is up to 80 cm thick, and consists of in situ breccia and blocky peperite. The in situ breccia comprises polyhedral dacite clasts 5-20 cm across and a cogenetic granular matrix. The blocky peperite consists of polyhedral dacite clasts 0.5-2 cm across separated by the host sediment (mudstone). The internal structures of the dome suggest endogenous growth involving a continuous magma supply during a single intrusive phase and simple expansion from the interior. Although much larger, the internal structures of Momo-iwa closely resemble those of lobes in subaqueous felsic lobe-hyaloclastite lavas.

  19. Estimating eroded soil and predicting further erosion in Daisetsuzan National Park in Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Watanabe, Teiji

    2017-04-01

    This study has three objectives: (1) to estimate changes of the eroded volume of mountain trails from 2014 to 2016 by making DSMs, (2) to understand a relationship between the trail erosion and micro-topography, and (3) to predict the volume of soil that can be eroded in future. Trail erosion has been investigated near Mt. Hokkai-dake in Daisetzuzan National Park, Hokkaido, northern Japan, with a drone (UAV) from 2014 to 2016. Seven segments with the soil erosion from starting sites to ending sites were selected to make DSMs and Orthophotographs by Agisoft, which is one of the Structure from Motion (SfM) software. Then, at fourteen points in each of the seven segments were selected to estimate the volume of soil that can be eroded in the future by PANDA2, a soil compaction penetrometer. The eroded volume in the segment with the largest eroded value attained 274.67 m3 for the two-year period although extremely heavy rain hit this area in the 2016 summer. The result obtained by PANDA2 shows that soil more than 100 cm in depth will be potentially eroded at four points in three years to one hundred years.

  20. Multifidelity Sparse-Grid-Based Uncertainty Quantification for the Hokkaido Nansei-oki Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baar, Jouke H. S.; Roberts, Stephen G.

    2017-08-01

    With uncertainty quantification, we aim to efficiently propagate the uncertainties in the input parameters of a computer simulation, in order to obtain a probability distribution of its output. In this work, we use multi-fidelity sparse grid interpolation to propagate the uncertainty in the shape of the incoming wave for the Okushiri test-case, which is a wave tank model of a part of the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki tsunami. An important issue with many uncertainty quantification approaches is the `curse of dimensionality': the overall computational cost of the uncertainty propagation increases rapidly when we increase the number of uncertain input parameters. We aim to mitigate the curse of dimensionality by using a multifidelity approach. In the multifidelity approach, we combine results from a small number of accurate and expensive high-fidelity simulations with a large number of less accurate but also less expensive low-fidelity simulations. For the Okushiri test-case, we find an improved scaling when we increase the number of uncertain input parameters. This results in a significant reduction of the overall computational cost. For example, for four uncertain input parameters, accurate uncertainty quantification based on only high-fidelity simulations comes at a normalised cost of 219 high-fidelity simulations; when we use a multifidelity approach, this is reduced to a normalised cost of only 10 high-fidelity simulations.

  1. Seismic reflection imaging of a Warm Core Ring south of Hokkaido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Mikiya; Yokota, Kanako; Fukao, Yoshio; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Katsumata, Katsuro

    2011-02-01

    A multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) survey was conducted in 2009 to explore the deep crustal structure of the Pacific Plate south of Hokkaido. The survey line happened to traverse a 250-km-wide Warm Core Ring (WCR), a current eddy that had been generated by the Kuroshio Extension. We attempted to use these MCS data to delineate the WCR fine structure. The survey line consists of two profiles: one with a shot interval of 200m and the other with a shot interval of 50m. Records from the denser shot point line show much higher background noise than the records from the sparser shot point line. We identified the origin of this noise as acoustic reverberations between the sea surface, seafloor and subsurface discontinuities, from previous shots. Results showed that a prestack migration technique could enhance the signal buried in this background noise efficiently, if the sound speed information acquired from concurrent temperature measurements is available. The WCR is acoustically an assemblage of concave reflectors dipping inward, with steeper slopes (~2°) on the ocean side and gentler slopes (~1°) on the coastal side. Within the WCR, we recognised a 30-km-wide lens-shaped structure with reflectors on the perimeter.

  2. Organohalogen and organotin compounds in killer whales mass-stranded in the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kamikawa, Satoko; Ochi, Yoko; Yano, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-09-01

    Blubber and liver samples were obtained for analysis of wide ranges of contaminants from killer whales (Orcinus orca) which were locked away in drifting sea ice on the coast of Rausu, the Shiretoko Peninsula in Eastern Hokkaido, Japan in February 2005. Among the organohalogen compounds analyzed, DDTs were the predominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 28 to 220 microg/g on a lipid-weight basis followed by PCBs and other organochlorine pesticides. PBDEs levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than those of PCBs and DDTs. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived by WHO mammal-TEF in killer whales were in the range of 110-440 pgTEQ/g. Mono-ortho coplanar PCBs contributed to 75-98% of total TEQs, indicating coplanar PCBs are significant contaminants for risk assessment in this species. The fact that hepatic residue levels of butyltins (from 13 to 770 ng/g wet weight) were much higher than those of phenyltins may be reflecting extensive use of tributyltin as antifouling paint.

  3. [Study of the anti Borrelia burgdorferi antibody of hunters in Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Kubo, N; Arashima, Y; Kawabata, M; Kawano, K; Nakao, M; Miyamoto, K

    1992-01-01

    We examined the sera of 587 hunters in Hokkaido (Japan's northernmost island) for the antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) by enzyme immunoassay, clarified the conditions related to antibody positivity in these subjects according to region, and studied the effects of factors such as age and lifestyle on the antibody titer. In contrast with an anti-B. burgdorferi antibody positive rate of 7.1% in control sera, that in the hunters' sera was 16.0%. Among those positive for the anti-B. burgdorferi antibody, the antibody positive rate in sera excluding those testing positive in the serological test for syphilis was 5.5% in the controls, and 15.4% in the hunters, the latter rate being significantly higher (p less than 0.05). In both hunters and control groups, the antibody-positive rate tended to be higher in older subjects, but the antibody titer showed no correlation with their age, or the duration of their hunting experience. Examination of the hunters' occupations revealed a tendency toward high titers in those engaged in dairy farming. The antibody positivity of those who went gathering edible wild plants was significantly higher than those did not (p less than 0.05). These observations suggested that the high antibody-positive rate in hunters may have been due largely to the effect of activities other than hunting as sources of infection by Borrelia.

  4. Object-Based Analysis and Change Detection of Paddy Field at Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARK, J.; Kim, Y.; Kwak, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing technology has been used in land use and land cover classification. Especially paddy fields is an important cultivated area in Asia. To accurately extract the area is the important indicator to estimate the food production. In this research paddy fields classification in Hokkaido was performed using Topographical features (DEM), Climatic features (accumulated temperature), Spectrometer features (MODIS). Fig. 1. shows the overview of the analysis methods of this research. The process of this research is carried out in 3 steps.1. Determine the accumulated temperature by retrieving the temperature data from the AMeDAS data. 2. Extract the river from the DEM. Set the elevation of the river to 0 to seek the land elevation around it relatively. 3. Calculate the WI (Water Index) using MODIS band 4(Green)and Band 2(NIR). Time series NDVI has been corrected by the FFT method (use a low-pass filter). Phenology information was extracted such as vegetation Onset time, Max value and Duration. Result of the classification was compared with the current vegetation map of the Ministry of the Environment. As a result we can confirm that existence of vegetation map around Sapporo and Asahikawa is almost same. but around Obihiro it was clear that overestimate by water index.

  5. Multifidelity Sparse-Grid-Based Uncertainty Quantification for the Hokkaido Nansei-oki Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baar, Jouke H. S.; Roberts, Stephen G.

    2017-07-01

    With uncertainty quantification, we aim to efficiently propagate the uncertainties in the input parameters of a computer simulation, in order to obtain a probability distribution of its output. In this work, we use multi-fidelity sparse grid interpolation to propagate the uncertainty in the shape of the incoming wave for the Okushiri test-case, which is a wave tank model of a part of the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki tsunami. An important issue with many uncertainty quantification approaches is the `curse of dimensionality': the overall computational cost of the uncertainty propagation increases rapidly when we increase the number of uncertain input parameters. We aim to mitigate the curse of dimensionality by using a multifidelity approach. In the multifidelity approach, we combine results from a small number of accurate and expensive high-fidelity simulations with a large number of less accurate but also less expensive low-fidelity simulations. For the Okushiri test-case, we find an improved scaling when we increase the number of uncertain input parameters. This results in a significant reduction of the overall computational cost. For example, for four uncertain input parameters, accurate uncertainty quantification based on only high-fidelity simulations comes at a normalised cost of 219 high-fidelity simulations; when we use a multifidelity approach, this is reduced to a normalised cost of only 10 high-fidelity simulations.

  6. Discrimination of "grazing milk" using milk fatty acid profile in the grassland dairy area in Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Milk produced by the grazing system, referred to as "grazing milk" contains many components required for human health. The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is strongly associated with the diet on the farms. In the present study, based on the FA profile of farmer's bulk milk, we determined how to discriminate between milk produced on grazing and on a confinement system. A field survey was conducted four times (grazing and confinement season) in the Konsen (29 farms) and Okhotsk (25 farms) area in Hokkaido. Farmer's bulk milk samples and details of feeding management were collected and the FA profile of milk was measured. Milk produced during the grazing season contained less C16:0 and cis-9 C16:0, and more C18:0, cis-9 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,12 C18:2, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and cis-9,12,15 C18:3 than milk produced during the confinement season. Discrimination analysis using 16 FA revealed that almost all milk samples were discriminated correctly (confinement season: 90% correct and 10% borderline, grazing season: 88% correct, 9% borderline and 3% incorrect). For farmers that were categorized incorrectly and were considered borderline in the grazing season, the dependency on pasture was low compared with that for farmers correctly discriminated. Therefore, to claim "grazing milk", a high dependency on pasture is required for grazing dairy farmers. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Community response to road traffic noise: Social surveys in three cities in Hokkaido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, K.; Yano, T.

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the joint study program with Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan, and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, social surveys of community responses were performed in residential areas heavily exposed to road traffic noise in three cities in Hokkaido, Japan. Personal interviews with a standard questionnaire were made with 146 persons randomly selected from official registers. After the interviews, 24-hour noise measurements were made at the area reference points in the three cities. Noise exposures at all respondents' houses were estimated by measuring relative noise levels to the respective area reference points. Regression analyses were performed on annoyance due to road traffic noise and noise exposure defined by Equivalent Noise Level ( LAeq), Day-Night Average Sound Level ( LDN) and Maximum Noise Level ( MNL). The regression models could not explain a large part of the variation in the annoyance responses. A path analysis was performed to explain the annoyance responses by nine exogenous and two endogenous variables obtained via the personal interviews. The path model explained about half of the variation in the annoyance responses. The model confirmed the strong effect of sleep disturbance to road traffic annoyance. It also showed important effects of hearing disturbance, satisfaction with the area, employment status and the self-reported sensitivity to annoyance due to road traffic noise.

  8. Geology of the Idonnappu Belt, central Hokkaido, Japan: Evolution of a Cretaceous Accretionary Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, Shoichi

    1992-12-01

    The Cretaceous Idonnappu Belt, located along the western Hidaka Mountains of central Hokkaido Island in Japan, records evidence of west to northwest directed underthrusting of oceanic crust. The Idonnappu fault divides the Idonnappu Belt into two subbelts; the western Oku-niikappu (ON) subbelt and the eastern Koiboku (KO) subbelt. The ON subbelt is dominated by a melange facies. It includes various thicknesses of pillow basalts, bedded radiolarian cherts, limestones, and greenish siliceous shales, all of which are intermixed with a highly sheared shaley matrix that displays a scaly cleavage. The KO subbelt is dominated by a thick flysch sequence and alternations of sandstone and shale with thin tectonic melange. The stratigraphic sequences within these belts usually young toward the west and display westward vergent structures. Outcrop- to microscopic-scale structures in the melange zone of the Idonnappu Belt, however, suggest eastward vergence. Detailed biostratigraphic studies show that structural packages young toward the east ranging in age from Lower to Upper Cretaceous. These observations are consistent with an accretionary prism model in which oceanic crust is underthrust toward the west or north west. In the middle Miocene, a change to westward vergence was caused by uplift of the Hidaka Mountains.

  9. A comparative study of stress episode prevalence and duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Temple, Daniel H; McGroarty, Jennifer N; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsumura, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    This study reconstructs linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) prevalence and stress episode duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido, Japan (HKJ). Results are compared to Jomon period samples from coastal Honshu, Japan (HSJ) and Tigara Inupiat from Point Hope, Alaska (PHT) to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the manifestation of stress among circum-Pacific foragers. LEH were identified macro- and microscopically by enamel surface depressions and increased perikymata spacing within defects. Individuals with more than one anterior tooth affected by LEH were labeled as LEH positive. Stress episode durations were estimated by counting the number of perikymata within the occlusal wall of each LEH and multiplying that number by constants reflecting modal periodicities for modern human teeth. LEH prevalence and stress episode duration did not differ significantly between the two Jomon samples. Significantly greater frequencies of LEH were found in HKJ as compared to PHT foragers. However, HKJ foragers had significantly shorter stress episode durations as compared to PHT. This suggests that a greater proportion of HKJ individuals experienced stress episodes than did PHT individuals, but these stress events ended sooner. Similarity in stress experiences between the two Jomon samples and differences between the HKJ and PHT are found. These findings are important for two reasons. First, stress experiences of foraging populations differ markedly and cannot be generalized by subsistence strategy alone. Second, due to significant differences in episode duration, stress experiences cannot be understood using prevalence comparisons alone.

  10. Rapid and Accurate C-V Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hong; Shrestha, Pragya R.; Campbell, Jason P.; Ryan, Jason T.; Nminibapiel, David; Kopanski, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    We report a new technique for the rapid measurement of full capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristic curves. The displacement current from a 100 MHz applied sine-wave, which swings from accumulation to strong inversion, is digitized directly using an oscilloscope from the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor under test. A C-V curve can be constructed directly from this data but is severely distorted due to non-ideal behavior of real measurement systems. The key advance of this work is to extract the system response function using the same measurement set-up and a known MOS capacitor. The system response correction to the measured C-V curve of the unknown MOS capacitor can then be done by simple deconvolution. No de-skewing and/or leakage current correction is necessary, making it a very simple and quick measurement. Excellent agreement between the new fast C-V method and C-V measured conventionally by an LCR meter is achieved. The total time required for measurement and analysis is approximately 2 seconds, which is limited by our equipment. PMID:28579633

  11. Structural studies of CV-70 polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Scamparini, A; Mariuzzo, D; Fujihara, H; Jacobusi, R; Vendruscolo, C

    1997-08-01

    The goal of this paper is the characterization of the chemical structure of the water-soluble polysaccharide, CV-70, produced by bacteria Beijerinckia sp. Beijerinckia sp. is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, usually found in sugar cane root. The CV-70 polysaccharide was produced in a fermentation medium containing 5% sucrose as the carbon source, tryptose and salts, at 25 degrees C [1]. The polysaccharide was hydrolyzed with 2 N trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C for 16 h, purified, and analyzed by HPLC. Index of refraction was used for the detection of sugars. For GC-MS analysis, the CV-70 polysaccharide was derivatized through methylation and acetylation. Together with the GC-MS data, periodate oxidation studies were used to determine the possible glucosidic linkages. Carbon-13 NMR studies were carried out with hydrolyzed and silylated samples. Glucose, galactose and fucose were identified as the components in the CV-70 polysaccharide, in a 3:1:3 ratio.

  12. Population dynamics, synchrony, and environmental quality of Hokkaido voles lead to temporal and spatial Taylor's laws.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel E; Saitoh, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Taylor's law (TL) asserts that the variance in a species' population density is a power-law function of its mean population density: log(variance) = a + b × log(mean). TL is widely verified. We show here that empirical time series of density of the Hokkaido gray-sided vole, Myodes rufocanus, sampled 1962-1992 at 85 locations, satisfied temporal and spatial forms of TL. The slopes (b ± standard error) of the temporal and spatial TL were estimated to be 1.613 ± 0.141 and 1.430 ± 0.132, respectively. A previously verified autoregressive Gompertz model of the dynamics of these populations generated time series of density which reproduced the form of temporal and spatial TLs, but with slopes that were significantly steeper than the slopes estimated from data. The density-dependent components of the Gompertz model were essential for the temporal TL. Adding to the Gompertz model assumptions that populations with higher mean density have reduced variance of density-independent perturbations and that density-independent perturbations are spatially correlated among populations yielded simulated time series that satisfactorily reproduced the slopes from data. The slopes (b ± standard error) of the enhanced simulations were 1.619 ± 0.199 for temporal TL and 1.575 ± 0.204 for spatial TL. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Stress drops for intermediate-depth intraslab earthquakes beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Katsumata, K.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variations in the stress drop for 1726 intermediate-depth intraslab earthquakes in the subducting Pacific plate beneath Hokkaido were examined, using precisely relocated hypocenters, the corner frequencies of events, and detailed determined geometry of the upper interface of the Pacific plate. The analysis results show that median stress drop for intraslab earthquakes generally increases with an increase in depth from 10 to 157 Mpa at depths of 70-300 km. Median stress drops for events in the oceanic crust decrease (9.9-6.8 MPa) at depths of 70-120 km and increase (6.8-17 MPa) at depths of 120- 170 km, whereas median stress drop for events in the oceanic mantle decrease (21.6-14.0 MPa) at depths of 70-170 km, where the geometry of the Pacific plate is well determined. The increase in stress drop with depth in the oceanic crust at depths of 120-170 km can be explained by a lithofacies change (increases in velocity and density and a decrease in the water content) due to the phase change with dehydration in the oceanic crust. At depths of 70-110 km, the decrease in the median stress drop in the oceanic crust would also be explained by that the temperature-induced rigidity decrease would be larger than that of the rigidity increase caused by lithofacies change and water content. Stress drops for events in the oceanic mantle were larger than those for events in the oceanic crust at depths of 70-120 km. Differences in both the rigidity of the rock types and in the rupture mechanisms for events between the oceanic crust and mantle could be causes for the stress drop differences within a slab. These analysis results can help clarify the nature of intraslab earthquakes and provide information useful for the prediction of strong motion associated with earthquakes in the slab at intermediate depths.

  14. Molecular survey of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infections of feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sashika, Mariko; Abe, Go; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2011-04-01

    Infection by Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan, was examined by molecular methods. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screen for Anaplasmataceae, based on 16S rRNA, showed that 38 (5.4%) of 699 raccoons examined were positive. These 38 positive samples were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canis infection by species-specific nested PCR. Nested PCR results indicated that 36 of the 38 samples were positive for A. bovis. All 38 samples were PCR negative for A. phagocytophilum, E. chaffeensis, and E. canis. This is the first report of the detection of A. bovis in the peripheral blood of raccoons. A total of 124 raccoons were infested with ticks, including Ixodes ovatus, Ixodes persulcatus, and Haemaphysalis spp. The rate of A. bovis infection in raccoons infested with Haemaphysalis spp. (46.7%, 7/15) was significantly higher than that in raccoons without Haemaphysalis spp. infestation (3.7%, 4/109, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in A. bovis infection rates between raccoons infested with I. ovatus or I. persulcatus and those not so infested. A total of four ticks (two males and two nymphs) and one larval pools from four raccoons showed positive for A. bovis-specific nested PCR. This results support the correlation between the A. bovis infection of raccoons and Haemaphysalis infestation. In conclusion, raccoons could be possible reservoir animals for A. bovis, and A. bovis infection in raccoons may be related to infestation with Haemaphysalis spp.

  15. Elastic models for the magma intrusion associated with the 2000 eruption of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Mori, Hitoshi; Okada, Hiromu

    2003-07-01

    After 23 years of dormancy, Usu Volcano (Hokkaido, Japan) erupted on March 31, 2000. Many observations (seismicity, deformation rates, gravity data, groundwater level monitoring) show that the period of intense activity was short, starting abruptly, and continuing for ca. 5 months with a decreasing rate. Uplift was observed at two successive and separate locations at the time of the eruption. We obtained GPS and microgravity data at Usu Volcano for two intervals, the first from August 1996 to July 1998, once every 2-4 months, and the second in November 2000, 2 months after the end of the eruption. Between July 1998 and November 2000, the displacements and gravity variations are among the largest ever recorded on an active volcano in association with an eruption. We review three different elastic models commonly used in volcano-geodesy (sphere, fault system, fissure zone) and invert the high-quality data using each of these models. The combined inversion of GPS and microgravity data leads to the best solution in the least-squares sense. It is compatible with the intrusion of approximately 5×10 11 kg of new magma into the western part of Usu Volcano. This appears to have occurred in a subvertical fracture zone (about 2.4 km length, 0.1 km width) aligned in the east-west direction. The fracture zone is between 0.4 and 3.3 km depth with an extension of about 30 m. The fractures are likely to be filled with material having a density slightly higher than the density of old products of Mount Usu, i.e. about 2400 kg m -3. This model is consistent with the locations and magnitudes of the earthquakes recorded during the period of intense seismic activity in April and May 2000. These earthquakes correspond to the boundaries of the intruded magma body. The model suggests that the two locations of uplift are not independent.

  16. Tephrostratigraphy and eruptive history of post-caldera stage of Toya Volcano, Hokkaido, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyabuchi, Yasuo; Okuno, Mitsuru; Torii, Masayuki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2014-06-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphy of Toya Volcano in Hokkaido, northern Japan has been constructed to evaluate the post-caldera eruptive history of the volcano. The tephrostratigraphic sequence preserved above the Toya ignimbrite reaches a total thickness of 8 m southeast of the caldera. After the caldera formation (115-112 ka), there was a long quiescent period of more than 60 ka years. The first post-caldera activity started with Nakajima Osarugawa pumice-fall deposit (Nj-Os) inside the caldera at 48 ka. Eruptive activity at Nakajima Volcano resumed at 30 ka with Nakajima Sekinai pumice-fall deposit (Nj-Sk), and was followed by continuous emission of fine ash including abundant accretionary lapilli. Soon after the Nakajima pyroclastic eruption Usu Volcano began its activity with discharges of basaltic ash and scoria (forming the Usu prehistoric tephra) and extrusion of homogeneous lavas namely Usu somma lava, resulting in the formation of the initial volcanic edifice. Subsequently, a large sector collapse occurred between 30 and 20 ka that emplaced the Zenkoji debris avalanche with little break after the formation of the initial Usu volcanic edifice. After the sector collapse, the volcano remained dormant for about 20-30 ka years. Eruptive activity at Usu Volcano resumed in 1663 AD with the most explosive plinian eruption in the post-caldera stage of Toya Volcano. Since then, seven eruptions have been recorded in 1769, 1822, 1853, 1910, 1943-1945, 1977-1978 and 2000 at multi-decadal interval. Total tephra volume during the post-caldera stage is estimated at about 0.9 km3 (dense rock equivalent: DRE), whereas total lava volume is calculated at about 2.3 km3. Therefore, the average magma discharge rate during the post-caldera stage of Toya Volcano is estimated at about 0.03 km3/ky, which is one or two order smaller than those of other Quaternary volcanoes in Japan.

  17. Invasive pneumococcal diseases in children in Hokkaido, Japan from April 2000, to March 2015.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) became commercially available as a voluntary vaccine in March 2010. It was included in the routine immunization schedule in April 2013 and was replaced by PCV-13 in November 2013. We evaluated 146 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in 142 children (2 developed the disease twice, and 1 developed it three times) treated in the northern district of Hokkaido, Japan from April 2000 to March 2015, before and after the introduction of PCV-7. The incidence rate per 100,000 people aged <5 years showed an increasing trend between April 2000 and March 2010, and reached 87.5 per 100,000 people per year between April 2009 and March 2010, which was immediately before the introduction of PCV-7. Subsequently, the incidence rate started to show a decreasing trend and reached as low as 9.5 per 100,000 people per year between April 2013 and March 2014. However, the incidence rate showed an increasing trend again between April 2014 and March 2015, reaching 33.4 per 100,000 people per year. Serotyping was performed for the 77 strains collected between April 2000 and March 2010. The most frequently isolated serotype was 6B (31.2%), followed by 23F (14.3%) and 19F (13.0%). Among them, 55 strains were covered by PCV-7 (71.4%), and 64 strains were covered by PCV-13 (83.1%). Of the 33 strains collected between April 2010 and March 2015, 14 were covered by PCV-7 (42.4%) and 16 were covered by PCV-13 (48.4%), showing a significant decrease (p < 0.01). Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  19. The Effect of Soil Freezing on N Cycling: Comparison of two Headwater Subcatchments With Varying Snowpack, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. F.; Shibata, H.; Ozawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y.; Mitchell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Climate change models predict the snowpacks of temperate forests will develop later and be shallower resulting in a higher propensity for soil freezing. In the northern most island of Japan, Hokkaido, snowpack depth decreases from west to east. This snowpack depth gradient provided a unique opportunity to test the effects of variable snowpack and soil freezing on N cycling. The Upper Nakagawa catchment (UN) in Shibecha Experimental Forest, eastern Hokkaido had a mean annual NO3- concentration of 2 mg N L-1 and had deciduous trees while the M3 catchment in Uryu Experimental Forest, western Hokkaido had a mean annual NO3- concentration of 0.1 mg N L-1 and contained mixed deciduous and coniferous tree species. We conducted a field study to determine if differences in stream NO3- concentration were controlled by the variability in soil freezing or tree litter quality. Reciprocal soil transplants were made between the Shibecha and Uryu sites using soils from at 0, 5, and 30 cm depths. Soil freezing occurred through out the study period (November-April 2004-05) at 0 and 5 cm depths at Shibecha while little freezing occurred at Uryu. Uryu litter had a higher C: N ratio (25.0 versus 22.4 for Shibecha) , higher lignin: N ratios (15 versus 8.8 ), and higher lignin concentrations (0.28 versus 0.18 g lignin g-1). These differences in litter quality contributed to higher net mineralization and nitrification in Shibecha compared to Uryu that resulted in higher NO3- concentrations in the drainage waters of Shibecha versus Uryu. Sites experiencing severe soil freezing had relatively high net mineralization rates but lower or unchanged net nitrification compared to sites that had little soil freezing. Effects of soil freezing were most pronounced in the Uryu soil buried in Shibecha. Variability in NO3- concentration in Shibecha versus Uryu streams were attributed to difference in tree species composition as well as the magnitude of soil freezing.

  20. Dual subduction and intraoceanic arc-backarc plate in the Mesozoic NW Pacific: Insights from Hokkaido, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, H.

    2016-12-01

    Accreted sediments and ophiolites in the circum-Pacific regions have potentials to provide reconstruction of paleogeography in the Pacific Ocean independent of those by magnetic anomalies, hotspot tracks, and mantle tomography. Geology of Hokkaido and NE Japan suggest dual west-dipping subduction in the late Mesozoic NW Pacific. One is represented by continental margin accretionary complex of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ages extended from Palawan (Philippine) to Russian Fareast. Another, more offshore subduction is deduced by boninites and arc volcanic rocks, HP metamorphic blocks in serpentinites, and accretionary complex, all occurring in central Hokkaido. These continental and offshore subduction systems developed at the same time during the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous epochs. The area between the two subduction zones is characterized by Jurassic ophiolite basement with chemical affinities either of MORB-like tholeiite (MLT) or boninites. In our study area, MLT is overlain by debrites suggestive of post-magmatic rifting, and further by deep-sea volcaniclastic turbidites derived from immature arc. Arc basalts and dolerites locally erupted upon or intruded into these sediments. No clastic materials from continental origins are found in these volcano-sedimentary sequences until middle Early Cretaceous. Chemical characteristics and sedimentary sequences are best analogous to intraoceanic arc-backarc system of the present-day Philippine Sea plate, across which dual subduction (Nankai Trough to Ryukyu Trench vs. Izu-Bonin-Mariana Trench) exists. Central Hokkaido sandwiched by two subduction zones is therefore considered as a remnant of oceanic arc-backarc plate, which transposed to continental margin forearc during the Cretaceous to Paleogene periods. This plate potentially extended to Sakhalin and further northeast with abundant ophiolites. However, no such remnants are found in SW Japan, implying its limited extent.

  1. SuperDARN HOP radars observation of ionospheric convection associated with low-latitude aurora observed at Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The SuperDARN HOkkaido Pair of (HOP) radars, consisting of the Hokkaido East (2006-) and West (2014-) radars, are the SuperDARN radars located at the lowest geomagnetic latitude (36.5 degrees), and have been continuously measuring ionospheric convection at high to subauroral and middle latitudes with high temporal resolutions (<= 1 to 2 mins). These radars enable us to study the two-dimensional evolution of ionospheric convection ever 1 or 2 minutes. In this paper we study two low latitude aurora events observed in Hokkaido, Japan from 15 to 19 UT on March 17, 2015 and from 1900 to 2030 UT on December 20, 2015, identified using optical instruments such as all-sky CCD camera, wide field of view digital camera and meridian scanning photometer. Both events occurred during the main phase of the relatively large geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst of -223 nT and -170 nT respectively. The ionospheric convection at mid-latitude regions associated with the low-latitude auroral emission is characterized by (1) transient equatorward flows up to about 500 m/s in the initial phase of the emission (the geomagnetic field data at Paratunka, Far East Russia show corresponding negative excursions), and (2) sheared flow structure consisting of westward flow (about 500 m/s) equatorward of eastward flow (1000 m/s), with the equatorward boundary of auroral emission embedded in the westward flow region which expanded up to below 50 deg geomagnetic latitude. These observations imply that the electric field / convection distribution plays important roles in continuously generating the low latitude auroral emission. In particular the observation of the equatorward flow (dawn-dusk electric field) up to as low as about 50 deg geomagnetic latitude is the direct evidence for the presence of electric field to drive ring current particles into the plasmaspheric regions.

  2. Microwave Radiometer Observations of Snowpack Properties and Comparison of U.S. Japanese Results. [Hokkaido, Japan and Vermont and North Dakota test sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave data collected by field experiments over Vermont and Hokkaido and Nimbus-7 SMMR over North Dakota and Hokkaido were studied. The measured 37 GHz brightness temperatures show considerable effect of volume scattering by snow grains. The 37 GHz brightness for a new snowpack with average grain radius of 0.25 mm is generally about 40 K higher than the naturally compacted pack with average grain radius of 0.4 mm. The scattering effect is much less distinct for the 6.6 GHz. However, the layering effect is much stronger at the longer wavelength. For 10.7 and 18 GHz, the effect of layering and scattering vary due to different combinations of internal snow grain distribution and layering structures. Over the Hokkaido test site, the SMMR data are too coarse for the snow field. A better spatial resolution is required to study these snow fields.

  3. Miocene-Pleistocene magmas in the Monbetsu area, Northeast Hokkaido, tap N-MORB-like sources contaminated by slab-derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen; Miyagi, Isoji; Itoh, Jun'ichi

    2015-05-01

    Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in northern and northeastern Hokkaido appears to have been closely associated with the Late Oligocene to Mid-Miocene opening of the Japan and Okhotsk Seas (c. 23-12 Ma). Between 12 and 2 Ma, volcanism appeared in the Monbetsu area of northeastern Hokkaido, whose magmatic products are characterized by relative depletions in Nb and Ta and enrichments in LILE and Pb, suggesting a subduction-related source. Likewise, their N-MORB-like isotopic affinity resembles that of active arcs in eastern Hokkaido. These geochemical features are distinct from those of intraplate Cenozoic magmas in Sikhote-Alin, Sakhalin and within the Japan Sea itself, which appear to show a secular change from high-87Sr/86Sr, -206Pb/204Pb and low-143Nd/144Nd (EM2-rich) mantle sources to relatively low-87Sr/86Sr and -206Pb/204Pb (EM1-rich) types, resembling the progression of magmatic activity during early stages of Japan Sea opening. The EM2 is interpreted to derive from lithospheric mantle while EM1-like components may have been introduced by material delaminated from the Sino-Korea craton, following the Indo-Eurasia collision. In contrast, the Cenozoic Monbetsu volcanics in northern and northeastern Hokkaido appear to lack any such temporal pattern, implying that their respective source regions have not changed since at least c. 14 Ma. We suggest, accordingly, that upper mantle beneath Hokkaido may have been isolated after opening of the Japan and Okhotsk Seas, to the west and northwest, the Kurile Basin to the northeast, and continuing west-vergent subduction of the Pacific plate. Given the fact that Cenozoic volcanism in north and northeastern Hokkaido shows apparent subduction-related character, and that the relationship between this activity and opening of the Kurile Basin remains unclear, we tentatively conclude that intraplate mantle melting may reflect a combination of effects, that of slab-derived hydrous fluid superimposed on upwelling asthenosphere.

  4. Impact of Red Wine Consumption on Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Liberale, Luca; Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Dallegri, Franco; Carbone, Federico

    2017-05-17

    The devastating effects of heavy alcohol drinking have been long time recognized. In the last decades, potential benefits of modest red wine drinking were suggested. In European countries in which red wide intake is not negligible (such as France), the association between cholesterol and cardiovascular (CV) risk was less evident, suggesting the action of some protective molecules in red wine or other foods and drinks. Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of a J-shaped relationship between red wine intake and CV risk further supported the "French paradox". Specific components of red wine both in vitro and in animal models were discovered. Polyphenols and especially resveratrol largely contribute to CV prevention mainly through antioxidant properties. They exert beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic diseases, thus reducing the risk of adverse CV events such as myocardial infarction ischemic stroke and heart failure. Of interest, recent studies pointed out the role of ethanol itself as a potential cardioprotective agent, but a clear epidemiological evidence is still missing. The aim of this narrative review is to update current knowledge on the intracellular mechanism underlying the cardioprotective effects of polyphenols and ethanol. Furthermore, we summarized the results of epidemiological studies, emphasizing their methodological criticisms and the need for randomized clinical trials able to clarify the potential role of red wine consumption in reducing CV risk. Caution in avowing underestimation of the global burden of alcohol-related diseases was particularly used. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Liu, Hesheng; Wang, Yin; Zhou, Kehua; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation. PMID:22291848

  6. Sequencing protocols to genotype mdx, mdx(4cv), and mdx(5cv) mice.

    PubMed

    Banks, Glen B; Combs, Ariana C; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2010-08-01

    Currently available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping methods for point mutations in the mouse dystrophin gene can lead to false positives and result in wasted time and money due to breeding or treating the wrong mice. Here we describe a simple and accurate method for sequencing the point mutations in mdx, mdx(4cv), and mdx(5cv) mice. This method clearly distinguishes between wildtype, heterozygous, and mutant transcripts, and thereby time and money can be saved by avoiding false positives.

  7. Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine: PHiD-CV.

    PubMed

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin

    2009-11-01

    At the beginning of a new century, we have gained significant achievements against pneumococcal infections by using conjugated pneumococcal vaccines. In January 2009, the EMEA issued a positive opinion about, and recommended the approval of, GlaxoSmithKline's pediatric pneumococcal candidate vaccine, which is indicated for active immunization against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children from 6 weeks up to 2 years of age. The approved 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV) contains all serotypes in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) plus serotypes 1, 5 and 7F. Protein D from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is the carrier protein for eight serotypes, while tetanus and diphtheria toxins are in the carrier proteins for the remaining two serotypes. It has also been proved that PHiD-CV is immunogenic, safe and well-tolerated in children. This vaccine can be coadministered with routinely used pediatric vaccines. Noninferiority criteria of PHiD-CV compared with PCV-7 were established in shared serotypes, except for serotypes 6B and 23F, and PHiD-CV is immunogenic for additional serotypes as assessed by the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations. PHiD-CV is also immunogenic for ten serotypes as assessed by post-primary and post-booster dose opsonophagocytic activity responses. Vaccine efficacy against IPD and other conditions should be monitored for shared serotypes and also additional serotypes during the postmarketing period. Optimal scheduling, safety and immunogenicity data in children with different risk factors for IPD, or whether it will provide herd immunity, are the questions waiting for answers in the postmarketing period. Further studies are needed to assess the potential advantages of protein D as a carrier and the potential efficacy of this new vaccine against H. influenzae. The potential public health efficacy of PHiD-CV in low-income countries

  8. Timing of puberty and its relationship with body growth and season in male raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Minami W; Shimozuru, Michito; Abe, Go; Nakai, Mariko; Sashika, Mariko; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryohei; Tsubota, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The raccoon (Procyon lotor), indigenous to North America, has naturalized in Japan as an invasive alien species, having been introduced into the country in the 1970s. In Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, feral raccoons have been increasing in number and spreading throughout the island. The age at the onset of puberty for raccoons is important for estimating individual lifetime reproductive success and population growth. The present study investigated the timing of and potential factors affecting the onset of puberty in male raccoons in Hokkaido. External characteristics and histology of testes were studied in 151 male feral raccoons and in 1 captive juvenile. For the majority of feral yearling raccoons, prepubertal development began in May, and spermatozoa production began in October prior to their second mating season. However, some larger juveniles attained puberty during the juvenile period. The captive juvenile, which was fed throughout the winter, attained puberty only 11 months after birth. These results suggest that if male raccoons can achieve enough body growth before the first mating season, puberty can be attained early. In both juveniles and yearlings, spermatozoa production was only observed after autumn. This timing coincided with the recrudescence of seasonally active spermatogenesis in adult males. Therefore, attaining puberty in male raccoons appears to require both adequate body nutrient development and several environmental factors that control seasonal testicular changes.

  9. Genetic identification of mammalian carnivore species in the Kushiro Wetland, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, by analysis of fecal DNA.

    PubMed

    Shimatani, Yukari; Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Tatsuzawa, Shirow; Ikeda, Tohru; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2008-07-01

    To identify mammalian carnivore species distributed in the Kushiro Wetland, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, we developed molecular-genetic methods for identification of the species from fecal samples collected from the field. Species-specific primers and PCR programs were established for five native and six alien species of carnivores: Martes zibellina, Mustela nivalis, Mustela erminea, Vulpes vulpes, and Nyctereutes procyonoides as native species, and Neovison vison, Martes melampus, Mustela itatsi, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, and Procyon lotor as alien species in Hokkaido. Touchdown PCR, in which the annealing temperature is decreased 1 degrees C every cycle, was more effective for some species from which fecal DNA was not amplified species-specifically with standard PCR programs. Of 405 fecal samples collected from the Kushiro Wetland, the species of origin of 246 samples were successfully identified: 88 samples for N. vison, 140 for M. zibellina, 13 for V. vulpes, four for C. familiaris and one for F. catus. The results show the particular applicability of this method to monitoring M. zibellina and N. vison. In addition, methods to PCR-amplify DNA from two crayfish species (Pacifastacus leniusculus and Cambaroides japonicus) were developed to determine whether the carnivore fecal samples contained detectable DNA from the prey crayfishes. DNA from P. leniusculus was amplified from feces of N. vison identified in the present study, but no DNA from C. japonicus was detected. This indicates that N. vison preys on the alien species P. leniusculus.

  10. Timing of Puberty and Its Relationship with Body Growth and Season in Male Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido

    PubMed Central

    OKUYAMA, Minami W.; SHIMOZURU, Michito; ABE, Go; NAKAI, Mariko; SASHIKA, Mariko; SHIMADA, Ken-Ichiro; TAKAHASHI, Nobuhiro; FUKUI, Daisuke; NAKAMURA, Ryohei; TSUBOTA, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The raccoon (Procyon lotor), indigenous to North America, has naturalized in Japan as an invasive alien species, having been introduced into the country in the 1970s. In Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, feral raccoons have been increasing in number and spreading throughout the island. The age at the onset of puberty for raccoons is important for estimating individual lifetime reproductive success and population growth. The present study investigated the timing of and potential factors affecting the onset of puberty in male raccoons in Hokkaido. External characteristics and histology of testes were studied in 151 male feral raccoons and in 1 captive juvenile. For the majority of feral yearling raccoons, prepubertal development began in May, and spermatozoa production began in October prior to their second mating season. However, some larger juveniles attained puberty during the juvenile period. The captive juvenile, which was fed throughout the winter, attained puberty only 11 months after birth. These results suggest that if male raccoons can achieve enough body growth before the first mating season, puberty can be attained early. In both juveniles and yearlings, spermatozoa production was only observed after autumn. This timing coincided with the recrudescence of seasonally active spermatogenesis in adult males. Therefore, attaining puberty in male raccoons appears to require both adequate body nutrient development and several environmental factors that control seasonal testicular changes. PMID:23603783

  11. Serologic evidence of Brucella infection in pinnipeds along the coast of Hokkaido, the northernmost main island of Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Erika; Ohishi, Kazue; Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Ke; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2017-03-06

    Brucella infection in Hokkaido was serologically surveyed in four species of pinnipeds inhabiting Cape Erimo during 2008-2013 and the Shiretoko Peninsula in 1999, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Brucella abortus and B. canis as antigens. Anti-Brucella positive sera showed higher absorbance to B. abortus than B. canis in almost all samples. Anti-B. abortus antibodies were detected in serum samples from 24% (n=55) of Western Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina stejnegeri) in Cape Erimo, and from 66% (n=41) of spotted seals (P. largha), 15% (n=20) of ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata) and 18% (n=17) of Western Steller's sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus jubatus) in the Shiretoko Peninsula. In the harbor seals, anti-Brucella antibodies were detected at higher absorbance in 1- to 4-year-old individuals than in pups and mature animals, suggesting either that the Brucella infection mainly occurred after weaning, or that it is maternally transmitted to the pups with premature or suppressed immunity. In the spotted seals and ribbon seals, anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in both immature and mature animals, with higher absorbance in the former. In the Western Steller's sea lions, the antibodies were detected only in mature animals. Western blot analysis of the serum samples showed some differences in band appearances, i.e. discrete or smeary, and in the number of bands. These indicate that multiple different Brucella may be prevalent in pinnipeds in Hokkaido. Or the Brucella of pinnipeds may have some intra-species diversity.

