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Sample records for cv manzano musa

  1. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

  2. In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.

    PubMed

    Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana.

  3. MANZANO WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, C.H.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the extreme southwestern part of the Manzano Wilderness, New Mexico has a probable mineral-resource potential for the occurrence of gold. A sample from one inactive mine in this area yielded concentrations of gold and silver. Other mines and prospects and associated geologic terrane have little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral resources. No other mineral or energy resource potential was identified in the study.

  4. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    PubMed

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  5. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  6. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana. PMID:25993649

  7. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  8. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana. PMID:25993649

  9. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening. PMID:22009053

  10. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the occurrence of phenylphenalenone-type compounds in red paracytic stomata and red epidermis tissue of Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red'.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Fuchser, Jens; Knop, Katrin; Menezes, Riya C; Buerkert, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The banana epidermis and in particular their stomata are conducive sites for the penetration of pathogenic fungi which can severely limit global banana production. The red pseudostem of the ornamental banana Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red' was used to study the chemical constituents of the epidermal cell layer using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-FT-ICR-MSI). The high resolution of this technique allowed phenylphenalenone-type compounds to be located in single plant cells. Some of these secondary metabolites were identified as constitutive compounds and found in specialized epidermal cells in banana pseudostem tissue. Especially the red paracytic stomata revealed higher signal intensities of certain phenylphenalenones than normal epidermis cells. The ease of detection of polycyclic aromatic compounds on the cellular level is discussed with regard to future investigations of plant-pathogen interactions.

  11. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  12. Insights into the Musa genome: Syntenic relationships to rice and between Musa species

    PubMed Central

    Lescot, Magali; Piffanelli, Pietro; Ciampi, Ana Y; Ruiz, Manuel; Blanc, Guillaume; Leebens-Mack, Jim; da Silva, Felipe R; Santos, Candice MR; D'Hont, Angélique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Vilarinhos, Alberto D; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Ronning, Catherine M; Cheung, Foo; Haas, Brian J; Althoff, Ryan; Arbogast, Tammy; Hine, Erin; Pappas, Georgios J; Sasaki, Takuji; Souza, Manoel T; Miller, Robert NG; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Town, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    Background Musa species (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales) including bananas and plantains are collectively the fourth most important crop in developing countries. Knowledge concerning Musa genome structure and the origin of distinct cultivars has greatly increased over the last few years. Until now, however, no large-scale analyses of Musa genomic sequence have been conducted. This study compares genomic sequence in two Musa species with orthologous regions in the rice genome. Results We produced 1.4 Mb of Musa sequence from 13 BAC clones, annotated and analyzed them along with 4 previously sequenced BACs. The 443 predicted genes revealed that Zingiberales genes share GC content and distribution characteristics with eudicot and Poaceae genomes. Comparison with rice revealed microsynteny regions that have persisted since the divergence of the Commelinid orders Poales and Zingiberales at least 117 Mya. The previously hypothesized large-scale duplication event in the common ancestor of major cereal lineages within the Poaceae was verified. The divergence time distributions for Musa-Zingiber (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales) orthologs and paralogs provide strong evidence for a large-scale duplication event in the Musa lineage after its divergence from the Zingiberaceae approximately 61 Mya. Comparisons of genomic regions from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana revealed highly conserved genome structure, and indicated that these genomes diverged circa 4.6 Mya. Conclusion These results point to the utility of comparative analyses between distantly-related monocot species such as rice and Musa for improving our understanding of monocot genome evolution. Sequencing the genome of M. acuminata would provide a strong foundation for comparative genomics in the monocots. In addition a genome sequence would aid genomic and genetic analyses of cultivated Musa polyploid genotypes in research aimed at localizing and cloning genes controlling important agronomic traits for breeding purposes

  13. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    PubMed

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  14. Timing of Proterozoic regional deformation in the southern Manzano Mountains, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, P.W. ); Bowring, S.A. . Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Karlstrom, K.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Early Proterozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks of the Manzano Mtns have sustained a remarkably complex history of ductile deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism. A comparison of field relations and deformational features between the two southernmost plutons suggests that they differ greatly in timing of intrusion with respect to regional deformation. The Monte Largo pluton consists of medium-grained granodiorite and quartz monzonite that is bounded on three sides by strongly deformed quartzite and phyllite. An S1 foliation is folded by upright, N-trending folds (F2). S2, axial planar to F2, is mylonitic along the E pluton margin. The degree of deformation in the pluton is comparable to that in the country rock. The Monte Largo pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.66 Ga. The Priest pluton is a 10-km-long, N-S elongate, megacrystic quartz monzonite that is intrusive into quartzite sand schists. Large microcline crystals define a magmatic foliation. The body contains a weakly to moderately well-developed NE-striking tectonic foliation defined by flattened quartz grains, best developed along the W margin. On the N end of the pluton, map-scale folds in quartzite and schist have been cross-cut, and a contact metamorphic aureole cross-cuts country rock structures. The degree of deformation in the pluton is significantly less than that of country rock quartzites, some of which are mylonitic. The Priest Pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.45 Ga. These data suggest that the ca. 1.66 Ga Monte Largo pluton is syntectonic with respect to regional deformation, whereas the ca. 1.45 Ga priest pluton is post-tectonic with respect to the regional deformation.

  15. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  16. Diarylheptanoids and phenylphenalenones from Musa itinerans fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian-Yun; Yang, Fu-Mei; Gu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Wang, Yue-Hu; Long, Chun-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Two diarylheptanoids, musaitinerins A and B, one heterodimeric phenylphenalenone musaitinerone and four known phenylphenalenones, identified as 4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-9-phenyl-1H-phenalen-1-one, musanolone E, hydroxyanigorufone and irenolone were isolated from the fruits of Musa itinerans Cheesm. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic analyses. The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans; the cytotoxic activity of these compounds was also evaluated against human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K562) and human alveolar carcinoma epithelial (A549) cell lines, respectively. Musaitinerone and musanolone E exhibited weak effects against the A549 cell line, as compared with adriamycin. However, these two compounds did not exhibit any growth inhibition against K562 cells, S. aureus, E. coli or C. albicans. The other compounds were inactive against all of the tested cell lines and microorganisms, even at concentrations as high as 50 μM.

  17. Application of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to determine carotenoid contents in banana (Musa spp.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Saeys, Wouter; Hof, Ellen; Ramon, Herman; Swennen, Rony L; Keulemans, Johan

    2009-03-11

    The analysis of carotenoids is complicated by the tendency of these compounds to react with radical species, leading to oxidative breakdown and isomerization during extraction. Therefore, protocols should be rapid and avoid unnecessary exposure to heat, acids, and so forth. Here, we evaluate the use of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to measure carotenoid contents in fruit from 28 Musa (banana and plantain) varieties. Carotenoid contents were first quantified using standardized RP-HPLC protocols, and these results were then used to develop algorithms to predict carotenoid contents from Vis/NIR spectra of the same samples. Cross-validation of the predictive algorithms across a genetically diverse group of varieties demonstrated that correlation coefficients between the HPLC measurements and the Vis/NIRS predictions varied from good for the total carotenoids and beta-carotene fractions (r(2)(cv), 0.84, 0.89) to reasonable for alpha-carotene and cis-carotenes (r(2)(cv), 0.61, 0.66), but there was only a poor correlation (r(2)(cv), 0.30) for the minor lutein component. Nonetheless, since approximately 90% of the Musa carotenoids consist of only alpha- and beta-carotene, results indicate that Vis/NIRS can be used for the high-throughput screening of fruit pulp samples for vitamin A nutritional content on the basis of their total carotenoids content. PMID:19219999

  18. Application of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to determine carotenoid contents in banana (Musa spp.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Saeys, Wouter; Hof, Ellen; Ramon, Herman; Swennen, Rony L; Keulemans, Johan

    2009-03-11

    The analysis of carotenoids is complicated by the tendency of these compounds to react with radical species, leading to oxidative breakdown and isomerization during extraction. Therefore, protocols should be rapid and avoid unnecessary exposure to heat, acids, and so forth. Here, we evaluate the use of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to measure carotenoid contents in fruit from 28 Musa (banana and plantain) varieties. Carotenoid contents were first quantified using standardized RP-HPLC protocols, and these results were then used to develop algorithms to predict carotenoid contents from Vis/NIR spectra of the same samples. Cross-validation of the predictive algorithms across a genetically diverse group of varieties demonstrated that correlation coefficients between the HPLC measurements and the Vis/NIRS predictions varied from good for the total carotenoids and beta-carotene fractions (r(2)(cv), 0.84, 0.89) to reasonable for alpha-carotene and cis-carotenes (r(2)(cv), 0.61, 0.66), but there was only a poor correlation (r(2)(cv), 0.30) for the minor lutein component. Nonetheless, since approximately 90% of the Musa carotenoids consist of only alpha- and beta-carotene, results indicate that Vis/NIRS can be used for the high-throughput screening of fruit pulp samples for vitamin A nutritional content on the basis of their total carotenoids content.

  19. Analysis of the leaf transcriptome of Musa acuminata during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola: gene assembly, annotation and marker development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores. Results The study generated 846,762 high quality sequence reads, with an average length of 334 bp and totalling 283 Mbp. De novo assembly generated 36,384 and 35,269 unigene sequences for M. acuminata Calcutta 4 and Cavendish Grande Naine, respectively. A total of 64.4% of the unigenes were annotated through Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity analyses against public databases. Assembled sequences were functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms, with unigene functions covering a diverse range of molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. Genes from a number of defense-related pathways were observed in transcripts from each cDNA library. Over 99% of contig unigenes mapped to exon regions in the reference M. acuminata DH Pahang whole genome sequence. A total of 4068 genic-SSR loci were identified in Calcutta 4 and 4095 in Cavendish Grande Naine. A subset of 95 potential defense-related gene-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were validated for specific amplification and polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, with alleles per polymorphic locus ranging from 3 to 8 and polymorphism information content ranging from 0

  20. Genetic diversity assessment of Musa spp. germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. Among these, a Musa spp. collection has been established and is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornamental, wild and...

  1. Bioactivity studies on Musa seminifera Lour

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sanjib; Shilpi, Jamil A.; Mondal, Himangsu; Gofur, Royhan; Billah, Morsaline; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Musa seminifera Lour is a tree-like perennial herb that has been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh to heal a number of ailments. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities, and general toxicity of the ethanol extract of the roots. Materials and Methods: The extract was assessed for free-radical-scavenging activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing power assay, analgesic activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, antidiarrheal activity by the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and general toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed free-radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 44.86 μg/mL. TPC was 537.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. It showed concentration-dependent reducing power, and displayed 42.11 and 69.32% writhing inhibition at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract also significantly raised the pain threshold at the above-mentioned dose levels. In vivo antidiarrheal property was substantiated by significant prolongation of latent period and decrease in total number of stools compared with the control. The LC50 against brine shrimp nauplii was 36.21 μg/mL. The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminths. Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that the plant possesses notable bioactivities and somewhat supports its use in folk medicine. PMID:24124283

  2. CV-990 LSRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), is serviced on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, before a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  3. Micro-propagation efficiency in banana (Musa sp.) under different immersion systems.

    PubMed

    Ikram-ul-Haq; Dahot, Muhammad Umar

    2007-03-01

    The establishment of a micro-propagation protocol for banana (Musa sp.) cv Basrai, was carried out by using meristematic stem cuttings, as an explant. Up to 60% micro-propagation efficiency was increased, when organogenesis (MS; 10.0 microM BA; 15.0 microM IAA) was carried out on medium solidified with 3.60 g L(-1) phytagel for 3 weeks, while shoot induction and its multiplication (MS; 10.0 microM BA) were obtained on the medium with 1.0 g L(-1) phytagel for 10 days and 2.0 g L(-1) phytagel for 20 days, respectively. One culture (20.0 microM BA and 4.0 microM NAA or/and 6.0 microM TDZ) somewhat callus formation was observed but later on was proceeded to death, instead of multiplication. The developed plantlets were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with IBA (0.50 mg L(-1)) for root induction. Through this method, complete micro-propagated plantlets were obtained within 3 months. PMID:19069854

  4. Generation of transgenic plantain (Musa spp.) with resistance to plant pathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Wang, Dong; Tripathi, Jaindra; Urwin, Peter E; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-10-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose a severe constraint on plantain and banana productivity; however, the sterile nature of many cultivars precludes conventional breeding for resistance. Transgenic plantain cv. Gonja manjaya (Musa AAB) plants, expressing a maize cystatin that inhibits nematode digestive cysteine proteinases and a synthetic peptide that disrupts nematode chemoreception, were assessed for their ability to resist nematode infection. Lines were generated that expressed each gene singly or both together in a stacked defence. Nematode challenge with a single species or a mixed population identified 10 lines with significant resistance. The best level of resistance achieved against the major pest species Radopholus similis was 84% ± 8% for the cystatin, 66% ± 14% for the peptide and 70% ± 6% for the dual defence. In the mixed population, trial resistance was also demonstrated to Helicotylenchus multicinctus. A fluorescently labelled form of the chemodisruptive peptide underwent retrograde transport along certain sensory dendrites of R. similis as required to disrupt chemoreception. The peptide was degraded after 30 min in simulated intestinal fluid or boiling water and after 1 h in nonsterile soil. In silico sequence analysis suggests that the peptide is not a mammalian antigen. This work establishes the mode of action of a novel nematode defence, develops the evidence for its safe and effective deployment against multiple nematode species and identifies transgenic plantain lines with a high level of resistance for a proposed field trial. PMID:22435592

  5. Generation of transgenic plantain (Musa spp.) with resistance to plant pathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Wang, Dong; Tripathi, Jaindra; Urwin, Peter E; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-10-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose a severe constraint on plantain and banana productivity; however, the sterile nature of many cultivars precludes conventional breeding for resistance. Transgenic plantain cv. Gonja manjaya (Musa AAB) plants, expressing a maize cystatin that inhibits nematode digestive cysteine proteinases and a synthetic peptide that disrupts nematode chemoreception, were assessed for their ability to resist nematode infection. Lines were generated that expressed each gene singly or both together in a stacked defence. Nematode challenge with a single species or a mixed population identified 10 lines with significant resistance. The best level of resistance achieved against the major pest species Radopholus similis was 84% ± 8% for the cystatin, 66% ± 14% for the peptide and 70% ± 6% for the dual defence. In the mixed population, trial resistance was also demonstrated to Helicotylenchus multicinctus. A fluorescently labelled form of the chemodisruptive peptide underwent retrograde transport along certain sensory dendrites of R. similis as required to disrupt chemoreception. The peptide was degraded after 30 min in simulated intestinal fluid or boiling water and after 1 h in nonsterile soil. In silico sequence analysis suggests that the peptide is not a mammalian antigen. This work establishes the mode of action of a novel nematode defence, develops the evidence for its safe and effective deployment against multiple nematode species and identifies transgenic plantain lines with a high level of resistance for a proposed field trial.