  12. 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Final 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown Hurlburt Field , Florida...SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 5-YEAR UPDATE CV-22 BEDDOWN HURLBURT FIELD , FL Agencies: The United States Air Force (USAF) and the United States Navy (Navy...the CV-22 Osprey at Hurlburt Field , Florida. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to: • Conduct IOT&E by testing the operation of the CV-22 in as

  13. Seasonality and environmental drivers of biological productivity on the western Hokkaido coast, Ishikari Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, Julius I.; Uchimiya, Mario; Kudo, Isao; Osawa, Masato; Kido, Kazuo

    2013-07-01

    We report on a 16-month time series of the primary productivity, chlorophyll biomass and environmental variables in Ishikari Bay, the western Hokkaido coast, from September 2006 to December 2007. During productive summer and autumn seasons, the average phytoplankton biomass (as chlorophyll a) and productivity were 4.7 ± 0.4 μg Chl a L-1 and 229.2 ± 113.4 μg C L-1 d-1, and 5.9 ± 6.0 μg Chl a L-1 and 138.9 ± 202.6 μg C L-1 d-1, respectively. The water column salinity profiles suggested that nutrient upwelling from bottom waters, especially in summer and autumn, when autotrophic production was at a maximum, was the major source of nutrients fueling the productivity in near-surface waters. Size-fractionation measurements showed that the micro-size fraction (>10 μm) accounted for > 80% of the total phytoplankton biomass and productivity. The strong correlation of POC with Chl a (r = 0.875; P < 0.001; n = 16) suggests that living phytoplankton in POC may outweigh detrital and bacterial biomass. Stoichiometrical analysis of inorganic nutrients revealed a seasonal low (13) and high (25) DIN-to-PO4 ratio and a seasonal low (30) and high (37) Si-to-PO4 ratio, suggesting that phytoplankton growth was possibly limited by nitrate and phosphate and not by silicic acid. We conclude that bottom-advection of nutrients resulting from wind-driven mixing may have been a significant source of nutrient input in this oligotrophic coastal system, and zooplankton grazing or other losses might be a crucial factor in controlling the phytoplankton biomass and production, particularly in spring. Also, it is probable that phytoplankton growth was not prevented by insufficient light in Ishikari Bay considering the values of both mean light intensity in the mixed layer (Im) and the mixing and euphotic depth ratio (Zmix:Zeu).

  14. Slow Slip Following the 2003 Tokachi-oki M8 Earthquake off Hokkaido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanami, T.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.; Kitagawa, G.; Peng, H.

    2010-12-01

    A Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeter has operated since 1982 at Urakawa Seismological Observatory (KMU) of Hokkaido University in the southern part of the Hidaka Mountains. The site is 105 km NW of the epicenter of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (M8.0). We use State Space Modeling (Kitagawa et al., 2010) to remove strains due to earth tides, air pressure variations and precipitation. After the earthquake the data showed a clear episode of contraction for 4 days followed by expansion for 23 days. These signals correlate with increased aftershock seismicity for M>4 events. These strain changes, together with surface displacements detected by a temporary GPS network, are indicative of propagation of slow slip at depth (e.g. Geographical Survey Institute,2004). We use quasistatic calculations to generate synthetic waveforms for the measured quantities. Initial choices for source parameters are guided by the parameters of the main shock on the basis that the slow slip takes place on an extension of the same plane. We are able to satisfy the data with a rather simple 2 stage model of reverse slip propagation down an extension of the main shock rupture plane. In stage 1 slow slip of 44 cm propagates at 11cm/s on a surface extending 65 km along strike and 32 km downdip from 38 km depth; for stage 2 the corresponding parameters are 24 cm, 3 cm/s, 32.5 km, 66 km, 50.5 km depth. Both have strike of 241 degrees and dip of 23 degrees, essentially the same as in the GSI solution. Note that the region we have identified as failing with slow slip is recognized as having low seismicity. This slow slip events occur in and down-dip extension of the fault plane of a major (M8.0) thrust earthquake, i.e. a significant area of the fault stores strain energy but fails as a slow event. This may partially explain the observation that only about 30% of the plate motion of this subduction zone is released by regular earthquakes.

  15. Hydrological and chemical budgets in a volcanic caldera lake: Lake Kussharo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikita, Kazuhisa A.; Nishi, Masataka; Fukuyama, Ryuji; Hamahara, Kazuhiro

    2004-05-01

    The contribution of groundwater output and input to lake chemistry was examined by estimating the hydrological and chemical budgets of a volcanic caldera lake, Lake Kussharo, Hokkaido, Japan. The lake level, meteorology, river water discharge and water properties were measured in the ice-covered period of February-March and in the open-water period of June-October in 2000. The inorganic chemistry was then analyzed for sporadically sampled surface water and hot spring water. The chemistry of lake water at pH of 6.91-7.57 and EC25 (electric conductivity at 25 °C) of 29.2-32.7 mS/m appears to be controlled by the input of two types of hot spring water: the inflowing Yunokawa River (pH of 2.27-2.54 and EC25 of 197.8-258.0 mS/m) and groundwater discharging directly on the shore (pH of 7.13-8.32, water temperature of 35.0-46.5 °C and EC25 of 53.1-152.0 mS/m). Excluding the days with rainfall or a great change in lake level, the water budget in June-October gave a net groundwater input of -7.41 to 2.97 m 3/s. A combination of the water budget with the chemical budget of two solutes, Na + and Cl -, led to the best estimate of groundwater output, Gout, at 3.82±3.02 m 3/s, the total fresh groundwater input, ∑ Gfresh, at 2.14±1.00 m 3/s, and the total groundwater input of hot springs, ∑ Gspa, at 0.46±0.05 m 3/s. This is comparable to G out=3.87 m3/ s, ∑G fresh=1.49 m3/ s and ∑G spa=0.41 m3/ s during the ice-covered period. The chemical flux by the freshwater input plays an important role in the alkalinity of lake water, as does the chemical flux by the shoreline hot springs. The large groundwater output could occur by the leakage through the highly permeable, underground pumice, distributed from the east-to-south lake basin to southeast of the outlet.

  16. Upper Triassic limestones from the northern part of Japan: new insights on the Panthalassa Ocean and Hokkaido Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrotty, Giovan; Peybernes, Camille; Ueda, Hayato; Martini, Rossana

    2017-04-01

    In comparison with the well-known Tethyan domain, Upper Triassic limestones from the Panthalassa Ocean are still poorly known. However, these carbonates represent a unique opportunity to have a more accurate view of the Panthalassa Ocean during the Triassic. Their study will allow comparison and correlation of biotic assemblages, biostratigraphy, diagenesis, and depositional settings of different Triassic localities from Tethyan and Panthalassic domains. Moreover, investigation of these carbonates will provide data for taxonomic revisions and helps to better constrain palaeobiogeographic models. One of the best targets for the study of these carbonates is Hokkaido Island (north of Japan). Indeed, this island is a part of the South-North continuity of Jurassic to Paleogene accretionary complexes, going from the Philippines to Sakhalin Island (Far East Russia). Jurassic and Cretaceous accretionary complexes of Japan and Philippines contain Triassic mid-oceanic seamount carbonates from the western Panthalassa Ocean (Onoue & Sano, 2007; Kiessling & Flügel, 2000). They have been accreted either as isolated limestone slabs or as clasts and boulders, and are associated with mudstones, cherts, breccias and basaltic rocks. Two major tectonic units forming Hokkaido Island and containing Triassic limestones have been accurately explored and extensively sampled: the Oshima Belt (west Hokkaido) a Jurassic accretionary complex, and the Cretaceous Sorachi-Yezo Belt (central Hokkaido). The Sorachi-Yezo Belt is composed of Cretaceous accretionary complexes in the east and of Cretaceous clastic basin sediments deposited on a Jurassic basement in the west (Ueda, 2016), both containing Triassic limestones. The origin of this belt is still matter of debate especially because of its western part which is not in continuity with any other accretionary complex known in the other islands of Japan and also due to the lack of data in this region. One of the main goals of this study is to

  17. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of molecular mechanism underlying gray-to-red body color formation in red crucian carp (Carassius auratus, red var.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Jinhui; Peng, Liangyue; Ren, Li; Zhang, Huiqin; Zou, Lijun; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Yamei

    2017-07-05

    Red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) is an ornamental fish with vivid red/orange color. It has been found that the adult body color of this strain forms a gray-to-red change. In this study, skin transcriptomes of red crucian carp are first obtained for three different stages of body color development, named by gray-color (GC), color-variation (CV), and red-color (RC) stages, respectively. From the skins of GC, CV, and RC, 103,229; 108,208; and 120,184 transcripts have been identified, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that 2483, 2967, and 4473 unigenes are differentially expressed between CV and GC, RC and CV, and RC and GC, respectively. A part of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are involved in the signaling pathway of pigment synthesis, such as the melanogenesis genes (Mitfa, Pax3a, Foxd3, Mc1r, Asip); tyrosine metabolism genes (Tyr, Dct, Tyrp1, Silva, Tat, Hpda); and pteridine metabolism genes (Gch, Xdh, Ptps, Tc). According to the data of transcriptome and quantitative PCR, the expression of Mitfa and its regulated genes which include the genes of Tyr, Tyrp1, Dct, Tfe3a, and Baxα, decreases with gray-to-red change. It is suggested that Mitfa and some genes, being related to melanin synthesis or melanophore development, are closely related to the gray-to-red body color transformation in the red crucian carp. Furthermore, the DEGs of cell apoptosis and autophagy pathway, such as Tfe3a, Baxα, Hsp70, Beclin1, Lc3, Atg9a, and Atg4a, might be involved in the melanocytes fade away of juvenile fish. These results shed light on the regulation mechanism of gray-to-red body color transformation in red crucian carp, and are helpful to the selective breeding of ornamental fish strains.

  19. Recent fragmentation of the endangered Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) population on Hokkaido Island, Northern Japan, Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Analyses.

    PubMed

    Omote, Keita; Nishida, Chizuko; Takenaka, Takeshi; Saito, Keisuke; Shimura, Ryohji; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Sato, Takao; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) was previously widespread on Hokkaido Island, Japan, but is now distributed only in limited forest areas. The population size on Hokkaido decreased during the 20th century due to reduction and fragmentation of the owl's habitat. To elucidate temporal and spatial changes in population structure and genetic diversity, we analyzed 439 individuals collected over the last 100 years. We detected a population bottleneck and fragmentation event indicated by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and microsatellite analyses. The lowest value for effective population size, which was estimated by moment and temporal methods from microsatellite data, occurred in the 1980s. Five haplotypes were found in the mtDNA control region; most haplotypes were previously widespread across Hokkaido, but have become fixed in separate areas after the bottleneck period. Genetic differentiation among local populations, as indicated by both mtDNA and microsatellite data, likely arose through population fragmentation. The owl population may have been divided into limited areas due to loss of habitats via human activities, and have lost genetic variability within the local populations through inbreeding. Our mtDNA and microsatellite data show that genetic diversity decreased in local populations, indicating the importance of individuals moving between areas for conservation of this species on Hokkaido.

  20. Collaborative exploration between NIAS genebank and USDA ARS for the collection of genetic resources of fruit and nut species in Hokkaido and the Northern Tohoku Region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From 7 to 25 September 2009 a collaborative exploration between NIAS Genebank and USDA ARS to collect genetic resources in Hokkaido and the Northern Tohoku region was performed. The investigated areas were mainly upper deciduous forest and subalpine conifer forest zones. The vegetation was mainly fo...

  1. Chemical C-V Measurements on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabig, Sarah Jane; Farlow, Gary

    2008-10-01

    When metal/semiconductor schotky barriers are not practical, an electrolyte/semiconductor interface can be used to make capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The physics of such electrochemical C-V measurements will be described. Electrical properties of ZnO were measured by electrochemical C-V techniques and photovoltage spectroscopy using an Accent 4400 Electrochemical CV system. Specifically, the electrical behavior of a 0.1 M ZnCl2 electrolyte-ZnO interface has been investigated with attention to the electrolyte-ZnO interface's C-V dependence on carrier frequency.

  2. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of ... 2000 - The Red Sea between the East Africa coast and Saudi Arabian peninsula. project:  MISR category:  ...

  3. Vertebral Formula in Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    PubMed Central

    HIRAGA, Takeo; SAKAMOTO, Haruka; NISHIKAWA, Sayaka; MUNEUCHI, Ippei; UEDA, Hiromi; INOUE, Masako; SHIMURA, Ryoji; UEBAYASHI, Akiko; YASUDA, Nobuhiro; MOMOSE, Kunikazu; MASATOMI, Hiroyuki; TERAOKA, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) are distributed separately in the east Eurasian Continent (continental population) and in Hokkaido, Japan (island population). The island population is sedentary in eastern Hokkaido and has increased from a very small number of cranes to over 1,300, thus giving rise to the problem of poor genetic diversity. While, Hooded cranes (Grus monacha), which migrate from the east Eurasian Continent and winter mainly in Izumi, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, are about eight-time larger than the island population of Red-crowned cranes. We collected whole bodies of these two species, found dead or moribund in eastern Hokkaido and in Izumi, and observed skeletons with focus on vertebral formula. Numbers of cervical vertebrae (Cs), thoracic vertebrae (Ts), vertebrae composing the synsacrum (Sa) and free coccygeal vertebrae (free Cos) in 22 Red-crowned cranes were 17 or 18, 9–11, 13 or 14 and 7 or 8, respectively. Total number of vertebrae was 47, 48 or 49, and the vertebral formula was divided into three types including 9 sub-types. Numbers of Cs, Ts, vertebrae composing the Sa and free Cos in 25 Hooded cranes were 17 or 18, 9 or 10, 12–14 and 6–8, respectively. Total number of vertebrae was 46, 47, 48 or 49, and the vertebral formula was divided into four types including 14 sub-types. Our findings clearly showed various numerical vertebral patterns in both crane species; however, these variations in the vertebral formula may be unrelated to the genetic diversity. PMID:24334828

  4. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  5. Estimating subsurface water volumes and transit times in Hokkaido river catchments, Japan, using high-accuracy tritium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, Maksym; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate subsurface water transit times and volumes in headwater catchments of Hokkaido, Japan, using the New Zealand high-accuracy tritium analysis technique. Transit time provides insights into the subsurface water storage and therefore provides a robust and quick approach to quantifying the subsurface groundwater volume. Our method is based on tritium measurements in river water. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface after the water enters the groundwater system. Therefore, tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses and can provide information on mean water transit times up to 200 years. Only in recent years has it become possible to use tritium for dating of stream and river water, due to the fading impact of the bomb-tritium from thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and due to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments and estimating subsurface water volume. While many tritium transit time studies have been conducted in New Zealand, only a limited number of tritium studies have been conducted in Japan. In addition, the meteorological, orographic and geological conditions of Hokkaido Island are similar to those in parts of New Zealand, allowing for comparison between these regions. In 2014, three field trips were conducted in Hokkaido in June, July and October to sample river water at river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations have altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL and drainage areas between 45 and 377 km2. Each sampled point is located upstream of MLIT dams, with hourly measurements of precipitation and river water levels enabling us to distinguish between the snow melt and baseflow contributions

  6. Time series of carbonate system variables off Otaru coast in Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Ai; Watanabe, Yutaka W.; Osawa, Masato; Kido, Kazuo; Noriki, Shinichiro

    2008-09-01

    We report several biogeochemical parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), dissolved oxygen (DO), phosphate (PO 4), nitrate + nitrite (NO 3 + NO 2), silicate (Si(OH) 4)) in a region off Otaru coast in Hokkaido, Japan on a "weekly" basis during the period of April 2002-May 2003. To better understand the long-term temporal variations of the main factors affecting CO 2 flux in this coastal region and its role as a sink/source of atmospheric CO 2, we constructed an algorithm of DIC and TA using other hydrographic properties. We estimated the CO 2 flux across the air-sea interface by using the classical bulk method. During 1998-2003 in our study region, the estimated fCO 2sea ranged about 185-335 μatm. The maximum of fCO 2sea in the summer was primarily due to the change of water temperature. The minimum of fCO 2sea in the early spring can be explained not only by the change of water temperature but also the change of nutrients and chlorophyll- a. To clarify the factors affecting fCO 2sea (water temperature, salinity, and biological activity), we carried out a sensitivity analysis of these effects on the variation of fCO 2sea. In spring, the biological effect had the largest effect for the minimum of fCO 2sea (40%). In summer, the water temperature effect had the largest effect for the maximum of fCO 2sea (25%). In fall, the water temperature effect had the largest effect for the minimum of fCO 2sea (53%). In winter, the biological effect had the largest effect for the minimum of fCO 2sea (35%). We found that our study region was a sink region of CO 2 throughout a year (-0.78 mol/m 2/yr). Furthermore, we estimated that the increase of fCO 2sea was about 0.56 μatm/yr under equilibrium with the atmospheric CO 2 content for the period 1998-2003, with the temporal changes in the variables ( T, S, PO 4) on fCO 2sea, thus as the maximum trend of each variable on fCO 2sea was 0.22 μatm/yr, and the trend of residual fCO 2 including gas exchange was

  7. Textural analysis of obsidian lava flow in Shirataki, Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Toramaru, A.; Wada, K.

    2013-12-01

    Formation process of obsidian is poorly understood and it is thought that gas loss (outgassing) plays an important role. Glass formation needs the high-effective undercooling resulted from a high ascent and decompression rates, which process increases magma viscosity. The vesiculation, crystallization, and outgassing processes of such a highly viscous magma is also unclear. In this study, we conducted textural and chemical analyses for Tokachi-Ishizawa (TI) obsidian lava one of Shirataki rhyolite lava, Hokkaido, northern part of Japan, in order to elucidate the magma ascent process. At TI lava, the interior structure of the lava can be observed, right from the outer obsidian layer to the inner rhyolite layer. That is, TI lava is an appropriate subject for textural analysis focused on the interior of obsidian lavas In Shirataki rhyolite lava area there are monogenetic volcanoes composed of 10 obsidian lava flow units, which were erupted at 2.2Ma. The TI lava is about 50 m in height and stratigraphic sequence from the bottom is a brecciated perlite layer, obsidian layer (7m), banded obsidian layer, and rhyolite layer. In this study, we define the obsidian and rhyolite based on the difference in appearance of specimen and rock texture, especially crystallinity. Rhyolite has perlitic cracks on glass, and contains the crystalline materials (i.e. spherulite and lithophysae). Banded obsidian layer, which is located between the obsidian and rhyolite layer, is composed of obsidian and rhyolite. In this study, we focused on the texture of flow bands and plagioclase microlites in glassy part of obsidian and rhyolite layers. The flow bands can be identified based on the color of glass (dark and clear), and have a contrast in abundance of oxide and transparent tiny crystals, which are plagioclase nanolites (<15μm) and micro-spherulites (<20μm). We newly defined micro-spherulite, which shows radial growth of crystals like a spherulite. The plagioclase nanolites were identified

  8. Field survey report on tsunami disasters caused by the 1993 Southwest Hokkaido earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Akito; Kawamoto, Eiko; Miyawaki, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroshi

    1995-09-01

    Detailed field work at Okushiri Island and along the southwest coast of Hokkaido has revealed quantitatively (1) the advancing direction of tsunami on land, (2) the true tsunami height (i.e., height of tsunami, excluding its splashes, as measured from the ground) and (3) the flow velocity of tsunami on land, in heavily damaged areas. When a Japanese wooden house is swept away by tsunami, bolts that tie the house to its concrete foundation resist until the last moment and become bent towards the direction of the house being carried away. The orientations of more than 850 of those bent bolts and iron pipes (all that can be measured, mostly at Okushiri Island) and fell-down direction of about 400 trees clearly display how tsunami behaved on land and caused serious damage at various places. The true tsunami height was estimated by using several indicators, such as broken tree twigs and a window pane. The flow velocity of tsunami on land was determined by estimating the hydrodynamic force exerted on a bent handrail and a bent-down guardrail by the tsunami through in situ strength tests. Contrary to the wide-spread recognition after the tsunami hazard, our results clearly indicate that only a few residential areas (i.e., Monai, eastern Hamatsumae, and a small portion at northern Aonae, all on Okushiri Island) were hit by a huge tsunami, with true heights reaching 10 m. Southern Aonae was completely swept away by tsunami that came directly from the focal region immediately to the west. The true tsunami height over the western sea wall of southern Aonae was estimated as 3 to 4 m. Northern Aonae also suffered severe damage due to tsunami that invaded from the corner zone of the sand dune (8 m high) and tide embankment at the northern end of the Aonae Harbor. This corner apparently acted as a tsunami amplifier, and tide embankment or breakwater can be quite dangerous when tsunami advances towards the corner it makes with the coast. The nearly complete devastation of Inaho at

  9. Aeromagnetic Constraints on the Subsurface Structure of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Okuma, S.; Ishizuka, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan consists mainly of dacitic volcanic rocks underlain by basaltic somma lava and Pliocene - Pleistocene andesitic volcanic rocks and has erupted every 20-30 years. Latest eruption in 2000 took place for the first time after the 1977-1978 eruption. A helicopter-borne high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted to better understand the subsurface structure of the volcano almost three months after the start of the eruption. The survey with a stinger-mounted Cs magnetometer was flown at an altitude of 150 m above terrain along north-south survey lines and east-west tie lines, spaced 200 m and 1000 m apart, respectively. DGPS with an accuracy of 50cm was employed for flight-path recovery. Total magnetic intensity was observed every 0.1 second and anomaly was calculated as residual values after subtracting the IGRF-10 field. Magnetic anomalies on a smoothed observation surface were calculated by the reduction method, assuming equivalent anomalies below the actual observation surface (Nakatsuka and Okuma, 2006a). Preliminary 3-D imaging of magnetic anomalies over Usu Volcano was also conducted to constrain the subsurface structure. The 3-D magnetic model indicates that magnetization highs occupy the main edifice of Usu Volcano, suggesting the subsurface distribution of the Usu Somma Lava with a thickness of 1,000 m at the maximum. While, (negative) magnetization lows lie northwest of the Nishi-Yama Craters Area and on the Higashi-Maruyama Cryptodome, where Pliocene and Pleistocene volcanic rocks are distributed, respectively. Their reverse magnetization can be responsible for the magnetization lows. Although the survey was successful to better understand the surface and subsurface distribution of volcanic rocks which constitute the edifice and basement of Usu Volcano, some limitations exist. Any information about the magmas intruded during recent eruptions such as in 1977-1978 and 2000 has not been obtained by the high

  10. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wen Liang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-04-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide, with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC(50)= 3 μM), Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis, was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean. The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75. The antifungal activity of the peptide against M. arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0°C to 80°C. There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13, and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0, 1, and 14. The activity at 90°C and 100°C was slightly diminished. Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M. arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth. The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells, in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides, indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  11. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    PubMed

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  12. Hokkaido HF radar signatures of periodically reoccurring nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances detected at short ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koustov, A. V.; Yakymenko, K. N.; Nishitani, N.; Ponomarenko, P. V.

    2014-02-01

    The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network Hokkaido HF radar often detects periodically reoccurring E region echoing regions propagating toward or away from it. In this work, we consider 117 of such events identified for 2008-2012. These are shown to occur at nighttime, preferentially during summer, although significant number for events was found for winter. Statistics for the local time of occurrence, magnitude of the speed and polarity of progressions, and temporal and spatial periodicities are presented. We show that the power of echoes is linearly related to their Doppler velocity which makes it possible to identify the events on both power and Doppler velocity plots. Other peculiar characteristics of echoes are discussed. The onset of events is associated with gravity waves propagation through the radar field of view.

  13. Description of Riouxgolvania kapapkamui Sp. N. (Nematoda: Muspiceoidea: Muspiceidae), a peculiar intradermal parasite of bats in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Satô, Masahiko; Maeda, Kishio; Murayama, Yoshiko

    2012-10-01

    Riouxgolvania kapapkamui sp. n. (Nematoda: Muspiceoidea: Muspiceidae), a peculiar intradermal parasite, is described based on gravid adults, eggs, and first-, second-, and third-stage larvae collected from dermal nodules formed in Myotis macrodactylus and Myotis ikonnikovi bats from Hokkaido, Japan. The nematode is readily distinguished from 3 previously described congeners in having a globular body with brown, transverse striae in the anterior region of fully grown females. The third-stage larva is also distinguished from other congeners by having a round tail end. Nucleotide sequences of the analyzed partial SSU rDNA-ITS1 region and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 of mtDNA showed greater similarity to chromadoreans rather than to enopleans. This is the first report of muspiceoid nematodes from Asia.

  14. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  15. The July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Coseismic slip pattern from strong-motion and teleseismic recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Fukuyama, E.

    1996-01-01

    We employ a finite fault inversion scheme to infer the distribution of coseismic slip for the July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki earthquake using strong ground motions recorded by the Japan Meteorological Agency within 400 km of the epicenter and vertical P waveforms recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network at teleseismic distances. The assumed fault geometry is based on the location of the aftershock zone and comprises two fault segments with different orientations: a northern segment striking at N20??E with a 30?? dip to the west and a southern segment with a N20??W strike. For the southern segment we use both westerly and easterly dip directions to test thrust orientations previously proposed for this portion of the fault. The variance reduction is greater using a shallow west dipping segment, suggesting that the direction of dip did not change as the rupture propagated south from the hypocenter. This indicates that the earthquake resulted from the shallow underthrusting of Hokkaido beneath the Sea of Japan. Static vertical movements predicted by the corresponding distribution of fault slip are consistent with the general pattern of surface deformation observed following the earthquake. Fault rupture in the northern segment accounts for about 60% of the total P wave seismic moment of 3.4 ?? 1020 N m and includes a large circular slip zone (4-m peak) near the earthquake hypocenter at depths between 10 and 25 km. Slip in the southern segment is also predominantly shallower than 25 km, but the maximum coseismic displacements (2.0-2.5 m) are observed at a depth of about 5 km. This significant shallow slip in the southern portion of the rupture zone may have been responsible for the large tsunami that devastated the small offshore island of Okushiri. Localized shallow faulting near the island, however, may require a steep westerly dip to reconcile the measured values of ground subsidence.

  16. Reproductive parameters and cub survival of brown bears in the Rusha area of the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimozuru, Michito; Yamanaka, Masami; Nakanishi, Masanao; Moriwaki, Jun; Mori, Fumihiko; Tsujino, Masakatsu; Shirane, Yuri; Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi; Kasai, Shinsuke; Nose, Takane; Masuda, Yasushi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the reproductive characteristics of a species is essential for the appropriate conservation and management of wildlife. In this study, we investigated the demographic parameters, including age of primiparity, litter size, inter-birth interval, reproductive rate, and cub survival rate, of Hokkaido brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, based on a long-term, individual-based monitoring survey. A total of 15 philopatric females were observed nearly every year from 2006 to 2016, and these observations were used to estimate reproductive parameters. The mean age of primiparity was 5.3 ± 0.2 (SE) years (n = 7, 95% CI = 5.0-5.6). We observed 81 cubs in 46 litters from 15 bears. Litter size ranged from one to three cubs, and averaged 1.76 ± 0.08 (SE) cubs/litter (95% CI = 1.61-1.91). Inter-birth intervals ranged from 1 to 4 years, and the mean value was estimated as 2.43 (95% CI = 2.16-2.76) and 2.53 (95% CI = 2.26-2.85) years in all litters and in litters that survived at least their first year, respectively. The reproductive rate was estimated from 0.70 to 0.76 young born/year/reproductive adult female, depending on the method of calculation. The cub survival rate between 0.5 and 1.5 years ranged from 60 to 73%. Most cub disappearances occurred in July and August, suggesting that cub mortality is mainly due to poor nutrition in the summer. All reproductive parameters observed in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula fell within the range reported in Europe and North America, and were among the lowest or shortest age of primiparity, litter size, and inter-birth intervals, and ranked at a high level for reproductive rate.

  17. Genetic variation of major histocompatibility complex genes in the endangered red-crowned crane.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Nishida, Chizuko; Onuma, Manabu; Momose, Kunikazu; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2017-07-01

    Populations that have drastically decreased in the past often have low genetic variation, which may increase the risk of extinction. The genes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play an important role in the adaptive immune response of jawed vertebrates. Maintenance of adaptive genetic diversity such as that of MHC genes is important for wildlife conservation. Here, we determined genotypes of exon 3 of MHC class IA genes (MHCIA) and exon 2 of MHC class IIB genes (MHCIIB) to evaluate genetic variation of the endangered red-crowned crane population on Hokkaido Island, Japan, which experienced severe population decline in the past. We identified 16 and 6 alleles of MHCIA and MHCIIB, respectively, from 152 individuals. We found evidence of a positive selection at the antigen-binding sites in MHCIA exon 3 and MHCIIB exon 2. The phylogenetic analyses indicated evidence of trans-species polymorphism among the crane MHC genes. The genetic variability in both classes of MHC genes at the population level was low. No geographic structure was found based on the genetic diversity of microsatellite and MHC genes. Our study provides useful data for the optimal management of the red-crowned crane population in Hokkaido and can contribute to future studies on MHC genes of the continental populations of the red-crowned crane and other crane species.

  18. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  19. IJ-OpenCV: Combining ImageJ and OpenCV for processing images in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, César; Heras, Jónathan; Pascual, Vico

    2017-05-01

    The effective processing of biomedical images usually requires the interoperability of diverse software tools that have different aims but are complementary. The goal of this work is to develop a bridge to connect two of those tools: ImageJ, a program for image analysis in life sciences, and OpenCV, a computer vision and machine learning library. Based on a thorough analysis of ImageJ and OpenCV, we detected the features of these systems that could be enhanced, and developed a library to combine both tools, taking advantage of the strengths of each system. The library was implemented on top of the SciJava converter framework. We also provide a methodology to use this library. We have developed the publicly available library IJ-OpenCV that can be employed to create applications combining features from both ImageJ and OpenCV. From the perspective of ImageJ developers, they can use IJ-OpenCV to easily create plugins that use any functionality provided by the OpenCV library and explore different alternatives. From the perspective of OpenCV developers, this library provides a link to the ImageJ graphical user interface and all its features to handle regions of interest. The IJ-OpenCV library bridges the gap between ImageJ and OpenCV, allowing the connection and the cooperation of these two systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylogenic analysis of the M genes of influenza viruses isolated from free-flying water birds from their Northern Territory to Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Rashid; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Mweene, Aaron; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Kishida, Noriko; Bai, Gui-Rong; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Isoda, Norikazu; Soda, Kosuke; Naito, Michiko; Kida, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    During 2000-2007, 218 influenza viruses of 28 different combinations of HA (H1-H13) and NA (N1-N9) subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of free-flying water birds at two distant lakes in Hokkaido, Japan. Phylogenic analysis of the matrix (M) genes of 67 strains, selected on the basis of their subtype combinations, revealed that A/duck/Hokkaido/W95/2006 (H10N8) was a reassortant whose M and NA genes [corrected] belonged to North American non-gull-avian and the other six [corrected] genes to Eurasian non-gull-avian lineages. The M genes of other 65 strains belonged to Eurasian non-gull-avian and the one to Eurasian-gull lineages. The M genes of 65 strains were grouped into three different sublineages, indicating that influenza viruses circulating in different populations of free-flying water birds have evolved independently in nature.

  1. First imaging and identification of a noctilucent cloud from multiple sites in Hokkaido (43.2-44.4°N), Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hidehiko; Sakanoi, Kazuyo; Nishitani, Nozomu; Ogawa, Tadahiko; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Kubota, Minoru; Kinoshita, Takenori; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous imaging observations of a noctilucent cloud (NLC) from five sites in Hokkaido, Japan (43.17-45.36°N), were successfully carried out using digital cameras in the early hours of the morning (around 02:00 LST) on June 21, 2015. This is the first NLC event that has been captured from multiple sites in Japan. The simultaneous images obtained from multiple sites made it possible to calculate the exact altitude (=83.9 ± 0.1 km) and spatial distribution (47.5-50.0°N and 143.0-147.5°E) of the NLC by triangulation and image correlation methods. Based on a comparison of atmospheric parameters of the upper mesosphere provided by satellites and a middle-frequency (MF) radar in northern Hokkaido (Wakkanai) with the cloud distribution obtained from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite, this particular event is considered to be the result of southward advection of the NLC from a higher-latitude (i.e., colder) region. Anomalies in the upper mesospheric temperature of the northern hemispheric summer in 2015 were examined using AURA satellite data, because this is the first NLC event that has been identified in Japan. However, no remarkable temperature variations relative to other years were found in upper mesosphere. Based on a comparison between the NLC period and the record of sky conditions archived by the Japan Meteorological Agency, a high percentage of cloud (especially low-level) cover during the summer in Hokkaido cannot be ruled out as a possible reason why the NLC had not previously been sighted in Hokkaido.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. [Electroacupuncture at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zhongwan (CV 12) modulates functional connectivity of the brain network in healthy volunteers].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ji-liang; Hong, Yang; Wang, Xiao-ling; Liu, He-sheng; Wang, Yin; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Zhou, Ke-hua; Song, Ming; Liu, Bao-yan; Zhu, Bing

    2011-10-01

    To observe the specific brain effects of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zhongwan (CV 12). Twenty-one healthy volunteers were recruited in the present study. Two silver filiform needles were separately inserted into Guanyuan (OV 4) or Zhongwan (CV 12), and manipulated with uniform reducing-reinforcing method to induce "Deqi". fMRI scan was performed before needling, during needle retention, EA stimulation, and post-EA. Data of fMRI was analyzed by using software SPM 2. The volunteer subjective needling sensations were recorded. The activation, deactivation, short-distance and long-distance functional connectivity maps of different cerebral regions were analyzed by using whole brain correlation analysis. Comparison between the two acupoints showed that fullness feeling was stronger in CV 4 than in CV 12. EA at CV 4 and CV 12 induced a similar stronger and prevalent deactivation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulated cortex (ACO). The deactivation of the ACC was stronger in the CV 4 group than in the CV 12 group. The default BOLD mode of the brain at rest was modified by needle retention and EA, respectively. The short-distance functional connection brain network was significantly changed after EA. Interestingly, the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and anteroinferior portion of the anterior cingulate cortex in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN) were involved in the instant post-effects of EA. Relatively smaller differences in the brain functional activity and short-distance functional connectivity were found between these two acupoints. EA of CV 4 and CV 12 can modulate short-distance functional connectivity of the LPNN, and have fewer differences in inducing needling sensation and deactivation of ACC, etc.

  3. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  4. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  5. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-04

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy.

  6. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  7. Phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red/far-red light in rice

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Makoto; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Xie, Xianzhi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Baba-Kasai, Akiko; Tanabata, Takanari; Shinomura, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Phytochromes are believed to be solely responsible for red and far-red light perception, but this has never been definitively tested. To directly address this hypothesis, a phytochrome triple mutant (phyAphyBphyC) was generated in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) and its responses to red and far-red light were monitored. Since rice only has three phytochrome genes (PHYA, PHYB and PHYC), this mutant is completely lacking any phytochrome. Rice seedlings grown in the dark develop long coleoptiles while undergoing regular circumnutation. The phytochrome triple mutants also show this characteristic skotomorphogenesis, even under continuous red or far-red light. The morphology of the triple mutant seedlings grown under red or far-red light appears completely the same as etiolated seedlings, and they show no expression of the light-induced genes. This is direct evidence demonstrating that phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red and far-red light, at least during rice seedling establishment. Furthermore, the shape of the triple mutant plants was dramatically altered. Most remarkably, triple mutants extend their internodes even during the vegetative growth stage, which is a time during which wild-type rice plants never elongate their internodes. The triple mutants also flowered very early under long day conditions and set very few seeds due to incomplete male sterility. These data indicate that phytochromes play an important role in maximizing photosynthetic abilities during the vegetative growth stage in rice. PMID:19706555

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among veterinary staff and dogs in private veterinary clinics in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kanako; Saito, Mieko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Maetani, Shigeki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    To explore the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medical practices, MRSA carriage was tested among 96 veterinarians (Vets), 70 veterinary technicians (VTs) and 292 dogs with which they had contact at 71 private veterinary clinics (VCs) in Hokkaido, Japan. MRSA isolates were obtained from 22 Vets [22.9%] and 7 VTs [10%]. The prevalence of MRSA among Vets was as high as that found in an academic veterinary hospital in our previous study. In contrast, only two blood donor dogs and one dog with liver disease (1.0%, 3/292) yielded MRSA. All MRSA-positive dogs were reared or treated in different VCs, in each of which at least one veterinary staff member carrying MRSA worked. Sequence types (ST) identified by multilocus sequence typing, spa types, and SCCmec types for canine MRSA isolates (ST5-spa t002-SCCmec II [from two dogs] or ST30-spa t021-SCCmec IV [from a dog]) were concordant with those from veterinary staff members in the same clinics as the MRSA-positive dogs, with which they had potentially had contact. Most MRSA isolates from veterinary staff were the same genotype (SCCmec type II and spa type t002) as a major hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan. The remaining MRSA was the same genotypes as domestic and foreign community-associated MRSA. Measures against MRSA infection should be provided in private VCs.

  9. The origin of muddy sand sediments associated with mud volcanism in the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Kazuya; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Murakami, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    The origin of muddy sand and gas in muddy sand sediments in the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, Japan, was investigated by analyzing the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the sediments and the chemical/isotopic compositions of the gas. X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that chemically, the muddy sand is derived from a mixing of components from the Hakobuchi and overlying formations, and that the characteristic mineral of the muddy sand is heulandite, which, in the study area, has been detected only in the Hakobuchi Formation. These results suggest that the sediments ascended from depths of at least 2200-2400 m. The δ13CCH4 values and the methane/(ethane + propane) ratios of the gas indicate that the primary origin of the methane is by thermogenic decomposition of coal-bearing beds in the Haboro or Hakobuchi formations, or further deep sources. This study provides new data on processes of onshore mud volcanism in Japan, and contributes to an understanding of processes of subsurface mass transport in regions of mud-volcanic activity.

  10. Relationship between fault growth mechanism and permeability variations with depth of siliceous mudstones in northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Eiichi; Funaki, Hironori; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Ota, Kunio

    2010-11-01

    In order to assess the influence of remote mean stress correlated with depth of burial on the principal mode of failure at fault tips during fault slip in a lithologically homogeneous, fractured rock mass, the growth mechanisms of strike-slip faults have been studied at outcrop-scale in the siliceous mudstones of northern Hokkaido, Japan. We take a multifaceted approach combining i) geological characterization of fractures by fracture mapping in outcrop and fracture logging of boreholes (drilling depth: ≤1020 m), ii) rock mechanical characterization by laboratory tests on core samples, and iii) theoretical analyses using the Griffith-Coulomb criterion. These suggested that the principal mode of failure in the mudstones is dependent, not only on rock strength, but also on remote mean stresses. During and/or after uplift and erosion the faults grew mainly by linking with adjacent faults via numerous splay cracks, formed by tensile failure above roughly 400 m depth. In contrast, below this depth, the faults grew predominantly by shear failure. Such growth mechanisms are consistent with the fact that hydraulic tests performed in boreholes show that highly permeable sections (hydraulic transmissivity: >10 -5 m 2/s) are restricted to depths of less than 400 m.

  11. Cold-induced vasodilatation of finger and maximal oxygen consumption of young female athletes born in Hokkaido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Koya

    1990-03-01

    To determine whether there is a direct correlation between endurance capacity and cold tolerance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD), we measured these factors in 14 young female athletes born in Hokkaido, Japan's northernmost island. We determined the VO2max by a standard incremental test on a cycle ergometer and measured the oxygen consumption (VO2) by means of the Douglas-bag method. We determined the CIVD reaction by measuring the skin temperature of the left middle finger during immersion in cold water at 0°C for 20 min. The athletes showed significant positive correlations between VO2max, expressed as l/min, and CIVD as well as other peripheral cold tolerance indexes (resistance index against frostbite and CIVD index). The body weight VO2max (VO2max/kg body weight) failed to correlate significantly with either the CIVD or with other cold tolerance indexes. These results suggest that CIVD in females may depend on factors other than those determined in this study, in addition to the functional spread of the vascular beds in peripheral tissues, including striated muscle; it is known that the size and the vascular bed in this tissue are affected by exercise training and that this results in the elevation of VO2max and VO2max/kg body weight.