  6. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future.

  7. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  8. “A draft Musa balbisiana genome sequence for molecular genetics in polyploid, inter- and intra-specific Musa hybrids”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern banana cultivars are primarily interspecific triploid hybrids of two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, which respectively contribute the A- and B-genomes. The M. balbisiana genome has been associated with improved vigour and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and is thus a target for Musa breeding programs. However, while a reference M. acuminata genome has recently been released (Nature 488:213–217, 2012), little sequence data is available for the corresponding B-genome. To address these problems we carried out Next Generation gDNA sequencing of the wild diploid M. balbisiana variety ‘Pisang Klutuk Wulung’ (PKW). Our strategy was to align PKW gDNA reads against the published A-genome and to extract the mapped consensus sequences for subsequent rounds of evaluation and gene annotation. Results The resulting B-genome is 79% the size of the A-genome, and contains 36,638 predicted functional gene sequences which is nearly identical to the 36,542 of the A-genome. There is substantial sequence divergence from the A-genome at a frequency of 1 homozygous SNP per 23.1 bp, and a high degree of heterozygosity corresponding to one heterozygous SNP per 55.9 bp. Using expressed small RNA data, a similar number of microRNA sequences were predicted in both A- and B-genomes, but additional novel miRNAs were detected, including some that are unique to each genome. The usefulness of this B-genome sequence was evaluated by mapping RNA-seq data from a set of triploid AAA and AAB hybrids simultaneously to both genomes. Results for the plantains demonstrated the expected 2:1 distribution of reads across the A- and B-genomes, but for the AAA genomes, results show they contain regions of significant homology to the B-genome supporting proposals that there has been a history of interspecific recombination between homeologous A and B chromosomes in Musa hybrids. Conclusions We have generated and annotated a draft reference Musa B-genome and

  9. Lipophilic phytochemicals from banana fruits of several Musa species.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of banana fruit from several banana cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The banana cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these banana cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects.

  10. Amending storage vessel and media improves transfer interval of Musa spp. tissue culture plantlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musa spp. are some of the most important fruit food crops in the world. The USDA-ARS TARS maintains a Musa spp. germplasm collection of ~150 accessions in field plots and in medium-term storage in vitro. Accessions maintained in vitro require routine sub-culturing as nutrient medium is lost due to ...

  11. Amending Storage Vessel and Media Improves Subculture Interval of Musa sp. Tissue Culture Plantlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bananas and plantains (Musa sp.) are some of the most important food crops in the world. The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa spp. collection consists of 140 accessions maintained as clonally propagated plants in field plots as well as in tissue culture. Accessions maintained i...

  12. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  13. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Wild Musa Species

    PubMed Central

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Christelová, Pavla; Van den Houwe, Ines; Häkkinen, Markku; Roux, Nicolas; Swennen, Rony; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The production of bananas is threatened by rapid spreading of various diseases and adverse environmental conditions. The preservation and characterization of banana diversity is essential for the purposes of crop improvement. The world's largest banana germplasm collection maintained at the Bioversity International Transit Centre (ITC) in Belgium is continuously expanded by new accessions of edible cultivars and wild species. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the accessions is necessary for efficient management of the collection and utilization of banana diversity. In this work, nuclear DNA content and genomic distribution of 45S and 5S rDNA were examined in 21 diploid accessions recently added to ITC collection, representing both sections of the genus Musa. 2C DNA content in the section Musa ranged from 1.217 to 1.315 pg. Species belonging to section Callimusa had 2C DNA contents ranging from 1.390 to 1.772 pg. While the number of 45S rDNA loci was conserved in the section Musa, it was highly variable in Callimusa species. 5S rRNA gene clusters were found on two to eight chromosomes per diploid cell. The accessions were genotyped using a set of 19 microsatellite markers to establish their relationships with the remaining accessions held at ITC. Genetic diversity done by SSR genotyping platform was extended by phylogenetic analysis of ITS region. ITS sequence data supported the clustering obtained by SSR analysis for most of the accessions. High level of nucleotide diversity and presence of more than two types of ITS sequences in eight wild diploids pointed to their origin by hybridization of different genotypes. This study significantly expands the number of wild Musa species where nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of rDNA loci is known. SSR genotyping identified Musa species that are closely related to the previously characterized accessions and provided data to aid in their classification. Sequence analysis of ITS region

  14. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Wild Musa Species.

    PubMed

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Christelová, Pavla; Van den Houwe, Ines; Häkkinen, Markku; Roux, Nicolas; Swennen, Rony; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The production of bananas is threatened by rapid spreading of various diseases and adverse environmental conditions. The preservation and characterization of banana diversity is essential for the purposes of crop improvement. The world's largest banana germplasm collection maintained at the Bioversity International Transit Centre (ITC) in Belgium is continuously expanded by new accessions of edible cultivars and wild species. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the accessions is necessary for efficient management of the collection and utilization of banana diversity. In this work, nuclear DNA content and genomic distribution of 45S and 5S rDNA were examined in 21 diploid accessions recently added to ITC collection, representing both sections of the genus Musa. 2C DNA content in the section Musa ranged from 1.217 to 1.315 pg. Species belonging to section Callimusa had 2C DNA contents ranging from 1.390 to 1.772 pg. While the number of 45S rDNA loci was conserved in the section Musa, it was highly variable in Callimusa species. 5S rRNA gene clusters were found on two to eight chromosomes per diploid cell. The accessions were genotyped using a set of 19 microsatellite markers to establish their relationships with the remaining accessions held at ITC. Genetic diversity done by SSR genotyping platform was extended by phylogenetic analysis of ITS region. ITS sequence data supported the clustering obtained by SSR analysis for most of the accessions. High level of nucleotide diversity and presence of more than two types of ITS sequences in eight wild diploids pointed to their origin by hybridization of different genotypes. This study significantly expands the number of wild Musa species where nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of rDNA loci is known. SSR genotyping identified Musa species that are closely related to the previously characterized accessions and provided data to aid in their classification. Sequence analysis of ITS region

  15. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-02-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials.

  16. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-02-04

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials.

  17. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials. PMID:26842714

  18. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials. PMID:26842714

  19. Genomes, diversity and resistance gene analogues in Musa species.

    PubMed

    Azhar, M; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2008-01-01

    Resistance genes (R genes) in plants are abundant and may represent more than 1% of all the genes. Their diversity is critical to the recognition and response to attack from diverse pathogens. Like many other crops, banana and plantain face attacks from potentially devastating fungal and bacterial diseases, increased by a combination of worldwide spread of pathogens, exploitation of a small number of varieties, new pathogen mutations, and the lack of effective, benign and cheap chemical control. The challenge for plant breeders is to identify and exploit genetic resistances to diseases, which is particularly difficult in banana and plantain where the valuable cultivars are sterile, parthenocarpic and mostly triploid so conventional genetic analysis and breeding is impossible. In this paper, we review the nature of R genes and the key motifs, particularly in the Nucleotide Binding Sites (NBS), Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR) gene class. We present data about identity, nature and evolutionary diversity of the NBS domains of Musa R genes in diploid wild species with the Musa acuminata (A), M. balbisiana (B), M. schizocarpa (S), M. textilis (T), M. velutina and M. ornata genomes, and from various cultivated hybrid and triploid accessions, using PCR primers to isolate the domains from genomic DNA. Of 135 new sequences, 75% of the sequenced clones had uninterrupted open reading frames (ORFs), and phylogenetic UPGMA tree construction showed four clusters, one from Musa ornata, one largely from the B and T genomes, one from A and M. velutina, and the largest with A, B, T and S genomes. Only genes of the coiled-coil (non-TIR) class were found, typical of the grasses and presumably monocotyledons. The analysis of R genes in cultivated banana and plantain, and their wild relatives, has implications for identification and selection of resistance genes within the genus which may be useful for plant selection and breeding and also for defining relationships and genome evolution

  20. Genomes, diversity and resistance gene analogues in Musa species.

    PubMed

    Azhar, M; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2008-01-01

    Resistance genes (R genes) in plants are abundant and may represent more than 1% of all the genes. Their diversity is critical to the recognition and response to attack from diverse pathogens. Like many other crops, banana and plantain face attacks from potentially devastating fungal and bacterial diseases, increased by a combination of worldwide spread of pathogens, exploitation of a small number of varieties, new pathogen mutations, and the lack of effective, benign and cheap chemical control. The challenge for plant breeders is to identify and exploit genetic resistances to diseases, which is particularly difficult in banana and plantain where the valuable cultivars are sterile, parthenocarpic and mostly triploid so conventional genetic analysis and breeding is impossible. In this paper, we review the nature of R genes and the key motifs, particularly in the Nucleotide Binding Sites (NBS), Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR) gene class. We present data about identity, nature and evolutionary diversity of the NBS domains of Musa R genes in diploid wild species with the Musa acuminata (A), M. balbisiana (B), M. schizocarpa (S), M. textilis (T), M. velutina and M. ornata genomes, and from various cultivated hybrid and triploid accessions, using PCR primers to isolate the domains from genomic DNA. Of 135 new sequences, 75% of the sequenced clones had uninterrupted open reading frames (ORFs), and phylogenetic UPGMA tree construction showed four clusters, one from Musa ornata, one largely from the B and T genomes, one from A and M. velutina, and the largest with A, B, T and S genomes. Only genes of the coiled-coil (non-TIR) class were found, typical of the grasses and presumably monocotyledons. The analysis of R genes in cultivated banana and plantain, and their wild relatives, has implications for identification and selection of resistance genes within the genus which may be useful for plant selection and breeding and also for defining relationships and genome evolution

  1. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines. PMID:25523085

  2. Musa genetic diversity revealed by SRAP and AFLP.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Muhammad; James, Andrew C; Rivera-Madrid, Renata; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa María

    2011-03-01

    The sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) technique, aimed for the amplification of open reading frames (ORFs), vis-â-vis that of the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to analyze the genetic variation and relationships among forty Musa accessions; which include commercial cultivars and wild species of interest for the genetic enhancement of Musa. A total of 403 SRAP and 837 AFLP amplicons were generated by 10 SRAP and 15 AFLP primer combinations, of which 353 and 787 bands were polymorphic, respectively. Both cluster analysis of unweighted pair-grouping method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principal coordinate (PCO) analysis separated the forty accessions into their recognized sections (Eumusa, Australimusa, Callimusa and Rhodochlamys) and species. The percentage of polymorphism amongst sections and species and the relationships within Eumusa species and subspecies varied between the two marker systems. In addition to its practical simplicity, SRAP exhibited approximately threefold more specific and unique bands than AFLP, 37 and 13%, respectively. SRAP markers are demonstrated here to be proficient tools for discriminating amongst M. acuminata, M. balbisiana and M. schizocarpa in the Eumusa section, as well as between plantains and cooking bananas within triploid cultivars.

  3. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  4. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  5. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  6. Suppression of Type-II Diabetes with Dyslipidemia and Nephropathy by Peels of Musa cavendish Fruit.

    PubMed

    Navghare, Vijay; Dhawale, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    Musa cavendish, peels has local and traditional use to promote wound healing, hyperglycemia, ulceration etc. The present work investigated the lipid lowering; nephroprotective and glucose lowering properties of ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish (EMC) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The EMC 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day and the vehicle were administered orally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) for 3 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, lipid profile along with kidney function before and after treatment with EMC were recorded. The ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish reduced blood glucose, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and creatinine levels and improvement in body weight, liver glycogen, serum HDL cholesterol, serum albumin and total protein level when compared with untreated rats. Musa cavendish has lipid lowering, nephroprotective and antidiabetic property by regulating glucose uptake in the liver and muscles by restoring the intracellular energy balance.

  7. Evaluation and characterization of a genetically diverse Musa germplasm core subset.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station is responsible for curating germplasm of several regionally and internationally important agricultural crops. Evaluation and characterization of Musa (bananas) genetic resources are an important component of programmed research. In a global coll...

  8. Suppression of Type-II Diabetes with Dyslipidemia and Nephropathy by Peels of Musa cavendish Fruit.

    PubMed

    Navghare, Vijay; Dhawale, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    Musa cavendish, peels has local and traditional use to promote wound healing, hyperglycemia, ulceration etc. The present work investigated the lipid lowering; nephroprotective and glucose lowering properties of ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish (EMC) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The EMC 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day and the vehicle were administered orally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) for 3 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, lipid profile along with kidney function before and after treatment with EMC were recorded. The ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish reduced blood glucose, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and creatinine levels and improvement in body weight, liver glycogen, serum HDL cholesterol, serum albumin and total protein level when compared with untreated rats. Musa cavendish has lipid lowering, nephroprotective and antidiabetic property by regulating glucose uptake in the liver and muscles by restoring the intracellular energy balance. PMID:27605735

  9. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4).

  10. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  11. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana. PMID:27186015

  12. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana.

  13. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  14. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Musa T.; Nurudeen, Quadri O.; Salimon, Saoban S.; Yakubu, Monsurat O.; Jimoh, Rukayat O.; Nafiu, Mikhail O.; Akanji, Musbau A.; Oladiji, Adenike T.; Williams, Felicia E.

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels. PMID:25893000

  15. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  16. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant.

  17. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant. PMID:24382490

  18. The diversification and activity of hAT transposons in Musa genomes.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Gerhard; Heitkam, Tony; Seibt, Kathrin M; Nouroz, Faisal; Müller-Stoermer, Manuela; Heslop-Harrison, John S; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Sequencing of plant genomes often identified the hAT superfamily as the largest group of DNA transposons. Nevertheless, detailed information on the diversity, abundance and chromosomal localization of plant hAT families are rare. By in silico analyses of the reference genome assembly and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences, respectively, we performed the classification and molecular characterization of hAT transposon families in Musa acuminata. Musa hAT transposons are organized in three families designated MuhAT I, MuhAT II and MuhAT III. In total, 70 complete autonomous elements of the MuhAT I and MuhAT II families were detected, while no autonomous MuhAT III transposons were found. Based on the terminal inverted repeat (TIR)-specific sequence information of the autonomous transposons, 1722 MuhAT I- and MuhAT II-specific miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MuhMITEs) were identified. Autonomous MuhAT I and MuhAT II elements are only moderately abundant in the sections of the genus Musa, while the corresponding MITEs exhibit an amplification in Musa genomes. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), autonomous MuhAT transposons as well as MuhMITEs were localized in subtelomeric, most likely gene-rich regions of M. acuminata chromosomes. A comparison of homoeologous regions of M. acuminata and Musa balbisiana BACs revealed the species-specific mobility of MuhMITEs. In particular, the activity of MuhMITEs II showing transduplications of genomic sequences might indicate the presence of active MuhAT transposons, thus suggesting a potential role of MuhMITEs as modulators of genome evolution of Musa.