  12. A New Late Miocene Odobenid (Mammalia: Carnivora) from Hokkaido, Japan Suggests Rapid Diversification of Basal Miocene Odobenids.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The modern walrus, Odobenus rosmarus, is specialized and only extant member of the family Odobenidae. They were much more diversified in the past, and at least 16 genera and 20 species of fossil walruses have been known. Although their diversity increased in the late Miocene and Pliocene (around 8-2 Million years ago), older records are poorly known. A new genus and species of archaic odobenid, Archaeodobenus akamatsui, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene (ca. 10.0-9.5 Ma) top of the Ichibangawa Formation, Hokkaido, northern Japan, suggests rapid diversification of basal Miocene walruses. Archaeodobenus akamatsui is the contemporaneous Pseudotaria muramotoi from the same formation, but they are distinguishable from each other in size and shape of the occipital condyle, foramen magnum and mastoid process of the cranium, and other postcranial features. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, A. akamatsui might have split from P. muramotoi at the late Miocene in the western North Pacific. This rapid diversification of the archaic odobenids occurred with a combination of marine regression and transgression, which provided geological isolation among the common ancestors of extinct odobenids.

  13. Three-dimensional resistivity structure in Ishikari Lowland, Hokkaido, northeastern Japan—Implications to strain concentration mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaya, Yusuke; Mogi, Toru; Honda, Ryo; Hase, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Uyeshima, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    The Ishikari Lowland on the island of Hokkaido in northeastern Japan is situated at the end of a westward-moving foreland fold-and-thrust belt from the Hidaka collision zone, where the northeastern Japan and Kurile arcs meet. This activity forms a tectonic zone under an east-west compression field in this region. A magnetotelluric resistivity survey was performed to investigate the mechanism for the strain concentration in this region. A three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity inversion showed a conductive thick sedimentary layer and an underlying resistive basement. Remarkable conductors were found in the resistive basement beneath the Ishikari-teichi-toen fault zone (ITFZ) and the Shikotsu caldera. The conductors beneath the ITFZ were interpreted as aqueous fluids that accumulated in the damaged zone in connection with the formation of pull-apart faults and horst. In contrast, the conductor beneath the Shikotsu caldera corresponds to a magmatic fluid path from the upper mantle. These features suggest that the ductile deformation in the upper crust contribute to the strain concentration in this region. The soft thick sediments allow ductile deformations to occur. Furthermore, local fluid-rich zones in the basement cause the crustal strength to be heterogeneous. These thick sediments and local fluids in the basement both contribute to the strain concentration in this region.

  14. Volcanic strain change prior to an earthquake swarm observed by groundwater level sensors in Meakan-dake, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroaki; Shibata, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Teruhiro; Ikeda, Ryuji; Okazaki, Noritoshi; Akita, Fujio

    2012-02-01

    We installed and operated a low-cost groundwater level observation system at intermittent hot spring wells in order to monitor volcanic strain signals from the active Meakan-dake volcano in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Data are sampled at 1 Hz and are transmitted to the data center in real time. Evaluation of the water level time series with theoretical predictive tidal strain and coseismic static strain changes has suggested that the wells penetrate to the artesian aquifer and act as a volumetric strain sensor. An active earthquake swarm with more than 400 events occurred at the shallower part of the volcano from January 9 to 11, 2008. Three independent wells recorded pre- to co-swarm groundwater drops simultaneously, which represented a decrease in volumetric strain. The total volumetric strain change during the three active days was estimated to be from 6 to 7 × 10- 7. The observed data, including changes in volumetric strain, absence of deformation in the GPS coordinates, and activation of deep low-frequency earthquakes, might imply possible deflation of a source deeper than 10 km, and these preceding deeper activities might induce an earthquake swarm in a shallower part of the Meakan-dake volcano.

  15. Echinorhynchus hexagrammi Baeva, 1965 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from marine fishes off Hokkaido, Japan, with morphological observations and new host records.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Hirotaka; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2011-09-01

    Echinorhynchus hexagrammi Baeva, 1965 is redescribed on the basis of specimens collected from the saffron cod Eleginus gracilis (Tilesius) in Akkeshi Bay (western North Pacific) off Hokkaido, Japan. Eighteen museum specimens deposited as E. salmonis Müller, 1784 from Japanese coastal waters were also re-examined and re-identified as E. hexagrammi. Hexagrammos stelleri Tilesius, Hemitripterus villosus (Pallas), Podothecus sachi (Jordan & Snyder), Sebastes oblongus Günther and Verasper moseri Jordan & Gilbert are recognised as new hosts for E. hexagrammi. This acanthocephalan can be distinguished from three morphologically similar species, E. gadi Zoega in Müller, 1776, E. laurentianus Ronald, 1957 and E. salmonis, by the possession of the following characters: 12-16 (usually 14) rows of hook on the proboscis, a proboscis width of 170-240 μm in males and 195-270 μm in females, a hook root length of 35-45 μm in males and 40-50 μm in females, and linearly or almost linearly arranged cement glands in males.

  16. Description of a species of Fabaeformiscandona (Ostracoda, Crustacea) from Kushiro Marsh, Hokkaido, Japan, with the nearly complete mitochondrial genomic sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hiruta, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background So far, 16 species of non-marine ostracods have been reported from Kushiro Marsh, Kushiro Shitsugen National Park, eastern Hokkaido, Japan (Hiruta and Smith 2001, Smith and Hiruta 2004). Nine of these species are in Candonidae, the second-most diverse family of non-marine ostracods. This family contains ca. 550 species, or around 25% of the total number of non-marine ostracod species (Martens et al. 2008). New information We sampled ostracods in Kushiro Marsh on 27 December 2012 and identified an undescribed species in the family Candonidae, herein described as Fabaeformiscandona kushiroensis sp. nov. This species belongs to the F. acuminata species group and is characterized by the shapes of the elongate, dorsally directed medial and outer lobes on the distal end of each hemipenis. We also determined for this species the sequence of the nearly complete mitochondrial genome, the first record from the order Podocopa. The genome (ca. 17 kbp) contains two ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes, as also found in other arthropods for which the mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. The gene arrangement is similar to the pancrustacean ground pattern, except that in the control region there is an approximately 2 kbp tandem repeat region composed of 220-bp motif sequences. We describe the genetic features of the mitochondrial genome, including nucleotide composition and the secondary structures of tRNAs and rRNAs, and compare them with the genome of Vargula hilgendorfii (Myodocopa, Ostracoda). PMID:26751633

  17. A New Late Miocene Odobenid (Mammalia: Carnivora) from Hokkaido, Japan Suggests Rapid Diversification of Basal Miocene Odobenids

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The modern walrus, Odobenus rosmarus, is specialized and only extant member of the family Odobenidae. They were much more diversified in the past, and at least 16 genera and 20 species of fossil walruses have been known. Although their diversity increased in the late Miocene and Pliocene (around 8–2 Million years ago), older records are poorly known. A new genus and species of archaic odobenid, Archaeodobenus akamatsui, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene (ca. 10.0–9.5 Ma) top of the Ichibangawa Formation, Hokkaido, northern Japan, suggests rapid diversification of basal Miocene walruses. Archaeodobenus akamatsui is the contemporaneous Pseudotaria muramotoi from the same formation, but they are distinguishable from each other in size and shape of the occipital condyle, foramen magnum and mastoid process of the cranium, and other postcranial features. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, A. akamatsui might have split from P. muramotoi at the late Miocene in the western North Pacific. This rapid diversification of the archaic odobenids occurred with a combination of marine regression and transgression, which provided geological isolation among the common ancestors of extinct odobenids. PMID:26244784

  18. Maternal-to-fetal transfer and concentration profiles of PCB congeners for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki; Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Wakana; Hattori, Kaoru; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2014-01-15

    The concentrations of PCB congeners in the blubber and liver of mother Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus; SSLs) and their fetuses from the coast of Hokkaido, Japan in 2008, 2010 and 2012 were analyzed by HRGC-HRMS, in order to elucidate PCB congener profiles and maternal-to-fetal transfer of PCBs in SSLs. ΣPCBs in the fetuses were 1400 ± 660 (the mean ± SD) ng/g-fat in the blubber and 570 ± 320 ng/g-fat in the liver, respectively. There was a concern that SSLs had been contaminated by PCBs during the fetal period. The concentrations of the major congeners in the blubber and liver were a correlation between the fetus and mother (blubber: r=0.9934, liver: r=0.9160; P ≦ 0.05). The results indicated that PCBs in the fetuses came from the mothers. #177 and #199 showed no correlations between the fetus and the mother in the blubber and liver. This indicated a selective capture by some natural protector such as the placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Description of a species of Fabaeformiscandona (Ostracoda, Crustacea) from Kushiro Marsh, Hokkaido, Japan, with the nearly complete mitochondrial genomic sequence.

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Shimpei F; Hiruta, Shin-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    So far, 16 species of non-marine ostracods have been reported from Kushiro Marsh, Kushiro Shitsugen National Park, eastern Hokkaido, Japan (Hiruta and Smith 2001, Smith and Hiruta 2004). Nine of these species are in Candonidae, the second-most diverse family of non-marine ostracods. This family contains ca. 550 species, or around 25% of the total number of non-marine ostracod species (Martens et al. 2008). We sampled ostracods in Kushiro Marsh on 27 December 2012 and identified an undescribed species in the family Candonidae, herein described as Fabaeformiscandona kushiroensis sp. nov. This species belongs to the F. acuminata species group and is characterized by the shapes of the elongate, dorsally directed medial and outer lobes on the distal end of each hemipenis. We also determined for this species the sequence of the nearly complete mitochondrial genome, the first record from the order Podocopa. The genome (ca. 17 kbp) contains two ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes, as also found in other arthropods for which the mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. The gene arrangement is similar to the pancrustacean ground pattern, except that in the control region there is an approximately 2 kbp tandem repeat region composed of 220-bp motif sequences. We describe the genetic features of the mitochondrial genome, including nucleotide composition and the secondary structures of tRNAs and rRNAs, and compare them with the genome of Vargula hilgendorfii (Myodocopa, Ostracoda).

  20. Continuous measurement of CO2 flux through the snowpack in a dwarf bamboo ecosystem on Rishiri Island, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Nakayama, Momoko; Yoshikawa Inoue, Hisayuki

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the dynamics and environmental drivers of CO2 flux through the winter snowpack in a dwarf bamboo ecosystem (Hokkaido, northeast Japan), we constructed an automated sampling system to measured CO2 concentrations at five different levels in the snowpack, from the base to the upper snow surface. Using a gas diffusion approach, we estimated an average apparent soil CO2 flux of 0.26 μmol m-2 s-1 during the snow season (December-April); temporally, the CO2 flux increased until mid-snow season, but showed no clear trend thereafter; late-season snow-melting events resulted in rapid decreases in apparent CO2 flux values. Air temperature and subnivean CO2 flux exhibited a positive linear relationship. After eliminating the effects of wind pumping, we estimated the actual soil CO2 flux (0.41 μmol m-2 s-1) to be 54% larger than the apparent flux. This study provides new constraints on snow-season carbon emissions in a dwarf bamboo ecosystem in northeast Asia.

  1. Molecular evidence for the presence of new Babesia species in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Jinnai, Michio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakajima, Rui; Fujisawa, Kohei; Nagata, Shogo; Koide, Hikaru; Matoba, Yohei; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Takahashi, Kazuo; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2009-06-10

    We recently reported that feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) with splenomegaly native to Japan were carriers of a Babesia microti-like parasite identical to that found in the United States, which was likely introduced to Japan from North America via raccoons imported as pets. Thus, we attempted extensive molecular survey for piroplasma infections of feral raccoon with normal spleen in Hokkaido, Japan using nested PCR that target broadly to 18S ribosomal RNA gene (SSU-rDNA) of all the parasites in the genus Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon and B. microti group. Of the 348 raccoon samples analyzed, 9 gave positive signals. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis on SSU-rDNA sequences revealed that six of nine positives were found to be infected with Babesia and the remaining three with previously unreported Sarcocystis. Babesia sequences were further separated into two distantly related groups, those that reside in a novel phylogenetic group were consisted solely of four parasites found in this study, while those which included one identical sequence found in the three of our specimens were assembled together with both Babesia parasites of tick's in Japan and of raccoon's in U.S. These results may indicate that not only a B. microti-like parasite but also at least two yet undescribed Babesia species are being established in their new life cycles in the feral raccoon populations in Japan.

  2. Post-eruptive volcanic dome evolution as revealed by deformation and microgravity observations at Usu volcano (Hokkaido, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Okada, Hiromu

    1999-04-01

    Usu volcano (Hokkaido, Japan) is a dacitic volcano, known for its high production rate of lava domes and crypto-domes. It is thus a good target to study processes of volcanic dome evolution (upheaval and/or relaxation). We carried out repeated GPS and microgravity surveys on the three most recent domes of Mt. Usu (1910: Meiji Shinzan; 1943-1945: Showa-Shinzan and 1977-1982: Usu-Shinzan). The repeat period was 1 to 2 months and extended from October 1996 to June 1997. We also compare new data with results from former studies. More than 20 years after the start of Usu-Shinzan dome growth, there is still subsidence at a maximum rate of about 7 to 8 cm/year. The reasons for this subsidence are discussed. Repeated gravity surveys revealed an increase of gravity on the domes (about 60±10 microgal/year for Usu-Shinzan, about 15 microgal at Showa-Shinzan and 10 to 20 microgal for Meiji-shinzan); this gravity increase exceeds that expected due to subsidence. We discuss and interpret the excess gravity change in terms of a density increase in the edifice, caused by a combination of processes (contraction of the edifice, water level change, devesiculisation, cooling and magma intrusion). Quantification of these processes at Usu volcano may help to understand the processes of evolution at domes on other volcanoes such as Merapi (Indonesia), Unzen (Japan) or Montserrat (West Indies).

  3. Difference in Size at Maturity in Annual and Overwintering Generations in the Tanaidacean Zeuxo sp. in Oshoro Bay, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi; Hayakawa, Yoshinobu; Katakura, Haruo

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the life cycle of the tanaidid Zeuxo sp. 1 (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea), which lives epiphytically in dwelling tubes on the algae Sargassum spp. and Neorhodomela aculeata in Oshoro Bay, Hokkaido, Japan. We obtained data on its population size distribution, age structure, and reproductive phenology through monthly sampling from April 2011 to June 2012. From these data, we detected an overwintering group (F0) that arises from mancae that are released in autumn, overwinters, reproduces the following spring, and then disappears. The overwintering group produces mancae (F1) that reach maturity and themselves reproduce within six weeks after release; the F1, mancae give rise to an F2 and possibly an F3 generation within a single summer. We refer to individuals that reproduce in the same summer that they were released as the 'annual group'. Reproduction overall was restricted to the period from May to October, when the seasurface temperature exceeded 10°C. During both years, overwintering females first became reproductive in May. Reproduction in the annual group began in June and continued through mid-October. Mancae were observed in samples from June through October. The two groups differed significantly in size at reproduction; compared to the annual group, females in the overwintering group reproduced at larger minimum and average body sizes, and males began to express enlarged chelae, a secondary sexual character, at a larger size. The difference in size at maturity may be related to the differences in water temperature during the main period of growth and maturation.

  4. Barium sulphate in a Saharan CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, R. D.

    1994-07-01

    Acfer 086 (CV3) was recovered from the Sahara in 1989. A thin section was studied for weathering products. During routine microprobe analysis a phase was found containing Ba and S in approximate 1:1 atomic ratio. The only other element detected at more than trace level was Fe (less than 2%), possibly from surrounding Fe-rich phases. It is concluded that the only likely mineral with this chemistry is barytes, BaSO4. The barytes occurs as isolated, 1-10-micron, irregularly shaped grains. It is present exclusively in inclusions, both metal/C-rich and chondrules and chondrule fragments. None were observed in the matrix. At its highest the barytes density reached greater than 50 grains in an area measuring 300 x 200 microns. At present, whether the barytes is terrestrial or meteoritic remains unclear. Reasons for both cases are given and discussed. While it is an intriguing possibility that the barytes in Acfer 086 may be a primary meteoritic mineral, and considerable evidence would support this view, it must be treated with great caution. Although texturally it is unlike a secondary phase and there are difficulties with the introduction of barytes by groundwater, this cannot be dismissed. The high and variable Ba contents of the Acfer/El Djouf Saharan CR chondrites are strong evidence for the formation of secondary barytes during residence on the desert floor. If terrestrial, the presence and distribution pattern of barytes in Acfer 086 has potentially important consequences for chemical and isotopic analyses of many elements in both bulk and inclusions of meteorite finds from the deserts of the world.

  5. Dichotic and monotic masking of CV's by CV second formants with different transition starting values.

    PubMed

    Porter, R J; Whittaker, R G

    1980-05-01

    Listeners were asked to identify ambiguous and unambiguous stop-vowel targets placed in monotic and dichotic competition with second formants (bleats) from voiced consonant-vowel (CV) syllables lying along a place-of-articulation continuum. Target performance varied with bleat-continuum position as well as bleat intensities. In cases where target errors occurred, either dichotically or monotically, they reflected predominantly the place cue of the bleat. This result, like that of previous studies, suggests the dominance of target or bleat reflects the relative "salience" of the two signals' cues. Differences were seen between monotic and dichotic conditions in the rate of change in performance with bleat intensity and continuum position. The rate of monotic performance change was a more precipitous (higher slope) function of these variables than was dichotic performance. This difference was interpreted as suggesting that monotic interference includes a peripheral masking component which is sensitive to the relative spectral energies of target and bleat. Dichotic effects, in contrast, seem to primarily reflect the operation of (central) processes which grant different perceptual weights to signals' cues depending on their intensity-dependent saliences. The observation that ambiguity, per se, of the targets (or the CV's from which the bleats were extracted) played little role in predicting results, was interpreted as reflecting a primarily prephonetic (i.e., auditory) locus for both monotic and dichotic interactions.

  6. Reduced and unstratified crust in CV chondrite parent body.

    PubMed

    Ganino, Clément; Libourel, Guy

    2017-08-15

    Early Solar System planetesimal thermal models predict the heating of the chondritic protolith and the preservation of a chondritic crust on differentiated parent bodies. Petrological and geochemical analyses of chondrites have suggested that secondary alteration phases formed at low temperatures (<300 °C) by fluid-rock interaction where reduced and oxidized Vigarano type Carbonaceous (CV) chondrites witness different physicochemical conditions. From a thermodynamical survey of Ca-Fe-rich secondary phases in CV3 chondrites including silica activity (aSiO2), here we show that the classical distinction between reduced and oxidized chondrites is no longer valid and that their Ca-Fe-rich secondary phases formed in similar reduced conditions near the iron-magnetite redox buffer at low aSiO2 (log(aSiO2) <-1) and moderate temperature (210-610 °C). The various lithologies in CV3 chondrites are inferred to be fragments of an asteroid percolated heterogeneously via porous flow of hydrothermal fluid. Putative 'onion shell' structures are not anymore a requirement for the CV parent body crust.Meteorites may unlock the history of the early solar system. Here, the authors find, through Ca-Fe-rich secondary phases, that the distinction between reduced and oxidized CV chondrites is invalid; therefore, CV3 chondrites are asteroid fragments that percolated heterogeneously via porous flow of hydrothermal fluid.

  7. Application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow in Japan: a case study of groundwater transit times and storage in Hokkaido watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, Maksym A.; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Michael K.; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Terumasa; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya; Iwami, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow to estimate groundwater transit times and storage volumes in Hokkaido, Japan. To establish the long-term history of tritium concentration in Japanese precipitation, we used tritium data from the global network of isotopes in precipitation and from local studies in Japan. The record developed for Tokyo area precipitation was scaled for Hokkaido using tritium values for precipitation based on wine grown at Hokkaido. Then, tritium concentrations measured with high accuracy in river water from Hokkaido, Japan, were compared to this scaled precipitation record and used to estimate groundwater mean transit times (MTTs). A total of 16 river water samples in Hokkaido were collected in June, July, and October 2014 at 12 locations with altitudes between 22 and 831 m above sea level and catchment areas between 14 and 377 km2. Measured tritium concentrations were between 4.07 (± 0.07) TU and 5.29 (± 0.09) TU in June, 5.06 (± 0.09) TU in July, and between 3.75 (± 0.07) TU and 4.85 (± 0.07) TU in October. We utilised TracerLPM (Jurgens et al., 2012) for MTT estimation and introduced a Visual Basic module to automatically simulate tritium concentrations and relative errors for selected ranges of MTTs, exponential-piston ratios, and scaling factors of tritium input. Using the exponential (70 %) piston flow (30 %) model (E70 %PM), we simulated unique MTTs for seven river samples collected in six Hokkaido headwater catchments because their low tritium concentrations were no longer ambiguous. These river catchments are clustered in similar hydrogeological settings of Quaternary lava as well as Tertiary propylite formations near Sapporo city. However, nine river samples from six other catchments produced up to three possible MTT values with E70 % PM due to the interference by the tritium from the atmospheric hydrogen bomb testing 5-6 decades ago. For these catchments, we show that tritium in

  8. [Screening for thyroid dysfunction in adults residing in Hokkaido Japan: in relation to urinary iodide concentration and thyroid autoantibodies].

    PubMed

    Konno, N; Iizuka, N; Kawasaki, K; Taguchi, H; Miura, K; Taguchi, S; Murakami, S; Hagiwara, K; Noda, Y; Ukawa, S

    1994-05-01

    The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its relation to thyroid autoantibodies (TAA) and urinary iodide concentration (UI) was studied in apparently healthy adults in Sapporo (n = 4110) (Sapporo group), and in five coastal areas of Hokkaido (n = 1061) (coastal group) which produce iodine-rich seaweed (kelp). The frequency of above normal UI (high UI) in the morning urinary samples of coastal group was 10.8%, significantly higher than that of Sapporo group (6.4%) (p < 0.001). Frequency of positive TAA in both groups were similar. In Sapporo group TAA was positive in 6.4% of males and 13.8% of females with an age-related increase. The overall prevalence of hyperthyroidism (TSH < 0.15 mU/L) in coastal group (0.6%) was similar to that in Sapporo group (1.1%), while that of hypothyroidism (TSH > 5.0 mU/L) in coastal group (3.8%) was significantly higher than that in Sapporo group (1.3%) (P < 0.001). The frequency of high UI correlated significantly with that of hypothyroidism with negative TAA (r = 0.829, P < 0.05), but not with positive TAA, or with that of hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism was more prevalent in TAA negative subjects with high UI than with normal UI. Moreover, serum TSH and thyroglobulin levels were higher and free T4 level was lower in former than in latter group. These results indicate that 1) the prevalence of TAA negative hypothyroidism in iodine sufficient areas may be associated with the amount of iodine ingested, 2) this hypothyroidism is more prevalent and marked in subjects consuming further excess amounts of iodine, and 3) excessive intake of iodine should be considered an etiology of hypothyroidism in addition to chronic thyroiditis in these areas.

  9. Comparative analysis of the extreme temperature event change over Northeast China and Hokkaido, Japan from 1951 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wu, Zhengfang; Wang, Fuxue; Du, Haibo; Zong, Shengwei

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of the daily minimum (T min), mean (T mean), and maximum (T max) temperature records of 25 meteorological stations in Northeast China (NEC) and 10 weather stations in Hokkaido, Japan (HKD), from 1951 to 2011, we comparatively analyzed the change in extreme temperature events and the relationship of these events with the mean value. Results showed that for the extreme lowest temperature (ELT) frequency, approximately 96 % of the stations exhibited decreasing trends ranging from -0.63 to 0 days/decade in NEC, whereas all the stations in HKD showed decreasing trends ranging from -0.4 to 0 days/decade. However, the average decrease in amplitude of 0.24 days/decade in HKD was significantly less than the 0.27 days/decade average in NEC. The extreme highest temperature (EHT) frequency trends in the two regions showed insignificant increases. Notable decreasing trends for the ELT intensity were found at -0.9 to 0 %/decade in 92 % of the stations in NEC and -1.1 to 0 %/decade in 90 % of the stations in HKD. Inversely, increasing trends in EHT intensity were observed in 80 % of the stations over HKD, ranging from 0.06 to 0.32 %/decade, and the majority of the stations (64 %) showed increasing trends in NEC. T mean and T min had strong negative correlations with the ELT intensity in NEC, whereas T mean and T min had strong significant negative correlations with the ELT frequency in HKD. T min, T mean, and T max between NEC and HKD exhibited strong significant positive correlations. The frequency and intensity of the ELT in both regions showed significant positive correlations.

  10. Spatial distribution of microbial populations and carbon cycle in the subsurface environment of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Y.; Ise, K.; Terashima, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Amamiya, H.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms are widely distributed in the subsurface environments. However, the distribution, role and rate of metabolisms, and the source of their activity are not well known. In this study, we investigated deep groundwater samples from sedimentary rocks, containing saturated methane and CO2, using boreholes at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL), northern Hokkaido, Japan. The hydrochemical conditions of groundwaters, such as in-situ water pressure, temperature, electric conductivity, pH, redox potential, were monitored without degassing at multiple intervals along the borehole. Groundwater samples were taken periodically and chemical composition was analyzed using ICP-MS, etc. Cell counts were in the range of 103 to 105 cells ml-1. Molecular analyses revealed the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the microbial population. Abundant methanogens were detected in the groundwater, and 80% of them were related to either Methanoregula boonei or Methanobacterium flexile that can utilize H2/CO2 by methanogenesis. Phylotypes clustered within the phylum Firmicutes, beta-Proteobacteria, delta-Proteobacteria and candidate division TM7 were dominant in the groundwater samples. Laboratory experiments using a culture technique showed that humic substances purified from the groundwater at Horonobe area appear to be degraded by microorganisms. Our results suggest that microbial spatial distributions in the subsurface environment were correlated closely with geochemical conditions, such as redox condition and carbon sources. In addition, it is inferred that humic substances are one of the important carbon sources for the subsurface microbial redox processes in the environment. This study was partly funded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan.

  11. Estimation of sediment yield from subsequent expanded landslides after heavy rainfalls : a case study in central Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimizu, K.; Uchida, T.

    2015-12-01

    Initial large-scale sediment yield caused by heavy rainfall or major storms have made a strong impression on us. Previous studies focusing on landslide management investigated the initial sediment movement and its mechanism. However, integrated management of catchment-scale sediment movements requires estimating the sediment yield, which is produced by the subsequent expanded landslides due to rainfall, in addition to the initial landslide movement. This study presents a quantitative analysis of expanded landslides by surveying the Shukushubetsu River basin, at the foot of the Hidaka mountain range in central Hokkaido, Japan. This area recorded heavy rainfall in 2003, reaching a maximum daily precipitation of 388 mm. We extracted the expanded landslides from 2003 to 2008 using aerial photographs taken over the river area. In particular, we calculated the probability of expansion for each landslide, the ratio of the landslide area in 2008 as compared with that in 2003, and the amount of the expanded landslide area corresponding to the initial landslide area. As a result, it is estimated 24% about probability of expansion for each landslide. In addition, each expanded landslide area is smaller than the initial landslide area. Furthermore, the amount of each expanded landslide area in 2008 is approximately 7% of their landslide area in 2003. Therefore, the sediment yield from subsequent expanded landslides is equal to or slightly greater than the sediment yield in a typical base flow. Thus, we concluded that the amount of sediment yield from subsequent expanded landslides is lower than that of initial large-scale sediment yield caused by a heavy rainfall in terms of effect on management of catchment-scale sediment movement.

  12. Emplacement model of obsidian-rhyolite magma deduced from complete internal section of the Akaishiyama lava, Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, K.; Sano, K.

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneously explosive and effusive eruptions of silicic magmas has shed light on the vesiculation and outgassing history of ascending magmas in the conduit and emplacement model of obsidian-rhyolite lavas (Castro et al., 2014; Shipper et al, 2013). As well as the knowledge of newly erupted products such as 2008-2009 Chaitén and 2011-2012 Cordón Caule eruptions, field and micro-textural evidences of well-exposed internal structure of obsidian-rhyolite lava leads to reveal eruption processes of silicic magmas. The Shirataki monogenetic volcano field, 2.2 million year age, northern Hokkaido, Japan, contains many outcrops of obsidian and vesiculated rhyolite zones (SiO2=76.7-77.4 wt.%). Among their outcrops, Akaishiyama lava shows good exposures of internal sections from the top to the bottom along the Kyukasawa valley with thickness of about 190 meters, showing the symmetrical structure comprising a upper clastic zone (UCZ; 5m thick), an upper dense obsidian zone (UDO; 15m), an upper banded obsidian zone (UBO; 70-80m), a central rhyolite zone (CR; 65m), a lower banded obsidian zone (LBO; 15m), a lower dense obsidian zone (LDO; 20m), and a lower clastic zone (LCZ; 3m). The upper banded obsidian zone is characterized by existence of spherulite concentration layers with tuffisite veins and rhyolite enclaves. Spherulites consisting of albite, cristobalaite and obsidian glass, are clustered in the dense obsidian. Tuffisite veins show brecciated obsidians in tuffaceous matrix, showing an outgassing path during the emplacement of obsidian lava. Perpendicular dip of spherulite parallel rows indicates the banded zone itself was the domain of vent area. From the observation of these occurrences in the internal section and rock texture, we show the qualitative formation model of Shirataki obsidian-rhyolite lava.

  13. Associated factors of behavioural problems in children at preschool age: the Hokkaido study on environment and children's health.

    PubMed

    Minatoya, M; Itoh, S; Araki, A; Tamura, N; Yamazaki, K; Nishihara, S; Miyashita, C; Kishi, R

    2017-05-01

    Finding associated factors with childhood behavioural problems as early as preschool age is important. Studies have revealed several factors including socioeconomic factors, which may vary among different cultural background and population. However, investigation in general Japanese population of preschool age has not been well demonstrated. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine associated factors of childhood behavioural problems using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a prospective birth cohort study. Total 3813 SDQ were distributed between October 2014 and December 2015 to the subpopulation of prospective birth cohort study, the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. The subpopulation consisted of participants who had reached age 5 and were born between April 2008 and December 2010. Baseline questionnaire filled at recruitment and birth record were used to obtain participant information. Children with total difficulties score ≧ 13 were defined as likelihood of behavioural problems. A total of 2553 children with valid answers were included into the analysis. The response rate was 67.1%. Number of children with likelihood of behavioural problems was 521 (20.4%). Boys showed more problematic scores than girls. Multivariate analysis found that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI ≧ 30 kg/m(2) , primipara, maternal education lower than high school, family income during pregnancy < 3 million yen/year and boy gender were the factors associated with increased odds ratio of likelihood of child behavioural problems. This study found that prenatal socioeconomic factors were associated with likelihood of child behavioural problems at preschool age in Japan. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Quantitative risk assessment of the introduction of rabies into Japan through the illegal landing of dogs from Russian fishing boats in the ports of Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Nigel C L; Ogawa, Hidehito; Yamada, Akio; Sugiura, Katsuaki

    2016-06-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since 1958 and various preventive measures are in place protecting the country from the introduction of the disease. Historical reviews indicate that the illegal landing of dogs from Russian fishing boats in the ports of Hokkaido occurred frequently especially in the early 2000s and this could potentially be a source of introduction of rabies into Japan. The method of scenario tree modelling was used and the following entry and exposure pathway was considered the most likely route of rabies entry: a rabies-infected dog arriving on a Russian fishing boat lands in a port of Hokkaido in Japan, it becomes infectious, contacts and infects a susceptible domestic animal (companion dog, stray dog or wildlife). Input parameter values were based on surveys of Russian fishermen, expert opinion and scientific data from the literature. At present (2006-2015), the probability of the introduction of rabies as a result of one Russian fishing boat arriving at a port of Hokkaido is 8.33×10(-10) (90% Prediction Interval (PI): 7.15×10(-11)-5.34×10(-9)), while this probability would have been 7.70×10(-9) (90% PI: 6.40×10(-10)-4.81×10(-8)) in the past (1998-2005). Under the current situation (average annual number of boat arrivals is 1106), rabies would enter Japan every 1,084,849 (90% PI: 169,215-20,188,348) years, while the disease would have been introduced every 18,309 (90% PI: 2929-220,048) years in the past (average annual number of boat arrivals is 7092). The risk of rabies introduction has decreased 59 fold due to both the effective control of the issue of illegal landing of dogs and the decline in the number of Russian boat arrivals. Control efforts include education of Russian fishermen, establishment of warning signs, daily patrols and regular port surveillance of potential dog landing activity. Furthermore, scenario analysis revealed that the policy of mandatory domestic dog vaccination does not contribute effectively to Japan's rabies

  15. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.

    PubMed

    Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura

    2009-12-23

    Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed.

  16. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  17. Chemical analysis and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect of anthocyanin-rich red leaf tea (cv. Sunrouge).

    PubMed

    Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Saito, Takeshi; Nesumi, Atsushi; Tokuda, Yoshiko; Ema, Kaori; Honma, Daiki; Ogino, Akiko; Monobe, Manami; Murakami, Akira; Murakami, Akira; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of leaf order or crop season on anthocyanins and other chemicals in the anthocyanin-rich tea cultivar 'Sunrouge' (Camellia sinensis x C. taliensis) by using high-performance liquid chromatography, and to study the effect of 'Sunrouge' extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. The total anthocyanin content was higher in the third (3.09 mg g⁻¹) than in the second (2.24 mg g⁻¹) or first crop season (1.79 mg g⁻¹). The amount of anthocyanins contained in the stem was high (1.61 mg g⁻¹). In the third crop season, the concentrations of delphinidin-3-O-β-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaroyl)galactopyranoside (DCGa), cyanidin-3-O-β-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaroyl)galactopyranoside, delphinidin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside, delphinidin-3-O-β-D-(6-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)galactopyranoside, cyanidin-3-O-β-D-galactoside, and delphinidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside were 1.57 mg g⁻¹, 0.52 mg g⁻¹, 0.40 mg g⁻¹, 0.22 mg g⁻¹, 0.14 mg g⁻¹, and 0.11 mg g⁻¹, respectively. DCGa accounted for about 50% of the anthocyanins present. The suppressive effect of 'Sunrouge' water extract on AChE activity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells was the strongest among the three tea cultivars ('Sunrouge', 'Yabukita' and 'Benifuuki'). These results suggested that 'Sunrouge' might protect humans from humans from AChE-related diseases by suppressing AChE activity. To obtain sufficient amounts of anthocyanins, catechins and/or caffeine for a functional food material, 'Sunrouge' from the third crop season should be used. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-01-01

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management. PMID:27857230

  19. Aftershock distribution of the October 4, 1994 Mw8.3 Kurile Islands Earthquake determined by a local seismic network in Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, K.; Ichiyanagi, M.; Miwa, M.; Kasahara, M.; Miyamachi, H.

    On October 4, 1994, an earthquake with magnitude Mw8.3 occurred in the western part of Kurile Islands at 43.42°N, 146.81°E and 33 km in depth. The hypocenter parameters were determined by Hokkaido University in Japan. Aftershocks following this remarkable event were located using data from a local seismic network operated by Hokkaido University. We found that most of the aftershocks occurred (1) on the fault plane of the mainshock, (2) in the subducting plate around the fault plane of the mainshock, and (3) in the focal area of the largest aftershock, which occurred on October 9 with Mw7.3. Both (2) and (3) were not active immediately after the mainshock. Considering the time sequence of the aftershock activity, we identified one of the nodal planes of the Harvard quick CMT solutions as the fault plane of the mainshock; the strike is almost parallel to the trench axis and the dip angle is near vertical. It is obvious that this event is different from a low-angle thrust-type interplate earthquake. The distribution of aftershocks strongly suggests that it is an intraplate event.

  20. Differential tick burdens may explain differential Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii infection rates among four, wild, rodent species in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Takano, Ai; Konnai, Satoru; Shimozuru, Michito; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The ecologies of Lyme disease Borrelia spp. are very specific to location, as they are dependent upon the spirochete species and genotypes, the vectors and the host vertebrates present. In Hokkaido, Japan, where two human pathogenic, Lyme disease Borrelia spp. are present, and human cases are reported annually, the ecologies have been poorly studied. Our goal was to determine whether variation in borrelial infection rates among rodent species sharing an environment, is due to immunological or ecological differences. To this end, we examined the relationships between tick burden and borrelial infection, by including examination of agreement between nested PCR, as a test for infection, and serology, as a test for exposure. We collected 868 rodents, comprised of four species commonly found in Hokkaido, and tested for infection rates with Borrelia spp. using PCR for the borrelial flaB gene, seroprevalence of Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii using ELISA, and attachment of ticks by direct counts. We noted a correlation between differential nymph and larval burdens and the borrelial infection rates found among the four rodent species. Furthermore, there was significant correlation between infection and seroprevalence of B. afzelii and B. garinii (P<0.01), between infection and Ixodes persulcatus nymph burden (P<0.01), and between seroprevalence and I. persulcatus nymph burden (P<0.01). The close agreement among rodent species seroprevalences with infection rates and tick burdens suggest the differences in infection rates of Borrelia spp. may largely be a direct consequence of differential exposure to vectors.

  1. Entomological surveillance for flaviviruses at migratory bird stopover sites in Hokkaido, Japan, and a new insect flavivirus detected in Aedes galloisi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Keita; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Isawa, Haruhiko; Sasaki, Toshinori; Higa, Yukiko; Kasai, Shinji; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the possible spread of West Nile virus (WNV) into Japan, we carried out entomological surveillance for flaviviruses at migratory bird stopover sites in Hokkaido, Japan, during 2003-2006. A total of 3,826 mosquitoes, identified as 15 species in five genera, were collected and 2,465 of these were grouped into 123 pools that were assayed for cytopathic effects on mosquito and mammalian cell cultures and for flavivirus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using flavivirus universal primer sets for fragments of the NS3 and NS5 genes. Neither WNV nor other mosquito-vertebrate transmitted flaviviruses were detected in mosquitoes collected at any of the sites in Hokkaido, but five Culex flaviviruses and one novel Aedes galloisi flavivirus were identified from Culex pipiens L. s. l. and Aedes galloisi Yamada, respectively. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses based on the partial NS5 nucleotide sequences classified Aedes galloisi flavivirus with the insect flavivirus, but distant from Cell fusing agent, Kamiti river virus, and Culex flaviviruses, showing <74% sequence identities. Polymerase chain reaction-based bloodmeal analysis of 79 females showed that all of the Aedes and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes fed on mammals (deer and humans), whereas, Cx. pipiens s. l. mosquitoes fed on both of avian (ducks and sparrows, 85.7%) and mammalian hosts (dog, 14.3%). We suggest that to date WNV has not become established in Japan.

  2. [Dr Leonor Michaelis and early days of Hokkaido University School of Medicine; episodes among three medical researchers in the roaring twenties].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Makoto; Koyama, Akio; Saito, Takeshi; Terasawa, Kouich; Fujita, Hiroyoshi; Saito, Kazuo

    2011-08-01

    Little has been known about the personal history of Dr. Takaichi Mohri (Nakashima), the first professor of department of hygiene at Hokkaido University School of Medicine. We, therefore, have been inquiring academic backgrounds of Dr. Mohri for two decades. These inquiries show interesting episodes between Dr. Leonor Michaelis, one of the biggest names in enzymologists, and early days of this Medical School. In this article, we describe that at least two professors, Drs. Takaichi Mohri and Kaoru Ohguro, were in good acquaintances with Dr. Michaelis as follows; 1) the latter half of 1921, Dr. Ohguro visited a laboratory of Dr. Michaelis in Berlin, 2) from November 1922 to June 1923, Dr. Michaelis in Nagoya collaborated with Dr. Mohri in Sapporo, 3) Dr. Michaelis in Nagoya visited Dr. Ohguro's house and office in Sapporo at March 1925, and 4) at the same occasion, Dr. Michaelis made his lecture on biochemistry in Hokkaido University School of Medicine. Since Drs. Ohguro and Mohri were classmates of the University of Tokyo Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Ohguro could introduce Dr. Michaelis to Dr. Mohri who used to be a graduate student in department of biochemistry. As a result of relationships, Drs. Michaelis and Mohri published a paper entitled "Eine weitere Methode zur Bestimmung des isoelektrischen Punktes von Eiweisskoerpern und ihre Anwendung auf die Serumalbumine verschiedener Tiere" in Biochemische Zeitschrift, which was a part of Dr. Mohri's Ph.D. thesis.