  19. Characterization of resistant starch type III from banana (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Undine; Jacobasch, Gisela; Schmiedl, Detlef

    2002-08-28

    Banana starch (Musa acuminata var. Nandigobe) was evaluated for its use in generating resistant starch (RS) type III. Structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of these products were analyzed. The investigated process includes debranching of the native starch and retrogradation under different storage temperatures and starch concentrations. After enzymatic debranching, a high amount of low-molecular-weight polymers with a degree of polymerization between 10 and 35 glucose units beside a higher molecular weight fraction were found. The resulting products comprised RS contents of about 50%. After heat-moisture treatment, the RS yield increased up to 84%. Peak temperatures of about 145 degrees C found in DSC measurements pointed to a high thermal stability of the RS products. In vitro fermentations of the RS products, carried out with intestinal microflora of healthy humans, resulted in a molar ratio of acetate:propionate:butyrate of about 49:17:34. The established method allowed the production of a high-quality RS with prebiotic properties for health preventing applications.

  20. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  1. Discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in the Musa gene pool by Ecotilling.

    PubMed

    Till, Bradley J; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Sági, László; Huynh, Owen A; Utsushi, Hiroe; Swennen, Rony; Terauchi, Ryohei; Mba, Chikelu

    2010-11-01

    Musa (banana and plantain) is an important genus for the global export market and in local markets where it provides staple food for approximately 400 million people. Hybridization and polyploidization of several (sub)species, combined with vegetative propagation and human selection have produced a complex genetic history. We describe the application of the Ecotilling method for the discovery and characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms in diploid and polyploid accessions of Musa. We discovered over 800 novel alleles in 80 accessions. Sequencing and band evaluation shows Ecotilling to be a robust and accurate platform for the discovery of polymorphisms in homologous and homeologous gene targets. In the process of validating the method, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be deleterious for the function of a gene putatively important for phototropism. Evaluation of heterozygous polymorphism and haplotype blocks revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity in Musa accessions. We further applied a strategy for the simultaneous discovery of heterozygous and homozygous polymorphisms in diploid accessions to rapidly evaluate nucleotide diversity in accessions of the same genome type. This strategy can be used to develop hypotheses for inheritance patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms within and between genome types. We conclude that Ecotilling is suitable for diversity studies in Musa, that it can be considered for functional genomics studies and as tool in selecting germplasm for traditional and mutation breeding approaches.

  2. GENOMIC COMPOSITION OF THE USDA-ARS TROPICAL AGRICULTURE RESEARCH STATION MUSA SP. GERMPLASM COLLECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bananas, cooking bananas and plantains (Musa sp.) are some of the most important food crops in the world. Two of the more limiting factors for commercial as well as for local production are diseases and insect pests. Crop improvement through plant breeding to address these constraints, in addition...

  3. Discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in the Musa gene pool by Ecotilling.

    PubMed

    Till, Bradley J; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Sági, László; Huynh, Owen A; Utsushi, Hiroe; Swennen, Rony; Terauchi, Ryohei; Mba, Chikelu

    2010-11-01

    Musa (banana and plantain) is an important genus for the global export market and in local markets where it provides staple food for approximately 400 million people. Hybridization and polyploidization of several (sub)species, combined with vegetative propagation and human selection have produced a complex genetic history. We describe the application of the Ecotilling method for the discovery and characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms in diploid and polyploid accessions of Musa. We discovered over 800 novel alleles in 80 accessions. Sequencing and band evaluation shows Ecotilling to be a robust and accurate platform for the discovery of polymorphisms in homologous and homeologous gene targets. In the process of validating the method, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be deleterious for the function of a gene putatively important for phototropism. Evaluation of heterozygous polymorphism and haplotype blocks revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity in Musa accessions. We further applied a strategy for the simultaneous discovery of heterozygous and homozygous polymorphisms in diploid accessions to rapidly evaluate nucleotide diversity in accessions of the same genome type. This strategy can be used to develop hypotheses for inheritance patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms within and between genome types. We conclude that Ecotilling is suitable for diversity studies in Musa, that it can be considered for functional genomics studies and as tool in selecting germplasm for traditional and mutation breeding approaches. PMID:20589365

  4. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  5. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  6. Catalog of banana (Musa spp.) accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserach Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana genetic resources can be found in situ in native habitats in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Ex situ collections also exist in important tropical regions of the world as well as in vitro cultures at the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre. Unfortunately, readily avai...

  7. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  8. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  9. Antidiarrheal, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Musa sapientum Seed

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Sarowar; Alam, M. Badrul; Asadujjaman, M.; Zahan, Ronok; Islam, M. Monirul; Mazumder, M. Ehsanul H.; Haque, Md. Ekramul

    2011-01-01

    Musa sapientum (M.sapientum) commonly known as ‘banana’ is widely used in Bangladeshi folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate antidiarrheal, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract of M.sapientum seed (MMSS). The extract was studied for antidiarrheal property using castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility test in mice. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MMSS. In addition, disc diffusion methods were used for antibacterial assay using various diarrheal induced bacterial strains. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the extract reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extracts significantly (p<0.001) delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control. In DPPH and NO scavenging method, MMSS showed good antioxidant potentiality in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 12.32±0.33 µg/ml and 18.96±1.01 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.001) good reducing power. The extract also displayed strong anti-bacterial effect against when tested against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Altogether, these results suggest that the MMSS could be used as a potential antidiarrheal agent along with its antioxidant and antibacterial potentiality. PMID:23407989

  10. Molecular Analysis and Genomic Organization of Major DNA Satellites in Banana (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa. PMID:23372772

  11. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  12. Mining of EST-SSR markers of Musa and their transferability studies among the members of order the Zingiberales.

    PubMed

    Backiyarani, S; Uma, S; Varatharj, P; Saraswathi, M S

    2013-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) databases of 11 Musa complementary DNA libraries were retrieved from National Center of Biotechnology Information and used for mining simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Out of 21,056 unique ESTs, SSR regions were found only in 5,158 ESTs. Among these SSR containing ESTs, the occurrence of trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant followed by mono-, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and pentanucleotides. Moreover, this study showed that the rate of class II SSRs (<20 nucleotides) was higher than the class I SSRs (<20 nucleotides), and proportion of class I and II SSRs as abundant for tri-repeats. As a representative sample, primers were synthesized for 24 ESTs, carrying >12 nucleotides of SSR region, and tested among the various genomic group of Musa accessions. The result showed that 88 % of primers were functional primers, and 43 % are showing polymorphism among the Musa accessions. Transferability studies of Musa EST-SSRs among the genera of the order Zingiberales exhibited 100 and 58 % transferability in Musaceae and Zingiberaceae, respectively. The sequence comparison of SSR regions among the different Musa accessions confirmed that polymorphism is mainly due to the variation in repeat length. High percentage of cross-species, cross-genera, and cross-family transferability also suggested that these Musa EST-SSR markers will be a valuable resource for the comparative mapping by developing COS markers, in evolutionary studies and in improvement of the members of Zingiberaceae and Musaceae.

  13. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  14. Cytogenetic evidence of mixed disomic and polysomic inheritance in an allotetraploid (AABB) Musa genotype

    PubMed Central

    Jeridi, Mouna; Perrier, Xavier; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Ferchichi, Ali; D'Hont, Angélique; Bakry, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Edible bananas originated mainly from two wild species, Musa acuminata Colla (AA) and Musa balbisiana Colla (BB), and triploid cultivars with an AAA, AAB or ABB genome are the most widely used. In the present study, chromosome pairing affinities are investigated in a sterile AB Indian variety and in its fertile colchicine-induced allotetraploid (AABB) derivative to determine the inheritance pattern of the tetraploid genotype. The potential implications of interspecific recombination and chromosomal composition of diploid gametes for Musa improvement are presented. Methods The pairing of different chromosome sets at diploid and tetraploid levels was investigated through a combination of conventional cytogenetic and genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH) analyses of meiotic chromosomes, leading to a likelihood model of the pairing behaviour. GISH analysis of mitotic chromosomes was also conducted to reveal the chromosome constitution of hybrids derived from crosses involving the allotetraploid genotype. Key Results Analysis of chromosome associations at both ploidy levels suggested that the newly formed allotetraploid behaves as a ‘segmental allotetraploid’ with three chromosome sets in a tetrasomic pattern, three sets in a likely disomic pattern and the five remaining sets in an intermediate pattern. Balanced and unbalanced diploid gametes were detected in progenies, with the chromosome constitution appearing to be more homogenous in pollen than in ovules. Conclusions Colchicine-induced allotetraploids in Musa provide access to the genetic background of natural AB varieties. The segmental inheritance pattern exhibited by the AABB allotetraploid genotype implies chromosome exchanges between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana species and opens new horizons for reciprocal transfer of valuable alleles. PMID:23087127

  15. Discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in the Musa gene pool by Ecotilling

    PubMed Central

    Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Sági, László; Huynh, Owen A.; Utsushi, Hiroe; Swennen, Rony; Terauchi, Ryohei; Mba, Chikelu

    2010-01-01

    Musa (banana and plantain) is an important genus for the global export market and in local markets where it provides staple food for approximately 400 million people. Hybridization and polyploidization of several (sub)species, combined with vegetative propagation and human selection have produced a complex genetic history. We describe the application of the Ecotilling method for the discovery and characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms in diploid and polyploid accessions of Musa. We discovered over 800 novel alleles in 80 accessions. Sequencing and band evaluation shows Ecotilling to be a robust and accurate platform for the discovery of polymorphisms in homologous and homeologous gene targets. In the process of validating the method, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be deleterious for the function of a gene putatively important for phototropism. Evaluation of heterozygous polymorphism and haplotype blocks revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity in Musa accessions. We further applied a strategy for the simultaneous discovery of heterozygous and homozygous polymorphisms in diploid accessions to rapidly evaluate nucleotide diversity in accessions of the same genome type. This strategy can be used to develop hypotheses for inheritance patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms within and between genome types. We conclude that Ecotilling is suitable for diversity studies in Musa, that it can be considered for functional genomics studies and as tool in selecting germplasm for traditional and mutation breeding approaches. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1395-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20589365

  16. Oligonucleotide and amplification fingerprinting of wild species and cultivars of banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Kaemmer, D; Afza, R; Weising, K; Kahl, G; Novak, F J

    1992-09-01

    DNA oligonucleotide and amplification fingerprinting have been successfully used to detect genetic polymorphisms in 15 representative species and cultivars of the genus Musa, comprising AA, AAA, AAAA, AAB, ABB, and BB genotypes. In-gel-hybridization of Hinf I-digested genomic banana DNA to the 32P-labeled synthetic oligonucleotides (GATA)4, (GTG)5, and (CA)8 revealed considerable polymorphisms between Musa species and cultivars. The fingerprint patterns proved to be somatically stable and did not show differences between individual plants of 'Grand Nain' (AAA genotype). Dendrograms based on oligonucleotide fingerprint band sharing data proved to be consistent with most of the known features of the history of banana and plantain cultivation and evolution, respectively. DNA samples from the same banana species and cultivars were also amplified by PCR using single or pairwise combinations of short oligonucleotide primers. Amplification products were separated on agarose or polyacrylamide gels and visualized by ethidium bromide or silver staining, respectively. Polymorphic patterns were obtained with some but not all primers. By using the CCCTCTGCGG primer in simplex and/or duplex PCR, the induced mutant 'GN60A' was clearly recognized from its original variety 'Grand Nain'. Both fingerprint techniques allowed the detection of bands characteristic for the A and B genome. This DNA fingerprinting technology has potential application in several areas of Musa improvement.

  17. Foundation characteristics of edible Musa triploids revealed from allelic distribution of SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Hippolyte, I.; Jenny, C.; Gardes, L.; Bakry, F.; Rivallan, R.; Pomies, V.; Cubry, P.; Tomekpe, K.; Risterucci, A. M.; Roux, N.; Rouard, M.; Arnaud, E.; Kolesnikova-Allen, M.; Perrier, X.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The production of triploid banana and plantain (Musa spp.) cultivars with improved characteristics (e.g. greater disease resistance or higher yield), while still preserving the main features of current popular cultivars (e.g. taste and cooking quality), remains a major challenge for Musa breeders. In this regard, breeders require a sound knowledge of the lineage of the current sterile triploid cultivars, to select diploid parents that are able to transmit desirable traits, together with a breeding strategy ensuring final triploidization and sterility. Highly polymorphic single sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Methods Here, the allelic distribution of each of 22 SSR loci across 561 Musa accessions is analysed. Key Results and Conclusions We determine the closest diploid progenitors of the triploid ‘Cavendish’ and ‘Gros Michel’ subgroups, valuable information for breeding programmes. Nevertheless, in establishing the likely monoclonal origin of the main edible triploid banana subgroups (i.e. ‘Cavendish’, ‘Plantain’ and ‘Mutika-Lujugira’), we postulated that the huge phenotypic diversity observed within these subgroups did not result from gamete recombination, but rather from epigenetic regulations. This emphasizes the need to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of genome expression on a unique model in the plant kingdom. We also propose experimental standards to compare additional and independent genotyping data for reference. PMID:22323428

  18. Development of expressed sequence tag and expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat marker resources for Musa acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Marco A. N.; de Oliveira Cruz, Viviane; Emediato, Flavia L.; de Camargo Teixeira, Cristiane; Souza, Manoel T.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C.; Ferreira, Claudia F.; Amorim, Edson P.; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Martins, Natalia F.; de Jesus Barbosa Cavalcante, Maria; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios J.; Pignolet, Luc; Abadie, Catherine; Ciampi, Ana Y.; Piffanelli, Pietro; Miller, Robert N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana (Musa acuminata) is a crop contributing to global food security. Many varieties lack resistance to biotic stresses, due to sterility and narrow genetic background. The objective of this study was to develop an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of transcripts expressed during compatible and incompatible banana–Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mf) interactions. Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mf, is a destructive disease of banana. Microsatellite markers were developed as a resource for crop improvement. Methodology cDNA libraries were constructed from in vitro-infected leaves from BLSD-resistant M. acuminata ssp. burmaniccoides Calcutta 4 (MAC4) and susceptible M. acuminata cv. Cavendish Grande Naine (MACV). Clones were 5′-end Sanger sequenced, ESTs assembled with TGICL and unigenes annotated using BLAST, Blast2GO and InterProScan. Mreps was used to screen for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), with markers evaluated for polymorphism using 20 diploid (AA) M. acuminata accessions contrasting in resistance to Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases. Principal results A total of 9333 high-quality ESTs were obtained for MAC4 and 3964 for MACV, which assembled into 3995 unigenes. Of these, 2592 displayed homology to genes encoding proteins with known or putative function, and 266 to genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Gene ontology (GO) classification identified 543 GO terms, 2300 unigenes were assigned to EuKaryotic orthologous group categories and 312 mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. A total of 624 SSR loci were identified, with trinucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant in MAC4 (54.1 %) and MACV (57.6 %). Polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions was observed with 75 markers. Alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 8, totalling 289. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.81. Conclusions This EST collection offers a resource for studying functional genes, including