  3. The 2000 Nemuro-Hanto-Oki earthquake, off eastern Hokkaido, Japan, and the high intraslab seismic activity in the southwestern Kuril Trench

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takahashi, H.; Hirata, K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 Nemuro-Hanto-Oki earthquake (Mw6.8) occurred in the southwestern part of the Kuril Trench. The hypocenter was located close to the aftershock region of the great 1994 Kuril earthquake (Mw8.3), named "the 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake" by the Japan Meteorological Agency, for which the fault plane is still in debate. Analysis of the 2000 event provides a clue to resolve the fault plane issue for the 1994 event. The hypocenters of the 2000 main shock and aftershocks are determined using arrival times from a combination of nearby inland and submarine seismic networks with an improved azimuthal coverage. They clearly show that the 2000 event was an intraslab event occurring on a shallow-dipping fault plane between 55 and 65 km in depth. The well-focused aftershock distribution of the 2000 event, the relative location of the 1994 event with respect to the 2000 event, and the similarity between their focal mechanisms strongly suggest that the faulting of the great 1994 earthquake also occurred on a shallow-dipping fault plane in the subducting slab. The recent hypocenter distribution around the 1994 aftershock region also supports this result. Large intraslab earthquakes occuring to the southeast of Hokkaido may occur due to a strong coupling on the plate boundary, which generates relatively large stress field within the subducting Pacific plate.

  4. Surveillance and characterization of avian influenza viruses from migratory water birds in eastern Hokkaido, the northern part of Japan, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Abao, Lary N B; Jamsransuren, Dulamjav; Bui, Vuong N; Ngo, Lai H; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Runstadler, Jonathan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2013-04-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance was conducted around a small pond in Obihiro, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Eleven AIVs were isolated from a total of 1,269 fecal samples of migratory wild birds collected during 2009 and 2010. The sample number covered approximately 60 % of the total number of birds observed during sampling periods. The subtypes of the isolates included H3N8 (4 isolates), H5N2 (3), H6N2 (2), H6N1 (1), and H11N2 (1). The H3N8 subtype was most prevalent as in the previous studies performed in Hokkaido. The three H5N2 isolates genetically characterized as low pathogenic AIV were closely related to the strains previously isolated from aquatic wild birds in Japan and also to the Korean strains isolated from aquatic birds in recent years. In Korea, H5N2 subtype virus has often been isolated from poultry and wild birds, as well as reassortant viruses generated from duck H5N2 viruses and chicken H9N2 virus, and avian-swine-like reassortant H5N2 viruses. Considering the previous chicken outbreaks caused by highly pathogenic H5N2 viruses, which affected many countries, it should be an important priority to continue, monitoring the evolution of H5N2 viruses circulating in the region.

  5. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-01

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  6. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-18

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  7. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  8. Improved performance of a broadband ocean bottom seismograph connected to off-shore submarine cable off-Tokachi, Hokkaido, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, K.; Araki, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Sugioka, H.; Otsuka, R.

    2004-12-01

    A seismograph deployed in the seafloor is subject to seafloor current which results in severe noise especially at frequencies below 0.1Hz. Burial of seismographs below seafloor to reduce the effect of seafloor current was suggested, and has been tried in several seafloor deployments. There is, though, not clear indication of how much reduction can be achieved by surficial burying. We compared the background noise levels of a broadband ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) before and after burial operation. In July 2004, we deployed a Guralp CMG-1T broadband seismograph in off-Tokachi, Hokkaido, Japan seafloor. This is where three ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) using submarine cable are installed. The Tokachi earthquake of magnitude 8.0 occurred in September 26, 2003 below the submarine cable OBS network. By installing additional broadband OBS, we aim to monitor postseismic activity of the large earthquake. The broadband OBS, as well as a pressure gauge, was connected to the submarine cable via the branch module of the cable to recover data. The burial of the ocean bottom seismograph was performed by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "Hyper-Dolphin" of JAMSTEC. Using a hydraulic pump, the ROV pumped out sediment from a PVC caisson on the seafloor to submerge it in the seafloor. The broadband OBS was then installed inside the caisson. The caisson buried in the seafloor was finally filled with glass beads to eliminate space between the broadband sensor and the caisson. Improvement of the background noise level by the burial operation of the broadband OBS was apparent in two frequency bands; below 0.1 Hz and above 4Hz. Below 0.1 Hz, the background noise became about 20dB or more quieter after burial for both vertical and horizontal components. Above 4Hz, a persistent noise peak around 5 Hz disappeared after burial. Thus, we consider this peak as an artificial noise due to the seismograph package. After burial, we could clearly notice several noise peaks above 2Hz which was

  9. The Association of Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals with Glucocorticoid and Androgenic Hormones in Cord Blood Samples: The Hokkaido Study

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Houman; Araki, Atsuko; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Mitsui, Takahiko; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Katsuya; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    exposure to PFCs is significantly associated with glucocorticoid and DHEA levels in cord blood. Citation: Goudarzi H, Araki A, Itoh S, Sasaki S, Miyashita C, Mitsui T, Nakazawa H, Nonomura K, Kishi R. 2017. The association of prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals with glucocorticoid and androgenic hormones in cord blood samples: the Hokkaido Study. Environ Health Perspect 125:111–118; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP142 PMID:27219028

  10. Effects of a windthrow disturbance on the carbon balance of a broadleaf deciduous forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanoi, K.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Utsugi, H.

    2015-07-01

    Forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon budget, with most being in a carbon sequestration stage. The net carbon releases that occur result from forest disturbance, and windthrow is a typical disturbance event affecting the forest carbon balance in eastern Asia. The carbon budget has been measured using the eddy covariance method in a deciduous broadleaf forest (Japanese white birch, Japanese oak, and castor aralia) in Hokkaido, where accidental damage by the strong typhoon, Songda, in 2004 occurred. We also used the biometrical method to demonstrate the carbon flow within the forest in detail. Damaged trees amounted to 40 % of all trees, and they remained on site where they were not extracted by forest management. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and net ecosystem production were 1350, 975, and 375 g C m-2 yr-1 before the disturbance and 1262, 1359, and -97 g C m-2 yr-1 2 years after the disturbance, respectively. Before the disturbance, the forest was an evident carbon sink, and it subsequently transformed to net a carbon source. Because of light enrichment at the forest floor, the leaf area index and biomass of the undergrowth (Sasa kurilensis and S. senanensis) increased by factors of 2.4 and 1.7, respectively, in 3 years subsequent to the disturbance. The photosynthesis of Sasa increased rapidly and contributed to the total GPP after the disturbance. The annual GPP only decreased by 6 % just after the disturbance. On the other hand, the annual Re increased by 39 % mainly because of the decomposition of residual coarse-wood debris. The carbon balance after the disturbance was controlled by the new growth and the decomposition of residues. The forest management, which resulted in the dead stands remaining at the study site, strongly affected the carbon budget over the years. When comparing the carbon uptake efficiency at the study site with that at others, including those with various kinds of disturbances, we

  11. Effects of a windthrow disturbance on the carbon balance of a broadleaf deciduous forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanoi, K.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Utsugi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon balance, with most being in a carbon sequestration stage. The net carbon releases that occur result from forest disturbance, and windthrow is a typical disturbance event affecting the forest carbon balance in eastern Asia. The CO2 flux has been measured using the eddy covariance method in a deciduous broadleaf forest (Japanese white birch, Japanese oak, and castor aralia) in Hokkaido, where incidental damage by the strong Typhoon Songda in 2004 occurred. We also used the biometrical method to demonstrate the CO2 flux within the forest in detail. Damaged trees amounted to 40 % of all trees, and they remained on site where they were not extracted by forest management. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and net ecosystem production were 1350, 975, and 375 g C m-2 yr-1 before the disturbance and 1262, 1359, and -97 g C m-2 yr-1 2 years after the disturbance, respectively. Before the disturbance, the forest was an evident carbon sink, and it subsequently transformed into a net carbon source. Because of increased light intensity at the forest floor, the leaf area index and biomass of the undergrowth (Sasa kurilensis and S. senanensis) increased by factors of 2.4 and 1.7, respectively, in 3 years subsequent to the disturbance. The photosynthesis of Sasa increased rapidly and contributed to the total GPP after the disturbance. The annual GPP only decreased by 6 % just after the disturbance. On the other hand, the annual Re increased by 39 % mainly because of the decomposition of residual coarse-wood debris. The carbon balance after the disturbance was controlled by the new growth and the decomposition of residues. The forest management, which resulted in the dead trees remaining at the study site, strongly affected the carbon balance over the years. When comparing the carbon uptake efficiency at the study site with that at others, including those with various kinds of disturbances, we

  12. Explosive eruptive activity and temporal magmatic changes at Yotei Volcano during the last 50,000 years, southwest Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesawa, Shimpei; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro; Umetsu, Akane

    2016-10-01

    To understand the eruptive history, structure, and magmatic evolution of Yotei Volcano, southwest Hokkaido, Japan, we investigated the geology and petrology of tephras located around the base of the volcano. We identified 43 tephra units interbedded with soils (in descending stratigraphic order, tephras Y1-Y43), and four widespread regional tephras. Ten radiocarbon ages were obtained from soils beneath the Yotei tephras. On the basis of petrologic differences and, the stratigraphic positions of thick layers of volcanic ash soil, indicative of volcanic stratigraphic gaps, the Yotei tephras are divided into four groups (in ascending stratigraphic order): Yotei tephra groups I, II-1, II-2, and II-3. We calculated the age of each eruptive deposit based on the soil accumulation rate, and estimated the volume of each eruption using isopach maps or the correlation between eruption volume and the maximum thickness at ~ 10 km from the summit crater. The results regarding eruptive activity and the rate of explosive eruptions indicate four eruptive stages at Yotei Volcano over the last 50,000 years. Stage I eruptions produced Yotei tephra group I between ca. 54 cal. ka BP and up to at least ca. 46 cal. ka BP, at relatively high average eruption rates of 0.07 km3 dense-rock equivalent (DRE)/ky. After a pause in activity of ca. 8000 years, Stage II-1 to II-2 eruptions produced Yotei tephra groups II-1 and II-2 from ca. 38 to ca. 21 cal. ka BP at high average eruption rates (0.10 km3 DRE/ky), after a pause in activity of 2000-3000 years. Finally, after another pause in activity of 4000-5000 years, Stage II-3 eruptions produced Yotei tephra group II-3 from ca. 16.5 cal. ka BP until the present day, at low average eruption rates (0.009 km3 DRE/ky). Whole-rock geochemical compositions vary within each tephra group over the entire eruption history. For example, group I and II-3 tephras contain the lowest and highest abundances, respectively, of K2O, P2O5, and Zr. Group II-1 has the

  13. Aqueous alteration in the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results from TEM and SEM examinations of the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite are presented, showing that the chondrules and the matrix of Kaba have undergone pervasive low-temperature aqueous alteration, resulting in the formation of Fe-bearing saponite from glass and enstatite in chondrules, and from anhydrous silicates in matrix. The alteration products in Kaba were found to resemble those in other aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites such as the Mokoia CV3 and in Orgueil CI chondrites and Y-82162 chondrites. However, Kaba lacks the abundant high-Al phyllosilicates, reported for CAIs from Mokoia, and the serpentine and ferrihydrite, found in Orgueil.

  14. ES4 NPP-FM5 Ed1-CV

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-09-13

    ... Data Products Catalog:  DPC ES4 R7V1  (PDF) Validation Graphics Readme Files:  Readme R6V1-894 ... Data:  Note:  Edition1-CV is for instrument validation purposes only and not suited for science publications. ...

  15. REE Abundances in Matrix of Allende (CV) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Nakamura, N.; Kimura, M.

    1996-03-01

    In order to examine trace element distributions in matrix material of primitive chondrites, four interchondrule matrix specimens (sample weight ~100 micrograms) were carefully excavated using a microdrill from the petrographically characterized areas of the published sections of Allende (CV) chondrite and were precisely analyzed for REE, Ba, Sr, Rb, K, Ca and Mg by direct loading isotope dilution method (DL-IDMS).

  16. Nutraceutical properties and polyphenolic profile of berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico).

    PubMed

    De Nisco, Mauro; Manfra, Michele; Bolognese, Adele; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Pagano, Francesco; Milite, Ciro; Russo, Maria Teresa

    2013-10-15

    Red grapes are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and resveratrol, all substances which have been suggested as having nutraceutical and health benefits. The berry skin and wine of grape cultivar Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico), grown in Basilicata (Southern Italy) were examined to determinate the presence of the above mentioned compounds as well as to establish the inorganic cation profile. HPLC analysis coupled with LC-ESI/MS/MS detected high contents of total flavonols and anthocyanins in berry skin and wine. The wine made with the same grape used for berry skin assays showed a notable presence of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (39.4% of total flavonols), and malvidin and petunidin derivatives (63.9% and 10.8% of total anthocyanins, respectively). The strong antioxidant ROS-scavenging activity, determined by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and the high resveratrol content confer high sensory characteristics resulted to be associated with positive nutraceutical properties of these grapes and wine. The level of cis-resveratrol was lower than trans-resveratrol in both berry skin and wine reaching 44.1mg/kg and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The cation profile presents low levels of Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Zn and Cd compared to numerous, important red wines, such as Monastrell and Tempranillo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of a non-pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus isolated from a migratory duck flying from Siberia in Hokkaido, Japan, in October 2009.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Motoshima, Masayuki; Yoshino, Fumi; Soda, Kosuke; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi

    2011-02-11

    Infection with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of domestic poultry and wild birds has spread to more than 60 countries in Eurasia and Africa. It is concerned that HPAIVs may be perpetuated in the lakes in Siberia where migratory water birds nest in summer. To monitor whether HPAIVs circulate in migratory water birds, intensive surveillance of avian influenza has been performed in Mongolia and Japan in autumn each year. Until 2008, there had not been any H5N1 viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in Siberia. In autumn 2009, A/mallard/Hokkaido/24/09 (H5N1) (Mal/Hok/24/09) was isolated from a fecal sample of a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) that flew from Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan. The isolate was assessed for pathogenicity in chickens, domestic ducks, and quails and analyzed antigenically and phylogenetically. No clinical signs were observed in chickens inoculated intravenously with Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1). There was no viral replication in chickens inoculated intranasally with the isolate. None of the domestic ducks and quails inoculated intranasally with the isolate showed any clinical signs. There were no multiple basic amino acid residues at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) of the isolate. Each gene of Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1) is phylogenetically closely related to that of influenza viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in autumn. Additionally, the antigenicity of the HA of the isolate was similar to that of the viruses isolated from migratory water birds in Hokkaido that flew from their northern territory in autumn and different from those of HPAIVs isolated from birds found dead in China, Mongolia, and Japan on the way back to their northern territory in spring. Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1) is a non-pathogenic avian influenza virus for chickens, domestic ducks, and quails, and is antigenically and genetically distinct from the H5N1 HPAIVs prevailing in birds in

  18. Development of low noise cosmic ray muon detector for imaging density structure of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusagaya, T.; Tanaka, H.; Taketa, A.; Oshima, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing low noise cosmic ray muon detector to image a density structure of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan by muon radiography. Intensity of cosmic ray muon penetrating through the object is expressed as a function of the product of muon path length and density along muon path. And, the intensity of penetrating muon steeply decreases if muon path length becomes longer or density along muon path becomes larger. The detector that we are developing is called hodoscope that consists of multiple Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). A PSD has NxM grids consisting of N vertically aligned Scintillation Counters (SC: a plastic scintillator attached to a photo multiplier tube) and M horizontally aligned SCs. We can identify a muon path direction with two or more PSDs by connecting muon-detecting points in each PSD. But, Usu Volcano is so large that the intensity of penetrating muon becomes lower, and then noise rate becomes higher: the count of penetrating cosmic ray muon is estimated to be a few counts per month with the detector of which has the cross-section area of one square meter and the solid angle of 0.01 steradian. The noise is defined as a particle other than the muon penetrating the observed object such as electrons, photons, vertically arriving muons and so on. If noise rate becomes higher, the measured intensity of penetrating muon becomes higher than the theoretical intensity of that. Then we get a wrong result as if there were matter of lower density relative to real. So we need to develop a low noise detector. The ElectroMagnetic (EM) shower that consists of many electrons and photons is thought to be one of noise. When EM shower reaches the detector, each PSD detects arriving particles and detecting points are sometimes connected by a straight line. In that case, we cannot discriminate the penetrating muon from EM shower, and we count it as a muon event. This results noise. In order to discriminate the noise event, the use of more PSDs for our

  19. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  20. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  1. Registration of ‘Mace’ hard red winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Mace’ (Reg. No. CV PI 651043) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the USDA-ARS and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and released in December, 2007. Mace was selected from the cross Yuma//PI 372129/3/CO850034/4/4*Yuma/5/(KS91H184/Arlin S//KS91HW29/3/NE89526)....

  2. [Research on Breeding of Dioscorea opposita cv. Tiegun].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-jun; Ren, Mei-ling; Wang, Jun; Jia, Guo-lun; Pei, Li-xin; Sun, Shu-wu

    2015-09-01

    To breeding the new varieties Dioscorea opposita cv. Tiegun with the best comprehensive properties. Seven new Dioscorea opposita. cv. Tiegun cultivars were screened by space mutation breeding of Dioscorea opposita cv. Tiegun bulbils. Yield,allantoin content,water soluble extractive and the resistance of these seven cultivars were compared with the main cultivar Dioscorea opposita cv. Tiegun( CK). Meanwhile, the nutrition quality of new cultivars No. 6 and No. 10 were compared with the main cultivar. (1) The fresh weight per plant ranked in the order as follows: No. 6 > No. 10 > No. 4 > No. 9 > No. 1 > CK > No. 2 > No. 8. The drying rate ranked in the order as follows: No. 2 > No. 10 > No. 9 > No. 6 > No. 8 > CK > No. 1 > No. 4. Dry weight per plant ranked in the order as follows: No. 10 > No. 9 > No. 6 > No. 2 > No. 1 > CK > No. 4 > No. 8. The fresh weight per plant, drying rate and dry weight per plant of No. 6 and No. 10 were higher than the main cultivar. (2) The allantoin content ranked in the order as follows: No. 6 > No. 4 > No. 10 > CK > No. 9 > No. 8 > No. 2 > No. 1. (3) The water soluble extractive contents ranked in the order as follows: No. 6 > No. 2 > No. 4 > No. 10 > No. 1 > CK > No. 9 > No. 8. The water soluble extractive content of No. 6 was higher than No. 10 and the main cultivar. (4) No. 10 had the best taste of dry, soft, sweet and fragrant, No. 6 had the taste of dry, floury and hard, and No. 9 had the taste of dry and crisp. (5) No. 6 had the strongest resistance to Gloeosporium pestis and Cykindrosporium dioscoreae; No. 10 had a middle resistance to Gloeosporium pestis and a strong resistance to Cykindrosporium dioscoreae; and the main cultivar had a middle degree of being prone to Gloeosporium pestis and a middle resistance to Cykindrosporium dioscoreae. (6) The content of starch, reducing sugar, protein and ash in No. 6 and No. 10 were higher than that of the main cultivar,while the content of water in No. 6 and No. 10 were lower

  3. A new species of Orobdella (Hirudinida, Arhynchobdellida, Gastrostomobdellidae) and redescription of Orobdella kawakatsuorum from Hokkaido, Japan with the phylogenetic position of the new species

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new quadrannulate Orobdella Oka, 1895 species, Orobdella koikei sp. n., is described on the basis of six specimens collected from Hokkaido, Japan. In addition, an emended description of quadrannulate Orobdella kawakatsuorum Richardson, 1975 is also provided. Orobdella koikei differs from other quadrannulate species of Orobdella in possessing the following combination of characters: color dorsally brown, IV uniannulate, male gonopore at XI b6, gastropore and female gonopore at XIII a1, 1/2 + 4 + 1/2 between gonopores, XXV triannulate, tubular but bulbous at junctions with gastropore and crop gastroporal duct, epididymides in XVII to XIX, and atrial cornua ovate. The phylogenetic position of the newly described species is estimated using mitochondrial COI, tRNACys, tRNAMet, 12S rDNA, tRNAVal and 16S rDNA markers. Orobdella koikei is a sister taxon of Orobdella kakawatsuorum according to the molecular phylogenetic analyses. PMID:22371683

  4. Accessory corpora lutea formation in pregnant Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) investigated by examination of ovarian dynamics and steroid hormone concentrations

    PubMed Central

    YANAGAWA, Yojiro; MATSUURA, Yukiko; SUZUKI, Masatsugu; SAGA, Shin-ichi; OKUYAMA, Hideto; FUKUI, Daisuke; BANDO, Gen; NAGANO, Masashi; KATAGIRI, Seiji; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; TSUBOTA, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Generally, sika deer conceive a single fetus, but approximately 80% of pregnant females have two corpora lutea (CLs). The function of the accessory CL (ACL) is unknown; moreover, the process of ACL formation is unclear, and understanding this is necessary to know its role. To elucidate the process of ACL formation, the ovarian dynamics of six adult Hokkaido sika deer females were examined ultrasonographically together with peripheral estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. ACLs formed in three females that conceived at the first estrus of the breeding season, but not in those females that conceived at the second estrus. After copulation, postconception ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first wave is induced by an increase in estradiol-17β, which leads to formation of an ACL. A relatively low concentration of progesterone after the first estrus of the breeding season is considered to be responsible for the increase in estradiol-17β after copulation. PMID:25482110

  5. Accessory corpora lutea formation in pregnant Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) investigated by examination of ovarian dynamics and steroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Yojiro; Matsuura, Yukiko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Saga, Shin-Ichi; Okuyama, Hideto; Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Nagano, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Generally, sika deer conceive a single fetus, but approximately 80% of pregnant females have two corpora lutea (CLs). The function of the accessory CL (ACL) is unknown; moreover, the process of ACL formation is unclear, and understanding this is necessary to know its role. To elucidate the process of ACL formation, the ovarian dynamics of six adult Hokkaido sika deer females were examined ultrasonographically together with peripheral estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. ACLs formed in three females that conceived at the first estrus of the breeding season, but not in those females that conceived at the second estrus. After copulation, postconception ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first wave is induced by an increase in estradiol-17β, which leads to formation of an ACL. A relatively low concentration of progesterone after the first estrus of the breeding season is considered to be responsible for the increase in estradiol-17β after copulation.

  6. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  7. Relationship of topography to surface water chemistry with particular focus on nitrogen and organic carbon solutes within a forested watershed in Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Akiko; Shibata, Hideaki; Suzuki, Kei; Mitchell, Myron J.; Ikegami, Yoshiyuki

    2006-02-01

    We studied the relationships between streamwater chemistry and the topography of subcatchments in the Dorokawa watershed in Hokkaido Island, northern Japan, to examine the use of topography as a predictor of streamwater chemistry in a watershed with relatively moderate terrain compared with other regions of Japan. Topographic characteristics of the Dorokawa watershed and its subcatchments were expressed as topographic index (TI) values, which ranged from 4.5 to 20.4 for individual grid cells (50 × 50 m2), but averaged from 6.4 to 7.4 for the 20 subcatchments. Streamwater samples for chemical analyses were collected four times between June and October 2002 from 20 locations in the watershed. The pH of water that passed through the watershed increased from 5.0 to 7.0, with major increases in Na+ and Ca2+ and marked decreases in NO3- and SO. Distinctive spatial patterns were observed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and NO3- concentrations of streamwater across the watershed. Statistical analyses indicated significant linear relationships between the average TI values of subcatchments and DOC, DON, and NO3- concentrations. Furthermore, the proportion of DOC in streamwaters in the wet season increased with TI values relative to other nitrogen species, whereas NO3- concentrations decreased with TI. The gradients of soil wetness and the presence of wetlands explained many of the observed spatial and temporal patterns of DOC, DON, and NO3- concentrations in the surface waters of the Dorokawa watershed. Our results suggest that the TI is especially useful for predicting the spatial distribution of DOC, DON and NO3- in the surface waters of Hokkaido, where topographical relief is moderate and wetlands more common than in other regions of Japan.

  8. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Kayano, M; Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A

    2016-05-01

    This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the insurance scheme provided by the Japanese Mutual Aid Association (NOSAI). The population of interest comprised all cattle born on NOSAI-client farms in the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido, Japan for the period 1 April 2005-31 March 2009. The outcome of interest was whether or not at least one calf was stillborn, had died during delivery or died during the first 24 hours of life for a given calving event, termed first 24h mortality risk. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was developed to identify explanatory variables associated with first 24h mortality risk. The final data set comprised details of 1,281,737 calving events on a total of 5172 dairy herds from 19 NOSAI branches located throughout the prefecture of Hokkaido. Throughout the study period 7.68 (95% CI 7.64-7.73) of every 100 calving events had at least one calf that was either stillborn, dead at the time of delivery or dead during the first 24h of life. Factors that were positively associated with an increase in first 24h mortality risk included delivery during the colder months of the year (November-March), being of Wagyu breed, having a multipara dam, multiple (as opposed to single) birth deliveries, and delivery in larger herds. ​After adjusting for the fixed effects included in our multilevel model, 89% of the unexplained variation in first 24h mortality risk was at the calving event level. We propose that the data recording requirements of the NOSAI scheme are extended to include details of calving events (e.g. the presence or absence of dystocia) and details of the way in which calves are managed post delivery. This would allow more subtle risk factors for calf mortality to be identified which, in turn, will lead to refinement of recommendations for calf management during the first 24h of life in this area of Japan.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolates from cattle in hokkaido, Japan: evidence of clonal replacement and characterization of the disseminated clone.

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Yukino; Uchida, Ikuo; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Okazaki, Hizuru; Tezuka, Satoru; Hanyu, Hideki; Kataoka, Natsumi; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Kishima, Masato; Kubota, Takayuki; Kanno, Toru; Hatama, Shinichi; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hata, Eiji; Yamada, Hironari; Nakaoka, Yuuji; Akiba, Masato

    2011-03-01

    The molecular epidemiology of 545 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates collected between 1977 and 2009 from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan, was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Nine main clusters were identified from 116 PFGE patterns. Cluster I comprised 248 isolates, 243 of which possessed a sequence specific to definitive phage type 104 (DT104) or U302. The cluster I isolates were dominant in 1993 to 2003, but their numbers declined beginning in 2004. Beginning in 2002, an increase was observed in the number of cluster VII isolates, consisting of 21 PFGE patterns comprising 165 isolates. A total of 116 isolates representative of the 116 PFGE profiles were analyzed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Other than two drug-sensitive isolates, 19 isolates within cluster VII were classified in the same cluster by MLVA. Among the cluster VII isolates, an antibiotic resistance type showing resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, kanamycin, cefazolin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and a resistance type showing resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and kanamycin were found in 23 and 125 isolates, respectively. In the 19 isolates representative of cluster VII, the bla(TEM-1) gene was found on a Salmonella serotype Typhimurium virulence plasmid, which was transferred to Escherichia coli by electroporation along with resistance to two to four other antimicrobials. Genomic analysis by subtractive hybridization and plasmid analysis suggested that the bla(TEM-1)-carrying virulence plasmid has a mosaic structure composed of elements of different origin. These results indicate an emerging multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium clone carrying a virulence-resistance plasmid among cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

  10. Brachylaima ezohelicis sp. nov. (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) found from the land snail Ezohelix gainesi, with a note of an unidentified Brachylaima species in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Minoru; Waki, Tsukasa; Sasaki, Mizuki; Anders, Jason L; Koga, Daisuke; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2017-06-01

    In the Japanese Archipelago, Ezohelix gainesi, a member of bradybaenid land snails, is endemic mainly to the island of Hokkaido. During July to August of 2016, a survey to detect trematode infections from E. gainesi was carried out at a forest city park in Asahikawa, Hokkaido. Systemic infections of the snails with sporocysts containing short-tailed cercariae were found in 5.3% of 94 individuals examined. Furthermore, most of them (90.4%) harbored non-encysted metacercariae within their kidneys. A DNA sequence identification revealed that both of the sporocyst and the metacercaria belong to an unknown species of the family Brachylaimidae. The metacercariae showed a genetic diversity with 6 haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) even in the limited sampling area. A definitive host of the unknown species could not be determined, although 34 field mice (Apodemus speciosus) and 21 voles (Myodes rufocanus) from the city park were examined for intestinal parasites. To examine the adult stage, the metacercariae were perorally administrated to mice, together with anti-inflammatory treatment with methylprednisolone. Fully matured adult worms were recovered from the intestinal ileum 8 and 14days postinfection. The gravid adults showed typical features of the genus Brachylaima. A morphological and biogeographical evaluation prompted us to propose Brachylaima ezohelicis sp. nov. for the parasite from E. gainesi. The autochthony of the first intermediate host and the spatial heterogeneity of mtDNA suggest that the new species found in the city park is not a recently expanded population of immigrant origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  12. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  13. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16do as a CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Shishkovsky, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16do (ATel #8888) on UT April 17.07 with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a blue continuum and broad double-peaked Balmer and He 5875 emission at z~0, with an H-alpha FWHM of about 2400 km/s. This value is high for a CV and suggests the source is observed close to edge-on.

  14. Memory immune response and safety of a booster dose of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in JE-CV-primed children

    PubMed Central

    Feroldi, Emmanuel; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Boaz, Mark; Gailhardou, Sophia; Meric, Claude; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a licensed vaccine indicated in a single dose administration for primary immunization. This controlled phase III comparative trial enrolled children aged 36–42 mo in the Philippines. 345 children who had received one dose of JE-CV in a study two years earlier, received a JE-CV booster dose. 105 JE-vaccine-naïve children in general good health were randomized to receive JE-CV (JE-vaccine naïve group; 46 children) or varicella vaccine (safety control group; 59 children). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50. Immunological memory was observed in children who had received the primary dose of JE-CV before. Seven days after the JE-CV booster dose administration, 96.2% and 66.8% of children were seroprotected and had seroconverted, respectively, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 231 1/dil. Twenty-eight days after the JE-CV booster dose seroprotection and seroconversion were achieved in 100% and 95.3% of children, respectively, and the GMT was 2,242 1/dil. In contrast, only 15.4% of JE-CV-vaccine naïve children who had not received any prior JE vaccine were seroprotected seven days after they received JE-CV. One year after receiving the JE-CV booster dose, 99.4% of children remained seroprotected. We conclude that JE-CV is effective and safe, both as a single dose and when administrated as a booster dose. A booster dose increases the peak GMT above the peak level reached after primary immunization and the antibody persistence is maintained at least one year after the JE-CV booster dose administration. Five year follow up is ongoing. PMID:23442823

  15. Memory immune response and safety of a booster dose of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in JE-CV-primed children.

    PubMed

    Feroldi, Emmanuel; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Boaz, Mark; Gailhardou, Sophia; Meric, Claude; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a licensed vaccine indicated in a single dose administration for primary immunization. This controlled phase III comparative trial enrolled children aged 36-42 mo in the Philippines. 345 children who had received one dose of JE-CV in a study two years earlier, received a JE-CV booster dose. 105 JE-vaccine-naïve children in general good health were randomized to receive JE-CV (JE-vaccine naïve group; 46 children) or varicella vaccine (safety control group; 59 children). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50. Immunological memory was observed in children who had received the primary dose of JE-CV before. Seven days after the JE-CV booster dose administration, 96.2% and 66.8% of children were seroprotected and had seroconverted, respectively, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 231 1/dil. Twenty-eight days after the JE-CV booster dose seroprotection and seroconversion were achieved in 100% and 95.3% of children, respectively, and the GMT was 2,242 1/dil. In contrast, only 15.4% of JE-CV-vaccine naïve children who had not received any prior JE vaccine were seroprotected seven days after they received JE-CV. One year after receiving the JE-CV booster dose, 99.4% of children remained seroprotected. We conclude that JE-CV is effective and safe, both as a single dose and when administrated as a booster dose. A booster dose increases the peak GMT above the peak level reached after primary immunization and the antibody persistence is maintained at least one year after the JE-CV booster dose administration. Five year follow up is ongoing.

  16. RNA-seq analysis of Rubus idaeus cv. Nova: transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for subsequent functional genomics approaches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Kumar, Dhinesh; Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-10-01

    Using Illumina sequencing technology, we have generated the large-scale transcriptome sequencing data containing abundant information on genes involved in the metabolic pathways in R. idaeus cv. Nova fruits. Rubus idaeus (Red raspberry) is one of the important economical crops that possess numerous nutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals with essential health benefits to human. The molecular mechanism underlying the ripening process and phytochemical biosynthesis in red raspberry is attributed to the changes in gene expression, but very limited transcriptomic and genomic information in public databases is available. To address this issue, we generated more than 51 million sequencing reads from R. idaeus cv. Nova fruit using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. After de novo assembly, we obtained 42,604 unigenes with an average length of 812 bp. At the protein level, Nova fruit transcriptome showed 77 and 68 % sequence similarities with Rubus coreanus and Fragaria versa, respectively, indicating the evolutionary relationship between them. In addition, 69 % of assembled unigenes were annotated using public databases including NCBI non-redundant, Cluster of Orthologous Groups and Gene ontology database, suggesting that our transcriptome dataset provides a valuable resource for investigating metabolic processes in red raspberry. To analyze the relationship between several novel transcripts and the amounts of metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid and anthocyanins, real-time PCR and target metabolite analysis were performed on two different ripening stages of Nova. This is the first attempt using Illumina sequencing platform for RNA sequencing and de novo assembly of Nova fruit without reference genome. Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptome resource available for Rubus fruits, and will be useful for understanding the ripening process and for breeding R. idaeus cultivars with improved fruit quality.

  17. Registration of ‘NE05548’ (husker genetics brand panhandle) hard red winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western Nebraska wheat producers and those in adjacent areas want taller wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars that retain their height under drought for better harvestability. ‘NE05548’ (Reg. No. CV-1117, PI 670462) hard red winter wheat was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Exp...

  18. A Primitive Achondrite With Oxygen Isotopic Affinities to CV Chondrites: Implications for Differentiation and Size of the CV Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, A. J.; Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Rumble, D.; Bunch, T. E.; Wittke, J. H.; Kuehner, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    NWA 3133 found in Northwest Africa (as several stones totaling ˜ 4 kg) has a metamorphic texture with ˜120° triple grain junctions (mean grainsize = 0.28 mm); no chondrules are present. Olivine (46 vol.%; Fa22, FeO/MnO = 64) and orthopyroxene (28 vol.%; Fs18.9Wo2.3, FeO/MnO = 42) are the most abundant phases, with less intermediate plagioclase (An53.5Or2.3), Cr-diopside (Fs7.5Wo48.3, Cr2O3 = 0.71 wt.%), Al-Ti-bearing chromite (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.73, TiO2 = 2.6 wt.%), Na-Mg-bearing merrillite, troilite (1-5 wt.% Ni) and Fe-Ni metal (15-20 wt.% Ni). Clinopyroxene, chromite and merrillite are inhomogeneously distributed as relatively large grains. Metal is partially altered to limonite (W1-2), and minor limonite and calcite occur along grain boundaries. Oxygen isotopic compositions (δ 17O, δ 18O) determined in two laboratories by laser fluorination on handpicked olivine (-3.67, +0.94; -3.62, +0.89; -2.91, +1.78 per mil) and on acid-washed whole rock fragments (-2.25, +2.46; -1.75, +3.06 per mil) plot on the mixing line for Allende and other CV3 chondrites. Thus, NWA 3133 could be regarded as the first known "CV7 chondrite", and may have been formed by metamorphic recrystallization (or perhaps igneous processes) in the CV parent body. Other meteorites with oxygen and/or Cr isotopic affinities to the CV3 chondrites are the three members of the Eagle Station pallasite grouplet and the silicated irons Bocaiuva and NWA 176 (Clayton and Mayeda., 1996; Liu et al, 2001; Shukolyukov and Lugmair, 2001). Our inference from these data is that the CV parent body was an at least partially differentiated (and relatively large) object consisting of a metal+silicate core region surrounded by a presumably silicate-rich mantle and a chondrule-CAI-rich regolith, the deepest portions of which were metamorphosed and/or partially melted to form primitive achondritic lithologies.

  19. Characterization and application of newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Ezo red fox (Vulpes vulpes schrencki).

    PubMed

    Tada, T; Seki, Y; Kameyama, Y; Kikkawa, Y; Wada, K

    2016-12-19

    The Ezo red fox (Vulpes vulpes schrencki), a subspecies endemic to Hokkaido island, Japan, is a known host species for the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. To develop tools for molecular ecological studies, we isolated 28 microsatellite regions from the genome of Ezo red fox, and developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers. These markers were characterized using 7 individuals and 22 fecal samples of the Ezo red fox. The number of alleles for these markers ranged from 1 to 7, and the observed heterozygosity, estimated on the basis of the genotypes of 7 individuals, ranged from 0.29 to 1.00. All markers, except DvNok5, were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05), and no linkage disequilibrium was detected among these loci, except between DvNok14 and DvNok28 (P = 0.01). Moreover, six microsatellite loci were successfully genotyped using feces-derived DNA from the Ezo red fox. The markers developed in our study might serve as a useful tool for molecular ecological studies of the Ezo red fox.

  20. Late Pleistocene to Holocene Uplift Rates in the frontal part of the Fold-and-Thrust Belts in Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, N.

    2006-12-01

    In Hokkaido to Sakhalin, Late Cenozoic compressional processes have produced N-S trending fold-and-thrust belts. Active tectonics started in late Pliocene time (Ito, 1999) was poorly constrained from the previous studies on seismicity, geodesy and structural geology because of the complicated tectonic framework. In northern Hokkaido, coarsening upward Pliocene-Pleistocene basin-fill successions, which named the Koetoi, Yuchi and Sarabetsu Formations in ascending order, have been deformed by west verging stepped folds structures. The Teshio fault zone constitutes the frontal part of the fold-and-thrust belts and contributes to the history of uplifting along the western coast of northern Hokkaido. Terraces distributed in the study area are classified into Higher terraces group (Terrace I-III), Middle terraces group (Terrace IV) and Lower terraces group (Terrace V-VI). On the basis of tephrochronology and 14C dating methods, Terrace IV and VI are correlated with MIS 5e and 1, respectively (Koike and Machida eds, 2001). The author clarifies the tectonic processes of the Teshio fault zone by using the dislocation model and balanced cross-sections to determine the Plio-Quaternary shortening deformation. The N-S trending Kitakawaguchi anticline is a typical fault-propagation-fold defined by a steeply west dipping forelimb and a more gently east dipping and broader back limb. Western part of the anticline, the Yuchi Formation has up to 30° dip to the west, and Terrace II and IV tilt westward. The elevation of the shoreline angle of Terrace IV and II are about 55-60 m and 110 m a.s.l., respectively. The Kitakawaguchi anticline has started to grow in the Early Pleistocene when the Yuchi Formation deposited, and has continued to move during Late Pleistocene time, shown in the seismic reflection profile (Ogura and Kamon, 1992). The Teshio fault zone extends 5-10 km west off shore farther south of the Kitakawaguchi anticline. According to Hydrographic Department, Maritime

  1. Effect of postharvest ultraviolet irradiation on resveratrol and other phenolics of cv. Napoleon table grapes.

    PubMed

    Cantos, E; García-Viguera, C; de Pascual-Teresa, S; Tomás-Barberán, F A

    2000-10-01

    In the skin of cv. Napoleon table grapes, the anthocyanins malvidin 3-glucoside (and its acetyl and p-coumaroyl derivatives), cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-glucoside were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS. In addition, quercetin 3-glucoside and 3-glucuronide, caffeoyltartaric, piceid, and resveratrol were also detected. The content of most phenolics remained quite constant during postharvest refrigerated storage (10 days at 0 degrees C) while the resveratrol derivatives increased 2-fold. Postharvest treatments of grapes with UVC and UVB light induced a large increase in resveratrol derivatives (3- and 2-fold, respectively). This means that a serving of mature Napoleon grapes (200 g) provides approximately 1 mg of resveratrol, which is in the range of the amount supplied by a glass of red wine. This can be increased to 2 or 3 mg of resveratrol per serving in grapes that have been irradiated with UVB or UVC, respectively. These results show that refrigerated storage and UV irradiation of table grapes can be beneficial in terms of increasing the content of potentially health-promoting phenolics.