  19. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains. PMID:21915683

  20. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  1. Isolation, characterization and chromosome localization of repetitive DNA sequences in bananas (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Valárik, M; Simková, H; Hribová, E; Safár, J; Dolezelová, M; Dolezel, J

    2002-01-01

    Partial genomic DNA libraries were constructed in Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana and screened for clones carrying repeated sequences, and sequences carrying rDNA. Isolated clones were characterized in terms of copy number, genomic distribution in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, and sequence similarity to known DNA sequences. Ribosomal RNA genes have been the most abundant sequences recovered. FISH with probes for DNA clones Radkal and Radka7, which carry different fragments of Musa 26S rDNA, and Radka14, for which no homology with known DNA sequences has been found, resulted in clear signals at secondary constrictions. Only one clone carrying 5S rDNA, named Radka2, has been recovered. All remaining DNA clones exhibited more or less pronounced clustering at centromeric regions. The study revealed small differences in genomic distribution of repetitive DNA sequences between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, the only exception being the 5S rDNA where the two Musa clones under study differed in the number of sites. All repetitive sequences were more abundant in M. acuminata whose genome is about 12% larger than that of M. balbisiana. While, for some sequences, the differences in copy number between the species were relatively small, for some of them, e.g. Radka5, the difference was almost thirty-fold. These observations suggest that repetitive DNA sequences contribute to the difference in genome size between both species, albeit to different extents. Isolation and characterization of new repetitive DNA sequences improves the knowledge of long-range organization of chromosomes in

  2. Plantain or edible banana (musa x paradisica var - sapiemtum) some lesser known folk uses in India.

    PubMed

    Pushpangadan, P; Kaur, J; Sharma, J

    1989-07-01

    Plantain Or edible banana (Musa X paradisiacal var. Sapientum), an important commercial fruit item of the tropics, is known in India since time immemorial. Apart from its use as a valuable food item, banana fruits and the different part of plant find diverse uses in various folk practices, customs, religious rituals and medicine among the villagers and tribal communities of the country which are oral in tradition. A study conducted on various medicinal applications of banana has shown that they are very effective and can be used by all as simple and safe home remedy for treating a number of common ailments which are reported here.

  3. Ploidy level and genomic composition of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa sp. Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant germplasm collections serve as repositories for important genes. However, insufficient and inaccurate characterization of the genetic diversity in a collection slows and can prevent full utilization of these collections to maximum potential. Bananas and plantains (Musa sp., Colla) are some o...

  4. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  5. Annotation of differentially expressed genes in the somatic embryogenesis of musa and their location in the banana genome.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Borges, Josefina Ines; Ku-Cauich, José Roberto; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, Rosa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of cDNA-AFLP was used to study the genes expressed in zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa acuminata Colla ssp. malaccensis, and a comparison was made between their differential transcribed fragments (TDFs) and the sequenced genome of the double haploid- (DH-) Pahang of the malaccensis subspecies that is available in the network. A total of 253 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected with apparent size of 100-4000 bp using 5 pairs of AFLP primers, of which 21 were differentially expressed during the different stages of banana embryogenesis; 15 of the sequences have matched DH-Pahang chromosomes, with 7 of them being homologous to gene sequences encoding either known or putative protein domains of higher plants. Four TDF sequences were located in all Musa chromosomes, while the rest were located in one or two chromosomes. Their putative individual function is briefly reviewed based on published information, and the potential roles of these genes in embryo development are discussed. Thus the availability of the genome of Musa and the information of TDFs sequences presented here opens new possibilities for an in-depth study of the molecular and biochemical research of zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa.

  6. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system. PMID:23161558

  7. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    PubMed

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models. PMID:25101926

  8. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    PubMed Central

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  9. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    PubMed

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models.

  10. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system.

  11. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    PubMed

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  12. Molecular Characterization of MaCCS, a Novel Copper Chaperone Gene Involved in Abiotic and Hormonal Stress Responses in Musa acuminata cv. Tianbaojiao

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Chen, Fanglan; Liu, Weihua; Thu, Min Kyaw; Zhang, Zihao; Chen, Yukun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lin, Yuling; Wang, Tianchi; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu/ZnSODs) play important roles in improving banana resistance to adverse conditions, but their activities depend on the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) delivering copper to them. However, little is known about CCS in monocots and under stress conditions. Here, a novel CCS gene (MaCCS) was obtained from a banana using reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. Sequence analyses showed that MaCCS has typical CCS domains and a conserved gene structure like other plant CCSs. Alternative transcription start sites (ATSSs) and alternative polyadenylation contribute to the mRNA diversity of MaCCS. ATSSs in MaCCS resulted in one open reading frame containing two in-frame start codons to form two protein versions, which is supported by the MaCCS subcellular localization of in both cytosol and chloroplasts. Furthermore, MaCCS promoter was found to contain many cis-elements associated with abiotic and hormonal responses. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that MaCCS was expressed in all tested tissues (leaves, pseudostems and roots). In addition, MaCCS expression was significantly induced by light, heat, drought, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid, but inhibited by relatively high concentrations of CuSO4 and under cold treatment, which suggests that MaCCS is involved in abiotic and hormonal responses. PMID:27023517

  13. Inflorescence proliferation for somatic embryogenesis induction and suspension-derived plant regeneration from banana (Musa AAA, cv. 'Dwarf Cavendish') male flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Juan Bernardo; Rosell-García, Purificación

    2008-06-01

    Availability of explants with adequate embryogenic competence is one of the most important limitations for the development of regenerable cell suspensions in banana. To increase the number and ease of accessibility to potentially embryogenic explants, a novel methodology is described by which young male flower clusters isolated from adult plants are induced to form new flower buds and proliferate in vitro. Different concentrations of the plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) induced inflorescence proliferation, which could be maintained over time as a continuous source of young flower buds. Intensity of proliferation was evaluated during successive subcultures. At the third cycle of proliferation, the highest multiplication rate (2.89) was obtained on the medium containing 5 microM TDZ. Newly generated floral tissues were assessed for embryogenic competence, resulting in an average embryogenic frequency of 12.5%. The observed embryogenic capacity, together with the recurrent availability of immature flowers, allowed for the direct initiation of cell suspensions from bulked explant cultures. Regular observation and regeneration tests during the development of suspended cell cultures confirmed their embryogenic condition. Produced embryos successfully matured and germinated to regenerate hundreds of somatic in vitro plants.

  14. Endophytic bacteria associated with growing shoot tips of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the affinity of endophytes to the host.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious; Soly, Thyvalappil A

    2009-11-01

    A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient agar from just 75% and 42% of the 12 stocks during May and November, respectively (average 58%; 6 x 10(3) colony-forming units per gram), yielding diverse organisms belonging to firmicutes (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Virgibacillus, Staphylococcus spp.), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Kocuria spp.), alpha-proteobacteria (Paracoccus sp.), and gamma-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter spp.). Each shoot tip showed one to three different organisms and no specific organism appeared common to different sucker tips. Tissue homogenate from shoot tips including the ones that did not yield culturable bacteria displayed abundant bacterial cells during microscopic examination suggesting that a high proportion of cells were in viable-but-nonculturable state, or their cultivation requirements were not met. Direct application of cultivation-independent approach to study endophytic bacterial community using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA universal primers resulted in high interference from chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences. Dislodging the bacterial cells from shoot tips that did not show cultivable bacteria and incubating the tissue crush in dilute-nutrient broth led to the activation of four organisms (Klebsiella, Agrobacterium, Pseudacidovorax spp., and an unidentified isolate). The endophytic organisms in general showed better growth at 30-37 degrees C compared with 25 degrees C, and the growth of endophytes as well as pathogenic Erwinia carotovora were promoted with the supply of host tissue extract (HTE) while that of the isolates from nonplant sources were inhibited or unaffected by HTE, suggesting an affinity or dependence of the endophytes on the host and the prospect of an HTE-based assay for discriminating the nonendophytes from endophytes. PMID:19633807

  15. Molecular Characterization of MaCCS, a Novel Copper Chaperone Gene Involved in Abiotic and Hormonal Stress Responses in Musa acuminata cv. Tianbaojiao.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Chen, Fanglan; Liu, Weihua; Thu, Min Kyaw; Zhang, Zihao; Chen, Yukun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lin, Yuling; Wang, Tianchi; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu/ZnSODs) play important roles in improving banana resistance to adverse conditions, but their activities depend on the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) delivering copper to them. However, little is known about CCS in monocots and under stress conditions. Here, a novel CCS gene (MaCCS) was obtained from a banana using reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. Sequence analyses showed that MaCCS has typical CCS domains and a conserved gene structure like other plant CCSs. Alternative transcription start sites (ATSSs) and alternative polyadenylation contribute to the mRNA diversity of MaCCS. ATSSs in MaCCS resulted in one open reading frame containing two in-frame start codons to form two protein versions, which is supported by the MaCCS subcellular localization of in both cytosol and chloroplasts. Furthermore, MaCCS promoter was found to contain many cis-elements associated with abiotic and hormonal responses. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that MaCCS was expressed in all tested tissues (leaves, pseudostems and roots). In addition, MaCCS expression was significantly induced by light, heat, drought, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid, but inhibited by relatively high concentrations of CuSO₄ and under cold treatment, which suggests that MaCCS is involved in abiotic and hormonal responses. PMID:27023517

  16. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  17. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  18. Genome-Wide Computational Analysis of Musa Microsatellites: Classification, Cross-Taxon Transferability, Functional Annotation, Association with Transposons & miRNAs, and Genetic Marker Potential

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunyu; Sheng, Ou; Mayer, Christoph; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-01-01

    The development of organized, informative, robust, user-friendly, and freely accessible molecular markers is imperative to the Musa marker assisted breeding program. Although several hundred SSR markers have already been developed, the number of informative, robust, and freely accessible Musa markers remains inadequate for some breeding applications. In view of this issue, we surveyed SSRs in four different data sets, developed large-scale non-redundant highly informative therapeutic SSR markers, and classified them according to their attributes, as well as analyzed their cross-taxon transferability and utility for the genetic study of Musa and its relatives. A high SSR frequency (177 per Mbp) was found in the Musa genome. AT-rich dinucleotide repeats are predominant, and trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant in transcribed regions. A significant number of Musa SSRs are associated with pre-miRNAs, and 83% of these SSRs are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic SSR markers. Overall, 74% of the SSR markers were polymorphic, and 94% were transferable to at least one Musa spp. Two hundred forty-three markers generated a total of 1047 alleles, with 2-8 alleles each and an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.31 to 0.89 and averaged 0.71. We report the largest set of non-redundant, polymorphic, new SSR markers to be developed in Musa. These additional markers could be a valuable resource for marker-assisted breeding, genetic diversity and genomic studies of Musa and related species. PMID:26121637

  19. Genome-Wide Computational Analysis of Musa Microsatellites: Classification, Cross-Taxon Transferability, Functional Annotation, Association with Transposons & miRNAs, and Genetic Marker Potential.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunyu; Sheng, Ou; Mayer, Christoph; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-01-01

    The development of organized, informative, robust, user-friendly, and freely accessible molecular markers is imperative to the Musa marker assisted breeding program. Although several hundred SSR markers have already been developed, the number of informative, robust, and freely accessible Musa markers remains inadequate for some breeding applications. In view of this issue, we surveyed SSRs in four different data sets, developed large-scale non-redundant highly informative therapeutic SSR markers, and classified them according to their attributes, as well as analyzed their cross-taxon transferability and utility for the genetic study of Musa and its relatives. A high SSR frequency (177 per Mbp) was found in the Musa genome. AT-rich dinucleotide repeats are predominant, and trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant in transcribed regions. A significant number of Musa SSRs are associated with pre-miRNAs, and 83% of these SSRs are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic SSR markers. Overall, 74% of the SSR markers were polymorphic, and 94% were transferable to at least one Musa spp. Two hundred forty-three markers generated a total of 1047 alleles, with 2-8 alleles each and an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.31 to 0.89 and averaged 0.71. We report the largest set of non-redundant, polymorphic, new SSR markers to be developed in Musa. These additional markers could be a valuable resource for marker-assisted breeding, genetic diversity and genomic studies of Musa and related species.

  20. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-12-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit. PMID:26674222

  1. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-12-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit.

  2. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit. PMID:26674222

  3. Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin gene (MusaPIP2;6) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-05-01

    High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana. PMID:25757388

  4. Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin gene (MusaPIP2;6) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-05-01

    High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana.

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of Musa accessions in ex situ conservation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Banana cultivars are mostly derived from hybridization between wild diploid subspecies of Musa acuminata (A genome) and M. balbisiana (B genome), and they exhibit various levels of ploidy and genomic constitution. The Embrapa ex situ Musa collection contains over 220 accessions, of which only a few have been genetically characterized. Knowledge regarding the genetic relationships and diversity between modern cultivars and wild relatives would assist in conservation and breeding strategies. Our objectives were to determine the genomic constitution based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions polymorphism and the ploidy of all accessions by flow cytometry and to investigate the population structure of the collection using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci as co-dominant markers based on Structure software, not previously performed in Musa. Results From the 221 accessions analyzed by flow cytometry, the correct ploidy was confirmed or established for 212 (95.9%), whereas digestion of the ITS region confirmed the genomic constitution of 209 (94.6%). Neighbor-joining clustering analysis derived from SSR binary data allowed the detection of two major groups, essentially distinguished by the presence or absence of the B genome, while subgroups were formed according to the genomic composition and commercial classification. The co-dominant nature of SSR was explored to analyze the structure of the population based on a Bayesian approach, detecting 21 subpopulations. Most of the subpopulations were in agreement with the clustering analysis. Conclusions The data generated by flow cytometry, ITS and SSR supported the hypothesis about the occurrence of homeologue recombination between A and B genomes, leading to discrepancies in the number of sets or portions from each parental genome. These phenomenons have been largely disregarded in the evolution of banana, as the “single-step domestication” hypothesis had long predominated. These findings will have an

  6. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  7. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  8. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana. PMID:27041343

  9. Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of banana (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N

    2011-12-01

    Banana (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of banana. Untreated control banana fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated banana fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality. PMID:23572812

  10. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana.

  11. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    PubMed

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  12. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in the seeded diploid banana Musa ornata Roxb.