  2. Blood persistent organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women in relation to physical and environmental variables in The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ayako; Miyasita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Washino, Noriaki; Sasaki, Seiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Mizutani, Futoshi; Chisaki, Youichi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the exposure levels of pregnant women in Hokkaido to persistent organochlorine (POC) pesticides and the relationship between the body burdens of these pesticides and the study population's characteristics, such as age, pre-pregnancy body weight and calendar year in which blood was collected. From 2002 to 2005, whole blood samples were obtained from 186 pregnant women (aged 17 to 47 years) from the population of 514 women registered with the Sapporo Toho hospital cohort of the Hokkaido Study. Blood samples were analyzed by GC/NCIMS and GC/HRMS to quantify 29 POC pesticides. The subjects' demographic details were obtained from medical records and self-administered questionnaires. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to determine relevant trends in the chemical concentrations of these pesticides and their relationship to the subjects' demographic details. Twenty-one of the 29 targeted compounds (including pesticides that have never been used in Japan, such as Mirex, Parlar-26 and Parlar-50) were detected in whole blood samples, and their log-transformed concentrations were found to significantly correlate with each other. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, Parlar-26 and Parlar-50 declined from 2002 to 2005 (p<0.05). The pesticide concentrations appeared to have stronger associations with past conception than with parity, with most pesticide concentrations declining in a manner that appeared inversely related to past conceptions (p<0.05). Maternal age was positively associated with the following pesticide concentrations: p,p'-DDE, chlordanes group, cis-heptachlorepoxide, β-HCH and mirex. Maternal pre-pregnancy body weight was positively associated with the concentrations of dieldrin, HCB, β-HCH, Parlar-26 and Parlar-50, and appeared to be more strongly related to the body burdens of POC pesticides when compared with BMI associations. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of POC pesticides on human

  3. Molecular characterization and specific detection of Anaplasma species (AP-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770 bp and 382 bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan.

  4. SU-E-T-346: Validation of Beam Accuracy of a Gated Spot-Scanning Proton Therapy System with Real-Time Tumor-Tracking at Hokkaido University

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T; Matsuura, T; Toramatsu, C; Takao, S; Nihongi, H; Miyamoto, N; Shimizu, S; Shirato, H; Takayanagi, T; Umezawa, M; Matsuda, K; Umegaki, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: At Hokkaido University, we have developed a gated spot scanning proton beam therapy system with real-time tumor-tracking under collaborative work with Hitachi Ltd. This system has the ability to gate proton beams from the synchrotron, turning the beam on only when the actual positions of inserted fiducial markers monitored by two fluoroscopic X-ray systems are within the planned positions [Shirato, 2012]. In this research, we validated the accuracy of the proton beams while utilizing external gating signals. Methods: The accuracy of spot positions, spot dose, absolute dose at the center of the SOBP, and range were measured while utilizing external gating signals. The following external gating signals were generated by an arbitrary waveform generator: (1) ON at all times (without gating), (2) an OFF period of 4 s followed by an ON period of 1 s, (3) two ON periods of 0.5 s with a 0.15 s OFF interval, (4) signals recorded during the treatment of real-time tumor-tracking X-ray therapy in Hokkaido University. The spot positions and spot dose were measured by beam monitors in the nozzle. The ranges were measured with a multi-layer ion chamber made by Hitachi Ltd. The absolute dose was measured with a Farmer ionization chamber and a RFA300 water phantom system. Results: The maximum error of the beam position in the isocenter plane was 0.8 mm without the gating signal and 1.0 mm with the gating signal. The maximum error of the spot dose was 0.0029 MU, below the criterion of 0.0032 MU. The maximum error of the absolute dose was 0.4% and the maximum variation of the range was 0.1 mm. Conclusion: It was confirmed with measurements of the beam that the accuracy of the proton beam met the criteria with external gating signals. This research was supported by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R and D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program

  5. Space-time Evolution of Interplate Slip beneath Hokkaido, Japan before and after the 2003 Tokachi-oki Earthquake (M8.0) Inferred from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, S.; Miura, S.; Hasegawa, A.; Yagi, Y.

    2005-12-01

    A giant interplate thrust earthquake with M8.0 occurred off Tokachi , Hokkaido, Northern Japan on September 26, 2003 (hereafter referred to as TE). GPS measurements revealed significant co- and post-seismic crustal deformations. This type of earthquake releases stress built up due to interplate coupling, and thus it is important to evaluate the variation of both interplate coupling and postseiemic slip in space and time to understand earthquake cycles in the subduction system. There occurred another interplate thrust event with M7.1 off Kushiro on November 29, 2004 (hereafter referred to as KE), about 100 km northeast of the coseimic rupture area of TE. This drives us to the question whether the co- and post-seismic slip of TE might affect the occurrence of KE. We utilized a geodetic inversion technique devised by Yagi and Kikuchi (GRL, 2003) to reproduce spatio-temporal distribution of interplate coupling before TE and the postseismic slip after TE. The estimated strong coupling areas before TE are consistent with major asperities beneath Hokkaido. and have not changed in time. This indicates that the stress has accumulated on the TE asperity with almost constant rate. The area of the dominant postseismic slip grew at the northeast of the coseismic rupture area, extending toward the next event, KE. The after-slip distribution is complementary to the coseismic rupture estimated by waveform inversion. This characteristic has already been pointed out for some other interplate events by Yagi and Kikuchi (GRL, 2003) and Yagi et al. (GRL, 2003). The quasi-static slip distribution estimated by using repeating earthquakes (Uchida et al., presented in this meeting) coincides with the after-slip area of 60 cm or more estimated by this study. Comparing the time evolution of slip obtained by the two different methods, the slip amount estimated by GPS exceeds that by repeating earthquakes in general. In the best case, however, the quasi-static slip by repeating earthquakes

  6. Flow path of the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake seismoturbidite, suthern margin of the Japan sea north basin, inferred from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abdeldayem, A.L.; Ikehara, K.; Yamazaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    A magnetic fabric analysis has been carried out on standard cube samples from one gravity and three multiple cores extracted from the Shiribeshi trough and Okushiri basin in the southern margin of the Japan sea north basin. It is aimed at tracing the flow path of turbidites that are assumed to have deposited in response to the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake. Magnetic remanence was used for reorientation to the geographic coordinates. Magnetomineralogical investigations including low-temperature magnetometry, magnetic hysteresis loops and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiments indicate that pseudosingle domain to multidomain magnetite is the principal magnetic carrier and is, therefore, capable of providing reliable anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) palaeocurrent direction estimates. A well-developed near-horizontal magnetic foliation and minimum susceptibility axes lying close to vertical are recorded at all sites reflecting an original depositional fabric. Clearly defined magnetic lineation was observed at all sites and is considered to reflect the palaeocurrent direction. Down-core changes of susceptibility and key AMS parameters show good correspondence to occurrences of turbidite layers marking the increase of input of influx materials. In agreement with results from recent marine surveys and IZANAGI side-scan sonar images, an NNE transportation trend has been estimated for sediments at sites from the Shiribeshi trough with a possible depositing path initiating from the slope bounding the south and southeastern margin down to the trough floor. Similarly, a SSE palaeocurrent direction has been estimated for sediments from the Okushiri basin with evidence for a relatively strong transporting current flowing through the canyons along the steep slope bounding the north and northeastern margins of the basin. The present results agree with the view that slope failure is the most probable mechanism for the down-slope transport

  7. Flow path of the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake seismoturbidite, southern margin of the Japan sea north basin, inferred from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeldayem, A. L.; Ikehara, K.; Yamazaki, T.

    2004-04-01

    A magnetic fabric analysis has been carried out on standard cube samples from one gravity and three multiple cores extracted from the Shiribeshi trough and Okushiri basin in the southern margin of the Japan sea north basin. It is aimed at tracing the flow path of turbidites that are assumed to have deposited in response to the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake. Magnetic remanence was used for reorientation to the geographic coordinates. Magnetomineralogical investigations including low-temperature magnetometry, magnetic hysteresis loops and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiments indicate that pseudo-single domain to multidomain magnetite is the principal magnetic carrier and is, therefore, capable of providing reliable anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) palaeocurrent direction estimates. A well-developed near-horizontal magnetic foliation and minimum susceptibility axes lying close to vertical are recorded at all sites reflecting an original depositional fabric. Clearly defined magnetic lineation was observed at all sites and is considered to reflect the palaeocurrent direction. Down-core changes of susceptibility and key AMS parameters show good correspondence to occurrences of turbidite layers marking the increase of input of influx materials. In agreement with results from recent marine surveys and IZANAGI side-scan sonar images, an NNE transportation trend has been estimated for sediments at sites from the Shiribeshi trough with a possible depositing path initiating from the slope bounding the south and southeastern margin down to the trough floor. Similarly, a SSE palaeocurrent direction has been estimated for sediments from the Okushiri basin with evidence for a relatively strong transporting current flowing through the canyons along the steep slope bounding the north and northeastern margins of the basin. The present results agree with the view that slope failure is the most probable mechanism for the down-slope transport

  8. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  9. No nebular magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a central role in mass and angular momentum transport in the protosolar disk and facilitated the accretion of the first planetesimals. Thought to be key evidence for this hypothesis is the high unblocking-temperature, randomly oriented magnetization in chondrules in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite. However, it has recently been realized that most of the ferromagnetic minerals in Allende are products of secondary processes on the parent planetesimal. Here we reevaluate the pre-accretional magnetism hypothesis for Allende using new paleomagnetic analyses of chondrules including the first measurements of mutually oriented subsamples from within individual chondrules. We confirm that Allende chondrules carry a high-temperature component of magnetization that is randomly oriented among chondrules. However, we find that subsamples of individual chondrules are also non-unidirectionally magnetized. Therefore, the high-temperature magnetization in Allende chondrules is not a record of nebular magnetic fields and is instead best explained by remagnetization during metasomatism in a <8 μT magnetic field. This low field intensity suggests that any core dynamo on the CV parent body decayed before the end of metasomatism, likely <40 My after the formation of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Despite widespread practice, the magnetization in Allende should not be used to constrain magnetic fields in the protosolar nebula.

  10. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorio, N. C.; Goins, G. D.; Kagie, H. R.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  11. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorio, N. C.; Goins, G. D.; Kagie, H. R.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  12. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation.

    PubMed

    Yorio, N C; Goins, G D; Kagie, H R; Wheeler, R M; Sager, J C

    2001-04-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  13. Triterpene saponin content in the roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mroczek, Agnieszka; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2012-12-19

    Triterpene saponins in the roots of Beta vulgaris cultivars Red Sphere, Rocket, and Wodan were profiled and quantitated using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Results obtained indicated that the roots of all three cultivars contained 11 saponins consisting of oleanolic acid or hederagenin aglycone and varying numbers of sugars, with the dominant triglycoside derivative of oleanolic acid. The relative proportions of derivatives of these two aglycones were similar in the three subspecies: cv. Red Sphere contained 99.1 and 0.9%; cv. Rocket, 98.2 and 1.8%; and Wodan 98.8 and 1.2% of oleanolic acid and hederagenin glycosides, respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence, structure, and content of triterpenoid saponins in red beet.

  14. [Adjuvant hormonal treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer-a questionnaire survey conducted by Japanese breast cancer society-authorized facilities in Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masato; Ohmura, Tousei; Kitada, Masahiro; Kutomi, Goro; Hosoda, Mitsuchika; Masuoka, Hideji; Watanabe, Kenichi; Watanabe, Yoshiki; Yamashita, Hiroko; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    According to the Japanese Breast Cancer Society national breast cancer registration, 71.8%of breast cancer cases reported in 2004 and 79.8% of cases reported in 2010 were estrogen receptor(ER)positive. The frequency of ER-positive breast cancer is increasing annually in Japan. Many clinical trials have proven that adjuvant hormonal treatment affects both progression- free survival and overall survival in ER-positive breast cancer cases. However, some clinical questions remain, including those regarding the definition of preoperative hormonal treatment, appropriate dosage period, and therapeutic drug choice. In January 2013, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 53 medical doctors engaged in breast cancer treatment at 15 Japanese Breast Cancer Society-authorized facilities in Hokkaido. This survey included 6 clinical questions about preoperative hormonal treatment, 5 clinical questions about postoperative hormonal treatment for premenopausal breast cancer, and 4 clinical questions about postoperative hormonal treatment for postmenopausal breast cancer. We obtained replies from 35 medical doctors at 27 facilities. The response rate was 66%. We accumulated and analyzed these data. The discussion of questionnaire results in the medical administration field facilitates the sharing of information regarding differences in the approaches of different facilities to breast cancer patients. As a result, standardization of the breast cancer medical treatment system in this area has been accomplished.

  15. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari found among wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunglee; Takano, Ai; Taylor, Kyle; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Konnai, Satoru; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    A relapsing fever Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari (herein referred to as B. lonestari-like) was detected from wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis ticks in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. The total prevalence of this Borrelia sp. in tested deer blood samples was 10.6% using conventional PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in deer fawns compared to adults (21.9% and 9.4%, respectively). Additionally, there was significant regional difference between our two sampling areas, Shiretoko and Shibetsu with 17% and 2.8% prevalence, respectively. Regional differences were also found in tick species collected from field and on deer. In the Shiretoko region, Haemaphysalis spp. were more abundant than Ixodes spp., while in Shibetsu, Ixodes spp. were more abundant. Using real-time PCR analysis, B. lonestari-like was detected from 2 out of 290 adult Haemaphysalis spp. ticks and 4 out of 76 pools of nymphs. This is the first report of a B. lonestari-like organism in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and the first phylogenetic analysis of this B. lonestari-like organism in Asia. Based on our results, Haemaphysalis spp. are the most likely candidates to act as a vector for B. lonestari-like; furthermore, regional variation of B. lonestari-like prevalence in sika deer may be dependent on the population distribution of these ticks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends for the Geographic Distribution of Radiological Resources in Hokkaido, Japan: Data Analysis Using Gini Coefficient and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kensuke; Yagahara, Ayako; Tanikawa, Takumi; Tani, Yuji; Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    The aim of this study is to analyze the maldistribution and the trends in the geographic distribution of radiological resources in secondary medical areas of Hokkaido. The distribution was measured by combining the Gini coefficient (GC), which is an indicator of inequality of distribution, and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), which is mainly used to assess market concentration. Data concerning the distribution of radiological resources, such as CT, MRI, radiotherapy facilities (RTF), radiological technologists (RT), and medical doctors were obtained from official publications. CT was more equally distributed, and RTF was more inequality than other radiological resources in 2014. Radiological resources excluded CT were higher degree of concentration than population distribution, and it showed that they were located relatively more intensively in urban areas than in rural areas. During the period 1999-2014, the GC for CT, MRI, RTF, and RT decreased, while the HHI increased. These trends indicated increased equality of distribution of CT, MRI, RTF, and RT and the concentration in urban areas. This study suggested that GC and HHI could be powerful indicators for allocation planning of medical resources with further analysis of the maldistribution of medical resources.

  17. Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido —Contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics—

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Hiroyuki K. M.; YOKOYAMA, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, “pseudo growth curves” of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the “density length” of volcanic bodies when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics. PMID:18941290

  18. Short-Term Response of Sasa Dwarf Bamboo to a Change of Soil Nitrogen Fertility in a Forest Ecosystem in Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tsunehiro; Fukuzawa, Karibu; Shibata, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, a change of soil nitrogen (N) cycling after disturbance is regulated by various factors. Sasa dwarf bamboo (hereafter referred to as Sasa) is an understory plant that grows thickly on the forest floor in northern Hokkaido, Japan. However, the ecosystem function of Sasa after disturbances in the soil N cycling is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term response of Sasa to a change of soil N fertility. Biomass, litterfall, litter decomposition, soil N pool, and N leaching from soil were measured in control, and low- (5 g N m−2 year−1) and high-N (15 g N m−2 year−1) addition plots. Sasa immobilized much N as the soil N fertility increased. However, the leaf N concentration in aboveground biomass did not increase, suggesting that the N in leaves was maintained because of the increase of leaf biomass. As a result, the decomposition and mineralization rates of the produced litter before and after N addition were comparable among plots, even though the soil inorganic N fertility increased greatly. These results suggest that immediate response of Sasa to an increase of soil inorganic N mitigates the excess N leaching from soil. PMID:27135238

  19. Genomic characterization of echovirus 6 causing aseptic meningitis in Hokkaido, Japan: a novel cluster in the nonstructural protein coding region of human enterovirus B.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Masahiro; Komagome, Rika; Ishida, Setsuko; Nagano, Hideki; Takahashi, Kenichi; Okano, Motohiko

    2013-04-01

    We determined four complete nucleotide sequences of echovirus 6 (E6) isolated from an epidemic of aseptic meningitis (AM) in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding viral capsid protein 1 revealed that the strains were closely related to E6 strains isolated in China in recent years, but they were distantly related to E6 strains isolated from patients with AM in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. The genes encoding the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3CD) were closely related to those of several non-E6 strains of the species Human enterovirus B isolated in China, South Korea, and Australia from 1999 to 2010, resulting in a novel cluster in the phylogenetic tree. These results suggest that the incidence of AM in Japan in 2011 was caused by at least two lineages of E6 strains, and a lineage of the 3CD gene was interspersed among different serotypic strains isolated in Western Pacific countries.

  20. Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido--contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics--.

    PubMed

    K M Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, "pseudo growth curves" of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the "density length" of volcanic bodies when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics.

  1. Modeling of the post-seismic slip of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake M 8 off Hokkaido: Constraints from volumetric strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanami, Tetsuo; Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn I.; Kitagawa, Genshiro; Peng, Hui

    2013-07-01

    A Sacks-Evertson borehole volumetric strainmeter (SE strainmeter) at a site located 105 km from the epicenter of the mainshock recorded a clear slow strain event following the 2003 M w 8.0 Tokachi-oki earthquake (September 25, 2003, 19:50:06 UTC). This consisted of an episode of contraction for 4 days followed by expansion for 23 days. GPS sites in southeastern Hokkaido also recorded displacement changes during the same time interval. We use quasi-static calculations to generate synthetic waveforms for the measured quantities. All the data are satisfied by a propagating line source 2-stage model of slow reverse slip, uniform amplitude of 50 cm, with rupture propagation velocities of constant 9 cm/s (first stage) and exponentially decreasing from 3 to 0.7 cm/s (second stage). This post-seismic slip event is taken to be coplanar with the main shock rupture on the upper plane of the double Wadati-Benioff seismic zone (DSZ), and largely overlaps the seismic rupture. Regular earthquakes release only about 30% of the plate motion in this section of the subduction zone; post-seismic slip appears to account for at least some of the deficit.

  2. Circulating insulin-like growth factor I in juvenile chum salmon: relationship with growth rate and changes during downstream and coastal migration in northeastern Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Nobuto; Taniyama, Natsumi; Inatani, Yu; Nagano, Yuta; Fujiwara, Makoto; Torao, Mitsuru; Miyakoshi, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Munetaka

    2015-08-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) migrate to the ocean in their first spring, and growth during early marine life is critical for survival. We examined the validity of circulating IGF-I and muscle RNA/DNA ratio as indices of growth rate using individually tagged juvenile chum salmon fed or fasted for 10 days. Serum IGF-I level was highly, positively correlated with individual growth rate. Muscle RNA/DNA ratio also showed a positive correlation, but its relation was not as high as that of IGF-I. We next measured these physiological parameters in chum salmon juveniles caught at river, estuary, port and nearshore of the northeastern Hokkaido, Japan, from May to June in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In both years, there was a trend that serum IGF-I levels were high in nearshore fish and low in river/estuarine fish in June. In contrast, muscle RNA/DNA ratio showed no clear temporal and spatial patterns. The present study shows that circulating IGF-I can be used as a growth index in juvenile chum salmon. Monitoring growth status using serum IGF-I suggests that growth of juvenile chum salmon in the survey area was activated when they left the coast.

  3. Short-Term Response of Sasa Dwarf Bamboo to a Change of Soil Nitrogen Fertility in a Forest Ecosystem in Northern Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tsunehiro; Fukuzawa, Karibu; Shibata, Hideaki

    2016-04-14

    In forest ecosystems, a change of soil nitrogen (N) cycling after disturbance is regulated by various factors. Sasa dwarf bamboo (hereafter referred to as Sasa) is an understory plant that grows thickly on the forest floor in northern Hokkaido, Japan. However, the ecosystem function of Sasa after disturbances in the soil N cycling is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term response of Sasa to a change of soil N fertility. Biomass, litterfall, litter decomposition, soil N pool, and N leaching from soil were measured in control, and low- (5 g N m(-2) year(-1)) and high-N (15 g N m(-2) year(-1)) addition plots. Sasa immobilized much N as the soil N fertility increased. However, the leaf N concentration in aboveground biomass did not increase, suggesting that the N in leaves was maintained because of the increase of leaf biomass. As a result, the decomposition and mineralization rates of the produced litter before and after N addition were comparable among plots, even though the soil inorganic N fertility increased greatly. These results suggest that immediate response of Sasa to an increase of soil inorganic N mitigates the excess N leaching from soil.

  4. Specific molecular detection of Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks and cattle in a pastureland in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Tagawa, Michihito; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kishimoto, Toshio; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular analyses of the Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (previously believed to be A. phagocytophilum) in Japan have clarified its distinct phylogenetic position. PCR methods relying on 16S rRNA- and P44/MSP2-based primers designed to detect this species have low sensitivity and specificity. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific nested PCR method using newly designed primers based on heat-shock operon gene (groEL) was developed to detect this species. The method was later used in an epidemiological study testing DNA samples from 85 Ixodid ticks (collected by flagging) and 50 cattle from the same pastureland in Nakaosobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan. Results revealed prevalence rates of 2.4% (2 of 85) in ticks and 2% (1 of 50) in cattle. The present study also reported the first molecular detection of the Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan in H. douglasii, and established a new reliable PCR method that detects this Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan.

  5. Interaction between seasonal density-dependence structures and length of the seasons explain the geographical structure of the dynamics of voles in Hokkaido: an example of seasonal forcing.

    PubMed Central

    Stenseth, Nils Chr; Kittilsen, Marte O; Hjermann, Dag Ø; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Saitoh, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    The grey-sided vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus) is distributed over the entire island of Hokkaido, Japan, across which it exhibits multi-annual density cycles in only parts of the island (the north-eastern part); in the remaining part of the island, only seasonal density changes occur. Using annual sampling of 189 grey-sided vole populations, we deduced the geographical structure in their second-order density dependence. Building upon our earlier suggestion, we deduce the seasonal density-dependent structure for these populations. Strong direct and delayed density dependence is found to occur during winter, whereas no density dependence is seen during the summer period. The direct density dependence during winter may be seen as a result of food being limited during that season: the delayed density dependence during the winter is consistent with vole-specialized predators (e.g. the least weasel) responding to vole densities so as to have a negative effect on the net growth rate of voles in the following year. We conclude that the observed geographical structure of the population dynamics may be properly seen as a result of the length of the summer in interaction with the differential seasonal density-dependent structure. Altogether, this indicates that the geographical pattern in multi-annual density dynamics in the grey-sided vole may be a result of seasonal forcing. PMID:12350246

  6. Diatoms from Lake Kushu: A pilot study to test the potential of a Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental archive from Rebun Island (Hokkaido Region, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Mareike; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Meyer, Hanno; Leipe, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Rebun Island is a key research area for the Baikal-Hokkaido Archaeology Project to better understand the dynamics of the Neolithic hunter-gatherers in the NW Pacific region. Hence, the ca. 19.5 m sediment core RK12 spanning the last ca. 16.6 cal. kyr BP was obtained from Lake Kushu. Our aim is to test its potential as a high-resolution multi-proxy archive. Here, we used diatoms to investigate the modern ecosystem of Lake Kushu and its surrounding area on Rebun Island and of Hime-numa Pond on Rishiri Island and selected core samples for comparison. Modern diatom and stable isotope analyses show well-mixed freshwater bodies with eutrophic, alkaline conditions. The fossil diatom and geochemical sediment analyses display three phases that represent major changes in the lake development: (i) a marshy phase (ca. 16.6-10 cal. kyr BP); (ii) a brackish water lagoon phase (ca. 10-6.6 cal. kyr BP); and (iii) a freshwater lake phase (since ca. 6.6 cal. kyr BP). This shows the major role of the post-glacial climate amelioration, global sea-level rise and marine transgression in the development of this landscape. Further analyses will provide a palaeolimnological record at (sub-)decadal resolution that will facilitate the interpretation of the hunter-gatherer dynamics.

  7. Genetic and antigenic characterization of H5 and H7 influenza viruses isolated from migratory water birds in Hokkaido, Japan and Mongolia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Ohkawara, Ayako; Ogasawara, Kohei; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Tamura, Tomokazu; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Takada, Ayato; Ogawa, Hirohito; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Nao, Naganori; Furuyama, Wakako; Maruyama, Junki; Eguchi, Nao; Ulziibat, Gerelmaa; Enkhbold, Bazarragchaa; Shatar, Munkhduuren; Jargalsaikhan, Tserenjav; Byambadorj, Selenge; Damdinjav, Batchuluun; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Migratory water birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. H5 and H7 influenza viruses are isolated over the world and also circulate among poultry in Asia. In 2010, two H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were isolated from fecal samples of water birds on the flyway of migration from Siberia, Russia to the south in Hokkaido, Japan. H7N9 viruses are sporadically isolated from humans and circulate in poultry in China. To monitor whether these viruses have spread in the wild bird population, we conducted virological surveillance of avian influenza in migratory water birds in autumn from 2010 to 2014. A total of 8103 fecal samples from migratory water birds were collected in Japan and Mongolia, and 350 influenza viruses including 13 H5 and 19 H7 influenza viruses were isolated. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates are genetically closely related to viruses circulating among wild water birds. The results of the antigenic analysis indicated that the antigenicity of viruses in wild water birds is highly stable despite their nucleotide sequence diversity but is distinct from that of HPAIVs recently isolated in Asia. The present results suggest that HPAIVs and Chinese H7N9 viruses were not predominantly circulating in migratory water birds; however, continued monitoring of H5 and H7 influenza viruses both in domestic and wild birds is recommended for the control of avian influenza.

  8. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  9. Comparison of Photomorphogenic Responses to UV Light in Red and White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Lercari, Bartolomeo; Sodi, Francesco; Sbrana, Cristiana

    1989-01-01

    Photoinhibition of hypocotyl growth in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., cv “Bianco Brunswick”) is controlled by UV absorbing receptor(s) and the phytochrome system, while in red cabbage (cv “Rosso Olandese tardivo invernale”) phytochrome can act without any requirement for the action of a specific UV receptor. Similar results have been obtained for the photoregulation of anthocyanin production. Twenty-four hour preirradiations with UV light or 692 nanometers light lead to the same increase in responsiveness of the system toward Pfr in a following dark period, suggesting a phytochrome promotion of subsequent light induction for both. PMID:16666761

  10. NASA/ESA CV-990 airborne simulation of Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D.; Neel, C.; De Waard, J.; Lovelett, R.; Weaver, L.; Parker, R.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the joint NASA/ESA extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to conduct studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy. Two experiment operators from Europe and two from the U.S. were selected to live aboard the aircraft along with a mission manager for a six-day period and operate the experiments in behalf of the principal scientists. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  11. Leghemoglobin in Lupin Plants (Lupinus albus cv Multolupa) 1

    PubMed Central

    Vivo, Amparo; Andreu, José Manuel; de la Viña, Sonsoles; de Felipe, María Rosario

    1989-01-01

    Leghemoglobin was localized by immunogold techniques in nodules of Lupinus albus cv Multolupa inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strain ISLU 16. The protein localization was performed in nodules embedded in Spurr's and Araldite epoxy resins and Lowycryl K4M. A very good preservation of both the ultrastructure and antigenicity was obtained with the tissues embedded in Araldite following glutaraldehyde fixation and unpostfixed in osmium tetroxide. Lupin leghemoglobin is a stable and abundant protein which allows a conventional method to be safely used for localization of leghemoglobin. Labeling of leghemoglobin was specifically confined to the cytosol matrix and nuclei. Gold particles were never observed in the peribacteroidal spaces nor in the cytoplasmic organelles of the infected cells. Decrease of leghemoglobin was observed when the plants were grown with 10.7 micromolar and 21.4 micromolar of nitrate. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16666792

  12. Core Problem: Does the CV Parent Body Magnetization require differentiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T.; Tarduno, J. A.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence for the presence of past dynamos from magnetic studies of meteorites can provide key information on the nature and evolution of parent bodies. However, the suggestion of a past core dynamo for the CV parent body based on the study of the Allende meteorite has led to a paradox: a core dynamo requires differentiation, evidence for which is missing in the meteorite record. The key parameter used to distinguish core dynamo versus external field mechanisms is absolute field paleointensity, with high values (>>1 μT) favoring the former. Here we explore the fundamental requirements for absolute field intensity measurement in the Allende meteorite: single domain grains that are non-interacting. Magnetic hysteresis and directional data define strong magnetic interactions, negating a standard interpretation of paleointensity measurements in terms of absolute paleofield values. The Allende low field magnetic susceptibility is dominated by magnetite and FeNi grains, whereas the magnetic remanence is carried by an iron sulfide whose remanence-carrying capacity increases with laboratory cycling at constant field values, indicating reordering. The iron sulfide and FeNi grains are in close proximity, providing mineralogical context for interactions. We interpret the magnetization of Allende to record the intense early solar wind with metal-sulfide interactions amplifying the field, giving the false impression of a higher field value in some prior studies. An undifferentiated CV parent body is thus compatible with Allende's magnetization. Early solar wind magnetization should be the null hypothesis for evaluating the source of magnetization for chondrites and other meteorites.

  13. rbcL sequences reveal multiple cryptic introductions of the Japanese red alga Polysiphonia harveyi.

    PubMed

    McIvor, L; Maggs, C A; Provan, J; Stanhope, M J

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, the last 20 years have seen a spectacular increase in accidental introductions of marine species, but it has recently been suggested that both the actual number of invaders and their impacts have been seriously underestimated because of the prevalence of sibling species in marine habitats. The red alga Polysiphonia harveyi is regarded as an alien in the British Isles and Atlantic Europe, having appeared in various locations there during the past 170 years. Similar or conspecific populations are known from Atlantic North America and Japan. To choose between three competing hypotheses concerning the origin of P. harveyi in Europe, we employed rbcL sequence analysis in conjunction with karyological and interbreeding data for samples and isolates of P. harveyi and various congeners from the Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. All cultured isolates of P. harveyi were completely interfertile, and there was no evidence of polyploidy or aneuploidy. Thus, this biological species is both morphologically and genetically variable: intraspecific rbcL divergences of up to 2.1% are high even for red algae. Seven rbcL haplotypes were identified. The four most divergent haplotypes were observed in Japanese samples from Hokkaido and south-central Honshu, which are linked by hypothetical 'missing' haplotypes that may be located in northern Honshu. These data are consistent with Japan being the centre of diversity and origin for P. harveyi. Two non-Japanese lineages were linked to Hokkaido and Honshu, respectively. A single haplotype was found in all North Atlantic and Mediterranean accessions, except for North Carolina, where the haplotype found was the same as that invading in New Zealand and California. The introduction of P. harveyi into New Zealand has gone unnoticed because P. strictissima is a morphologically indistinguishable native sibling species. The sequence divergence between them is 4-5%, greater than between some morphologically distinct red algal species. Two

  14. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  15. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments.

  16. Caught red-handed: Rc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein conditioning red pericarp in rice.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Megan T; Thomson, Michael J; Pfeil, Bernard E; McCouch, Susan

    2006-02-01

    Rc is a domestication-related gene required for red pericarp in rice (Oryza sativa). The red grain color is ubiquitous among the wild ancestors of O. sativa, in which it is closely associated with seed shattering and dormancy. Rc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that was fine-mapped to an 18.5-kb region on rice chromosome 7 using a cross between Oryza rufipogon (red pericarp) and O. sativa cv Jefferson (white pericarp). Sequencing of the alleles from both mapping parents as well as from two independent genetic stocks of Rc revealed that the dominant red allele differed from the recessive white allele by a 14-bp deletion within exon 6 that knocked out the bHLH domain of the protein. A premature stop codon was identified in the second mutant stock that had a light red pericarp. RT-PCR experiments confirmed that the Rc gene was expressed in both red- and white-grained rice but that a shortened transcript was present in white varieties. Phylogenetic analysis, supported by comparative mapping in rice and maize (Zea mays), showed that Rc, a positive regulator of proanthocyanidin, is orthologous with INTENSIFIER1, a negative regulator of anthocyanin production in maize, and is not in the same clade as rice bHLH anthocyanin regulators.

  17. Arc-arc Collision Structure in the Southernmost Part of the Kuril Trench Region -Results from Integrated Analyses of the 1998-2000 Hokkaido Transect Seismic Data-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Tsumura, Noriko; Ito, Tanio; Sato, Hiroshi; Kurashimo, Eiji; Hirata, Naoshi; Arita, Kazunori; Noda, Katsuya; Fujiwara, Akira; Abe, Susumu; Kikkuchi, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Kazuko

    2015-04-01

    The Hokkaido Island, located in the southernmost part of the Kuril trench region, has been under a unique tectonic environment of arc-arc collision. Due to the oblique subduction of the Pacific (PAC) plate, the Kuril forearc sliver started to collide against Northeast (NE) Japan arc from the east at the time of middle Miocene to form complicated structures in the Hidaka collision zone (HCZ), as characterized by the westward obduction of the crustal rocks of the Kuril arc (the Hidaka metamorphic belt (HMB)) along the Hidaka main thrust (HMT) and a thick foreland fold-and-thrust belt. In and around the HCZ, a series of seismic reflection/refraction experiments were undertaken from 1994 to 2000, which provided important structural features including crustal delamination in the southern HCZ and a thick fold-and-thrust belt with velocity reversals (low velocity layers) in the northern HCZ. Reprocessing/reinterpretation for these data sets, which started in 2012, is aimed to construct a more detailed collision model through new processing and interpretation techniques. A multi-disciplinary project of the 1998-2000 Hokkaido Transect, crossing the northern part of the HCZ in EW direction, collected high-quality seismic data on a 227-km seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile and three seismic reflection lines. Our reanalyses revealed interesting collision structure ongoing in the northern part of the HCZ. The westward obduction of the Kuril arc crust was clearly imaged along the HMT. This obduction occurs at a depth of 27-30 km, much deeper than in the southern HCZ (23-25 km). The CRS/MDRS processing to the reflection data firstly succeeded in imaging clear reflection events at a 30-45 km depth below the obducted Kuril arc crust. These events show an eastward dip, probably corresponding to the lower crust/Moho within the NE Japan arc descending down to the east under the collision zone. Gently eastward dipping structures above these events (in a depth range of 5

  18. Origin of Late Paleogene to Neogene basalts and associated coeval felsic volcanic rocks in Southwest Hokkaido, northern NE Japan arc: Constraints from Sr and Nd isotopes and major- and trace-element chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, Koshiro; Shuto, Kenji; Sato, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    Basalts and felsic volcanic rocks (mainly dacite and rhyolite) found in southwest Hokkaido, northern part of the NE Japan arc, result from protracted volcanism during the Oligocene (34-30 Ma), Early Miocene (25-17 Ma), Middle Miocene (16-12 Ma), Late Miocene (10-5 Ma), Pliocene (4 Ma) and Quaternary (2 Ma), thus spanning the pre-Japan Sea opening to post-opening stages. The majority of basaltic rocks after about 16 Ma show depleted Sr (SrI) and Nd (NdI) isotopic signatures compared with some Middle to Early Miocene basalts, which strongly resemble, in terms of both timing and extent, the change in SrI and NdI values for back-arc basaltic rocks of the central NE Japan arc. However, significant differences exist for younger basaltic rocks, in that basaltic rocks with depleted SrI and NdI signatures are found from the Middle Miocene onwards throughout the eastern-, transitional- and western-volcanic zones in SW Hokkaido, whereas in the central NE Japan arc, basaltic rocks with similar isotopic signatures are confined to the back-arc side. Felsic volcanic rocks in southwest Hokkaido have SrI and NdI values, which overlap with coeval southwest Hokkaido basaltic rocks. Although the relationship between mafic and felsic rocks could be attributed to fractional crystallization, this process is inconsistent with REE chemistry, as total REE do not increase systematically from basaltic rocks to felsic volcanic rocks. Alternatively, lower crustal mafic rocks, represented by gabbroic and amphibolitic xenoliths found in basaltic rocks at Itinome-gata (Oga Peninsula), are a possible source for Late Paleogene to Quaternary felsic magmas, as both felsic volcanic rocks and xenoliths have similar SrI and NdI. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the production of post-Late Paleogene volcanic rocks from SW Hokkaido commences in the Oligocene (34 Ma) with asthenospheric mantle upwelling followed by partial melting to generate basalt magma (Matsue basalt) with depleted SrI and Nd

  19. Long-term mean and seasonal variation of altimetry-derived Oyashio transport across the A-line off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Wagawa, Taku; Kakehi, Shigeho; Shimizu, Yugo; Kusaka, Akira; Okunishi, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2017-03-01

    To understand long-term mean and seasonal variations of the Oyashio transport off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, time series of estimated transports were generated by combining satellite altimetry and CTD data from the period 1993-2014 along a monitoring transect referred to as the ;A-line;. Linear regressions between CTD-derived geostrophic transport and altimetry-derived sea level anomaly differences were calculated by minimizing a cost function newly proposed in this study. The horizontal structure of 21-year mean transport was characterized by a southwestward flow on the continental slope (SW-1) associated with the First Oyashio Intrusion, a northeastward flow (NE-2) likely trapped against the Kuril-Kamchatka trench, a southwestward flow (SW-3) related to the Second Oyashio Intrusion, and a very stable northeastward flow (NE-4) corresponding to a combination of the Oyashio Return Flow and quasi-stationary Jet. Analysis of long-term mean monthly transports revealed four alternating flows that were present throughout all seasons of the year. The boundaries between adjacent pairs of the four flows on the A-line did not change on a seasonal timescale as much as the southernmost latitude of the First Oyashio Intrusion. At a 0-month (1-month) time lag, the sum of the SW-1, NE-2, and SW-3 (SW-1 and NE-2) transports, which corresponds to net Oyashio transport (partial net Oyashio transport related to the southernmost latitude of the First Oyashio Intrusion), was correlated with Sverdrup transport more robustly than was each of the four alternating flows. This result suggests that as the Oyashio crossed the A-line, it responded barotropically to basin-scale wind stress by adjusting transports composed of both southwestward and northeastward flows.

  20. Analysis of HLA genes and haplotypes in Ainu (from Hokkaido, northern Japan) supports the premise that they descent from Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bannai, M; Ohashi, J; Harihara, S; Takahashi, Y; Juji, T; Omoto, K; Tokunaga, K

    2000-02-01

    The Ainu people are assumed to be the descendants of pre-agricultural native populations of northern Japan, while the majority of population of present-day Japan (Hondo-Japanese) is considered to have descended mainly from post-neolithic migrants. Sequence-level polymorphisms of the HLA-class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) genes were investigated in DNA samples of 50 Ainu living in Hidaka district, Hokkaido. HLA-A*2402, A*0201, A*0206, A*2601, A*3101, B*1501, B*5101, B*3901, and B*3501 were observed at frequencies of more than 10% and most of these have previously been found in populations of not only Asians but also North and South American Indians. A*68012, which has not so far been detected in Hondo-Japanese, was found in the Ainu (3%). On the other hand, several alleles common in Hondo-Japanese, including HLA-A*3303, A*1101, B*4403, B*5201, B*5401, B*4601, and B*0702 were infrequent in Ainu (0-1%). Correspondence and neighbor-joining analyses of various populations based on HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 gene frequencies enabled distinction between Asian, Native South American, European, and African populations. The Ainu, as well as Tlingit (Na-Dene), were placed midway between other East Asians, including Hondo Japanese, and Native South Americans (Amerindians) in the correspondence analysis. Furthermore, several HLA-A-B and HLA-B-DR-DQ haplotypes common in the Ainu, are shared with some Native American populations. These observations strongly suggest a unique place for the Ainu as descendants of some Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia, from whom some Native Americans may have descended.

  1. Borrelia miyamotoi infections among wild rodents show age and month independence and correlation with Ixodes persulcatus larval attachment in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Takano, Ai; Konnai, Satoru; Shimozuru, Michito; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    To clarify how Borrelia miyamotoi is maintained in the environment in Hokkaido, we examined Ixodes persulcatus for its prevalence among wild rodents and its tick vector by detecting a portion of the borrelial flaB gene in rodent urinary bladder and blood samples, and from whole ticks. We compared B. miyamotoi infection rates to Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii, which are human Lyme disease pathogens also carried by wild rodents, and which are transmitted by the same vector tick. Whereas B. garinii and B. afzelii showed age dependence of infection rates among wild rodents (18.4% and 9.9% among adults and 6.0% and 3.4% among sub-adults, respectively) when looking at urinary bladder samples, B. miyamotoi infection rates were not age dependent for either blood (4.2% among adults, and 7.9% among sub-adults) or urinary bladder samples (1.0% among adults, and 1.7% among sub-adults). Moreover, while B. garinii and B. afzelii infection rates showed increases across months (June, July [p<0.05] and August [p<0.01] had higher rates than in May for adult rodents with B. garinii, and July and August had higher rates than in May [p<0.01] for adult rodents with B. afzelii), B. miyamotoi infection rates did not show significant month dependence. These differences in month and age dependence led us to suspect that B. miyamotoi may not develop persistent infections in wild rodents, as B. garinii and B. afzelii are thought to. Furthermore, we examined the extent of rodent exposure to I. persulcatus nymphs and larvae throughout most of the tick's active season (May through September), and determined that B. miyamotoi infection rates in sub-adult rodents were correlated with larval burden (p<0.01), suggesting that larvae may be very important in transmission of B. miyamotoi to wild rodents.