    PubMed

    Cronauer-Mitra, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1988-01-01

    Somatic embryos of a seeded diploid ornamental banana (Musa ornata Roxb.) were obtained from zygotic embryos cultured on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium with the auxin 2,4-D (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l) and 5% CW. Removal of 2,4-D and transferral to Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) (1972) salts with CW followed by basal MS led to embryo germination and growth. Plantlet production was obtained using filter paper bridges in liquid half-strength SH medium with 1% sucrose. The remarkable phenotypic fidelity of somatic embryos to that of zygotic embryos and the presence of a haustorium-like outgrowth on the somatic embryos is described. PMID:11538845

  13. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome), many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Findings Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. Conclusions This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker assisted selection for traits

  14. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals.

  15. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals. PMID:25320868

  16. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  17. Efficacy of RAPD, ISSR and DAMD markers in assessment of genetic variability and population structure of wild Musa acuminata colla.

    PubMed

    Lamare, Animos; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2015-07-01

    North east India is considered as one of the major biodiversity hotspots worldwide and centre of origin of several plant species including Musa. Musa acuminata Colla is known to be one of the wild progenitors of cultivated bananas and plantains. Three single primer based DNA marker techniques viz., random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and directed amplification of minisatellites DNA (DAMD) were used for diversity diagnostics among 25 genotypes of wild M. acuminata collected from Meghalaya province of north east India. A total of 58 primers (26-RAPD, 21-ISSR, and11-DAMD) yielded 451 DNA fragments, of which 395 (87.58 %) were found to be polymorphic in nature. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values were almost identical for each marker system. The resolving power of the marker system was found to be highest in RAPD (3.96) whereas ISSR resolved highest marker index (16.39) in the study. Selected amplicon data obtained through single primer amplification reactions were utilized for determination of diversity within and among the populations of M. acuminata. Nei's genetic differentiation (Gst) value (0.451) indicated higher proportion of the genetic variation within the populations which is supported by the AMOVA analysis (88 %). The study provides insight into the efficacy of RAPD, ISSR and DAMD to analyse the genetic variation existing in the wild Musa germplasm, which can further be exploited for quality trait improvement and domestication of such important horticultural crops. The genetic diversity based population structure may shed light on the genetic basis of speciation and evolution of various species within the genus Musa.

  18. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  19. Sampling strategies and variability in fruit pulp micronutrient contents of west and central african bananas and plantains (Musa species).

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Stals, Ellen; Ngoh-Newilah, Gérard; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Lusty, Charlotte; Markham, Richard; Swennen, Rony; Keulemans, Johan

    2007-04-01

    The variability in fruit micronutrient contents in a selection of Central and West African Musa varieties cultivated under standardized field conditions was studied. Analysis of the within-fruit, within-hand, and within-plant as well as the between-plant variations demonstrated that both provitamin A carotenoids (pVACs) and mineral micronutrient (Fe, Zn) contents vary significantly across all sample groups. The variations in pVACs contents appear to be at least partly related to differences in the developmental status of the fruit, but the observed trends were genotype-specific. The mean pVACs concentrations per genotype indicated that there is substantial genetic variation in the fruit pVACs contents between Musa cultivars, with orange-fleshed plantain varieties (AAB) having generally higher fruit pVACs contents than dessert bananas (AAA). It was not possible to identify consistent trends between the sampling position and fruit Fe/Zn contents. Once the within-bunch micronutrient variability has been accounted for, the mean variations in fruit micronutrient contents between individual plants of a variety generally fell to within acceptable limits. Results are discussed within the framework of standardizing sampling and developing strategies to screen for the nutritional values of new and existing Musa varieties. PMID:17346062

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Musa WRKY Gene Family: Evolution and Differential Expression during Development and Stress.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ridhi; Pandey, Ashutosh; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Asif, Mehar H

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family plays an important role in the development and stress responses in plants. As information is not available on the WRKY gene family in Musa species, genome-wide analysis has been carried out in this study using available genomic information from two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Analysis identified 147 and 132 members of the WRKY gene family in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the WRKY gene family expanded much before the speciation in both the species. Most of the orthologs retained in two species were from the γ duplication event which occurred prior to α and β genome-wide duplication (GWD) events. Analysis also suggests that subtle changes in nucleotide sequences during the course of evolution have led to the development of new motifs which might be involved in neo-functionalization of different WRKY members in two species. Expression and cis-regulatory motif analysis suggest possible involvement of Group II and Group III WRKY members during various stresses and growth/development including fruit ripening process respectively. PMID:27014321

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-01

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening. PMID:26733055

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-01

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening. PMID:26733055

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Musa WRKY Gene Family: Evolution and Differential Expression during Development and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ridhi; Pandey, Ashutosh; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Asif, Mehar H.

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family plays an important role in the development and stress responses in plants. As information is not available on the WRKY gene family in Musa species, genome-wide analysis has been carried out in this study using available genomic information from two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Analysis identified 147 and 132 members of the WRKY gene family in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the WRKY gene family expanded much before the speciation in both the species. Most of the orthologs retained in two species were from the γ duplication event which occurred prior to α and β genome-wide duplication (GWD) events. Analysis also suggests that subtle changes in nucleotide sequences during the course of evolution have led to the development of new motifs which might be involved in neo-functionalization of different WRKY members in two species. Expression and cis-regulatory motif analysis suggest possible involvement of Group II and Group III WRKY members during various stresses and growth/development including fruit ripening process respectively. PMID:27014321

  4. Sampling strategies and variability in fruit pulp micronutrient contents of west and central african bananas and plantains (Musa species).

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Stals, Ellen; Ngoh-Newilah, Gérard; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Lusty, Charlotte; Markham, Richard; Swennen, Rony; Keulemans, Johan

    2007-04-01

    The variability in fruit micronutrient contents in a selection of Central and West African Musa varieties cultivated under standardized field conditions was studied. Analysis of the within-fruit, within-hand, and within-plant as well as the between-plant variations demonstrated that both provitamin A carotenoids (pVACs) and mineral micronutrient (Fe, Zn) contents vary significantly across all sample groups. The variations in pVACs contents appear to be at least partly related to differences in the developmental status of the fruit, but the observed trends were genotype-specific. The mean pVACs concentrations per genotype indicated that there is substantial genetic variation in the fruit pVACs contents between Musa cultivars, with orange-fleshed plantain varieties (AAB) having generally higher fruit pVACs contents than dessert bananas (AAA). It was not possible to identify consistent trends between the sampling position and fruit Fe/Zn contents. Once the within-bunch micronutrient variability has been accounted for, the mean variations in fruit micronutrient contents between individual plants of a variety generally fell to within acceptable limits. Results are discussed within the framework of standardizing sampling and developing strategies to screen for the nutritional values of new and existing Musa varieties.

  5. Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Máthé, C; Szénási, G; Sebestény, A; Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

    2014-08-01

    CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect.

  6. Effect of Musa sapientum Stem Extract on Animal Models of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aditya J.; Handu, Shailendra S.; Dubey, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari; Shukla, Rimi; Ahmed, Qazi Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Musa sapientum, the banana plant, has shown to possess antioxidant activity in previous studies. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) with evidence of increased serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in MDD patients. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of M. sapientum stem extract (MSSE) in experimental models in mice. Materials and Methods: Forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out in five different groups (n = 6/group) of mice. The vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were orally administered distilled water (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg), and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MSSE, respectively, 45 min prior to the experiment. Results: On FST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 161.5 ± 6.78 (in seconds, mean ± standard error of mean [SEM]), decreased to 149.33 ± 2.70 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 120.17 ± 8.35 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 45.17 ± 4.11 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. On TST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 173.83 ± 12.65 (mean ± SEM), decreased to 163.17 ± 6.91 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 139.0 ± 5.9 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 124.0 ± 4.42 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. The difference in the duration of immobility was statistically significant at middle and higher doses, i.e. 50 and 100 mg/kg MSSE (P < 0.05) respectively, when compared with the control group in both the tests. Conclusion: A significant antidepressant-like activity was found in MSSE, which could be a potential natural compound for use in depression. SUMMARY The five groups – vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were administered distilled water (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg), and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of Musa sapientum stem extract (MSSE), respectivelyThe duration of immobility decreased in the treated groups as compared to the control group on both

  7. Effect of Musa sapientum Stem Extract on Animal Models of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aditya J.; Handu, Shailendra S.; Dubey, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari; Shukla, Rimi; Ahmed, Qazi Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Musa sapientum, the banana plant, has shown to possess antioxidant activity in previous studies. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) with evidence of increased serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in MDD patients. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of M. sapientum stem extract (MSSE) in experimental models in mice. Materials and Methods: Forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out in five different groups (n = 6/group) of mice. The vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were orally administered distilled water (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg), and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MSSE, respectively, 45 min prior to the experiment. Results: On FST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 161.5 ± 6.78 (in seconds, mean ± standard error of mean [SEM]), decreased to 149.33 ± 2.70 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 120.17 ± 8.35 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 45.17 ± 4.11 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. On TST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 173.83 ± 12.65 (mean ± SEM), decreased to 163.17 ± 6.91 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 139.0 ± 5.9 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 124.0 ± 4.42 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. The difference in the duration of immobility was statistically significant at middle and higher doses, i.e. 50 and 100 mg/kg MSSE (P < 0.05) respectively, when compared with the control group in both the tests. Conclusion: A significant antidepressant-like activity was found in MSSE, which could be a potential natural compound for use in depression. SUMMARY The five groups – vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were administered distilled water (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg), and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of Musa sapientum stem extract (MSSE), respectivelyThe duration of immobility decreased in the treated groups as compared to the control group on both

  8. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy.

  9. Effect of chemical modification on molecular structure and functional properties of Musa AAB starch.

    PubMed

    Koteswara Reddy, Chagam; Vidya, P V; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2015-11-01

    Starch extracted from Musa AAB (poovan banana) was subjected to acetylation, acid-thinning and oxidation. The effect of the treatments on molecular structure and functional properties of starch were analysed. Chemical composition revealed that non-starch components were reduced after chemical treatment. Amylose content of starch decreased on acetylation from 24.16% to 20.90%, whereas it increased to 24.50% and 25.5% on oxidation and acid-thinning, respectively. X-ray diffraction pattern of modified starches showed B-type crystalline structure with peaks at 2θ=5.5°, 15.0°, 17.1° and 23.5°; which were parallel with the pattern observed in case of native starch. Swelling capacity of starch granules was found to reduce by acid-thinning and oxidation but acetylation induced to increase it. The percentage of colour (L*, a* and b*), solubility and water absorption capacities varied significantly from native starch after chemical modification. Changes in gelatinisation temperatures and enthalpy value of starches were observed in modified starches and it is varied according to reaction conditions. Pasting properties of the starches was increased by acetylation and oxidation while acid-thinning reduced it (P<0.05).

  10. Effect of banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) on gastric mucosal shedding.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, K; Bhattacharya, D; Chakraborty, A; Goel, R K; Sanyal, A K

    1987-01-01

    Banana pulp powder (Musa sapientum Linn. var. paradisiaca) was studied for its effects on gastric mucosal resistance. Banana-treated (0.5 g/kg orally, twice daily for 3 days) rats of either sex showed: (i) a significant increase in the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA; (ii) a significant increase in the total carbohydrate (sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) content of gastric mucosa; (iii) a significant decrease in gastric juice DNA and protein; (iv) a significant increase in the total carbohydrates and carbohydrate/protein ratio of gastric juice. Aspirin treatment to rats caused similar effects as banana on the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA but showed opposite effects on the other parameters. These results suggest that banana treatment increased and aspirin decreased the gastric mucosal resistance as evidenced by a respective decrease and increase in gastric juice DNA, the latter serving as an index of the rate of mucosal shedding. Increased cellular mucus may be the factor for increased mucosal resistance. The results of the present study tend to confirm that plantain banana powder strengthens mucosal resistance and promotes the healing of ulcers.

  11. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  12. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi.

  13. MusA: Using Indoor Positioning and Navigation to Enhance Cultural Experiences in a Museum

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Irene; Xhembulla, Jetmir; Martina, Andrea; Bottino, Andrea; Malnati, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of multimedia mobile guides in museum environments. Mobile devices have the capabilities to detect the user context and to provide pieces of information suitable to help visitors discover and follow the logical and emotional connections that develop during the visit. In this scenario, location based services (LBS) currently represent an asset, and the choice of the technology to determine users' position, combined with the definition of methods that can effectively convey information, become key issues in the design process. In this work, we present Museum Assistant (MusA), a general framework for the development of multimedia interactive guides for mobile devices. Its main feature is a vision-based indoor positioning system that allows the provision of several LBS, from way-finding to the contextualized communication of cultural contents, aimed at providing a meaningful exploration of exhibits according to visitors' personal interest and curiosity. Starting from the thorough description of the system architecture, the article presents the implementation of two mobile guides, developed to respectively address adults and children, and discusses the evaluation of the user experience and the visitors' appreciation of these applications. PMID:24351645

  14. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  15. Isolation and characterization of an α-glucosidase inhibitor from Musa spp. (Baxijiao) flowers.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhanwu; Dai, Haofu; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Hui; Hu, Yingying; Ma, Weihong

    2014-07-18

    The use of α-glucosidase inhibitors is considered to be an effective strategy in the treatment of diabetes. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, five Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase inhibitors were isolated from the flowers of Musa spp. (Baxijiao). Using NMR spectroscopy analysis they were identified as vanillic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), β-sitosterol (3), daucosterol (4) and 9-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (5). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of compounds 1-5 were 2004.58, 1258.35, 283.67, 247.35 and 3.86 mg/L, respectively. Compared to a known α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose, IC50=999.31 mg/L), compounds 3, 4 and 5 showed a strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that compound 5 is a mixed-competitive inhibitor, while compounds 3 and 4 are competitive inhibitors. The inhibition constants (Ki) of compounds 3, 4 and 5 were 20.09, 2.34 and 4.40 mg/L, respectively. Taken together, these data show that the compounds 3, 4 and 5 are potent α-glucosidase inhibitors.

  16. Study of Post-Harvest Ambon Banana (Musa acuminata) Preservation Using X-Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwijananti, P.; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    An exposure to Ambon banana (Musa Acuminata) samples has been done by using X-rays with current, voltage and exposure time are control parameters. This study aimed to determine storage ability of the post-harvest sample. Five samples were exposured by x-rays with the dose of (3-5) × 10-14 Gy. The samples were stored at room temperature. Their mass and physical condition (color and smell) were evaluated every 3 days. It was found that the control sample which was not exposured by X-ray was ripe in the sixth day indicated by the yellow color and good smell of the banana. Meanwhile, the samples which were exposured by (3 - 5) × 10-14 Gy doze of X-ray looked fresher and still had green color. These samples showed their ripening in the ninth day and their mass decrease was (12-13)% which is lower than the control sample. The preservation of banana can be done through low-dose X-ray exposure.