  2. Rates of water exsolution and magma ascent inferred from microstructures and chemical analyses of the Tokachi-Ishizawa obsidian lava, Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Kyohei; Wada, Keiji; Sato, Eiichi

    2015-02-01

    Very few quantitative textural data exist for viscous obsidian lava eruptions, and it is still unclear from the mechanical behavior of ascending magmas if outgassing is controlled dominantly by brittle or ductile deformation. In order to obtain insights into how degassing and ascent proceed in such highly viscous magmas, we conducted textural and chemical analyses of the Tokachi-Ishizawa (TI) obsidian lava, in the Shirataki rhyolite volcanic area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, and estimated the water exsolution rate and ascent rate. The storage conditions of the TI lava are estimated from the Rhyolite-MELTS program as T = 840-860 °C and P = 50 MPa using the mineral assemblages and the chemical compositions of plagioclase phenocrysts and glass. To estimate the magma ascent rate, we measured the length, width, and number of oxide microlites using three-dimensional techniques. Textural analysis indicates that the microlite number densities (Nv [number/m3]) of oxide microlites in TI lava samples are 2.1 × 1013 to 1.4 × 1014, which correspond to water exsolution rates of 3.5 × 10- 9 to 1.7 × 10- 8 wt.%/s and ascent rates of 1.7 × 10- 6 to 1.1 × 10- 5 m/s. Together with an estimate of viscosity, the inferred ascent velocities allow us to examine the mechanical behavior of the magma in the conduit. We conclude that the development of permeability leading to outgassing is controlled by ductile deformation rather than brittle fracturing.

  3. Physiological and Genotypic Characteristics of Nitrous Oxide (N2O)-Emitting Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Dent Corn Andisol Farmland in Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yanxia; Li, Li; Isoda, Reika; Wang, Mengcen; Hatano, Ryusuke; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Dent corn Andisol at the Hokkaido University Shizunai Livestock Experimental Farm actively emits nitrous oxide (N2O). In order to screen for culturable and active N2O emitters with high N2O emission potential, soft gel medium containing excess KNO3 was inoculated with soil suspensions from farm soil samples collected at different land managements. Dominant bacterial colonies were searched for among 20 of the actively N2O-emitting cultures from post-harvest soil and 19 from pre-tilled soil, and all isolates were subjected to the culture-based N2O emission assay. Ten active N2O-emitting bacteria, four from post-harvest soil and six from pre-tilled soil, out of 156 isolates were identified as genus Pseudomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These N2O emitters showed clear responses to NO3− within a neutral pH range (5.5–6.7), and accelerated N2O production with 1.5–15 mM sucrose supplementation, suggesting the production of N2O during the denitrification process. However, the negative responses of 6 active N2O emitters, 3 from post-harvest soil and 3 from pre-tilled soil, out of the 10 isolates in the acetylene-blocking assay suggest that these 6 N2O emitters are incomplete denitrifiers that have lost their N2O reductase (N2OR) activity. Although the PCR assay for the denitrification-associated genes, narG and nirK/S, was positive in all 10 Pseudomonas isolates, those negative in the acetylene-blocking assay were nosZ-negative. Therefore, these results imply that the high N2O emission potential of dent corn Andisol is partly attributed to saprophytic, nosZ gene-missing pseudomonad denitrifiers. PMID:27109825

  4. Collision structure in the upper crust beneath the southwestern foot of the Hidaka Mountains, Hokkaido, Japan as derived from explosion seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takeo; Okada, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Takeshi; Asano, Shuzo; Yoshii, Toshikatsu; Ikami, Akira

    1998-05-01

    The P-wave velocity structure of the upper crust beneath a profile ranging from Niikappu to Samani in the southwestern foot of the Hidaka Mountains, Hokkaido, Japan was obtained through analysis of refraction and wide-angle reflection data. The mountains are characterized by high seismicity and a large gravity anomaly. The present profile crosses the source region of the 1982 Urakawa-oki earthquake ( Ms 6.8). The length of the profile is 66 km striking northwest and southeast. Along the profile, 64 vertical geophones were set up and 5 shot points were chosen. For each shot, a 400-600 kg charge of dynamite was detonated. The studied area is composed of four major geological belts: Neogene sedimentary rocks, the Kamuikotan belt, the Yezo Group, and the Hidaka belt. The measurement line crosses these geological trend at an oblique angle. The structure obtained is characterized by remarkable velocity variations in the lateral direction and reflects the surface geological characteristics. A thin, high-velocity layer (HVL) was found between low-velocity materials in the central part of the profile, beneath the Kamuikotan Metamorphic Belt, at a depth ranging from 0.5 to 6 km, overthrusting toward the west on the low-velocity materials consisting of Neogene sedimentary rocks, and forming gentle folds. Outlines of the velocity structure of the Hidaka Mountains yielded by other studies have shown a large-scale overthrust structure associated with the collision of the Outer Kurile and the Outer Northern Honshu Arcs. The shallow velocity structure inferred by the present study showed a similar (although small scale) overthrust structure. The obtained structure shows that the composite tectonic force, comprising westward movement of the Outer Kurile Arc and northward movement of the Outer Northern Honshu Arc, plays an important role in the evolution of the tectonic features of the crust and upper mantle in a wide depth range beneath the Hidaka Mountains.

  5. Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende CV3 meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende CV3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.

  6. Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende CV3 meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende CV3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.

  7. Physiology of Movements in Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska 12

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Gravitropism and nutation in the stems of dark-grown, seedling peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were recorded on time-lapse photographs made with photomorphogenetically inactive light. Although gravitropism and nutation have been connected by several different theories in the past, our experiments indicate that the two processes are in fact dissociable. The evidence is as follows: (a) Nutational patterns are asymmetric. There is much greater amplitude of oscillation in the plane parallel (∥) to the plane of the apical hook than in the plane perpendicular (⊥), yet the average gravitropic response is equal in these two planes. (b) Brief red light irradiation given 16 to 24 hours before observation greatly increases the amplitude of nutation in the ∥-plane, but has no influence on the kinetics of gravitropic response. (c) An inhibitor of auxin transport, α-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly inhibits nutation at 5 micromolar but affects gravitropism only at higher concentrations. (d) Nutation is also strongly inhibited by removal of the apical bud, but gravitropism is unaffected. (e) The period of nutation does not exhibit a constant relationship to the response time of gravitropism. The above evidence is inconsistent with theories that gravitropism is an asymmetrically modified nutation or, alternatively, that nutational oscillations result in a simple fashion from gravitropic overshoots. The evidence is consistent with, although not proof of, autonomous factors such as an endogenous rhythm of growth as the cause of nutation in pea stems. However, gravity and nutation do interact. Nutation in a population of seedlings can be synchronized and brought into phase by a single gravitropic induction. Furthermore, the response time and initial rate of gravitropic curvature depend to some extent on the phase of nutational curvature at which gravitropic induction is begun. PMID:16662458

  8. Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende CV3 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1990-04-01

    Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende CV3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.

  9. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (coCV), a new circovirus from pigeons.

    PubMed

    Mankertz, A; Hattermann, K; Ehlers, B; Soike, D

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (< 40% homology) to porcine circovirus type 1 and 2. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase and the putative capsid protein of CoCV. A region similar to the origin of replication of other circoviruses was found: it encompasses a stem-loop structure with the nonamer 5'-TAGTATTAC, conserved in circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest classification of CoCV as member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  11. Potential Prophylactic Properties of Apple and Characterization of Potent Bioactive from cv. "Granny Smith" Displaying Strong Antimutagenicity in Models Including Human Lymphoblast TK6(+/-) Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sudhanshu; Verma, Jyoti; Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-02-01

    Potential prophylactic attributes in terms of antimutagenicity, antioxidant, and radioprotective properties were evaluated for 8 common apple cultivars namely "Fuji," "Golden Delicious," "Granny Smith," "Ambri Kashmiri," "Kinnaur," "Red Delicious," "Royal Gala," and "Shimla," where cultivar based significant variation was observed. Cv. "Granny Smith" displayed significantly higher and broad spectrum antimutagenicity in Escherichia coli rpoB based rifampicin resistance (Rif(R) ) assay, whereas, "Ambri Kashmiri," "Royal Gala," and "Shimla" showed lower antimutagenicity. Cultivars "Ambri Kashmiri," "Kinnaur," and "Red Delicious" exhibited strong antioxidant activity than cv. "Granny Smith" as assayed by radical scavenging, reducing potential and radioprotective property assays. The antioxidant and radioprotective properties were found to be better correlated than antimutagenicity. Suppression of error-prone DNA repair pathway (such as E. coli SOS response) was found to be one of the possible mechanisms contributing to its antimutagenicity. Phenolic extract of "Granny Smithˮ showing higher antimutagenicity was HPLC purified and the bioactive fraction (tR 35.4 min) contributing maximally (∼80%) to the observed antimutagenicity was identified as procyanidin dimer (PD) by ESI-MS/MS. The above observed antimutagenicity in bacterial assay system was well reproduced in Thymidine Kinase Mutation (TKM) assay performed using human lymphoblast cell line (TK6(+/-) ) cell line making the findings more prophylactically relevant. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  13. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  14. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  15. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  16. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  17. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves.

    PubMed

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  18. MIZEX-WEST NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Bering Sea marginal ice zone winter experiment (MIZEX-WEST), the CV-990 airborne laboratory was flown to assess the potential of using an extended range of wavelengths for improving passive microwave sea ice observations from spacecraft and second to provide an overview of the MIZ for large-scale processes studies. The aircraft was equipped with both imaging and fixed-beam, dual-polarized passive microwave radiometers ranging from 1.5 millimeter to 3 centimeter wavelengths. Visual, photographic, and thermal (10.7 micron) infrared surface observations were also made from the aircraft to complement the microwave measurements. The flight operations and in-flight observations are discussed and each flight is summarized including flight objective and instrument status. Preliminary mosaic images obtained with the ESMR imager, Nimbus-7 orbits over the Bering Sea, ice observations obtained by an ice observer on board, and composite maps of the general ice conditions for the month of February are also presented.

  19. Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen.

    PubMed

    Abreu, I; Costa, I; Oliveira, M; Cunha, M; de Castro, R

    2006-08-01

    The cultivar Loureiro of Vitis vinifera is one of the most economically important, recommended in almost the totality of the Região Demarcada dos Vinhos Verdes. In vineyards, the grape productivity of this cultivar is normal while in others it is extremely low. The aim of this work was to study the morphology and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen with high and low productivity. The pollen grain was examined under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Typically V. vinifera pollen present three furrows but in the cultivar Loureiro we found tricolporated and acolporated (without furrows or pores) pollen grains. Both pollen types present generative and vegetative cells with the usual aspect and a dense cytoplasm rich in organelles. In the acolporated pollen a continuous exine layer and an irregular intine layer were observed. Differences were found in the starch accumulation, since only in tricolporated pollen abundant plastids filled with numerous starch granules were observed. To determine the causes of the low productivity of this cultivar we tested pollen viability by the fluorochromatic reaction and pollen germinability by in vitro assays. We observed that the acolporated pollen grain is viable, but no germination was recorded.

  20. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  1. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  2. Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    This view of Jupiter Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by NASA Galileo spacecraft. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. The image was taken on June 26, 1996. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00296

  3. Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    This dramatic view of Jupiter Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by NASA Voyager 1 on Feb. 25, 1979. The colorful, wavy cloud pattern to the left of the Red Spot is a region of extraordinarily complex end variable wave motion. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00014

  4. The pediatric red eye.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa M; Anninger, William

    2014-06-01

    There is a broad differential for the pediatric red eye, which may range from benign conditions to vision- and/or life-threatening conditions. This article presents a systematic differential, red flags for referral, and treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [The red eye].

    PubMed

    Alami, A; Gérard, P; Bremer, F

    2014-09-01

    The red eye is a frequent symptom in emergency consultation. The general practitioner should be aware about the sample of possible etiologies. The diseases causing redness are various, sometimes benign but sometimes threatening vision. The most frequent diagnostic hypotheses will be summarized here, as well as the practical methodological elements allowing gross differential diagnosis in the absence of specific instrumentation.

  6. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  7. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  8. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  9. Processing in a transitional environment of CV and CK chondrites' parent bodies in the light of mineralogical and petrological analysis of NWA 1465 CV3 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Ormandi, Sz.; Jozsa, S.

    2015-05-01

    CV and CK chondrites might came from the same parent body from different depth values. To better constrain the conditions there, the composition, structure and chronology of mineral changes were analyzed in NWA 1465 CV3 chondrite meteorite. This sample represents an interesting part of the proposed ancient parent body where opposite to the generally poor altered state of CV3 chondrites, strong mechanical deformation produced elongated chondrules. All of the ingredients in the sample were flattened and fractured. After the chondrules settled down glass formation, opaque crystallization, fracturing and a second opaque generation followed by carbonate crystallization happened. The lack of fragments along the veins suggests no shearing movement happened, and the small number of weak shock signatures points to S2 level, and the oriented pressure in the parent body might come from burial induced pressure. The meteorite might came from a location in the CV-CK parent body where melting, and weak impact related fracturing and vein filling happened. In this an environment alteration of the primitive material started, possibly from a zone transitional between the shallow, less processed CV, and the deeper, more processed CK chondrites.

  10. Quality and enhancement of bioactive phenolics in cv. Napoleon table grapes exposed to different postharvest gaseous treatments.

    PubMed

    Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-08-27

    Ten different gaseous treatments were evaluated for their efficacy in the keeping quality of cv. Napoleon table grapes during 38 days of storage at 0 degrees C followed by 6 days of shelf life at 15 degrees C in air. These storage methods included modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with and without SO(2) or natural fungicides (hexanal and hexenal), two controlled atmospheres (CA), and intermittent and continuous applications of O(3). As a control, air atmosphere during cold storage was used. Most of the treatments applied kept the postharvest quality of the grapes, although the best results were obtained by the use of a MAP with 5 kPa of O(2) plus 15 kPa of CO(2) plus 80 kPa of N(2). The total anthocyanin content at harvest was 170 +/- 19 microg/g of fresh weight (fw) of grapes, which declined in most of the treatments applied and was reflected in the loss of red color. Peonidin 3-glucoside was detected at all sampling times as the major anthocyanin (always >50% from the total content). Treatments applied kept or decreased the total flavonol content from that measured at harvest (17 +/- 1.4 microg/g of fw of berries). However, an increase of up to 2-fold in total stilbenoid content after shelf life for CA and O(3) treatments was observed. At all sampling times for almost every treatment piceid concentration remained unaltered or slightly changed, whereas large increases were observed after shelf life for resveratrol (1.2 +/- 0.6 microg/g of fw of grapes sampled at harvest), even up to 3- and 4-fold for O(3)-treated grapes and 2-fold for CA-treated ones. Therefore, improved techniques for the keeping quality of cv. Napoleon table grapes during long-term storage seem to maintain or enhance their antioxidant compound content.

  11. Properties of a cationic peroxidase from Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Drees, Ehab A; Fahmy, Afaf S

    2008-08-01

    The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, and Sephacryl S-200 columns. Cationic peroxidase POII is proved to be pure, and its molecular weight was 56 kDa. A study of substrate specificity identified the physiological role of POII, which catalyzed the oxidation of some phenolic substrates in the order of o-phenylenediamine > guaiacol > o-dianisidine > pyrogallol > catechol. The kinetic parameters (K (m), V (max), and V (max)/K (m)) of POII for hydrolysis toward H2O2 and electron donor substrates were studied. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 5.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. POII was stable at 10-40 degrees C and unstable above 50 degrees C. The thermal inactivation profile of POII is biphasic and characterized by a rapid decline in activity on exposure to heat. The most of POII activity (70-80%) was lost at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C after 15, 10, and 5 min of incubation, respectively. Most of the examined metal ions had a very slight effect on POII except of Li+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, which had partial inhibitory effects. In the present study, the instability of peroxidase above 50 degrees C makes the high temperature short time treatment very efficient for the inactivation of peel peroxidase contaminated in orange juice to avoid the formation of off-flavors.

  12. A range-wide synthesis and timeline for phylogeographic events in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Verena E; Lecomte, Nicolas; Janke, Axel; Selva, Nuria; Sokolov, Alexander A; Haun, Timm; Steyer, Katharina; Nowak, Carsten; Hailer, Frank

    2013-06-05

    bears and red foxes colonized Japan's northern island Hokkaido at least three times, all lineages being most closely related to different mainland lineages. Red foxes, grey wolves, and brown bears thus represent an interesting case where species that occupy similar ecological niches also exhibit similar phylogeographic histories.

  13. A range-wide synthesis and timeline for phylogeographic events in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    northern Nearctic. Both brown bears and red foxes colonized Japan’s northern island Hokkaido at least three times, all lineages being most closely related to different mainland lineages. Red foxes, grey wolves, and brown bears thus represent an interesting case where species that occupy similar ecological niches also exhibit similar phylogeographic histories. PMID:23738594

  14. Comparison of membrane-bound and soluble polyphenol oxidase in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji).

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jin-Hong; Gan, Zhi-Lin; Ni, Yuan-Ying

    2015-04-15

    This study compared membrane-bound with soluble polyphenol oxidase (mPPO and sPPO, respectively) from Fuji apple. Purified mPPO and partially purified sPPO were used. mPPO was purified by temperature-induced phase partitioning and ion exchange chromatography. The specific activity of mPPO was 34.12× higher than that of sPPO. mPPO was more stable than sPPO at pH 5.0-8.5. Although mPPO was more easily inactivated at 25-55 °C, it is still more active than sPPO in this temperature range. The optimum substrate of mPPO was 4-methyl catechol, followed by catechol. L-cysteine had the highest inhibitory effects on mPPO followed by ascorbic acid and glutathione. Surprisingly, EDTA increased mPPO activity. The results revealed that purified mPPO is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 67 kDa.

  15. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  16. Multiple tracer study in Horonobe, northern Hokkaido, Japan: 2. Depletion of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) estimated using 3H/3He index and lumped parameter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwaya, Koki; Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakata, Kotaro; Tomioka, Yuichi; Mizuno, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The conservativeness of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12, CFC-11, and CFC-113) in an environment rich in organic carbon was evaluated using multiple tracer analyses and lumped parameter models (LPMs). Wells on a coastal plain in Horonobe, northern Hokkaido, Japan, were studied. The CFC concentrations in groundwater from 22 wells were measured, converted into atmospheric mixing ratios (CARs), and compared with estimated ratios (EARs) obtained from 3H/3He values and LPMs. The degree of CFC depletion was expressed as the percentage of the CAR relative to the EAR, and was less than 43% for CFC-12 and 28% for CFC-11 (but one well had unusual values). CFC-113 was depleted more than the other CFCs, and could not be detected in most wells. The CFC depletion mechanisms were different in each of the three well groups. Groundwater of northern Shimonuma wells (NSW) was oxic and oxidative, so CFC depletion in the NSW could be attributed to sorption by organic carbon in the lignite and peat in the aquifers. Groundwater of southern Shimonuma wells (SSW) was anoxic and reductive. The northerly SSW are supplied from the aquifer that supplies the most of the NSW, so CFC depletion in the SSW was caused by degradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, in addition to sorption by lignite in the northerly SSW. Gas stripping, contamination from a local source, and methane interfering with the CFC analysis were found in groundwater of Hamasato wells (HW). One well of HW was not affected by these problems, but the CFCs were depleted by microbial degradation. Assuming that the CFC depletion mechanisms follow first-order reaction kinetics, reaction rate constants of 2.7 y-1 for CFC-12 and 2.8 y-1 for CFC-11 were estimated. Microbial degradation, sorption, gas stripping of CFCs, and methane formation processes are enhanced in environments rich in organic carbon. Special attention is required when CFCs are used as transient tracers in such environments. The combination of multiple

  17. Multiple tracer study in Horonobe, northern Hokkaido, Japan: 1. Residence time estimation based on multiple environmental tracers and lumped parameter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwaya, Koki; Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakata, Kotaro; Tomioka, Yuichi; Mizuno, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    A multiple tracer study was conducted in the coastal plain of Horonobe, northern Hokkaido, Japan. To accomplish reliable estimates of groundwater residence time, multiple tracer approach, employing both gaseous and nongaseous environmental tracers, and lumped parameter models (LPMs) were applied in combination. Environmental tracers including 3H, 3H/3He, 36Cl, and SF6 were analyzed and compared with values estimated from LPMs to select the most appropriate tracer and models to describe groundwater flow regime in the study area. Time series of 36Cl/Cl input in the study area were reconstructed and used in the LPMs. From comparison of the analyzed and modeled results, an index of 3H/3He was selected as the most appropriate for investigation of the study area. The relationship between the 3H/3He index and 36Cl/Cl indicated reliability of the 3H/3He index, but 36Cl/Cl values of the samples were lower than the models. This discrepancy was caused by underestimation of Cl- concentration of recharging water in the calculation of 36Cl/Cl input. SF6 mixing ratios of the samples were slightly higher than the models and it suggested involvement of terrigenic SF6. Three well groups, northern Shimonuma wells (NSW), southern Shimonuma wells (SSW), and Hamasato wells (HW), were respectively consistent with exponential piston flow model (EPM), binary mixing model (BMM), and exponential mixing model (EMM). Relational expressions between the 3H/3He index and mean residence time or mixing fraction of young groundwater (assumed to contain no tritiogenic 3He) with old groundwater (all 3H decayed to tritiogenic 3He) were obtained based on the models. The mean residence time determined from the 3H/3He index and the expressions were 19-78 years for NSW and 1-648 years for HW. The mixing fraction of young groundwater was less than 10% at all SSW. Nongaseous tracers, including 36Cl are not influenced by factors specific for gaseous tracers, such as excess air and degassing. Analyses of

  18. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome p450s and chlorinated hydrocarbons in largha and ribbon seals from Hokkaido, Japan: differential response of seal species to Ah receptor agonist exposure.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Issei; Sakakibara, Akihito; Iwata, T Hisato; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Akahori, Fumiaki; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2002-04-01

    From 16 largha seals (Phoca largha) and 15 ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata) in the coastal waters of Hokkaido, Japan, blubber chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) levels and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) catalytic activities and their immunochemically detected protein content levels were measured. Concentrations of DDTs (2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene,p,p'-DDE; 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane, p,p'-DDD; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, p,p'-DDT), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and chlordane compounds (oxychlordane, chlordanes, and nonachlors) in both species were in the range of 290 to 5,300, 420 to 4,000, and 130 to 1,500 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, non-ortho (IUPAC 77 and 126) and mono-ortho (IUPAC 105, 118, and 156) coplanar PCB congeners, were also detected, and the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4.9 to 120 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. Cross-reactive proteins with polyclonal antibodies against rat CYP1A1 and CYP3A2 were notably detected in seal liver microsomes. Interestingly, a polyclonal antibody against rat CYP2B1 recognized proteins only at trace levels. In largha seals, both levels of alkoxyresorufin- (methoxy-, ethoxy-, pentoxy-, and benzyloxyresorufin) O-dealkylase (AROD) activities and proteins detected by polyclonal antibodies against rat CYP1A1 were significantly correlated with the concentrations of individual coplanar PCB congeners, total TEQs, and total PCBs. Threshold concentrations for TEQs in blubber of the largha seal to induce hepatic CYP1A protein and EROD activity were estimated to be 8.5 and 19 pg TEQ/g fat weight, respectively. In ribbon seals, similar correlations were not detected, although the TEQ levels were not significantly lower than those in largha seals. These results suggest that AROD activity and CYP1A1 protein in the liver of the largha seal could be a biomarker for the exposure to AhR agonists such as coplanar PCB

  19. A quantitative study of ionospheric disturbance characteristics during solar flare events using the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar and solar radiation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, D.; Nishitani, N.; Imada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric disturbances during solar flare events have been studied by various kinds of observation instrument in the last few decades. Kikuchi et al. (1985) reported on the positive Doppler shift in the HF Doppler system data during solar flare events, and indicated that there are two possible factors of Doppler shift, i.e., (1) apparent ray path decrease by changing refraction index due to increasing electron densities in the D-region ionosphere, and (2) ray path decrease due to descending reflection point associated with increasing electron density in the F-region ionosphere. In this study, we use the SuperDARN Hokkaido Radar to investigate the detailed characteristics of solar flare effects on ionospheric disturbances. We focus on the positive Doppler shift of ground / sea scatter echoes just before sudden fade-out of echoes. Davies et al. (1962) showed that if the factor (1) is dominant, the Doppler shift should have positive correlation with slant range and negative correlation with elevation angle and frequency. On the other hand, if the factor (2) is dominant, the Doppler shift should have negative correlation with slant range and positive correlation with elevation angle and frequency. While Kikuchi et al. (1985) studied solar flare events and mainly discussed frequency dependence of Doppler shift, we study mainly slant range and elevation angle dependence, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. We found that the factor (1), in other words, increase of electron densities at D-region ionosphere, is dominant during solar flare events. This result is consistent with that of Kikuchi et al. In order to study characteristics of ionospheric disturbance in more detail, we are studying relationship between timing / amplitude of ionospheric disturbance and that of the solar irradiation changes, by comparing the HF radar data with high wavelength resolution irradiation data for X-ray and EUV from RHESSI and SDO satellites. Generally, X-ray radiation

  20. Evidence for diffusion and folding process based on the Mg# profile and the symmetrical layered structure in Horoman peridotite, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Toramaru, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Horoman peridotite complex, Hokkaido, Japan exhibits a conspicuous parallel layered structure, which has a characteristic symmetry in the alignment of lithological layers at the northern ridge of Mt. Apoi peak, suggesting that the layering is formed by folding or streamline mixing in mantle. The symmetrical sequence of layers is mafic layer (3cm) -depleted peridotite (1cm) -mafic layer (6cm) -peridotite (4cm; center of symmetry) -mafic layer (5cm) -depleted peridotite (1cm) -mafic layer (2.5cm). In this study, we examine the chemical profile of minerals in the symmetrical layers of depleted peridotite (dunite-harzburgite), plagioclase-rich peridotite (olivine, opx, cpx) and mafic layer (plagioclase, olivine, cpx, opx, spinel and amphibole) and its origin. We carry out chemical analysis by SEM-EDS in order to determine the chemical compositions of the mafic minerals (olivine, opx, cpx) as functions of distance in peridotite and mafic layer. As a result, we find the different Mg# profiles of mafic minerals among different lithological layers, i.e.; peridotite and mafic layer. However, a pair of same lithological layers displaying symmetry has the nearly same Mg# profile, indicating that the lithological symmetry accompanies the chemical symmetry. The Mg# of mafic minerals in a mafic layer gradually decreases from the contact surface between peridotite and mafic layer to the center of the mafic layer. In addition, the Mg# takes wide range in mafic layer (82~89) whereas the Mg# of peridotite dose narrow range (89~91, 88, 84.5 in each layer). On the basis of this chemical signature and the spatially homogeneous mineral distribution in each layer, we propose that the key process of the cryptic layering in mineral chemistry results from a diffusion process between peridotite and mafic layer after the layers are contacted. The different chemical profile between peridotite and mafic layer can be explained by the different diffusivities due to the effect of the modal

  1. In situ measurements of polarization properties of snow surface under the Brewster geometry in Hokkaido, Japan, and northwest Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Tomonori; Hori, Masahiro; Aoki, Teruo; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Kuchiki, Katsuyuki; Niwano, Masashi; Matoba, Sumito; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Stamnes, Knut

    2014-12-01

    Ground-based measurements of spectral degree of linear polarization (DLP) of various snow types were made during intensive field campaigns in a snowfield in Hokkaido, Japan, and on the northwest Greenland ice sheet in 2012. Spectral measurements were conducted under the solar zenith angle of approximately the Brewster angle in order to quantify the polarization properties of light reflected from snow. We obtained spectral DLPs for five different snow types in both field campaigns including precipitation particles, needles, surface hoar, melt forms, and melt freeze crust covering the snow surface. The measurements showed that in the visible region the spectral dependence of the DLP was small while in the near infrared region it increased with increasing snow grain size with some distinct local peaks. The angular dependence indicated that the DLP exhibited small angular dependence in the visible region while in the near-infrared region it exhibited large and broad peaks in the forward direction. Especially for the melt-freeze crust, the DLP approached 1.0 at wavelengths close to λ = 1.5 and 2.0 μm. These features can be explained by (1) the relative contribution of surface versus volume scattering to the reflected light, (2) the incident angle (solar zenith angle) of approximately the Brewster angle, and (3) the ratio between direct and diffuse components of the solar radiation incident on the snow surface. The spectral DLP was found to be quiet sensitive to the incident solar radiation and solar elevation as well as snow optical properties. Comparison between the spectral DLP and snow grain size obtained by snow pit work shows that the DLP for λ > 1.5 μm was very sensitive to large snow grains close to the surface. This finding suggests that polarization measurements obtained from airborne/satellite polarimeters will be useful for surface snow grain size retrievals and help improve the accuracy of such retrievals based on the intensity-only measurements

  2. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  3. Significance of pollutant concentration distribution in the response of 'Red Kidney' beans to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Musselman, R.C.; Oshima, R.J.; Gallavan, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. red kidney) exposed to ozone with a simulated ambient concentration distribution showed significantly more injury, less growth, and lower yield than those exposed to an equivalent dose of ozone with a uniform concentration distribution. The concentration distribution did not alter the type of biological response of red kidney beans to ozone, an indication that uniform concentration distribution fumigations are appropriate for investigations of mode of action of pollutants on plants. However, this study suggests that research using a uniform concentration distribution of pollutants may underestimate the magnitude of growth and yield responses to ambient pollutants. 26 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  4. Ocular Emergencies: Red Eye.

    PubMed

    Tarff, Andreina; Behrens, Ashley

    2017-05-01

    "Red eye" is used as a general term to describe irritated or bloodshot eyes. It is a recognizable sign of an acute/chronic, localized/systemic underlying inflammatory condition. Conjunctival injection is most commonly caused by dryness, allergy, visual fatigue, contact lens overwear, and local infections. In some instances, red eye can represent a true ocular emergency that should be treated by an ophthalmologist. A comprehensive assessment of red eye conditions is required to preserve the patients visual function. Severe ocular pain, significant photophobia, decreased vision, and history of ocular trauma are warning signs demanding immediate ophthalmological consultation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue LEDs and White Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Matthew A.; Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond; Birmele, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-range missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop yield, there is also recent interest in analyzing the subtle effects of additional wavelengths on plant growth. For instance, since plants often look purplish gray under red and blue LEDs, the addition of green light allows easy recognition of disease and the assessment of plant health status. However, it is important to know if wavelengths outside the traditional red and blue wavebands have a direct effect on enhancing or hindering the mechanisms involved in plant growth. In this experiment, a comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of red romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Outredgeous") and radish (Raphanus sativa cv. 'Cherry Bomb'), which were grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red (630 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs alone, while the second treatment consisted of daylight tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps (CCT approximately 5000 K) at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). The treatment effects were evaluated by measuring the fresh biomass produced, plant morphology and leaf dimensions, leaf chlorophyll content, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within plant leaf/storage root tissues.

  6. Cr and O Isotope Systematics in CV/CK Chondrite Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defouilloy, C.; Sanborn, M. E.; Yamakawa, A.; Kita, N. T.; Ebel, D. S.; Yin, Q.-Z.

    2017-02-01

    Combined in-situ high-precision measurements of Cr and O isotopic ratios reveal heterogeneities of compositions and the diversity of reservoirs of origin of silicate grains in CV/CK chondrite chondrules.

  7. Caffeoylsophorose in a red vinegar produced through fermentation with purple sweetpotato.

    PubMed

    Terahara, Norihiko; Matsui, Toshiro; Fukui, Keiichi; Matsugano, Kazusato; Sugita, Koichi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2003-04-23

    Recently, a new red vinegar has been developed via fermentation with the storage root of purple-fleshed sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas L. cv. Ayamurasaki. The red vinegar had a higher antioxidative activity than white or black vinegars. The red vinegar contained some new components possibly derived from the original purple sweetpotato. A major component was isolated using preparative HPLC, and the chemical structure was determined to be 6-O-(E)-caffeoyl-(2-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-d-glucopyranose (caffeoylsophorose) by MS and NMR. Because the caffeoylsophorose showed a high antioxidative activity, it plays an important functional role in red vinegar as do anthocyanins and other components. Examination of the mechanism of formation is now in progress.

  8. Cyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa

    PubMed Central

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; May, Jürgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Perse, Amanda; Jöst, Hanna; Börstler, Jessica; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Desmecht, Daniel; Mbunkah, Herbert Afegenwi; Daniel, Achukwi Mbunkah; Kingsley, Manchang Tanyi; de Mendonca Campos, Renata; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Randriamampionona, Njary; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution. PMID:25518947

  9. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 μg/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity.

  10. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-06-05

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with I{kappa}B-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  11. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  12. American Red Cross

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Resources Connect with Us Careers Career Opportunities Culture & Values Benefits University Programs Get Help Disaster Relief & ... Join the Home Fire campaign and help solve America's biggest disaster threat. JOIN US Shop the Red ...

  13. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  14. Aurora Australis, Red Crown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked band of red airglow called a 'Red Crown' above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  15. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  16. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  17. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  18. [Habitat factor analysis for Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii based on spatial information technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-ming; Wang, Ke; Ao, Wei-jiu; Deng, Jin-song; Han, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-yun

    2008-11-01

    Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, a tertiary survival plant, is a rare tree species of significant economic value and expands rapidly in China. Its special habitat factor analysis has the potential value to provide guide information for its planting, management, and sustainable development, because the suitable growth conditions for this tree species are special and strict. In this paper, the special habitat factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii in its core region, i.e., in seven villages of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a series of data, such as IKONOS image, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and field survey data supported by the spatial information technology. The results showed that T. grandis cv. Merrillii exhibited high selectivity of environmental factors such as elevation, slope, and aspect. 96.22% of T. grandis cv. Merrillii trees were located at the elevation from 300 to 600 m, 97.52% of them were found to present on the areas whose slope was less than 300, and 74.43% of them distributed on sunny and half-sunny slopes. The results of PCA analysis indicated that the main environmental factors affecting the habitat of T. grandis cv. Merrillii were moisture, heat, and soil nutrients, and moisture might be one of the most important ecological factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii due to the unique biological and ecological characteristics of the tree species.

  19. Let's stop passing around and work together for the next! ; HiNT, an organization creating new businesses in Hokkaido by exchanging people, information and technology ; Taking a close look at Mr.Eijun Ohta, a coordinator of cooperation among the government, industry and academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Utako

    Let's stop passing around and work together for the next! ; HiNT, an organization creating new businesses in Hokkaido by exchanging people, information and technology ; Taking a close look at Mr.Eijun Ohta, a coordinator of cooperation among the government, industry and academia

  20. Red cell membrane disorders.

    PubMed

    Narla, J; Mohandas, N

    2017-05-01

    Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the structural basis for altered cell function in various inherited red cell membrane disorders with reduced red cell survival and resulting hemolytic anemia. The current review summarizes these advances as they relate to defining the molecular and structural basis for disorders involving altered membrane structural organization (hereditary spherocytosis [HS] and hereditary elliptocytosis [HE]) and altered membrane transport function (hereditary overhydrated stomatocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis). Mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins that account for these distinct red cell phenotypes have been identified. These molecular insights have led to improved understanding of the structural basis for altered membrane function in these disorders. Weakening of vertical linkage between the lipid bilayer and spectrin-based membrane skeleton leads to membrane loss in HS. In contrast, weakening of lateral linkages among different skeletal proteins leads to membrane fragmentation and decreased surface area in HE. The degrees of membrane loss and resultant increases in cell sphericity determine the severity of anemia in these two disorders. Splenectomy leads to amelioration of anemia by increasing the circulatory red cell life span of spherocytic red cells that are normally sequestered by the spleen. Disordered membrane cation permeability and resultant increase or decrease in red cell volume account for altered cellular deformability of hereditary overhydrated stomatocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis, respectively. Importantly, splenectomy is not beneficial in these two membrane transport disorders and in fact contraindicated due to severe postsplenectomy thrombotic complications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Origin of the color of Cv. rhapsody in blue rose and some other so-called "blue" roses.

    PubMed

    Gonnet, Jean-François

    2003-08-13

    Flowers of the rose cultivar Rhapsody in Blue display unusual colors, changing as they age, from a vivid red-purple to a lighter and duller purple, which are based on tonalities corresponding to hue angles between 340 and 320 degrees in the CIELAB scale. Unexpectedly, the chemical basis of these colors is among the simplest, featuring cyanin (cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside), the most frequent anthocyanin in flowers, as the sole pigment and quercetin kaempferol glycosides as copigments at a relatively low copigment/pigment ratio (about 3/1), which usually produces magenta or red shades in roses. This color shift to bluer shades is coupled with the progressive accumulation of cyanin into vacuolar anthocyanic inclusions (AVIs), the occurrence of which increases as the petals grow older. In addition to the normal lambda(max) of cyanin at approximately 545 nm, the transmission spectra of live petals and of epidermal cells exhibit a second lambda(max) in the 620-625 nm range, the relative importance increasing with the presence of AVIs. In petals of fully opened flowers, the only pigmented structures in the vacuoles of epidermal cells are AVIs; their intense and massive absorption in the 520-640 nm area produces a much darker and bluer color than measured for the vacuolar solution present at the very first opening stage. Cyanin is probably "trapped" into AVIs at higher concentrations than would be possible in a vacuolar solution and in quinonoidal form, appearing purple-blue because of additional absorption in the 580-630 nm area. Quite similar pigmentation features were found in very ancient rose cultivars (cv. L'Evêque or Bleu Magenta), also displaying this type of so-called "blue" color.

  2. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

    PubMed

    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lower crop load for Cv. Jonagold apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.) increases polyphenol content and fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Stopar, Matej; Bolcina, Uros; Vanzo, Andreja; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2002-03-13

    The influence of crop load on fruit quality was investigated on 7-year-old slender spindle cv. Jonagold/M.9 apple trees. In mid June five different crop loads per tree were prepared by reducing the fruit number to average 30, 59, 104, 123, and 157 fruits per crown. The fruit from low-cropping trees had more red blush, a higher percentage of soluble solids in fruit flesh, and better flesh firmness in comparison to fruit from high-cropping trees. As the crop load decreased, the concentration of all phenolic compounds in the fruit samples (cortex plus skin) increased; concentrations of the most important individual fruit phenolics were also higher. When crop load fell from 157 to 30 fruits per crown, total polyphenols increased from an average of 1300 to 1680 mg/kg of fruit fresh weight (FW) (+29%), low molecular weight polyphenols increased from 1140 to 1570 mg/kg of FW (+38%), and high molecular weight polyphenols increased from 1740 to 2070 mg/kg of FW (+19%). The average increases in single polyphenols were even greater: chlorogenic acid (+82%); 4'-p-coumaroylquinic acid (+22%); catechin (+178%); and epicatechin (+71%). Ascorbic acid was not significantly dependent on crop load.

  4. The paleoenvironmental and climatic record of the Common Era in core sediments of Lake Abashiri in the east part of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Yamada, K.; Sonoda, T.; Kawajiri, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to for subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Lake Abashiri has a distinct halocline around 5m depths, and is divided into oligohaline epilimnion and polyhaline hypolimnion by its pycnocline. In this study, paleoenvironmental and climatic changes of the Common Era in Abashiri region is discussed by sedimentologic and geochemical high-resolution analysis of the sediment cores collected from the Lake Abashiri. The 13AB-B1 core collected from Lake Abashiri shows the length of 27m. This core is composed of muddy sediment with a distinct lamination up to 19.31m below surface. The Ta-a tephra (AD 1739), Ko-c2 tephra (AD 1694) and Ma-b tephra (10th century) are found at the horizon of 2.65m, 2.91m, and 6.19m below surface, respectively. Sedimentation rate based on these ages was 5.7mm/yr between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra, and was 4.7mm/yr between Ma-b tephra and Ko-c2 tephra. The environment of bottom water indicates the anoxic and/or euxinic conditions during the Common Era.  The result of observation used by Soft X-ray photograph, the lamina-set of high, low, intermediate density layers was observed. High-density layers have characteristics of low TOC, low SiO2, and high Al contents. This is suggested that high-density layer is formed by the supply of inorganic clastics. The lamina set of 44 was recognized between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra in the 10AB-5C core. This is suggested that this set is annual lamina (varve). If its so, it is considered that high density layer indicate the high precipitation term of summer season judging from precipitation pattern in Abashiri Area during 100 years. Particularly, the year of flood events tend to show a thick and distinguished layer in lamina-set. The 13AB-B core is correlated with 10AB-5C core under the lamina level. The high-density lamina-set group is repeated with 20 to 30 year cycle. The horizon of high-density lamina

  5. A Detailed 3D Seismic Velocity Structure of the Subducting Pacific Slab Beneath Hokkaido, Tohoku and Kanto, Japan, by Double-Difference Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Y.; Nakajima, J.; Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional heterogeneous structure beneath northeastern (NE) Japan has been investigated by previous studies and an inclined seismic low-velocity zone is imaged in the mantle wedge sub-parallel to the down-dip direction of the subducting slab (Zhao et al., 1992, Nakajima et al., 2001). However, the heterogeneous structure within the slab has not been well studied even though it is very important to understand the whole process of water transportation from the slab to the surface. Here we show a detailed 3D seismic velocity structure within the subducted Pacific slab around Japan and propose a water-transportation path from the slab to the mantle wedge. In this study, we estimated 3D velocity structure within the Pacific slab by the double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We divided the study area, from Hokkaido to Kanto, into 6 areas due to the limitation of memory and computation time. In each area, arrival-time data of 7,500-17,000 events recorded at 70-170 stations were used in the analysis. The total number of absolute travel-time data was about 140,000-312,000 for P wave and 123,000-268,000 for S wave, and differential data were about 736,000-1,920,000 for P wave and 644,000-1,488,000 for S wave. Horizontal and vertical grid separations are 10-25 km and 6.5 km, respectively. RMS residuals of travel times for P wave decreased from 0.23s to 0.09s and for S wave from 0.35s to 0.13s. The obtained results are as follows: (1) a remarkable low-Vs zone exists in the uppermost part of the subducting slab, (2) it extends down to a depth of about 80 km, (3) the termination of this low-Vs zone almost corresponds to the "seismic belt" recently detected in the upper plane of the double seismic zone (Kita et al.,2006; Hasegawa et al., 2007), (4) at depths deeper than 80 km, a low-Vs and high-Vp/Vs zone is apparently distributed in the mantle wedge, immediately above the slab crust. We consider that these features reflect water-transportation processes

  6. The recent climatic change of subarctic zone recorded in core sediments of Lake Abashiri in the east part of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Sonoda, T.; Kawajiri, T.; Watanabe, T.; Okazaki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to for subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Especially, the Okhotsk brackish-water lake group around Abashiri City is constituted by major lake in Japan such as Lake Abashiri, Lake Mokoto, Lake Tofutsu, and Lake Notoro. The each lake shows a different present environment and history. Therefore, the change that is common in those lakes seems to be the change concerning the climate. In this study, recent environment change in Abashiri region (after the Little Ice Age) is discussed by sedimentologic and geochemical high-resolution analysis of the sediment cores collected from the Lake Abashiri. The water column of Lake Abashiri has a distinct halocline around 5m depths, and is divided into oligohaline surface waters and polyhaline bottom water by its halocline. The bottom water in Lake Abashiri shows the euxinic conditions throughout the annual. Therefore, surface sediment of below water depth 5m shows the black organic mud with the lamination. The 10AB-5C core collected from Lake Abashiri shows the length of 332cm. This core is composed of muddy sediment with a distinct lamination through all horizons. The Ta-a tephra (AD 1739) and Ko-c2 tephra (AD 1694) are found at the horizon of 250 cm, and 291 cm, respectively. Sedimentation rate based on these ages was 0.92cm/yr between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra, and was 0.91cm/yr between surface and Ta-a tephra. Lamina set of 44 was recognized between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra. This is suggested that this set is annual lamina. In 10AB-5C core, total organic carbon (TOC) contents, total sulfur (TS) contents, and C / N ratios were revealed by CNS elemental analysis. And the content of major elements were revealed by XRF elemental analysis. The change of iron (Fe) content synchronized with that of TS content. However, in the peak of TS contents around the horizon of 60cm, the Fe content does not change enough. It is

  7. [Effects of stressful life events which cause depression in the elderly, and the role of the social support network--a longitudinal study in Hokkaido prefecture].

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Urata, Yasunari; Saijo, Yasuaki; Horikawa, Naoko; Sato, Tetsuro; Yoshioka, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    The effects of stressful life events which cause depression in the elderly and the role of the social support network--a longitudinal study in Hokkaido prefecture It has been reported that various stressful life events experienced by the elderly increase the risk of depression, and that a support network mitigates the effects. However, reports in our country are still lacking. This research was a longitudinal study in a former coal mining area, conducting a baseline survey on 1991. Every three to four years, we followed-up the elderly in the area. The questionnaire included :1) base attributes 2) stressful life events 3) networks, 4) instrumental/emotional support, support provided themselves, 4) Zung's Self Rating Depression Scale, 5) subjective health/number of illness/hospital admission/body aches/vision and hearing/urinary incontinence/signs of dementia, 6) hobbies and motivation in life/ADL/IADL. Whether male or female, SDS scores after three years were significantly high in cases of poor health, body aches, and signs of dementia. Females who did not participate in social activities scored significantly high after three years. In cross-sectional analysis, both males and females who were not working had significantly high scores. The effect of networks on SDS scores in females was significantly recognized for items regarding children living separately, neighborhood, close friends/relatives, and groups. However, it was not significant for males. Thus, a gender difference was found. In females, the level of depression was low when there were supports, though it was not significant in males. The subjective health condition was significantly different from SDS scores in both male and female groups. Admission to hospital, existence of body aches and vision disturbance were significantly different in females. Nevertheless, those were not significant in the male group. For social activity, whether the persons possessed hobbies and motivation in life or not created a

  8. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized.

  9. Effect of two different treatments for reducing grape yield in Vitis vinifera cv Syrah on wine composition and quality: berry thinning versus cluster thinning.

    PubMed

    Gil, M; Esteruelas, M; González, E; Kontoudakis, N; Jiménez, J; Fort, F; Canals, J M; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Zamora, F

    2013-05-22

    The influence of two treatments for reducing grape yield, cluster thinning and berry thinning, on red wine composition and quality were studied in a Vitis vinifera cv Syrah vineyard in AOC Penedès (Spain). Cluster thinning reduced grape yield per vine by around 40% whereas berry thinning only reduced it by around 20%. Cluster thinning grapes had higher soluble solids content than control grapes, and their resultant wines have greater anthocyanin and polysaccharide concentrations than the control wine. Wine obtained from berry thinning grapes had a higher total phenolic index, greater flavonol, proanthocyanidin, and polysaccharide concentrations, and lower titratable acidity than the control wine. Wines obtained from both treatments were sufficiently different from the control wine to be significantly distinguished by a trained panel in a triangular test. Even though both treatments seem to be effective at improving the quality of wine, berry thinning has the advantage because it has less impact on crop yield reduction.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3-4-5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17-19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children.

  11. [Red eye in children].

    PubMed

    Sauer, Arnaud; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Bourcier, Tristan

    2008-02-29

    Red eye in children is a common consultation purpose. Mostly benign, this sign may also cause visual impairment. We differentiate three kinds of red eye: localised, diffused and perikeratic injection. The last one must be recognized because of its association with severe ocular diseases. Diagnosis must be sure and treatment has to be efficient to not pertubate childrens visual development. Unfortunately, physical examination on children is not always easy. Consultation with an ophthalmologist is justified if a doubt remains, in case of chronic pathology or resistance to first intention treatment.

  12. 53Mn-53Cr chronology of Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2017-03-01

    High precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4) in the reduced CV3 chondrites Vigarano and Efremovka yield well resolved 53Cr excesses that correlate with 55Mn/52Cr, demonstrating in situ decay of the extinct short-lived radionuclide 53Mn. To ensure proper correction for relative sensitivities between 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, we synthesized kirschsteinite doped with Mn and Cr to measure the relative sensitivity factor. The inferred initial ratio (53Mn/55Mn)0 in chondritic kirschsteinite is (3.71 ± 0.50) × 10-6. When anchored to 53Mn-53Cr relative and U-corrected 207Pb-206Pb absolute ages of the D'Orbigny angrite, this ratio corresponds to kirschsteinite formation 3.2-0.7+08 Ma after CV Ca-, Al-rich inclusions. The kirschsteinite data are consistent within error with the data for aqueously-formed fayalite from the Asuka 881317 CV3 chondrite as reported by Doyle et al. (2015), supporting the idea that Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites are cogenetic with fayalite (and magnetite) and formed during metasomatic alteration on the CV3 parent body. Concentrically-zoned crystals of kirschsteinite and hedenbergite indicate that they initially formed as near end-member compositions that became more Mg-rich with time, possibly as a result of an increase in temperature.

  13. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level.

  14. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  15. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  16. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  17. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  18. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  19. Red Mud Stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, Marie-J.

    The red mud slurry "stacking" method used in many Alcan Plants has been developed in the 1980's. The aim of this technique is to use minimum space for the disposal of the residue and to rapidly obtain consolidated material. The consistency of the mud slurry plays a key role in the steepness (angle) of the stacking slope.

  20. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  1. Variation amongst protoplast-derived potato plants (Solatium tuberosum cv. 'Maris Bard').

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Bright, S W; Franklin, J; Lancaster, V A; Miflin, B J; Gibson, R

    1982-03-01

    Plants were obtained from protoplasts of shoot cultures of potato (Solarium tuberosum L. cv. 'Maris Bard') and from in situ calluses upon plants of cv. 'Majestic'. None of the protoplast-derived plants resembled each other in all of ten morphological characteristics scored and only one resembled the parental 'Maris Bard' type. As there were a number of plants regenerated from each of ten protoplast-derived calluses it is concluded that variation arose after protoplast isolation during the cell culture phase. Plants regenerated from in situ calluses of cv. 'Majestic' were quite uniform. Reported cases of variation and uniformity from cultured potato tissues are discussed. It is concluded that the variation is not a consequence of using protoplasts and that the expression or induction of variation is controllable.

  2. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  3. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  4. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  5. [Identification and analysis on the error of Guanyuan (CV 4) point in Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse)].

    PubMed

    Gang, Wei-juan; Huang, Long-xiang

    2009-02-01

    After investigation on the contents about Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse) and Guanyuan (CV 4) in Chinese ancient medical works of the successive dynasties, the authors of the present paper found some errors of recording on CV4. In fact, Guanyuan (CV 4) in the current edition Yulong Ge should be the extra point Lanmen. The author hold that this error mainly results from similar writing in Chinese character, repeated copy, such as [Chinese characters: see text] etc.

  6. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e−07) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and 13C- and 15N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel α + β fold containing two anti-parallel β-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one α-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum. PMID:22837698

  7. Solution NMR structure of hypothetical protein CV_2116 encoded by a viral prophage element in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A; Cort, John R; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Kennedy, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e(-07)) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and (13)C- and (15)N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel α + β fold containing two anti-parallel β-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one α-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum.

  8. Position Determination with LORAN-C Triplets and the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Programmable Calculator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California POSITION DETERMINATION WITH LORAN-C TRIPLETS AND THE HEWLETT-PACKARD HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR by...HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT O GRANT NUMBER(*) Rex H. Shudd? 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Hyperbolic Fixing Programmable Calculator Loran-C Radio Positioning HP-41C Navigation Geodetics HP-41CV Position Determination Geodetic Distances

  9. RED2TEX: A TRIX RED to LATEX converter

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, L.; Langdon, A.B.

    1987-05-20

    A summary of RED2TEX is presented. RED2TEX converts standard TRIX RED format commands to TEX or LATEX commands for subsequent LATEX formatting. LATEX is a special version of the TEX document preparation system. LATEX adds to TEX a collection of commands that simplifies formatting. LATEX runs on the J-Vax and the LLL-LCC Pyramid machines. RED2TEX resides in Unix directory CHASE/TEX.

  10. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics.

  11. A Comparison of the Highest Precision Commonly Available Time Transfer Methods: TWSTT and GPS CV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    A COMPARISON OF THE HIGHEST PRECISION COMMONLY AVAILABLE TIME TRANSFER METHODS: TWSTT AND GPS CV James A. DeYoung, Francine Vannicola, and Angela...D. McKinley U.S. Naval Observatory, Time Service Department 3450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20392, USA dey@herschel.usno.navy.mil, hv...view (CY) and the ’Auo-Way SoteUite Time Transfer (TWSTT) method. The GPS CV time transfer data are jonned from shict 13- minute common-view tracks

  12. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... help lower blood levels of cholesterol and related lipids. Red yeast rice products may not be safe; ... to lower blood levels of cholesterol and related lipids. Some red yeast rice products contain substances called ...

  13. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  14. Red Lake Forestry Greenhouse Program

    Treesearch

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2002-01-01

    In 1916, The Red Lake Indian Forest Act was created. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa in Minnesota stood alone and refused to consent to allotment. Consequently, The Red Lake Band is the only tribe in Minnesota for which a congressional act was passed to secure a permanent economic foundation for the band and its future.

  15. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  16. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  17. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  18. Red Oak Borer

    Treesearch

    D. E. Donley; R.E. Acciavatti

    1980-01-01

    The red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman)3, is an important member of the oak borer complex that permanently damages the wood of living oak trees and causes a decrease in lumber grade. The loss in grade can amount to 40 percent of the current tree value, which, at today's prices, is about $80 per thousand board feet for factory grade lumber in terms of...

  19. Bioactive compounds and prebiotic activity in Thailand-grown red and white guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.).

    PubMed

    Thuaytong, W; Anprung, P

    2011-06-01

    This research involves the comparison of bioactive compounds, volatile compounds and prebiotic activity of white guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Pansithong and red guava cv. Samsi. The antioxidant activity values determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were 10.28 µg fresh weight (fw)/µg DPPH and 78.56 µg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g fw for white guava and 7.82 µg/µg DPPH, fw and 111.06 µM TE/g fw for red guava. Ascorbic acid contents were 130 and 112mg/100g fw total phenolics contents 145.52 and 163.36 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fw and total flavonoids contents 19.06 and 35.85 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g fw, in white and red guava, respectively. Volatile compounds in guava were analyzed by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) method. The major constituents identified in white and red guavas were cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl benzoate, ß-caryophyllene, (E)-3-hexenyl acetate and α-bisabolene. Prebiotic activity scores for Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 were 0.12 and 0.28 in white guava, respectively, and 0.13 and 0.29 in red guava, respectively.

  20. Insulator polarization effect in quasi-static and high-frequency C(V) curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tüttő, P.; Balázs, J.

    1982-01-01

    A new method is given to evaluate quasi-static and high frequency C(V) curves. Surface state density distribution and insulator polarization can be obtained simultaneously without the need of other measurements. Measurements of MNOS structures indicate that there are "free" charge carriers in the Si 3N 4 layer which move in a rather inhomogeneous electric field.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  2. Study of Catalytic Reaction at Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces by a CV-XAFS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Shogo; Matsumura, Daiju; Asazawa, Koichiro; Kishi, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2017-06-01

    A method combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) with x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, viz. CV-XAFS, has been developed to enable in situ real-time investigation of atomic and electronic structures related to electrochemical reactions. We use this method to study the reaction of a Pt/C cathode catalyst in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline electrolyte, using x-ray energies near the Pt LIII edge for XAFS measurements. It was found that the current induced by the ORR was first observed at approximately 0.08 V versus Hg/HgO, although the Pt valence, which is reflected in the oxidation states, remained almost unchanged. The electronic structure of the catalytic surface in the ORR was observed to be different in the negative and positive scan directions of CV measurements. Hydrogen adsorption is also discussed on the basis of the observation of this spectral change. We have demonstrated that CV-XAFS provides dynamical structural and electronic information related to electrochemical reactions and can be used for in situ real-time measurements of a catalyst.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conditions were optimized for transient transformation of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bulb scale and basal meristem explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 which has the uidA gene that codes for ß-gl...

  4. Alteration processes in the CV chondrite parent body based on analysis of NWA 2086 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Blumberger, Z.; Józsa, S.; May, Z.; Müller, A.; Szabó, M.; Tóth, M.

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of the NWA 2086 CV3 chondrite showed a matrix/chondrule ratio of 52%, similar to Bali, Mokoia, and Grosanaja. Nearly twice as many chondrule fragments as intact ones demonstrate that an early fragmentation phase occurred prior to final accretion. After this event, no substantial mechanical change or redeposition is evident. Rims with double-layered structures were identified around some chondrules, which, in at least one case, is attributed to an accretionary origin. The rim's outer parts with a diffuse appearance were formed by in situ chemical alteration. During this later process, Mg content decreased, Fe content increased, and olivine composition was homogenized, producing a rim composition close to that of the matrix. This alteration occasionally happened along fractures and at confined locations, and was probably produced by fluid interactions. Iron oxides are the best candidate for a small grain-sized alteration product; however, technical limitations in the available equipment did not allow exact phase identification. These results suggest that NWA 2086 came from a location (possible more deeply buried) in the CV parent body than Mokoia or Bali, and suffered less impact effects—although there is no evidence of sustained thermal alteration. This meteorite may represent a sample of the CV parent asteroid interior and provide a useful basis for comparison with other CV meteorites in the future.

  5. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  6. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management.

  7. Simple Cp/Cv Resonance Apparatus Suitable for the Physics Teaching Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a resonance apparatus for the measurement of Cp/Cv for different gases. In the apparatus a magnetically supported piston in a vertical cylindrical glass tube containing the gas is forced into oscillation by means of a standard audio signal generator. (Author/GA)

  8. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  9. Study of Catalytic Reaction at Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces by a CV-XAFS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Shogo; Matsumura, Daiju; Asazawa, Koichiro; Kishi, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A method combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) with x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, viz. CV-XAFS, has been developed to enable in situ real-time investigation of atomic and electronic structures related to electrochemical reactions. We use this method to study the reaction of a Pt/C cathode catalyst in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline electrolyte, using x-ray energies near the Pt LIII edge for XAFS measurements. It was found that the current induced by the ORR was first observed at approximately 0.08 V versus Hg/HgO, although the Pt valence, which is reflected in the oxidation states, remained almost unchanged. The electronic structure of the catalytic surface in the ORR was observed to be different in the negative and positive scan directions of CV measurements. Hydrogen adsorption is also discussed on the basis of the observation of this spectral change. We have demonstrated that CV-XAFS provides dynamical structural and electronic information related to electrochemical reactions and can be used for in situ real-time measurements of a catalyst.

  10. Microscopic C-V measurements of SOI wafers by scanning capacitance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, T.; Yoshida, H.; Kishino, S.

    2004-07-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has been applied to microscopic characterization of electrical properties of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. Two kinds of capacitance-voltage (C-V) methods have been proposed for separately characterizing the electrical properties of a gate oxide, an SOI layer, a buried oxide (BOX) layer, a Si substrate, and their interfaces: (i) a front-gate C-V method whereby the electrical properties of the gate oxide and front SOI (the gate oxide/SOI) interface can be characterized, and (ii) a back-gate C-V method for the characterization of the electrical properties of the BOX layer, back SOI (the BOX/SOI) interface, and the BOX/Si substrate interface. Furthermore, SCM images of the sampled SOI wafer have been obtained for visualizing the microscopic spatial distribution of electrical properties of SOI wafers by using the proposed C-V methods. These SCM images revealed the fluctuation in the oxide charges and interface traps. SCM has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for microscopic electrical characterization of SOI wafers.

  11. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  12. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  13. Isolation and Characterization of CvIV4: A Pain Inducing α- Scorpion Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Ashlee H.; Xiao, Yucheng; Scales, Joseph; Linse, Klaus D.; Rowe, Matthew P.; Cummins, Theodore R.; Zakon, Harold H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Among scorpion species, the Buthidae produce the most deadly and painful venoms. However, little is known regarding the venom components that cause pain and their mechanism of action. Using a paw-licking assay (Mus musculus), this study compared the pain-inducing capabilities of venoms from two species of New World scorpion (Centruroides vittatus, C. exilicauda) belonging to the neurotoxin-producing family Buthidae with one species of non-neurotoxin producing scorpion (Vaejovis spinigerus) in the family Vaejovidae. A pain-inducing α-toxin (CvIV4) was isolated from the venom of C. vittatus and tested on five Na+ channel isoforms. Principal Findings C. vittatus and C. exilicauda venoms produced significantly more paw licking in Mus than V. spinigerus venom. CvIV4 produced paw licking in Mus equivalent to the effects of whole venom. CvIV4 slowed the fast inactivation of Nav1.7, a Na+ channel expressed in peripheral pain-pathway neurons (nociceptors), but did not affect the Nav1.8-based sodium currents of these neurons. CvIV4 also slowed the fast inactivation of Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.4. The effects of CvIV4 are similar to Old World α-toxins that target Nav1.7 (AahII, BmK MI, LqhIII, OD1), however the primary structure of CvIV4 is not similar to these toxins. Mutant Nav1.7 channels (D1586A and E1589Q, DIV S3–S4 linker) reduced but did not abolish the effects of CvIV4. Conclusions This study: 1) agrees with anecdotal evidence suggesting that buthid venom is significantly more painful than non-neurotoxic venom; 2) demonstrates that New World buthids inflict painful stings via toxins that modulate Na+ channels expressed in nociceptors; 3) reveals that Old and New World buthids employ similar mechanisms to produce pain. Old and New World α-toxins that target Nav1.7 have diverged in sequence, but the activity of these toxins is similar. Pain-inducing toxins may have evolved in a common ancestor. Alternatively, these toxins may be the product of convergent

  14. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential light source for growing plants in spaceflight systems because of their safety, small mass and volume, wavelength specificity, and longevity. Despite these attractive features, red LEDs must satisfy requirements for plant photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis for successful growth and seed yield. To determine the influence of gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) red LEDs on wheat photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield, wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'USU-Super Dwarf') plants were grown under red LEDs and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) lamps and red LEDs supplemented with either 1% or 10% blue light from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. Compared to white light-grown plants, wheat grown under red LEDs alone demonstrated less main culm development during vegetative growth through preanthesis, while showing a longer flag leaf at 40 DAP and greater main culm length at final harvest (70 DAP). As supplemental BF light was increased with red LEDs, shoot dry matter and net leaf photosynthesis rate increased. At final harvest, wheat grown under red LEDs alone displayed fewer subtillers and a lower seed yield compared to plants grown under white light. Wheat grown under red LEDs+10% BF light had comparable shoot dry matter accumulation and seed yield relative to wheat grown under white light. These results indicate that wheat can complete its life cycle under red LEDs alone, but larger plants and greater amounts of seed are produced in the presence of red LEDs supplemented with a quantity of blue light.

  15. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential light source for growing plants in spaceflight systems because of their safety, small mass and volume, wavelength specificity, and longevity. Despite these attractive features, red LEDs must satisfy requirements for plant photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis for successful growth and seed yield. To determine the influence of gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) red LEDs on wheat photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield, wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'USU-Super Dwarf') plants were grown under red LEDs and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) lamps and red LEDs supplemented with either 1% or 10% blue light from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. Compared to white light-grown plants, wheat grown under red LEDs alone demonstrated less main culm development during vegetative growth through preanthesis, while showing a longer flag leaf at 40 DAP and greater main culm length at final harvest (70 DAP). As supplemental BF light was increased with red LEDs, shoot dry matter and net leaf photosynthesis rate increased. At final harvest, wheat grown under red LEDs alone displayed fewer subtillers and a lower seed yield compared to plants grown under white light. Wheat grown under red LEDs+10% BF light had comparable shoot dry matter accumulation and seed yield relative to wheat grown under white light. These results indicate that wheat can complete its life cycle under red LEDs alone, but larger plants and greater amounts of seed are produced in the presence of red LEDs supplemented with a quantity of blue light.

  16. NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711) C-141 KAO, CV-990 (712) Galileo, T-38, YO-3A, Lear Jet, X-14, U-2, OH-6, CH-47, SH-3G, RSRA, AH-1G, XV-15, UH-1H

  17. Beryllium-Boron Systematics of Refractory Inclusions in CR2 and CV3 Chondrites: Evidence for 10Be Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.

    2016-08-01

    Be-B systematics of Allende (CV3), Axtell (CV3), and NWA 5028 (CR2) CAIs suggests that 10Be was distributed heterogeneously in the early solar system which implies that 10Be was produced in the solar nebula by irradiation of nebular gas or dust.

  18. Tandem Duplication Events in the Expansion of the Small Heat Shock Protein Gene Family in Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Heinz 1706).

    PubMed

    Krsticevic, Flavia J; Arce, Débora P; Ezpeleta, Joaquín; Tapia, Elizabeth

    2016-10-13

    In plants, fruit maturation and oxidative stress can induce small heat shock protein (sHSP) synthesis to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although the tomato reference genome was published in 2012, the actual number and functionality of sHSP genes remain unknown. Using a transcriptomic (RNA-seq) and evolutionary genomic approach, putative sHSP genes in the Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Heinz 1706) genome were investigated. A sHSP gene family of 33 members was established. Remarkably, roughly half of the members of this family can be explained by nine independent tandem duplication events that determined, evolutionarily, their functional fates. Within a mitochondrial class subfamily, only one duplicated member, Solyc08g078700, retained its ancestral chaperone function, while the others, Solyc08g078710 and Solyc08g078720, likely degenerated under neutrality and lack ancestral chaperone function. Functional conservation occurred within a cytosolic class I subfamily, whose four members, Solyc06g076570, Solyc06g076560, Solyc06g076540, and Solyc06g076520, support ∼57% of the total sHSP RNAm in the red ripe fruit. Subfunctionalization occurred within a new subfamily, whose two members, Solyc04g082720 and Solyc04g082740, show heterogeneous differential expression profiles during fruit ripening. These findings, involving the birth/death of some genes or the preferential/plastic expression of some others during fruit ripening, highlight the importance of tandem duplication events in the expansion of the sHSP gene family in the tomato genome. Despite its evolutionary diversity, the sHSP gene family in the tomato genome seems to be endowed with a core set of four homeostasis genes: Solyc05g014280, Solyc03g082420, Solyc11g020330, and Solyc06g076560, which appear to provide a baseline protection during both fruit ripening and heat shock stress in different tomato tissues.

  19. Tandem Duplication Events in the Expansion of the Small Heat Shock Protein Gene Family in Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Heinz 1706)

    PubMed Central

    Krsticevic, Flavia J.; Arce, Débora P.; Ezpeleta, Joaquín; Tapia, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In plants, fruit maturation and oxidative stress can induce small heat shock protein (sHSP) synthesis to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although the tomato reference genome was published in 2012, the actual number and functionality of sHSP genes remain unknown. Using a transcriptomic (RNA-seq) and evolutionary genomic approach, putative sHSP genes in the Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Heinz 1706) genome were investigated. A sHSP gene family of 33 members was established. Remarkably, roughly half of the members of this family can be explained by nine independent tandem duplication events that determined, evolutionarily, their functional fates. Within a mitochondrial class subfamily, only one duplicated member, Solyc08g078700, retained its ancestral chaperone function, while the others, Solyc08g078710 and Solyc08g078720, likely degenerated under neutrality and lack ancestral chaperone function. Functional conservation occurred within a cytosolic class I subfamily, whose four members, Solyc06g076570, Solyc06g076560, Solyc06g076540, and Solyc06g076520, support ∼57% of the total sHSP RNAm in the red ripe fruit. Subfunctionalization occurred within a new subfamily, whose two members, Solyc04g082720 and Solyc04g082740, show heterogeneous differential expression profiles during fruit ripening. These findings, involving the birth/death of some genes or the preferential/plastic expression of some others during fruit ripening, highlight the importance of tandem duplication events in the expansion of the sHSP gene family in the tomato genome. Despite its evolutionary diversity, the sHSP gene family in the tomato genome seems to be endowed with a core set of four homeostasis genes: Solyc05g014280, Solyc03g082420, Solyc11g020330, and Solyc06g076560, which appear to provide a baseline protection during both fruit ripening and heat shock stress in different tomato tissues. PMID:27565886

  20. Combined elicitation of methyl-jasmonate and red light on stilbene and anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tassoni, Annalisa; Durante, Lorenzo; Ferri, Maura

    2012-05-15

    Vitis vinifera cell suspensions are a suitable system to study the metabolic regulation of a large range of polyphenols, including flavonoids and stilbenes that play important roles in plant development. Grape cv. Barbera petioles cell cultures were treated with red light and 10 μM methyl-jasmonate (MeJA), alone or in combination, to investigate their influence and/or induction effect on the production of anthocyanins, catechins and free and mono-glucosylated stilbenes. The synthesis of total anthocyanins was slightly decreased by red light alone, while MeJA and MeJA plus red light increased the levels of these metabolites. When compared to the relative controls, the red light treatment decreased the amount of catechins and increased their release in the culture medium, while MeJA alone or in combination with red light increased their production. Red light treatment generally enhanced the amount of free and mono-glucosylated stilbenes during the entire observation period, as well as the percentage of their release in the media. Treatment with MeJA strongly promoted the production of total stilbenes, which was further elicited by the MeJA plus red light treatment. During the combined treatment, the presence of the light stimulus improved the effect of MeJA by anticipating the maximum increase of stilbenes which were also largely released (up to 90%). These results demonstrate that, in grapevine, as in other plant systems, the change of conditions in which the MeJA stimulus is perceived (e.g. going from total white to red light) drastically modifies the plant response to this hormone. The present paper confirms that the jasmonate transduction pathway is integrated into an elaborate signaling network that also comprehends the red light signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of apple fruit identifies light-induced genes involved in red color pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Danman; Han, Yuepeng; Khan, M Awais; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S

    2014-01-15

    Although the mechanism of light regulation of color pigmentation of apple fruit is not fully understood, it has been shown that light can regulate expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway by inducing transcription factors (TFs). Moreover, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in this pathway may be coordinately regulated by multiple TFs. In this study, fruits on trees of apple cv. Red Delicious were covered with paper bags during early stages of fruit development and then removed prior to maturation to analyze the transcriptome in the exocarp of apple fruit. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of fruit covered with paper bags (dark-grown treatment) and those subjected to 14 h light treatment, following removal of paper bags, were investigated using an apple microarray of 40,000 sequences. Expression profiles were investigated over three time points, at one week intervals, during fruit development. Overall, 736 genes with expression values greater than two-fold were found to be modulated by light treatment. Light-induced products were classified into 19 categories with highest scores in primary metabolism (17%) and transcription (12%). Based on the Arabidopsis gene ontology annotation, 18 genes were identified as TFs. To further confirm expression patterns of flavonoid-related genes, these were subjected to quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using fruit of red-skinned apple cv. Red Delicious and yellow-skinned apple cv. Golden Delicious. Of these, two genes showed higher levels of expression in 'Red Delicious' than in 'Golden Delicious', and were likely involved in the regulation of fruit red color pigmentation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  3. Red Arcs on Tethys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-29

    Unusual arc-shaped, reddish streaks cut across the surface of Saturn's ice-rich moon Tethys in this enhanced-color mosaic. The red streaks are narrow, curved lines on the moon's surface, only a few miles (or kilometers) wide but several hundred miles (or kilometers) long. The red streaks are among the most unusual color features on Saturn's moons to be revealed by Cassini's cameras. A few of the red arcs can be faintly seen in Cassini imaging observations made earlier in the mission, but the color images for this observation, which were obtained in April 2015, were the first to show large northern areas of Tethys under the illumination and viewing conditions necessary to see the features clearly. As the Saturn system moved into its northern hemisphere summer over the past few years, northern latitudes have become increasingly well illuminated. As a result, the red arc features have become clearly visible for the first time. The origin of the features and their reddish color is currently a mystery to Cassini scientists. Possibilities being studied include ideas that the reddish material is exposed ice with chemical impurities, or the result of outgassing from inside Tethys. The streaks could also be associated with features like fractures that are below the resolution of the available images. Except for a few small craters on Dione, reddish tinted features are rare on other moons of Saturn. However, many reddish features are observed on the geologically young surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Images taken using clear, green, infrared and ultraviolet spectral filters were combined to create the view, which highlights subtle color differences across Tethys' surface at wavelengths not visible to human eyes. The moon's surface is fairly uniform in natural color. The yellowish tones on the left side of the view are a result of alteration of the moon's surface by high-energy particles from Saturn's magnetosphere. This particle radiation slams into the moon's trailing

  4. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  5. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  7. Modal mineralogy of CV3 chondrites by X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2010-09-01

    Using position sensitive detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) we determine a complete modal mineralogy for all phases present in abundances greater than 1 wt% in Vigarano, Efremovka, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Kaba and Allende. Reduced CV3 samples are comprised of (vol%): olivine (83-85%); enstatite (6.5-8.1%); anorthite (1.1-1.2%); magnetite (1.4-1.8%); sulphide (2.4-5.1%); Fe, Ni metal (2-2.2%). The oxidized samples are comprised of: olivine (76.3-83.9%); enstatite (4.8-7.8%); anorthite (1.1-1.7%); magnetite (0.3-6.1%); sulphide (2.9-8.1%); Fe, Ni metal (0.2-1.1%); Fe-oxide (0-2.7%) and phyllosilicate (1.9-4.2%). When our modal data is used to calculate a bulk chemistry that is compared to literature data a near 1:1 correlation is observed. PSD-XRD data indicates that olivine compositions may span almost the entire Fe-Mg solid solution series in all CV samples and that these contain a component (4-13%) of fine-grained olivine that is more Fe-rich (>Fa 60) than is typically reported. Modal mineralogy shows that there are mineralogic differences between CV3 samples classified as oxidized and reduced but that these sub-classes are most clearly distinguished by the relative abundance of metal and Ni content of sulphide, rather than abundance of magnetite. The most significant difference in modal mineralogy observed is the relative absence of phyllosilicate in reduced CV that essentially escaped aqueous alteration. Fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite are typically considered secondary alteration products. The abundances of these minerals overlap in oxidized and reduced samples and correlate positively supporting common conditions of formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. The abundances of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite show no relationship to petrographic type and if these abundances were used as a proxy for alteration, Allende would be the least altered CV - contrary to all previous data. The implication is that thermal metamorphism on the parent body

  8. Formation timescales of CV chondrites from component specific Hf-W systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maike; Hezel, Dominik C.; Schulz, Toni; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Münker, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important meteorite group that closely resembles the bulk composition of the solar system. We report the first elemental and isotope dataset for Hf-W in carbonaceous chondrites that includes chondrules, matrix, magnetic fractions as well as bulk compositions. Our study focuses on the three CV3 chondrites, Allende, Vigarano and Bali. Compared to bulk chondrites, matrix splits have low Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions, whereas chondrule splits are characterized by high, but more variable, Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions. Thus, Hf/W ratios behave complementary between chondrules and matrix in the analysed CV chondrites, supporting the view that both components formed from the same parental reservoir. Strong nucleosynthetic effects were observed in most of the analysed CV3 components, especially in matrices and chondrule splits that were found to have large ε183W anomalies of several ε-units. All separates define a rough correlation between initial 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, in agreement with theoretical model trends based on calculations for stellar nucleosynthesis. Our results, therefore, indicate a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the different CV3 chondrite components, arguing for selective thermal processing of early solar system matter during chondrule formation. After correcting for nucleosynthetic anomalies, chondrules and matrix splits of reduced (Vigarano) as well as oxidised (Allende) CV3 chondrites define a linear correlation in ε182W vs. 180Hf/184W space, which is interpreted as an isochron, covering an age interval within the first ∼2.6 Ma after solar system formation. As peak metamorphic temperatures for CV3 chondrites were well below the 182Hf-182W closure temperature, the resulting isochron within its error most likely defines a common formation interval for all components. The calculated age interval is for the first time based on a combined chondrule-matrix isochron, a

  9. [Effect of electroacupuncture of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) on Wnt-β-catenin signaling in osteoporosis rats].

    PubMed

    Fan, Huai-ling; Ji, Feng; Lin, Ying; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) on bone miner density, bone biomechanics, serum osteocalcin (BGP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) contents, and femoral osteoblastic Wnt-β-catenin signaling in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) rats. Forty female SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham), model, EA-CV 4, and EA-non-acupoint (below the costal region) groups (n = 10 in each group). The PMOP model was established by performing an ovariectomy in the rats of the later 3 groups. EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to CV 4 for 20 min, once daily for one month, with one day's break between every 10 days. After the treatment, serum BGP and ALP contents were detected using ELISA, the right femoral bone miner density and biomechanics (maximum load, breakage load) were measured using a Dual Energy X-Ray Bone Densitometer and a Universal Material Testing Instrument, respectively. The expression levels of Wnt 3 a mRNA, β-catenin mRNA and the bone-specific factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx 2) mRNA of the femoral bone tissue were determined by real time RT-PCR. HE staining results suggested EA of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) can improve the morphological changes (trabeculae) of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Compared with the control group, femoral maximum load and breakage load, bone density and serum BGP and ALP contents, femoral Wnt 3 a mRNA, β-catenin and Runx 2 mRNA expression levels, and femoral Wnt 3 a.and β-catenin immunoactivity were significantly down-regulated in the ovariectomized rats (model group) (P < 0.05). Following EA treatment, all the decreased levels of femoral maximum load and breakage load, bone density and serum BGP and ALP, femoral Wnt 3 a mRNA and protein, β-catenin mRNA and protein and Runx 2 mRNA expression were obviously reversed in the EA-CV 4 group (P < 0.05) rather than in the non-acupoint group (P > 0.05). EA of CV 4 can improve the femoral biomechanics, increase bone density in OVX rats, which

  10. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  11. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  12. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Liao, Liao; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum 'Ziyeli' (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear.

  13. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum ‘Ziyeli’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. PMID:26247780

  14. Red Teaming Agility (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Red Teaming ” Agility Dr. Kira Hutchinson TRADOC G2 Forward Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...SUBTITLE ’ Red Teaming ’ Agilty 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...18 Innovation Bottom Line Up Front Challenge Analysis The nexus of red teaming and experimentation in the context of the future operational

  15. Geographical variations of the skull in the red fox Vulpes vulpes on the Japanese Islands: an exception to Bergmann's rule.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Takuya; Uraguchi, Kohji; Abramov, Alexei V; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2010-12-01

    In order to clarify the morphological differences between two subspecies of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on the Japanese Islands and test the validity of Bergmann's rule, we examined geographical variations in 25 cranial and 24 dental characters in V. v. schrencki from Hokkaido and V. v. japonica from the other main islands of Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu). Many skull measurements, including the male greatest length, condylobasal length, and the length of upper and lower tooth rows, were significantly larger for V. v. japonica than for V. v. schrencki, whereas most tooth measurements, especially the length of molars and premolars, in V. v. schrencki were larger than those in V. v. japonica. Although the two subspecies were morphologically well-differentiated from each other, the results did not support that they have evolved following Bergmann's rule of adaptation to cold climates. Based on consideration of the relatively large differences of their tooth sizes, which are not easily influenced by food abundance, and previous genetic research on the different migration histories of the two subspecies, the morphological differences detected in the present study may have resulted not only from the present ecological differences between the two subspecies, but also from the difference of migration history and evolutionary constraints.

  16. Food-Induced Red Eye.

    PubMed

    Rodgin, Susan G

    2017-07-01

    This article addresses the etiology of red eyes and a novel case of food-induced red eye. An 82-year-old white male patient reported 50 years of episodes of severe unilateral bulbar injection in either eye following ingestion of certain foods. Thinned scleras in this particular patient made the injection in his eyes more observable. Photodocumentation of this reaction after he ingested these foods is shown. It is hypothesized that this is a new explanation for an intermittent, unilateral, self-limited red eye-a food-induced red eye.

  17. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  18. The control volume radial basis function method CV-RBF with Richardson extrapolation in geochemical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, W. F.; Portapila, M.; Hill, A. F.; Power, H.; Orsini, P.; Bustamante, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how to implement a control volume approach improved by Hermite radial basis functions (CV-RBF) for geochemical problems. A multi-step strategy based on Richardson extrapolation is proposed as an alternative to the conventional dual step sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) for coupling the transport equations with the chemical model. Additionally, this paper illustrates how to use PHREEQC to add geochemical reaction capabilities to CV-RBF transport methods. Several problems with different degrees of complexity were solved including cases of cation exchange, dissolution, dissociation, equilibrium and kinetics at different rates for mineral species. The results show that the solution and strategies presented here are effective and in good agreement with other methods presented in the literature for the same cases.

  19. C-V profiling of ultra-shallow junctions using step-like background profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popadić, Miloš; Milovanović, Vladimir; Xu, Cuiqin; Sarubbi, Francesco; Nanver, Lis K.

    2010-09-01

    A novel C-V profiling method that enables profiling of ultra-shallow and ultra-abrupt junctions is described. The method takes advantage of a peculiar shape of the C-V characteristic that is obtained with a step-like or some other abruptly changing background profile. The method is theoretically described and confirmed by MEDICI simulations. Experimental use of the method requires the fabrication of both a p-n and a Schottky diode with identical background profiles. Here, a step-like background As profile and an ultra-shallow and ultra-abrupt p + junction were achieved by Si epitaxy and pure boron RPCVD, respectively. Using these techniques, junctions with a doping depth of around 7 nm and with a slope of about 2.5 nm/dec were fabricated and measured. The way to create an optimal experimental situation in terms of measurement range and accuracy is discussed.