  17. Using histopathological changes as a biomarker to trace contamination loading of Musa Creeks (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Salamat, Negin; Soleimani, Zahra; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Ronagh, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-08-01

    Gill histological changes were used as a biomarker to evaluate the health of yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus (A. latus), collected from different sites in Musa Creeks including: (A) Petrochemical, (B) Jaafari, (C) Ghazaleh, (D) Majidieh, and (E) Zangi creeks. Also Genaveh with relatively clean water was selected as reference. The gills of 60 A. latus were fixed in Bouin's solution for 12 hr, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. Five micrometer thick sections were stained in H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff for microscopic examination. Also, the presence of gill histological alterations was assessed by the histopathologic alteration index (HAI). The gill morphological abnormalities include mucus secretion increase, debris, blood plaque, and shortening of filaments. The gill pathological changes included lamellar cells hyperplasia, aneurysm, lamellar fusion, and epithelial lifting. The HAI means were varied from moderate to severe in sites A and B, thus these sites are considered as being of low quality. Some severe pathological alterations were observed in site D, but their distribution was lower than sites A and B. The least HAI means of sites C and E demonstrated their good environmental quality. The results suggest that there is close relation between amounts of pathological alterations and environmental contamination.

  18. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    PubMed

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  19. Inheritance of black sigatoka disease resistance in plantain-banana (Musa spp.) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R; Vuylsteke, D

    1994-10-01

    Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet), an airborne fungal leaf-spot disease, is a major constraint to plantain and banana (Musa spp.) production world-wide. Gaining further knowledge of the genetics of host-plant resistance will enhance the development of resistant cultivars, which is considered to be the most appropriate means to achieve stable production. Genetic analysis was conducted on 101 euploid (2x, 3x and 4x) progenies, obtained from crossing two susceptible triploid plantain cultivars with the resistant wild diploid banana 'Calcutta 4'. Segregating progenies, and a susceptible reference plantain cultivar, were evaluated over 2 consecutive years. Three distinct levels of host response to black sigatoka were defined as follows: susceptible (< 8 leaves without spots), less susceptible (8-10) and partially resistant (> 10). Segregation ratios for resistance at the 2x level fitted a genetic model having one major recessive resistance allele (bs 1) and two independent alleles with additive effects (bsr 2 and bsr 3). A similar model explains the results at the 4x level assuming that the favourable resistance alleles have a dosage effect when four copies of them are present in their respective loci (bs i (4) ). The proposed model was further validated by segregation data of S 1 progenies. Mechanisms of black sigatoka resistance are discussed in relation to the genetic model.

  20. Effect of blanching and ripening on functional properties of plantain (Musa aab) flour.

    PubMed

    Fagbemi, T N

    1999-01-01

    Flours were prepared from raw and blanched samples of unripe and ripe mature plantain Musa aab and examined for their proximate composition, physical characteristics and functional properties. The plantain flours contained 3.5 g crude protein, 2.5-3.5 g crude fat, 5.7-7.1 g moisture, 1.33-2.0 g crude fiber, 1.66-2.0 g ash, and 82.25-86.07 g carbohydrate per 100 g sample. The flours had bulk densities between 0.42-0.72 g/ml, emulsion capacities of 4.7-14.7%, water absorption capacities of 250-338%, oil absorption capacities of 214-371%, foaming capacities of 1.90-5.79%, least gelation concentrations of 6-8%, and viscosities of 23.7-46.7 CP at 2% slurry concentration. Foaming capacity increased with increasing flour concentration. Blanching considerably reduced the emulsion capacity and viscosity, while bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities were increased by blanching. Ripening was found to have a negative effect on all the functional properties examined except the bulk density, and gelation property. Unripe plantain could be used as an emulsifier and thickener in a food system.

  1. Optimization and characterization of purified polysaccharide from Musa sapientum L. as a pharmaceutical excipient.

    PubMed

    Suvakanta, Dash; Narsimha, Murthy Padala; Pulak, Deb; Joshabir, Chakraborty; Biswajit, Das

    2014-04-15

    Polysaccharides from Musa sapientum (MSP) were isolated and purified by gel filtration chromatography. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction crystallography (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and NMR techniques were used to characterize the polysaccharide. Elemental analysis of the polysaccharide indicated that the contents of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen to be 27.31, 5.07 and 0.62 (w/w%) respectively. SEM analysis suggested that the polysaccharide had irregular particle size, mostly seen as aggregates, and fibrous in nature. The samples had peaks at approximately 25°, 32°, 40° and 43° 2θ degrees in the XRD pattern, which indicated both crystalline and amorphous structure. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum includes 1631.38 cm⁻¹ (-COO-), 1377 cm⁻¹ (-COO-) and 3193.93 cm⁻¹ (-OH). Analytical data on MSP indicated that the major neutral sugars were α-D-glucose, β-D-glucose, rhamnose and D-glucuronic acid. The experimental work provides enough evidence to exploit this neutral biopolymer in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.

    PubMed

    Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1.

  3. Isolation and characterization of an α-glucosidase inhibitor from Musa spp. (Baxijiao) flowers.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhanwu; Dai, Haofu; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Hui; Hu, Yingying; Ma, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    The use of α-glucosidase inhibitors is considered to be an effective strategy in the treatment of diabetes. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, five Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase inhibitors were isolated from the flowers of Musa spp. (Baxijiao). Using NMR spectroscopy analysis they were identified as vanillic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), β-sitosterol (3), daucosterol (4) and 9-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (5). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of compounds 1-5 were 2004.58, 1258.35, 283.67, 247.35 and 3.86 mg/L, respectively. Compared to a known α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose, IC50=999.31 mg/L), compounds 3, 4 and 5 showed a strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that compound 5 is a mixed-competitive inhibitor, while compounds 3 and 4 are competitive inhibitors. The inhibition constants (Ki) of compounds 3, 4 and 5 were 20.09, 2.34 and 4.40 mg/L, respectively. Taken together, these data show that the compounds 3, 4 and 5 are potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:25045894

  4. PLANTAIN OR EDIBLE BANANA (MUSA X PARADISICA VAR – SAPIEMTUM) SOME LESSER KNOWN FOLK USES IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pushpangadan, P.; Kaur, Jeet; Sharma, Jyoti

    1989-01-01

    Plantain Or edible banana (Musa X paradisiacal var. Sapientum), an important commercial fruit item of the tropics, is known in India since time immemorial. Apart from its use as a valuable food item, banana fruits and the different part of plant find diverse uses in various folk practices, customs, religious rituals and medicine among the villagers and tribal communities of the country which are oral in tradition. A study conducted on various medicinal applications of banana has shown that they are very effective and can be used by all as simple and safe home remedy for treating a number of common ailments which are reported here. PMID:22557669

  5. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN NORMAL AND STONE FORMING RATS TREATED WITH THE RIPE KERNEL JUICE OF PLANTAIN (MUSA PARADISIACA)

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V. Kalpana; Baskar, R.; Varalakshmi, P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats. PMID:22556626

  6. Anti-diabetic property of Methanol extract of Musa sapientum leaves and its fractions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2013-06-30

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from necrosis of β-cell and insulin resistance at the cellular level. Musa sapientum has been shown to possess anti-diabetic properties, however, the mechanism of its action is unknown. The effect of Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum leaves (MEMSL) and its fractions were assessed for in vitro inhibitory activity of α-amylase enzyme, in vivo hypoglycemic properties and liver glycogen content in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Dried plant powder of Musa sapientum was successively extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol respectively. The filtrate obtained was evaporated using rotary evaporator and the extract was stored at 4°C until use. The methanolic extract obtained was further fractionated using column chromatography. In vitro alpha amylase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extract at different doses (2.5mg/ml, 5mg/ml, 10mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml) and column fractions (100ug/ml) were assessed and compared with that of acarbose (5mg/ml), a standard oral α-amylase inhibitor. Hypoglycemic activity and liver glycogen content was studied using alloxan -induced diabetic male rats treated with MEMSL (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg), column fractions F2 and F5 (100μg/kg) for 14 days respectively. Results obtained showed a dose -dependent increase in α-amylase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extract at 5, 10, 25 and 50mg/ml exhibiting 29%, 61%, and 72% and 80% inhibitory activities respectively. Column fractions 2 and 5 showed the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity of 79% and 74% respectively. The MEMSL at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg exhibited 66% and 59% hypoglycemic activities respectively compared with diabetic controls. Fractions 2 and 5 showed 48% and 75% reduction in blood glucose level respectively. Liver glycogen in diabetic animals treated with MEMSL (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg), F2 and F5 were significantly increased (5.5±0.5, 5.9±0.7, 3.6±0.5, 8.0±0.4 mg/100gwt. liver

  7. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  8. Musa sapientum with exercises attenuates hyperglycemia and pancreatic islet cells degeneration in alloxan-diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Akinlolu, Adelaja Abdulazeez; Salau, Bamidele A.; Ekor, Martins; Otulana, Jubril

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We tested the hypothesis that administrations of methanolic extracts of Musa sapientum sucker (MEMS) with exercises attenuated hyperglycemia in alloxan-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 adult male rats were divided into equal eight groups. Normoglycemic Group A was Control. Alloxan (180 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to rats in Groups B - H to induce diabetes. Group B (diabetic control) received physiological saline. Groups C - H received MEMS (5 mg/kg), MEMS (10 mg/kg), Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), MEMS (5 mg/kg) + exercises, MEMS (10 mg/kg) + exercises and Exercises only, respectively. Changes in body weight, blood glucose levels (BGL) and pancreatic histology were evaluated during or at the end of experiment. Body weights and BGL of rats were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS 15. Statistical comparisons were done using the Student’s t-test for unpaired samples. Differences between groups were determined as significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significantly (P < 0.05) decreased bodyweight was observed in B and H compared to A and C - G. Treatment with MEMS significantly (P < 0.05) decreased elevated BGL in C and D. Hypoglycemic effect of MEMS appeared enhanced with exercises in F and G. Exercises regimen alone (H) resulted in percentage reduction in BGL lower than those of C - G. Histopathological examinations revealed normal pancreas (A), atrophied islet cells (B), hyperplasia with adequate population of islet cells (C - G), and reduced hyperplasia of islet cells (H). Conclusion: MEMS with exercises attenuated hyperglycemia in alloxan-diabetic rats. PMID:26401408

  9. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Cárdenas, Carlos I.; Miranda-Ham, María L.; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A.; Ku-Cauich, José R.; Vergauwen, Rudy; Reijnders, Timmy; Van den Ende, Wim; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    The water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) glucose, fructose, and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructans represent another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of 11 accessions (I to XI), including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD) showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose) fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP) inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA) identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfill across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water) provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes, potentially leading to

  10. Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens.

    PubMed

    Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day 7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day 50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000 mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis.

  11. Heterologous oligonucleotide microarrays for transcriptomics in a non-model species; a proof-of-concept study of drought stress in Musa

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Mark W; Graham, Neil S; Vanholme, Bartel; Swennen, Rony; May, Sean T; Keulemans, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Background 'Systems-wide' approaches such as microarray RNA-profiling are ideally suited to the study of the complex overlapping responses of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, commercial microarrays are only available for a limited number of plant species and development costs are so substantial as to be prohibitive for most research groups. Here we evaluate the use of cross-hybridisation to Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip® microarrays to profile the response of the banana (Musa spp.) leaf transcriptome to drought stress using a genomic DNA (gDNA)-based probe-selection strategy to improve the efficiency of detection of differentially expressed Musa transcripts. Results Following cross-hybridisation of Musa gDNA to the Rice GeneChip® Genome Array, ~33,700 gene-specific probe-sets had a sufficiently high degree of homology to be retained for transcriptomic analyses. In a proof-of-concept approach, pooled RNA representing a single biological replicate of control and drought stressed leaves of the Musa cultivar 'Cachaco' were hybridised to the Affymetrix Rice Genome Array. A total of 2,910 Musa gene homologues with a >2-fold difference in expression levels were subsequently identified. These drought-responsive transcripts included many functional classes associated with plant biotic and abiotic stress responses, as well as a range of regulatory genes known to be involved in coordinating abiotic stress responses. This latter group included members of the ERF, DREB, MYB, bZIP and bHLH transcription factor families. Fifty-two of these drought-sensitive Musa transcripts were homologous to genes underlying QTLs for drought and cold tolerance in rice, including in 2 instances QTLs associated with a single underlying gene. The list of drought-responsive transcripts also included genes identified in publicly-available comparative transcriptomics experiments. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that despite the general paucity of nucleotide sequence data in

  12. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-08-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154±1.981 and 2.921±0.873mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P=0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P=0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C). PMID:26117818

  13. Population structure of wild bananas, Musa balbisiana, in China determined by SSR fingerprinting and cpDNA PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Ge, X J; Liu, M H; Wang, W K; Schaal, B A; Chiang, T Y

    2005-04-01

    Both demographic history and dispersal mechanisms influence the apportionment of genetic diversity among plant populations across geographical regions. In this study, phylogeography and population structure of wild banana, Musa balbisiana, one of the progenitors of cultivated bananas and plantains in China were investigated by an analysis of genetic diversity of simple sequence repeat (SSR) fingerprint markers and cpDNA PCR-RFLP. A chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genealogy of 21 haplotypes identified two major clades, which correspond to two geographical regions separated by the Beijiang and Xijiang rivers, suggesting a history of vicariance. Significant genetic differentiation was detected among populations with cpDNA markers, a result consistent with limited seed dispersal in wild banana mediated by foraging of rodents. Nuclear SSR data also revealed significant geographical structuring in banana populations. In western China, however, there was no detected phylogeograpahical pattern, possibly due to frequent pollen flow via fruit bats. In contrast, populations east of the Beijiang River and the population of Hainan Island, where long-range soaring pollinators are absent, are genetically distinct. Colonization-extinction processes may have influenced the evolution of Musa populations, which have a metapopulation structure and are connected by migrating individuals. Effective gene flow via pollen, estimated from the nuclear SSR data, is 3.65 times greater than gene flow via seed, estimated from cpDNA data. Chloroplast and nuclear DNAs provide different insights into phylogeographical patterns of wild banana populations and, taken together, can inform conservation practices.

  14. Evolution of Endogenous Sequences of Banana Streak Virus: What Can We Learn from Banana (Musa sp.) Evolution?▿

    PubMed Central

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species—GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)—through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions—matK and trnL-trnF—as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV. PMID:20427523

  15. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-08-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154±1.981 and 2.921±0.873mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P=0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P=0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C).

  16. Carbohydrate binding properties of banana (Musa acuminata) lectin I. Novel recognition of internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Winter, H C; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Misaki, A; Goldstein, I J

    2001-05-01

    Examination of lectins of banana (Musa acuminata) and the closely related plantain (Musa spp.) by the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition of precipitation, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that they are mannose/glucose binding proteins with a preference for the alpha-anomeric form of these sugars. Both generate precipitin curves with branched chain alpha-mannans (yeast mannans) and alpha-glucans (glycogens, dextrans, and starches), but not with linear alpha-glucans containing only alpha1,4- and alpha1,6-glucosidic bonds (isolichenan and pullulan). The novel observation was made that banana and plantain lectins recognize internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues, which occur in the linear polysaccharides elsinan and nigeran. Concanavalin A and lectins from pea and lentil, also mannose/glucose binding lectins, did not precipitate with any of these linear alpha-glucans. This is, the authors believe, the first report of the recognition of internal alpha1,3-glucosidic bonds by a plant lectin. It is possible that these lectins are present in the pulp of their respective fruit, complexed with starch.