  20. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  1. A model for the C-V characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun Jie; Sun, Jing; Zheng, Xue Jun

    2009-02-01

    A model is developed to describe the characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure based on the dipole switching theory (DST) and the silicon physics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure. The ferroelectric dipole distribution function is used to simulate the history-dependent electric field effect of the ferroelectric layer. Using the model, the thickness effects of the ferroelectric and insulator layers on the capacitance-voltage ( C-V) characteristic and the memory window were investigated for Pt/SBT/ZrO 2/Si and Pt/BLT/MgO/Si structures. All the simulation results show good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the model is suitable for simulating the C-V characteristic and the memory window of MFIS structure. In addition, the mathematical description is simple and can be easily integrated into the electronic design automation (EDA) software for circuit simulation.

  2. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  3. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-08-02

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), lands on the Edwards AFB main runway in test of the space shuttle landing gear system. In this case, the shuttle tire failed, bursting into flame during the rollout. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy. The CV-990 used as the LSRA was built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  4. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Pedro R; Gil, Raúl A; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 microg L(-1) Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 microg L(-1)Hg.

  5. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  6. Environmental Review for the CV-22 Beddown at Yokota Air Base, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-24

    2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Review for the CV-22 Beddown at Yokota Air Base, Japan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... Japan 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 119 19a. NAME OF...1-2 (U) Figure 1-2. Yokota Air Base, Japan

  7. 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from Kaba and Yamato 980145 CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Komatsu, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    We report the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from the least metamorphosed CV3 (Vigarano-type) chondrites, Kaba and Yamato (Y) 980145. Two Y 980145 chondrules measured show no resolvable excesses in 26Mg (26Mg∗), a decay product of a short-lived (t1/2 ∼0.7 Ma) radionuclide 26Al. Plagioclase in one of the chondrules is replaced by nepheline, indicative of thermal metamorphism. The lack of 26Mg∗ in the Y 980145 chondrules is most likely due to disturbance of their 26Al-26Mg systematics during the metamorphism. Although Kaba experienced extensive metasomatic alteration (<300 °C), it largely avoided subsequent thermal metamorphism, and the 26Al-26Mg systematics of its chondrules appear to be undisturbed. All eight Kaba chondrules measured show 26Mg∗, corresponding to the initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (2.9 ± 1.7) × 10-6 to (6.3 ± 2.7) × 10-6. If CV parent asteroid accreted rapidly after chondrule formation, the inferred (26Al/27Al)0 ratios in Kaba chondrules provide an upper limit on 26Al available in this asteroid at the time of its accretion. The estimated initial abundance of 26Al in the CV asteroid is too low to melt it and contradicts the existence of a molten core in this body suggested from the paleomagnetic records of Allende [Carporzen et al. (2011) Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108, 6386-6389] and Kaba [Gattacceca et al. (2013) More evidence for a partially differentiated CV parent body from the meteorite Kaba. Lunar Planet. Sci.44, abstract#1721].

  8. Nipple Reconstruction Using the C-V Flap Technique: Long-Term Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Jalini, Lona; Lund, Jonathan; Kurup, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nipple creation using the C-V flap technique is often the final step in breast reconstruction. The aim of this study was to subjectively and objectively assess the cosmetic outcomes and satisfaction of patients undergoing C-V flap nipple reconstruction. METHODS Subjective assessments of patient satisfaction with the neo-nipple were recorded by visual analogue scoring (VAS; 0-10). Objective measurements were performed using a calliper to measure nipple projection relative to the native breast. Descriptive data analysis was performed with differences in projection assessed with the Mann-Whitney test and mean and median VAS scores (with inter-quartile ranges; IQR) calculated to describe satisfaction. RESULTS Thirty-three C-V flap nipple reconstructions were performed. 87.9% received latissimus dorsi (LD) reconstructions with implants and 12.1% had transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) reconstructions. The median projection of reconstructed nipples was 4.7 mm (range 4-10.2 mm) at 4.6 years mean follow-up, which was not significantly different from the contralateral nipple (p = 0.34). Patient satisfaction was 9 (IQR: 8-10) with shape, 9 (IQR: 7.5-10) with projection, 5 (IQR: 2-9.6) with sensation, and 8.5 (IQR: 6-9.5) with symmetry. Median overall satisfaction was 9 (IQR: 8-10). Three patients had complete nipple loss, of whom two had undergone nipple piercing post procedure and none had received radiotherapy. CONCLUSION C-V flap nipple reconstructions provide a simple and reliable method to reconstruct the nipple that enhances confidence and perception of body image. Satisfaction was high with long-term outcomes in terms of projection equivalent to the contralateral breast. PMID:28289616

  9. Heavily metamorphosed clasts from the CV chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nakamura, Tomoki

    2012-12-01

    Abstract- Metamorphosed clasts in the CV carbonaceous chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009 (Y-86009) are coarse-grained, granular, polymineralic rocks composed of Ca-bearing (up to 0.6 wt% CaO) ferroan olivine (Fa34-39), ferroan Al-diopside (Fs9-13Wo47-50, approximately 2-7 wt% Al2O3), plagioclase (An37-84Ab63-17), Cr-spinel (Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.19-0.45, Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0.60-0.79), nepheline, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, Ca-phosphate, and rare grains of Ni-rich taenite; low-Ca pyroxene is absent. Most clasts have triple junctions between silicate grains, indicative of prolonged thermal annealing. Based on the olivine-spinel and pyroxene thermometry, the estimated metamorphic temperature recorded by the clasts is approximately 1100 K. Few clasts experienced thermal metamorphism to a lower degree and preserved chondrule-like textures. The Mokoia and Y-86009 clasts are mineralogically unique and different from metamorphosed chondrites of known groups (H, L, LL, R, EH, EL, CO, CK) and primitive achondrites (acapulcoites, brachinites, lodranites). On a three-isotope oxygen diagram, compositions of olivine in the clasts plot along carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral line and the Allende mass-fractionation line, and overlap with those of the CV chondrule olivines; the Δ17O values of the clasts range from about -4.3‰ to -3.0‰. We suggest that the clasts represent fragments of the CV-like material that experienced metasomatic alteration, high-temperature metamorphism, and possibly melting in the interior of the CV parent asteroid. The lack of low-Ca pyroxene in the clasts could be due to its replacement by ferroan olivine during iron-alkali metasomatic alteration or by high-Ca ferroan pyroxene during melting under oxidizing conditions.

  10. Stereoselective oxidation of racemic 1-arylethanols by basil cultured cells of Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Kaoru; Utsukihara, Takamitsu; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, C Akira

    2008-05-01

    The biotransformation of racemic 1-phenylethanol (30 mg) with plant cultured cells of basil (Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens, 5 g wet wt) by shaking 120 rpm at 25 degrees C for 7 days in the dark gave (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol and acetophenone in 34 and 24% yields, respectively. The biotransformation can be applied to other 1-arylethanols and basil cells oxidized the (S)-alcohols to the corresponding ketones remaining the (R)-alcohols in excellent ee.

  11. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  12. Real-time detecting and tracking ball with OpenCV and Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiecki, Tomasz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a way to detect and track ball with using the OpenCV and Kinect. Object and people recognition, tracking are more and more popular topics nowadays. Described solution makes it possible to detect ball based on the range, which is set by the user and capture information about ball position in three dimensions. It can be store in the computer and use for example to display trajectory of the ball.

  13. Biochemical analysis of SV40 small t mediated theophylline resistance in CV-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The papovavirus SV40 encodes for the two tumor antigens, large T and small t. While much is known about large T, little information is available about the role of small t in the viral life cycle. The authors have developed a system for studying small t antigen based on its ability to overcome the G/sub 0/ growth arrest induced by the methylxanthine, theophylline. Uninfected CV-1 cells, the permissive host for SV40, are arrested by 1-2mM theophylline. In contrast, Wt-infected cells are not arrested by the same concentrations of this drug. Biochemical studies were designed to analyze the effects of theophylline and the means by which small t can overcome the growth arrest of CV-1 cells. Theophylline, a cyclic AMP analogue, does not appear to arrest CV-1 cells by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Theophylline appears to arrest CV-1 cells by inhibiting sodium influx. Both /sub 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake were inhibited by theophylline. Amiloride and TMB-8, drugs which are known to inhibit the plasma membrane Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter, decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake to the same degree as theophylline. Because these drugs also arrested mock and D1- but not Wt-infected cells it is possible that theophylline inhibits sodium uptake by inhibiting this antiporter. Furthermore, because Wt-infected cells are resistant to the growth arrest induced by these drugs, it is possible that small t acts either by directly altering this antiporter or by bypassing the step which requires the activity of the antiporter.

  14. Development of the Portable Synchrotron MIRRORCLE-CV for High Precision Non-Destructive Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Toyosugi, Norio; Noh, Young Deok; Yamada, Takanori; Morita, Masaki; Mantey, Edward; Masaoka, Sei; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-01-19

    We started the development of the portable synchrotron MIRRORCLE-CV series, which provides a high quality x-ray beam for high precision non-destructive testing (NDT). Computer simulations for the magnetic field design and electron dynamics reveal that the outer diameter of the synchrotron magnet can be as small as 30 cm. This synchrotron size approaches that of a conventional x-ray tube.

  15. MIRRORCLE-CV The Portable Synchrotron For Precise Non-Destructive Testing And Medical Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-30

    We are developing the portable synchrotron MIRRORCLE-CV series, which provides a high quality x-ray beam for high precision non-destructive testing (NDT). Computer simulations for the magnetic field design and electron dynamics reveal that the outer diameter of the synchrotron magnet can be as small as 30 cm. This synchrotron size approaches that of a conventional x-ray tube.

  16. TST from geofinder traverse data on HP41CV programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, G.J. )

    1989-02-01

    Using program subroutines designed for the HP41CV programmable calculator and the geometric data recorded from Geofinder traversing or other pace-and-compass-type methods, the true stratigraphic thickness (TST) of dipping or gently folded strata is calculated at a rate of about 30 seconds per station. TST information is therefore readily available for reviewing stratigraphic and structure data and for post survey graphical plots.

  17. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  18. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  19. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  20. Red Alert: diagnosis and management of the acute red eye.

    PubMed

    Welch, J F; Dickie, A K

    2014-01-01

    The acute red eye represents a broad spectrum of disease encompassing benign self-limiting conditions to potentially vision-threatening ophthalmic or system disease. This article will review clinical principles essential for the diagnosis and treatment of red eye relevant to all Armed Forces primary care and emergency medicine practitioners.

  1. Potency of an inactivated influenza vaccine prepared from A/duck/Hokkaido/162/2013 (H2N1) against a challenge with A/swine/Missouri/2124514/2006 (H2N3) in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mizuho; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Hiono, Takahiro; Matsuno, Keita; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2017-10-07

    H2N2 influenza virus caused a pandemic starting in 1957 but has not been detected in humans since 1968. Thus, most people are immunologically naive to viruses of the H2 subtype. In contrast, H2 influenza viruses are continually isolated from wild birds, and H2N3 viruses were isolated from pigs in 2006. H2 influenza viruses could cause a pandemic if re-introduced into humans. In the present study, a vaccine against H2 influenza was prepared as an effective control measure against a future human pandemic. A/duck/Hokkaido/162/2013 (H2N1), which showed broad antigenic cross-reactivity, was selected from the candidate H2 influenza viruses recently isolated from wild birds in Asian countries. Sufficient neutralizing antibodies against homologous and heterologous viruses were induced in mice after two subcutaneous injections of the inactivated whole virus particle vaccine. The inactivated vaccine induced protective immunity sufficient to reduce the impact of challenges with A/swine/Missouri/2124514/2006 (H2N3). This study demonstrates that the inactivated whole virus particle vaccine prepared from an influenza virus library would be useful against a future H2 influenza pandemic.

  2. Clonal structure of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing and beta-D-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from outbreaks and sporadic cases in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Hideki; Okui, Toyo; Fujiwara, Osamu; Uchiyama, Yasuhiro; Tamate, Naoto; Kumada, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Yo; Yano, Shoki

    2002-05-01

    A total of 22 clonal phenotypic variants of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 was isolated from six different locations in Hokkaido, Japan. These isolates were negative for sorbitol fermentation but positive for beta-D-glucuronidase (GUD+). They carried eaeA, EHEC-hlyA, pas and etpD genes like typical E. coli O157:H7 and, in addition, st1 and stx2 genes. However, they were shown to lack katP and espP genes that are present in typical STEC O157:H7. All these atypical GUD+ STEC O157:H7 isolates had very similar antimicrobial susceptibilities. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with XbaI, SfiI, SwaI, SpeI and NotI indicated that they were identical or closely related to one another. From their phenotypic and genotypic features, these GUD+ STEC O157:H7 isolates may represent a distinct clone among STEC O157.

  3. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches.

  4. Survey of the levels of satisfaction with pharmacy practice among third-year students in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido--influence of experience in voluntary training at a community pharmacy and plans after graduation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiya; Oda, Masako; Saitoh, Hiroshi

    2005-05-01

    Pharmacy practice, which is executed in the taught of pharmaceutical sciences in Japan, has been assessed and improved student questionnaires. The levels of student satisfaction with the practice are expected to be influenced by their plans after graduation and their experience of training in pharmacies. However, there are few reports analyzing the information in the questionnaires from these viewpoints. In this report, we surveyed the levels of satisfaction of 148 third-year students in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Health Sciences University of Hokkaido using questionnaires and analyzed the influence of the students' background on the levels of satisfaction with pharmacy practice. Almost half of the students had received voluntary training in hospital and/or community pharmacies. Concerning plans after graduation, 36.5%, 27.7%, and 21.6% wanted to become community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and graduate students, respectively. More than 70% of the students were well satisfied with all the programs of practice. The levels of satisfaction with the overall practice and prescription analysis were significantly higher among students who had experienced training in pharmacies than among those who had not. Students who planned to become hospital pharmacists were more satisfied with manners seminars, one-dose package practice, and practice in a simulated pharmacy than the students who planned to enter the other field. Such surveys are useful for finding points for improvement and the development of new curricula when the assessment of pharmacy practice takes student background into consideration.

  5. Examining landslide-induced tsunamis by using a low-cost high definition sonar and a simple one-dimensional simulation: A case study in Lake Kussharo, Hokkaido Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Shintaro

    2016-04-01

    Subaqueous landslides induce tsunami even in small and shallow water areas like rivers and lakes. They are one of hazard risk for shore areas by large earthquakes. However, it is difficult to examine subaqueous landslides due to invisible as they are and high-cost for marine investigation. In particular, small and shallow area is inaccessible for normal survey vessels. We developed a survey method combining a low-cost high definition sonar and a simple one-dimensional computing simulation. In this presentation, we show a case study in Lake Kussharo, Hokkaido, Japan. A tsunami as high as 1 m was occurred with M 6.1 earthquake in 1938. Recent seismic investigation reveals the characteristic geologic structures that indicate deformations of the lake floor, but there has been no bathymetric maps enough to analyze topography relates to the geologic structures and no spacial data of bottom material on the lake floor. We obtained images showing bottom materials by using a recent low-cost high definition sonar, and made bathymetric maps with 20 m-interval measuring lines covering two deformed areas. These results showed ~800 m-long relatively fresh landslide topography. We also obtained a topographic profile cutting across the landslide and the lake, and carried out the tsunami computing simulation. Setting 100 sec for the duration of landslide (5 m/sec in velocity), the tsunami height in the record was reproduced.

  6. Characterization of boron resistant and accumulating bacteria Lysinibacillus fusiformis M1, Bacillus cereus M2, Bacillus cereus M3, Bacillus pumilus M4 isolated from former mining site, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Raja, Chellaiah Edward; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Boron is known to be widespread environmental contaminant that is relatively mobile in soil when compared to other metal contaminants. The present study made an attempt to isolate and characterize the boron resistant and accumulating bacteria from former mining site at Hokkaido, Japan. Four potential strains M1, M2, M3 and M4 were selected based on high degree of boron and heavy metal resistances. The morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of mining bacteria revealed that the isolates were highly homology to Lysinibacillus fusiformis M1 (99 %), Bacillus cereus M2 (99 %), Bacillus cereus M3 (99 %) and Bacillus pumilus M4 (99 %) respectively. The strains M1, M2, M3 and M4 showed resistance to several heavy metals such as As (III), As (V) and Cr (VI), Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The selected strains were found to be arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by Silver nitrate test. The resting and growing cells of mining bacteria were used for boron accumulation analysis. Selected strains were found to be efficiently accumulating boron concentration ranging from 0.1-2.3 mg L (-1) and 1.5-4.7 mg L (-1) at 24 h and 168 h, respectively. The following results conclude that the mining bacteria act as potent bioaccumulator of boron and its resistant, removal characteristic can be valuable in boron bioremediation.

  7. Exploring the SDSS Data Set with Linked Scatter Plots. I. EMP, CEMP, and CV Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Henze, Christopher; Nelson, Bron C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a search for extremely metal-poor (EMP), carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP), and cataclysmic variable (CV) stars using a new exploration tool based on linked scatter plots (LSPs). Our approach is especially designed to work with very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia data sets, and it can be applied to stellar, galaxy, and quasar spectra. As a demonstration, we conduct our search using the SDSS DR10 data set. We first created a 3326-dimensional phase space containing nearly 2 billion measures of the strengths of over 1600 spectral features in 569,738 SDSS stars. These measures capture essentially all the stellar atomic and molecular species visible at the resolution of SDSS spectra. We show how LSPs can be used to quickly isolate and examine interesting portions of this phase space. To illustrate, we use LSPs coupled with cuts in selected portions of phase space to extract EMP stars, CEMP stars, and CV stars. We present identifications for 59 previously unrecognized candidate EMP stars and 11 previously unrecognized candidate CEMP stars. We also call attention to 2 candidate He ii emission CV stars found by the LSP approach that have not yet been discussed in the literature.

  8. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-02-27

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  9. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  10. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  11. Effect of chlormequat (cycocel) on the growth of ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea) cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red'.

    PubMed

    Gholampour, Abdollah; Hashemabadi, Davood; Sedaghathoor, Shahram; Kaviani, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concentration and application method of chlormequat (cycocel), a plant growth retardant, on plant height and some other traits in Brassica oleracea cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' was assessed. Plant growth retardants are commonly applied to limit stem elongation and produce a more compact plant. The experiment was done as a factorial in randomized completely blocks design (RCBD) with four replications. Plants (40 days after transplanting) were sprayed and drenched with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel. In each experiment, control untreated plants. Data were recorded the 60 and 90 days after transplanting. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), the effect of different treatments and their interaction on all traits was significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level of probability. Treatment of 1500 mg I(-1) cycocel resulted in about 50 and 20% shorter plants than control plants, 60 and 90 days after transplant. The growth of Brassica oleracea cultivar 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' decreased with increased cycocel concentration. Foliar sprays of cycocel controlled plant height of both cultivars. Results indicated that the shortest plants (9.94 and 11.59 cm) were those sprayed with 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel in cultivar 'Kamome White' after 60 and 90 days, respectively. The largest number of leaves (33.94) and highest leaf diameter (9.39 cm) occurred in cv. 'Nagoya Red', when drench was used. Maximum dry matter (14.31%) accumulated in cv. 'Nagoya Red', treated with spray.

  12. Red microchip VECSEL array.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Jennifer; Morton, Lynne; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles

    2005-09-05

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array.

  13. Jupiter Red 'Monet'

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    Citizen scientist David Englund created this avant-garde Jovian artwork using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. The unique interpretation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was done in a style that pays tribute to French Impressionist painter Claude Monet. The original image was taken on July 10, 2017 at 7:12 p.m. PDT (10:12 p.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed its 7th close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the image was taken, the spacecraft was 10,274 miles (16,535 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet, at a latitude of -36.9 degrees. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21779

  14. Direct In Vivo Electrochemical Detection of Haemoglobin in Red Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Rou Jun; Peng, Weng Kung; Han, Jongyoon; Pumera, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of iron ion in haemoglobin provides insight to the chemical activity in the red blood cell which is important in the field of hematology. Herein, the detection of haemoglobin in human red blood cells on glassy carbon electrode (GC) was demonstrated. Red blood cells or raw blood cells was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface with Nafion films employed to sandwich the layer of biological sample firmly on the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses revealed a well-defined reduction peak for haemoglobin at about -0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at the red blood cell (GC-Nf-RBC-3Nf) and blood (GC-Nf-B-3Nf) film modified GCE in a pH 3.5 phosphate buffer solution. We further demonstrated that the complex biological conditions of a human red blood cell displayed no interference with the detection of haemoglobin. Such findings shall have an implication on the possibilities of studying the electrochemical behaviour of haemoglobin directly from human blood, for various scientific and clinical purposes.

  15. Direct in vivo electrochemical detection of haemoglobin in red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Toh, Rou Jun; Peng, Weng Kung; Han, Jongyoon; Pumera, Martin

    2014-08-28

    The electrochemical behavior of iron ion in haemoglobin provides insight to the chemical activity in the red blood cell which is important in the field of hematology. Herein, the detection of haemoglobin in human red blood cells on glassy carbon electrode (GC) was demonstrated. Red blood cells or raw blood cells was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface with Nafion films employed to sandwich the layer of biological sample firmly on the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses revealed a well-defined reduction peak for haemoglobin at about -0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at the red blood cell (GC-Nf-RBC-3Nf) and blood (GC-Nf-B-3Nf) film modified GCE in a pH 3.5 phosphate buffer solution. We further demonstrated that the complex biological conditions of a human red blood cell displayed no interference with the detection of haemoglobin. Such findings shall have an implication on the possibilities of studying the electrochemical behaviour of haemoglobin directly from human blood, for various scientific and clinical purposes.

  16. Direct In Vivo Electrochemical Detection of Haemoglobin in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Rou Jun; Peng, Weng Kung; Han, Jongyoon; Pumera, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of iron ion in haemoglobin provides insight to the chemical activity in the red blood cell which is important in the field of hematology. Herein, the detection of haemoglobin in human red blood cells on glassy carbon electrode (GC) was demonstrated. Red blood cells or raw blood cells was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface with Nafion films employed to sandwich the layer of biological sample firmly on the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses revealed a well-defined reduction peak for haemoglobin at about −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at the red blood cell (GC-Nf-RBC-3Nf) and blood (GC-Nf-B-3Nf) film modified GCE in a pH 3.5 phosphate buffer solution. We further demonstrated that the complex biological conditions of a human red blood cell displayed no interference with the detection of haemoglobin. Such findings shall have an implication on the possibilities of studying the electrochemical behaviour of haemoglobin directly from human blood, for various scientific and clinical purposes. PMID:25163492

  17. Red and blue lights induced oxidative stress tolerance promote cadmium rhizocomplexation in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and related stress responses have been investigated in red, blue and white lights exposed Oryza sativa L. cv MTU 7029. Cd translocation was reduced significantly by red and blue lights. Increase in amount of organic acids, thiols, and nutrients in the roots that cause Cd rhizocomplexation was the reason for reduction in Cd translocation. These effects were due to higher efficiency to perform photosynthesis and transpiration under red or blue lights compare with white light during Cd stress. Increased photosynthetic assimilate turnover was witnessed as a function of sugar content. Amount of redox regulators such as glutathione and ascorbate were also increased under red and blue light exposure. Together with up regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, these metabolites ensured redox balance in presence of reactive oxygen species produced due to Cd toxicity. Protection of photosynthesis from Cd inducible oxidative stress ensured supplies of sugar intermediates essential for the synthesis of metal chelators in roots. Therefore, it was inferred that red and blue lights promote Cd rhizocomplexation and ameliorated Cd stress in rice seedlings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Opaque minerals in CAIs, and classification of the Axtell (CV3) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.; Simon, S. B.

    1994-07-01

    Axtell is a new CV3 chondrite from Texas. Preliminary studies of its Ca-Al rich Inclusions (CAIs) were reported. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of opaque minerals in four Axtell CAIs are distinct from their analogs in other inclusions from CV3 chondrites. Metallic NiFe (awaruite) is the dominant phase in opaque assemblages from Axtell inclusions, and occurs as well-rounded particles of sizes between about 1 and 20 microns. Their compositions (in atom %) are N63-67Fe31-33Co2-3 in AX-4, AX-7, and AX-9, and Ni74Fe23Co2 in AX-5. None of the awaruite grains contains measurable amounts (greater than 200 ppm by weight) of the platinum-group elements analyzed for Ru, W, Mo, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. With very few exceptions, the awaruite particles studied are surrounded by or intergrown with V-free magnetite (detection limit = 400 ppm). In contrast with Allende, the dominant sulfide phase in Axtell inclusions is troilite (Ni less than or = 0.02-0.3%, by weight); pentlandite is scarce, occurring only sporadically as small grains associated with metallic FeNi (just a few particles of 5-15 microns were found in AX-5, AX-4, and AX-7, and none in AX-9). Also, an isolated 10-microns grain of millerite (NiS; Fe = 0.6 wt%) has been identified in AX-5. Unlike Allende inclusions, Axtell CAIs do not contain sulfide veins. Two remarkably large PGE-rich sulfide grains have been recognized: one spherical 12-microns particle in AX-4 (AX-4A, in melilite, close to the edge of the inclusion) and another irregularly shaped 25-microns grain in AX-9 (AX-9A, in melilite inside a spinel palisade). Study of the elemental distribution by wavelength-dispersive X-ray mapping and analysis and backscattered electron imaging suggests that these are single minerals and not multiphase assemblages. Microprobe analyses of chondrule olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes yield average Fa and Fs contents of 6.7 and 1.0 mol% respectively. These compositions suggest that Axtell is more similar to the CV3 chondrites

  19. Volume tables for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  20. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  1. [Effects of Early Goal-directed Therapy Combined with Yiqi Fumai Lyophilized Powder on P(cv-a) CO2 and S(cv)O2 in Patients with Septic Shock].

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong-fang

    2016-03-01

    To explore the effect of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) combined with Yiqi Fumai Lyophilized Powder (YFLP) on central venous-arterial carbon dioxide difference [P(cv-a)CO2] and central venous oxygen saturation (S(cv)O2) in patients with septic shock. Totally 50 patients with septic shock were assigned to the control group and the treatment group according to random digit table, 25 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received treatment according to EGDT principle. Those in the treatment group were intravenously injected with YFLP (5.2 g adding in 500 mL normal saline) additionally. Changes of P(cv-a)CO2, S(cv)O2, lactic acid, central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and APACHE II score were observed in the two groups before and after treatment. The 6-h success rate and 28-day mortality were also observed. Compared with before treatment in the same group, lactic acid and APACHE II score decreased, levels of S(cv)O2, MAP, CVP increased in the two groups after treatment (P < 0.01). P(cv-a)CO2 decreased more obviously after treatment in the treatment group, and lower than that in the control group after treatment (P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01). The 6-h success rate was 48% (12/25) in the control group and 76% (19/25) in the treatment group (P < 0.05). The 28-day mortality was 36% (9/25) in the control group and 12% (3/25) in the treatment group (P < 0.05). EGDT combined with YFLP could significantly elevate S(cv)O2, decrease P(cv-a)CO2 and mortality in patients with septic shock, and obviously improve the clinical effect.

  2. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from

  3. Oxygen delivery from red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A; Federspiel, W J; Clark, P A; Cokelet, G R

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the unloading of oxygen from a red cell. A scale analysis of the governing transport equations shows that the solutions have a boundary layer structure near the red-cell membrane. The boundary layer is a region of chemical nonequilibrium, and it owes its existence to the fact that the kinetic time scales are shorter than the diffusion time scales in the red cell. The presence of the boundary layer allows an analytical solution to be obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. A very useful result from the analysis is a simple, lumped-parameter description of the oxygen delivery from a red cell. The accuracy of the lumped-parameter description has been verified by comparing its predictions with results obtained by numerical integration of the full equations for a one-dimensional slab. As an application, we calculate minimum oxygen unloading times for red cells. PMID:3978198

  4. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  5. Measurement of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices in the evaluation of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Oustamanolakis, Pantelis; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Kefalogiannis, Georgios; Niniraki, Maria; Kouroumalis, Elias A

    2011-08-01

    The commonest types of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are iron deficiency (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease. The differentiation between these two conditions is important for the management of the patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices in the evaluation of anemia in IBD. One hundred IBD patients [49 ulcerative colitis (UC), 51 Crohn's disease (CD)] and 102 healthy controls were enrolled. Measurement of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices was performed using the Coulter LH780 Hematology Analyzer (Beckman Coulter). Additionally, serum levels of ferritin, transferrin saturation (Tsat) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were analyzed in all patients and controls. The prevalence of anemia was 41.2% for UC and 42.9% for CD, whereas 30 IBD patients (30%) had IDA. Red cell Distribution Width (RDW), Red blood cell Size Factor (RSF), and Reticulocyte Distribution Width-Coefficient of Variation (RDWR-CV) were found significantly correlated with both Tsat and sTfR but not with ferritin levels. Patients with IDA had significantly higher RDW and RDWR-CV and significantly lower RSF levels compared with those without IDA. High values of RDW (sensitivity 93%, specificity 81%) and low values of RSF (sensitivity 83%, specificity 82%) were the best markers for the diagnosis of IDA. Both RDWR-CV and RDWR-SD were significantly correlated with disease activity and CRP levels. RDW, RSF and RDWR, could be useful markers for the evaluation of anemia and disease activity in IBD. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV): Further Evidence on Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure, Incremental and Criterion Validity in Italian Community Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Andrea; Barcaccia, Barbara; Dèttore, Davide

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) assesses six dimensions of OCD symptoms in childhood and adolescence. The current study used confirmatory methods to assess factor structure and reliability of the Italian OCI-CV in community children and adolescents. 1408 community children and adolescents completed the OCI-CV and a subgroup (n=855) completed measures of other anxiety and depression symptoms. A six correlated factor structure showed good fit. Reliability was excellent for total OCI-CV and for the other scales ranged from good to acceptable. The OCI-CV confirmed good properties in terms of factor structure and reliability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  8. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  9. Application of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory-Chinese Version (GAI-CV) to older people in Beijing communities.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yue; Xin, Tao; Wang, Dahua; Tang, Dan

    2014-03-01

    The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) was developed to assess anxiety in older adults. The objectives of this work were as follows: (a) to analyze the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the GAI (GAI-CV), and (b) to explore the extent of anxiety and related factors in the elderly Chinese residents of Beijing. Participants in this study included 1,047 people (59.4% female) more than 60 years old who were living in the community. They were randomly selected from 15 communities in Beijing. Basic information was collected. Anxiety was measured using the GAI-CV, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The GAI-CV exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and demonstrated good concurrent validity against the SAS (r = 0.52, p = 0.018) and the BAI (r = 0.560, p = 0.000). Item response theory (IRT) analyses showed that the items of the GAI-CV exhibited high difficulty (0.97-2) and discrimination parameters (1.91-5.33). The items exhibited information parameters greater than 1.25 with the exceptions of items 2, 12, and 18. The GAI-CV scores were significantly associated with gender, age, and chronic disease. However, no significant differences due to marriage or education were found. The GAI is a new scale that was specifically designed to measure anxiety in older people. The results of this study suggest that the GAI-CV had good psychometric properties, but some items need to be modified. IRT analyses indicated that the GAI-CV provided good measures of anxiety across the moderately high to very high levels. The GAI-CV may be a useful instrument for further research studies aimed at analyzing high-level anxiety among older adults in China.

  10. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  11. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  12. C-V Measurement of HfO2 Dielectric Layer Received by UV Stimulated Plasma Anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibilashvili, Amiran; Kushitashvili, Zurab

    2016-10-01

    In this report we consider HfO2 dielectric layer received by UV stimulated plasma anodizing. This dielectric is distinguished by good electric parameters. For this purpose, it was used C-V characterization technic and calculate dielectric constant, flatband voltage, thrishold voltage, bulk potential, work function, oxide effective charge, charge concentration. The C-V measurement was carried out on Keithley Instrument - Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer 4200, oxide thickness was measured by reflectometer - MprobeVis System.

  13. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  14. Defense response of a pepper cultivar cv. Sy-2 is induced at temperatures below 24°C.

    PubMed

    Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Tanaka, Chihiro; Choi, Doil; Sano, Satoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that influence plant growth and development. Recent studies imply that plants show various responses to non-extreme ambient temperatures. Previously, we have found that a pepper cultivar cv. Sy-2 (Capsicum chinense) shows developmental defects at temperatures below 24°C. In this study, to gain new insights into the temperature sensitivity of cv. Sy-2, temperature-sensitive genes were screened using microarray techniques. At restrictive temperature of 20°C, almost one-fourth of the 411 up-regulated genes were defense related or predicted to be defense related. Further expression analyses of several defense-related genes showed that defense-related genes in cv. Sy-2 were constitutively expressed at temperatures below 24°C. Moreover, accumulation of high level of salicylic acid (SA) in cv. Sy-2 grown at 20°C suggests that the defense response is activated in the absence of pathogens. To confirm that the defense response is induced in cv. Sy-2 below 24°C, we evaluated the resistance to biotrophic bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and necrotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora capsici. Cv. Sy-2 showed enhanced resistance to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, but not to C. capsici.

  15. Describing Assay Precision-Reciprocal of Variance Is Correct, Not CV Percent: Its Use Should Significantly Improve Laboratory Performance.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, Roger W; Schumitzky, Alan; Bayard, David; Fu, Xiaowei; Neely, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Describing assay error as percent coefficient of variation (CV%) fails as measurements approach zero. Results are censored if below some arbitrarily chosen lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). CV% gives incorrect weighting to data obtained by therapeutic drug monitoring, with incorrect parameter values in the resulting pharmacokinetic models, and incorrect dosage regimens for patient care. CV% was compared with the reciprocal of the variance (1/var) of each assay measurement. This method has not been considered by the laboratory community. A simple description of assay standard deviation (SD) as a polynomial function of the assay measurement over its working range was developed, the reciprocal of the assay variance determined, and its results compared with CV%. CV% does not provide correct weighting of measured serum concentrations as required for optimal therapeutic drug monitoring. It does not permit optimally individualized models of the behavior of a drug in a patient, resulting in incorrect dosage regimens. The assay error polynomial described here, using 1/var, provides correct weighting of such data, all the way down to and including zero. There is no need to censor low results, and no need to set any arbitrary LLOQ. Reciprocal of variance is the correct measure of assay precision and should replace CV%. The information is easily stored as an assay error polynomial. The laboratory can serve the medical community better. There is no longer any need for LLOQ, a significant improvement. Regulatory agencies should implement this more informed policy.

  16. Red Yeast Rice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  17. Dog Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Parker, John C.

    1973-01-01

    Dog red blood cells (RBC) lack a ouabain-sensitive sodium pump, and yet they are capable of volume regulation in vivo. The present study was designed to find in vitro conditions under which dog RBC could transport sodium outward, against an electrochemical gradient. Cells were first loaded with sodium chloride and water by preincubation in hypertonic saline. They were then incubated at 37°C in media containing physiologic concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, glucose, and calcium. The cells returned to a normal salt and water content in 16–20 h. Without calcium in the medium the cells continued slowly to accumulate sodium. Removal of glucose caused rapid swelling and lysis, whether or not calcium was present. The net efflux of sodium showed a close relationship to medium calcium over a concentration range from 0 to 5 mM. Extrusion of salt and water was also demonstrated in fresh RBC (no hypertonic preincubation) when calcium levels in the media were sufficiently raised. The ion and water movements in these experiments were not influenced by ouabain or by removal of extracellular potassium. Magnesium could not substitute for calcium. It is concluded that dog RBC have an energy-dependent mechanism for extruding sodium chloride which requires external calcium and is quite distinct from the sodium-potassium exchange pump. PMID:4722565

  18. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  19. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  20. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light.

    PubMed

    Schuerger, A C; Brown, C S; Stryjewski, E C

    1997-03-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  1. Pediatric red cell disorders and pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Sherrie L

    2004-12-01

    Anemia in children may arise from a wide variety of pathogenetic mechanisms that include congenital and acquired disorders. Often the diagnostic considerations include disorders that are not seen commonly in adults and lifelong disorders that arise in children and persist throughout life. Consideration of diverse causes of anemia such as red cell membrane disorders, red cell enzymopathies, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, congenital sideroblastic anemias, and hereditary pure red cell aplasia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia), as well as infectious causes such as parvovirus B19 infection, often is required when diagnosing anemia in an infant or young child. Knowledge of these entities that are important causes of anemia in the pediatric population, including clinical manifestations and laboratory workup, will aid in recognition of the specific disease entities and effective workup of pediatric red cell disorders.

  2. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  4. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  5. Identification of cvSI-3 and evidence for the wide distribution and active evolution of the I84 family of protease inhibitors in mollusks.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qinggang; Beguel, Jean-Phillipe; Gauthier, Julie; La Peyre, Jerome

    2017-03-01

    Protease inhibitors are an extremely diverse group of proteins that control the proteolytic activities of proteases and play a crucial role in biological processes including host defenses. The I84 family of protease inhibitors in the MEROPS database currently consists of cvSI-1 and cvSI-2, two novel serine protease inhibitors purified and characterized from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica plasma and believed to play a role in host defense and disease resistance. In the present study, a third member of I84 family, named cvSI-3, was identified from C. virginica by cDNA cloning and sequencing. The full cvSI-3 cDNA was composed of 342 bp including a 255 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes an 84-amino acid peptide. The mature cvSI-3 molecule was predicted to have 68 amino acid residues after removal of a 16-amino acid signal peptide, with a calculated molecular mass of 7724.5 Da and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6.28. CvSI-3 amino acid sequence shared 41% identity with cvSI-2 and 37% identity with cvSI-1, which included 12 conserved cysteines. Quantitative real-time PCR determined that cvSI-3 gene expressed primarily in oyster digestive glands. Real-time PCR also detected that cvSI-1, cvSI-2 and cvSI-3 expression levels in digestive glands varied significantly, with cvSI-2 showing the highest expression level and cvSI-3 the lowest. Additionally, a significant correlation was detected between cvSI-2 and cvSI-3 mRNAs levels. Searches into sequence databases using cvSI-1, cvSI-2 and cvSI-3 as queries retrieved ESTs suggesting the possible existence of at least 9 more I84 family members in eastern oysters and of I84 family protease inhibitors in various bivalve and gastropod species. Moreover, orthologs of all C. virginica I84 family members or potential member genes were found to be present in the C. gigas genome, and their distributions among species provided important information about the evolution of the I84 family of protease inhibitors. It

  6. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  7. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  8. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-09-18

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  9. Preliminary measurements of aircraft airframe noise with the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. C.; Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted in a CV-990 jet transport with engines at idle power to investigate aircraft airframe noise. Test results showed that airframe noise was measured for the aircraft in the landing configuration. The results agreed well with the expected variation with the fifth power of velocity. For the aircraft in the clean configuraton, it was concluded that airframe noise was measured only at higher airspeeds with engine idle noise present at lower speeds. The data show that landing gear and flaps make a significant contribution to airframe noise.

  10. Ultrastructural changes in shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) treated with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa

    2008-04-15

    In the present research, structure and ultrastructure of shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) under salinity conditions were investigated. The experiments were conducted in five groups (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) under greenhouse conditions. Sampling of apical meristem and TEM tissue preparation procedure were carried out. Semithin and ultrathin sections were prepared and viewed in light and electron microscopy, respectively. The results included reduction of meristem size, disorders in meristem structure. Also formation of autophagic vacuoles was observed that is probably one of the plant responses to salt stress for more water storage in these vacuoles and decreasing of cell water requirements.

  11. Free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of secondary metabolites from reddened cv. Annurca apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Cefarelli, Giuseppe; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Izzo, Angelina; Mastellone, Claudio; Pacifico, Severina; Piscopo, Vincenzo

    2006-02-08

    Forty-three secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized from cv. Annurca apple fruit, an apple variety cultivated in the south of Italy. This apple cultivar undergoes a typical reddening treatment after collection. All of the compounds were characterized on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The compounds were tested for their radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities by measuring their capacity to scavenge DPPH* (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), H2O2, and NO (nitric oxide) and to inhibit the formation of methyl linoleate conjugated diene hydroperoxides or TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive species).

  12. Low-lift-to-drag-ratio approach and landing studies using a CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kock, B. M.; Fulton, F. L.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a flight-test program utilizing a CV-990 airplane, flow in low-lift-to-drag-ratio (L/D) configurations, to simulate terminal area operation, approach, and landing of large unpowered vehicles. The results indicate that unpowered approaches and landings are practical with vehicles of the size and performance characteristics of the proposed shuttle vehicle. Low L/D landings provided touchdown dispersion patterns acceptable for operation on runways of reasonable length. The dispersion pattern was reduced when guidance was used during the final approach. High levels of pilot proficiency were not required for acceptable performance.

  13. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  14. Seed-to-seed growth of superdwarf wheat and arabidopsis using red light-emitting diodes (LED's): A report on baseline tests conducted for NASA's proposed Plant Research Unit (PRU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.</