  17. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  18. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  19. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  20. Computational simulation of CV combination preferences in babbling

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hosung; Goldstein, Louis M.; Giulivi, Sara; Levitt, Andrea G.; Whalen, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a tendency for spoken consonant-vowel (CV) syllables, in babbling in particular, to show preferred combinations: labial consonants with central vowels, alveolars with front, and velars with back. This pattern was first described by MacNeilage and Davis, who found the evidence compatible with their “frame-then-content” (F/C) model. F/C postulates that CV syllables in babbling are produced with no control of the tongue (and therefore effectively random tongue positions) but systematic oscillation of the jaw. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman & Goldstein) predicts that CV preferences will depend on the degree of synergy of tongue movements for the C and V. We present computational modeling of both accounts using articulatory synthesis. Simulations found better correlations between patterns in babbling and the AP account than with the F/C model. These results indicate that the underlying assumptions of the F/C model are not supported and that the AP account provides a better and account with broader coverage by showing that articulatory synergies influence all CV syllables, not just the most common ones. PMID:24496111

  1. A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions of Musa (Banana and plantain).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, N; de Langhe, E

    1985-12-01

    A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions is presented in this paper. Shoot-tip cultures of Musa cultivars (both banana and plantain) are induced by culturing small excised shoot apices on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. The effects of cytokinin concentration in the medium as well as the genotypic configuration of the cultivars on the rate of shoot-bud proliferation have been tested. The established shoot-tip cultures grown on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with IAA (0.18 mg/l) and BA (2.30 mg/l) have been successfully stored at 15°C with 1000 lux light intensity up to 13-17 months depending on the cultivar. The cultivars tested in the present investigation seem to vary in their ability to withstand minimal growth temperature.

  2. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of sterol rich methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum (banana) in cholesterol fed wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Piyush; Tyagi, Mool Kumar; Shukla, Kirtikar; Gambhir, Jasvindar K; Shukla, Rimi

    2016-03-01

    Musa sapientum Linn. (English 'Banana' family Musaceae), is a plant with nutritive, as well as medicinal value. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of stem of this plant was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were made hypercholesterolemic by feeding cholesterol (100 mg/kg/day) suspended in soya oil. Treatment groups received extract at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day in addition to cholesterol orally once daily. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks treatment. Animals were sacrificed and liver stored at -80 °C. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol were estimated in blood. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in blood and liver. Total lipids, HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were investigated in liver. Most effective dose was found to be 20 mg/kg/day. Rise in total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol in animals receiving only cholesterol was 179 %, 417 % and 74 % respectively, while in animals receiving 20 mg/kg dose rise in these parameters was restricted to 40 %, 106 % and 24 %. HDL-cholesterol decreased by 12 % in extract treated group, while it decreased to 36 % in untreated hypercholesterolemic rats. Malonaldialdehyde, marker of lipid peroxidation decreased while reduced glutathione and enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in blood and liver (p < 0.01). Total lipids in liver decreased and enzymes of lipid metabolism viz. HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were restored to near normal. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy indicated high content of sterols in extract. Study demonstrated that methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum has significant antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects. PMID:27570294

  3. 75 FR 54887 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Patent Extension; REPEL-CV AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined the regulatory review period for REPEL-CV and is... in 35 U.S.C. 156(g)(3)(B). FDA recently approved for marketing the medical device, REPEL-CV....

  4. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  5. [Total parenteral nutrition and the usefulness of CV ports].

    PubMed

    Washizawa, Naohiro; Yajima, Satoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Koike, Junichi; Watanabe, Masashi; Kaneko, Hironori

    2014-10-01

    Management of nutrition in cancer patients plays an important role in supporting anti-cancer treatment. Parenteral nutrition is considered to assist with nutrition in cancer patients. Central venous catheters(CVC)are useful for intravenous infusion of not only nutrients with high osmotic pressure but also chemotherapeutic drugs and other substances. Central venous access through CV ports reduces patient's burden and complications, and it contributes to maintaining a patient's quality of life(QOL).

  6. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16do as a CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Shishkovsky, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16do (ATel #8888) on UT April 17.07 with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a blue continuum and broad double-peaked Balmer and He 5875 emission at z~0, with an H-alpha FWHM of about 2400 km/s. This value is high for a CV and suggests the source is observed close to edge-on.

  7. CV-990 L-band SAR: A calibration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Werner, C.

    1985-01-01

    Calibrated image data is required by most users of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data particularly those attempting to classify targets based upon their radar backscatter signature as a function of frequency polarization or incidence angle. In this experiment, the backscatter derived by calibrating the NASA/JPL CV-990 L-band SAR, and the backscatter reported from a pass of the NASA/JSC C-130 scatterometer as the two instruments flew over the same site at different times are compared.

  8. Magnetic CVs in the UCT CCD CV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.

    2004-12-01

    An overview is given of all the magnetic CVs found in the UCT CCD CV Survey (Woudt & Warner 2001, 2002, 2003a). We have identified eight new candidate Intermediate Polars (IP), of which six are classical novae (RR Cha, DD Cir, AP Cru, V697 Sco, V373 Sct, and RX J1039.7-0507). The two other candidate IPs are Aqr1 (2236+0052) and RX J0944.5+0357. In addition, there are two probable Polars, namely V351 Pup (= Nova Puppis 1991) and FIRST J102347.6+003841.

  9. Epidemiology and genetic characteristics of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Dai, Wei; Wang, Shaohui; Dai, Dingzhen

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is one of four viruses in the family Circoviridae that affect young pigeons around the world. We collected 158 serum or tissue samples from six poultry farms in eastern China to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of PiCV in Chinese pigeons. We tested for PiCV using a PCR assay and found that PiCV was present in 80.7 % (88/109) of diseased pigeons and 63.3 % (31/49) of healthy pigeons; overall, 75.3 % (119/158) of samples were PiCV positive. One PiCV-positive sample from each poultry farm was randomly chosen for amplification of the complete PiCV genome by inverse primer PCR (IP-PCR). The six genomic PiCV strains were designated as AHBZ (KJ704801), HBLF-E2 (KJ704802), JSJN (KJ704803), NJPK-21 (KJ704804), SDDZ (KJ704805) and SHWH-AB4 (KJ704806). We compared these new PiCV genomes to six publicly available PiCV genomes and found that the Rep and Cap genes had sequence identity ranging from 93.8 % to 100 % and 79.1 % to 100 %, respectively. In a phylogenetic analysis, PiCV and eight other members of the genus Circovirus were sister to chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of genus Gyrovirus. The results of this study provide evidence that PiCV is present in Chinese pigeons at a high rate and that PiCV is a viral lineage that is distinct from CAV.

  10. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species. PMID:24570169

  11. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) detection of dwarf off-types in micropropagated Cavendish (Musa spp. AAA) bananas.

    PubMed

    Damasco, O P; Graham, G C; Henry, R J; Adkins, S W; Smiths, M K; Godwin, I D

    1996-11-01

    A RAPD marker specific to the dwarf off-type (hereafter known as dwarf) from micropropagation of Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA) cultivars New Guinea Cavendish and Williams was identified following an analysis of 57 normal (true-to-type) and 59 dwarf plants generated from several different micropropagation events. Sixty-six random decamer primers were used in the initial screen, of which 19 (28.8%) revealed polymorphisms between normal and dwarf plants. Primer OPJ-04 (5'-CCGAACACGG-3') was found to amplify an approx. 1.5 kb band which was consistently present in all normal but absent in all dwarf plants of both cultivars. Reliable detection of dwarf plants was achieved using this marker, providing the only available means ofin vitro detection of dwarfs. The use of this marker could facilitate early detection and elimination of dwarfs from batches of micropropagated bananas, and may be a useful tool in determining what factors in the tissue culture process lead to this off type production.Other micropropagation-induced RAPD polymorphisms were observed but were not associated with the dwarf trait. PMID:24178669

  12. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  13. Spatial and temporal effects on seed dispersal and seed predation of Musa acuminata in southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzeng; Gao, Xiuxia; Chen, Jin; Martin, Konrad

    2012-03-01

    Wild bananas are abundant in tropical areas and many ecologists have observed that the succession process is quicker following increased disturbance. This study was conducted to analyze animal-seed interactions and their effects on the seed fate of a wild banana species (Musa acuminata) in tropical southern Yunnan (China) through experiments considering spatial (site and habitat) and temporal (seasons) variation. The largest proportion of fruits (81%) was removed by frugivorous seed dispersers, especially by bats at nighttime. Only 13% of the fruits were removed by climbing seed predators (different species of rats). In the exclosure treatment, rodents accounted for a significantly higher total artificially exposed seed removal number than ants, but with spatial and temporal differences. The highest seed predation rate by rodents (70%) was found in forest with wild banana stands, corresponding with the highest rodent diversity (species numbers and abundance) among the habitat types. In contrast, the seed removal number by ants (57%) was highest in the open land habitats, but there was no close correlation with ant diversity. Seed removal numbers by ants were significantly higher in the dry compared to the rainy season, but rodent activity showed no differences between seasons. The overall results suggest that the largest proportion of seeds produced by wild banana are primarily dispersed by bats. Primary seed dispersal by bats at nighttime is essential for wild banana seeds to escape seed predation.

  14. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  15. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p < 0.05) was noted for T. colubriformis. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  16. Role of gastric antioxidant and anti-Helicobactor pylori activities in antiulcerogenic activity of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Goel, R K; Sairam, K; Rao, C V

    2001-07-01

    Studies with plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) have indicated its ulcer protective and healing activities through its predominant effect on various mucosal defensive factors [Sanyal et.al, Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 149 (1964) 393; 155 (1965) 244]. Oxidative stress and Helicobactorpylori colonization are considered to be important factors in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers. In the present study methanolic extract of plantain banana pulp (BE) was evaluated for its (i) antiulcer and antioxidant activities in 2 hr cold restraint stress and (ii) anti-H.pylori activity in vitro. The extract (BE, 50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) showed significant antiulcer effect and antioxidant activity in gastric mucosal homogenates, where it reversed the increase in ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase values induced by stress. However it did not produce any change in catalase values, which was significantly decreased by stress. Further, in the in vitro study. BE (0.32-1,000 microg/ml) did not show any anti-H.pylori activity. The results suggest absence of anti-H. pyloric activity of methanolic extract of banana in vitro and its antioxidant activity may be involved in its ulcerprotective activity.

  17. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  18. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  19. Rheological Behavior, Granule Size Distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Cross-Linked Banana (Musa paradisiaca) Starch.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez-Santiago, María C.; Maristany-Cáceres, Amira J.; Suárez, Francisco J. García; Bello-Pérez, Arturo

    2008-07-01

    Rheological behavior at 60 °C, granule size distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests were employed to study the effect of diverse reaction conditions: adipic acid concentration, pH and temperature during cross-linking of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch. These properties were determined in native banana starch pastes for the purpose of comparison. Rheological behavior from pastes of cross-linked starch at 60 °C did not show hysteresis, probably due the cross-linkage of starch that avoided disruption of granules, elsewhere, native starch showed hysteresis in a thixotropic loop. All pastes exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. In all cases, size distribution showed a decrease in the median diameter in cross-linked starches. This condition produces a decrease in swelling capacity of cross-linked starch. The median diameter decreased with an increase of acid adipic concentration; however, an increase of pH and Temperature produced an increase in this variable. Finally, an increase in gelatinization temperature and entalphy (ΔH) were observed as an effect of cross-linkage. An increase in acid adipic concentration produced an increase in Tonset and a decrease in ΔH. pH and temperature. The cross-linked of banana starch produced granules more resistant during the pasting procedure.

  20. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  1. No nebular magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a central role in mass and angular momentum transport in the protosolar disk and facilitated the accretion of the first planetesimals. Thought to be key evidence for this hypothesis is the high unblocking-temperature, randomly oriented magnetization in chondrules in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite. However, it has recently been realized that most of the ferromagnetic minerals in Allende are products of secondary processes on the parent planetesimal. Here we reevaluate the pre-accretional magnetism hypothesis for Allende using new paleomagnetic analyses of chondrules including the first measurements of mutually oriented subsamples from within individual chondrules. We confirm that Allende chondrules carry a high-temperature component of magnetization that is randomly oriented among chondrules. However, we find that subsamples of individual chondrules are also non-unidirectionally magnetized. Therefore, the high-temperature magnetization in Allende chondrules is not a record of nebular magnetic fields and is instead best explained by remagnetization during metasomatism in a <8 μT magnetic field. This low field intensity suggests that any core dynamo on the CV parent body decayed before the end of metasomatism, likely <40 My after the formation of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Despite widespread practice, the magnetization in Allende should not be used to constrain magnetic fields in the protosolar nebula.

  2. The effect of emphatic stress on CV coarticulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarresi, Golnaz; Sussman, Harvey M.

    2001-05-01

    The effect of emphatic stress on CV coarticulation was investigated in the speech of one male and one female native speaker of American English using locus equation slope as a measure of CV coarticulation. Stressed real word C1V2C2 tokens where C1=/b,d,g/ and V2=/i, I, e, ɛ, æ, u, o, squflg, a/ were put in carrier sentences with the, thirty, or two preceding the test word. Each sentence was read three times in a normal manner and three times with emphasis on the test token. This resulted in a total of 486 tokens per speaker (3 stop consonants * 3 V1 contexts * 9 V2 contexts *2 emphasis patterns *3 repetitions). Locus equation slopes were derived by plotting F2 onset of C1 against V2 F2 mid-vowel frequency and fitting a regression line to data points. Consonant closure duration, V2 duration, F0, and amplitude were also measured. Despite a significant increase in the acoustic correlates of emphasis, locus equation slopes remained constant as a function of emphasis and varied as a function of place of articulation. This study provides further evidence of the stability of locus equation slopes as phonetic descriptors of stop place of articulation. [Work supported by NIH.

  3. Terms, definitions and measurements to describe sonographic features of myometrium and uterine masses: a consensus opinion from the Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment (MUSA) group.

    PubMed

    Van den Bosch, T; Dueholm, M; Leone, F P G; Valentin, L; Rasmussen, C K; Votino, A; Van Schoubroeck, D; Landolfo, C; Installé, A J F; Guerriero, S; Exacoustos, C; Gordts, S; Benacerraf, B; D'Hooghe, T; De Moor, B; Brölmann, H; Goldstein, S; Epstein, E; Bourne, T; Timmerman, D

    2015-09-01

    The MUSA (Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment) statement is a consensus statement on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe and report the sonographic features of the myometrium using gray-scale sonography, color/power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. The terms and definitions described may form the basis for prospective studies to predict the risk of different myometrial pathologies, based on their ultrasound appearance, and thus should be relevant for the clinician in daily practice and for clinical research. The sonographic features and use of terminology for describing the two most common myometrial lesions (fibroids and adenomyosis) and uterine smooth muscle tumors are presented.

  4. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

  5. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-09-01

    An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. PMID:26209936

  6. Micropropagation and organogenesis of Anthurium andreanum Lind cv Rubrun.

    PubMed

    Maira, Oropeza; Alexander, Mejías; Vargas, Teresa Edith

    2010-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques are routinely used for mass propagation and the establishment of disease free stock material. Virtually all pot type Anthuriums available in the market today are produced by tissue culture. In this chapter, we describe an efficient protocol to obtain Anthurium andreanum cv Rubrun vitro plants through micropropagation and organogenesis. Seeds from plant spadixes were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA. Micro-cuttings from in vitro germinated seedlings were subcultured on MS medium containing 2 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA. Four-week-old in vitro plants obtained from microcuttings, showed callus proliferation at the stem base. The development of shoots and plantlets was observed from callus tissue. We also describe a detailed method for the histological analysis of callus tissue and a vitro plants acclimatization protocol.

  7. NASA/ESA CV-990 airborne simulation of Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D.; Neel, C.; De Waard, J.; Lovelett, R.; Weaver, L.; Parker, R.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the joint NASA/ESA extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to conduct studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy. Two experiment operators from Europe and two from the U.S. were selected to live aboard the aircraft along with a mission manager for a six-day period and operate the experiments in behalf of the principal scientists. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  8. Chondrule Magnetizations in the Allende CV Chondrite and Implications for the Dynamo of the CV Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Fu, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Many early-accreting planetesimals larger than several tens of km in diameter underwent extensive interior melting and differentiation. Advection in the molten metallic cores of these planetesimals may have generated magnetic dynamos. Remanent magnetization preserved in meteorites can reveal the past presence of core dynamo fields and therefore a metallic core on their parent bodies. Furthermore, the meteoritic magnetic record can constrain the duration of the dynamo, providing insight into the thermal evolution of the parent planetesimal. Carporzen et al. (2011) argued that bulk samples of the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite carry a unidirectional partial thermoremanent magnetization (pTRM) blocked up to ~290C. They interpreted this magnetization as recording a magnetic core dynamo on the CV parent body. However, the previous study provided no constraints on the duration of the dynamo and did not characterize the magnetic recording in each component of the Allende meteorite. We conducted paleomagnetic experiments on 23 mutually oriented individual Allende chondrules and matrix samples. We also studied mutually oriented subsamples of 9 of these chondrules. We found that Allende chondrules can be divided into two distinct classes based on their natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Class A chondrules carry a strong low temperature overprint parallel to that of bulk Allende and matrix material that also unblocks at ~290C. Class B chondrules do not carry this low temperature overprint and exhibit randomly oriented NRMs. Electron microprobe analysis and thermal demagnetization of saturation remanence showed that magnetic phases in both Class A and Class B chondrules are likely products of parent body metasomatism. We infer that the random magnetization of Class B chondrules as well as the magnetization blocked above 290C in Class A chondrules and matrix material is a chemical remanent magnetization that resulted in randomly oriented remanence at the sub

  9. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening.

    PubMed

    Verma, Charu; R K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3(rd) day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein. PMID:25926894

  10. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  11. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. PMID:20435371

  12. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Charu; R.K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3rd day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein. PMID:25926894

  13. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles.

  14. Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting Aspergillus section Flavi incidence in Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sales, A C; Azanza, P V; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting the incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi in dried Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines were examined. The average counts of Aspergillus section Flavi (AFC) in fresh and dried Cavendish bananas from 10 production batches of the Philippine Agro-Industrial Development Cooperative in Davao del Norte, Southern Philippines were 1.2 x 10(2) and 1.6 x 10(2) cfu/g, respectively. Isolates from both samples were identified to be Aspergillus flavus based on spore type and conidial structure of isolates. An increasing trend in the AFC of Cavendish bananas was observed during dried banana chips processing. Variability in the AFC between production batches was attributed to differences in aerobic and fungal populations and physicochemical characteristics of the fruits, peel damage of the raw materials, concentration of AFC in the air and food-contact surfaces of the production area, and temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions of the environment during production and storage. Physicochemical characteristics of Cavendish bananas from the receipt of raw materials up to the first day of drying were within the reported range of values allowing growth and toxin production by aflatoxigenic fungi. Air-borne AFC varied depending on the section of the production area examined. The close proximity of the waste disposal area from the production operation to the preparation, drying and storage areas suggests that cross-contamination, probably air-borne or insect-borne was a likely occurrence. The hands of workers were also identified as AFC sources. Results of this study highlight the need for the development of strategies to control aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in Philippine dried Cavendish bananas.

  15. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  16. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments.

  17. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. PMID:26699944

  18. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  19. Experimental Aqueous Alteration of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Kojima, T.

    1995-09-01

    Aqueous alteration is an important process that prevailed in the early solar system. In order to better understand the aqueous alteration processes and conditions, we embarked in hydrothermal alteration experiments of the Allende CV3 chondrite. We here present the first results of our experiments. Samples of Allende were sealed in gold tubes with 1-N HCl and heated in a reactor vessel at 450 degrees C and 800 bars for 4 to 6 weeks. Thin sections were made from the run products and were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDS spectrometer. Our experiments produced remarkable alteration textures in the Allende chondrite. Parts of internal areas of most of the chondrules are replaced by brownish-to-greenish phyllosilicate, exhibiting an appearance closely similar to the altered ("spinach"-bearing) chondrules in CM chondrites. Fractures and interstices in chondrules and matrix, up to 20 micrometers in width and 1 mm in length, are filled with phyllosilicate, producing remarkable veins similar to those observed in CI chondrites. Mainly two kinds of phyllosilicates were produced. One contains major Mg and Fe and has compositions similar to Fe-rich saponite. This is the most common phyllosilicate that occurs in both chondrules and matrix; it is primarily formed by replacing olivine and low-Ca pyroxene. The other kind of phyllosilicate contains major Mg and Fe and variable Al; it is probably a mixture of two phases, so we tentatively call it high-Al phyllosilicates (HAP). HAP occurs mainly in chondrule mesostasis, where it is formed by replacing mesostasis glass. Chondrules and aggregates are altered from their edges to inward. Olivine in outer areas of chondrules and aggregates are enriched in Fe, and most of individual olivine grains show strong Fe-Mg zoning, indicating substantial Fe was added from matrix to chondrules. Mesostasis in central areas is preferentially replaced by HAP, while that in outer areas is replaced by saponite

  20. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  1. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  2. Characterization of esterases from Cucurbita pepo cv. "Eskandrani".

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Afaf S; Abo-Zeid, Amal Z; Mohamed, Tarek M; Ghanem, Hala M; Borai, Ibrahim H; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2008-01-01

    Two of the six esterases identified in Cucurbita pepo cv. "Eskandrani" were purified to homogeneity using two chromatography steps: anion exchange and gel filtration. The molecular weights of C. pepo esterases EIc and EII were 50,000 +/- 1500 and 68,000 +/- 1900 Da from gel filtration and 47,000 and 66,000 Da from SDS/PAGE, respectively, suggesting a monomeric structure for both enzymes. Esterases EIc and EII had K(m) values of 1.22 and 1.56 mM and pH optima at 9.0 and 8.0, respectively. The substrate specificity of C. pepo esterases EIc and EII were determined for a number of p-nitrophenyl esters, where their affinity toward these substrates were decreased as carbon atom number increased. Esterases EIc and EII had the same temperature optima, 40 degrees C. Thermal stability studies of esterases EIc and EII indicated that half maximal activities of EIc and EII esterases were reached at 55 degrees C and 50 degrees C, while they lost 45%, 51% and 70%, 77% of their activities after 30 and 90 min of incubation at 40 degrees C, respectively. The effect of different metal cations and inhibitors were examined. The inhibition studies revealed that the active sites of the two esterases contain serine and cysteine residues. The characteristics of C. pepo esterases are closely similar to those of microbial esterases used in food processing and food industry. PMID:17321740

  3. [Characteristics of Papaver somniferum L. cv. ikkanshu cultivated in Izu].

    PubMed

    Iida, O; Sekine, T; Inoue, O; Yoshimatsu, K; Shimomura, K

    2000-01-01

    The seeds of Papaver somniferum L. cv. Ikkanshu were sown in November (Autumn sowing: AS) and March (Spring sowing: SS) in a field at Izu Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants of National Institute of Health Sciencs, and both AS and SS plants were cultivated to investigate their growth, opium yield and alkaloid content in the opium. Growing periods from the sowing to the opium harvest were approximately six months for AS plants and three months for SS plants. Sizes of plants and capsules in AS were bigger than those in SS, reflecting their growth period. Opium yields per an are in AS and SS were 212.09 g and 142.03 g, respectively. The opium was able to be collected four times in the AS plants though the SS plants ceased to exude opium after the second incision. Therefore higher yield of opium in AS plants seems to be attributed to an amount of opium in the third and fourth incision. Average morphine content in the total opium was 15.61% in AS plants and 15.04% in SS plants, and the estimated amounts of morphine per an are in AS and SS plants were 33.16 g and 21.38 g, respectively.

  4. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  5. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  6. MIZEX-WEST NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Bering Sea marginal ice zone winter experiment (MIZEX-WEST), the CV-990 airborne laboratory was flown to assess the potential of using an extended range of wavelengths for improving passive microwave sea ice observations from spacecraft and second to provide an overview of the MIZ for large-scale processes studies. The aircraft was equipped with both imaging and fixed-beam, dual-polarized passive microwave radiometers ranging from 1.5 millimeter to 3 centimeter wavelengths. Visual, photographic, and thermal (10.7 micron) infrared surface observations were also made from the aircraft to complement the microwave measurements. The flight operations and in-flight observations are discussed and each flight is summarized including flight objective and instrument status. Preliminary mosaic images obtained with the ESMR imager, Nimbus-7 orbits over the Bering Sea, ice observations obtained by an ice observer on board, and composite maps of the general ice conditions for the month of February are also presented.

  7. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of CV-580 lightning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Poh H.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical models developed for the study of lightning strike data acquired by in-flight aircraft are applied to the data measured on the CV-580. The basic technique used is the three dimensional time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations. Both linear and nonlinear models are used in the analysis. In the linear model, the lightning channel and the aircraft are assumed to form a linear time invariant system. A transfer function technique can then be used to study the response of the aircraft to a given lightning strike current. Conversely, the lightning current can be inferred from the measured response. In the nonlinear model, the conductivity of air in the vicinity of the aircraft is calculated and incorporated into the solution of the Maxwell's equations. The nonlinear model thus simulates corona formation and air breakdown. Results obtained from the models are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. This study provides another validation of the models and increases confidence that the models may be used to predict aircraft response to any general lightning strike.

  8. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  9. Mechanisms of haplotype divergence at the RGA08 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene locus in wild banana (Musa balbisiana)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative sequence analysis of complex loci such as resistance gene analog clusters allows estimating the degree of sequence conservation and mechanisms of divergence at the intraspecies level. In banana (Musa sp.), two diploid wild species Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) contribute to the polyploid genome of many cultivars. The M. balbisiana species is associated with vigour and tolerance to pests and disease and little is known on the genome structure and haplotype diversity within this species. Here, we compare two genomic sequences of 253 and 223 kb corresponding to two haplotypes of the RGA08 resistance gene analog locus in M. balbisiana "Pisang Klutuk Wulung" (PKW). Results Sequence comparison revealed two regions of contrasting features. The first is a highly colinear gene-rich region where the two haplotypes diverge only by single nucleotide polymorphisms and two repetitive element insertions. The second corresponds to a large cluster of RGA08 genes, with 13 and 18 predicted RGA genes and pseudogenes spread over 131 and 152 kb respectively on each haplotype. The RGA08 cluster is enriched in repetitive element insertions, in duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences including low complexity regions and shows structural variations between haplotypes. Although some allelic relationships are retained, a large diversity of RGA08 genes occurs in this single M. balbisiana genotype, with several RGA08 paralogs specific to each haplotype. The RGA08 gene family has evolved by mechanisms of unequal recombination, intragenic sequence exchange and diversifying selection. An unequal recombination event taking place between duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences resulted in a different RGA08 gene content between haplotypes pointing out the role of such duplicated regions in the evolution of RGA clusters. Based on the synonymous substitution rate in coding sequences, we estimated a 1 million year divergence time for these M

  10. [Image segmentation in tumor CT based on the improved C-V model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Rongguo; Xue, Fei; Liu, Kun

    2012-04-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings of slow convergence and inaccuracy segmentation in non-homogeneous images, improvements were made on the traditional C-V model in two aspects. Firstly, using a novel model based on local gradient, the initial contour of the C-V model was quickly moved near the target border, greatly reducing the evolution time. Secondly, combining the characteristics of GVF model from two directions to the target border, an adaptive velocity reconciling item was added for velocity equation of the C-V model to make the model converge to the true border. The segmentation experiments for liver tumors in CT showed that the proposed method could be effective.

  11. Properties of a cationic peroxidase from Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Drees, Ehab A; Fahmy, Afaf S

    2008-08-01

    The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, and Sephacryl S-200 columns. Cationic peroxidase POII is proved to be pure, and its molecular weight was 56 kDa. A study of substrate specificity identified the physiological role of POII, which catalyzed the oxidation of some phenolic substrates in the order of o-phenylenediamine > guaiacol > o-dianisidine > pyrogallol > catechol. The kinetic parameters (K (m), V (max), and V (max)/K (m)) of POII for hydrolysis toward H2O2 and electron donor substrates were studied. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 5.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. POII was stable at 10-40 degrees C and unstable above 50 degrees C. The thermal inactivation profile of POII is biphasic and characterized by a rapid decline in activity on exposure to heat. The most of POII activity (70-80%) was lost at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C after 15, 10, and 5 min of incubation, respectively. Most of the examined metal ions had a very slight effect on POII except of Li+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, which had partial inhibitory effects. In the present study, the instability of peroxidase above 50 degrees C makes the high temperature short time treatment very efficient for the inactivation of peel peroxidase contaminated in orange juice to avoid the formation of off-flavors. PMID:18633734

  12. Influence of Lachancea thermotolerans on cv. Emir wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Balikci, Eren Kemal; Tanguler, Hasan; Jolly, Neil P; Erten, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    The present paper describes the behaviour of Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in pure, co-cultured and sequential fermentations in cv. Emir grape must. Faster fermentation rates were observed in wine made with a pure culture of S. cerevisiae and wine produced with simultaneously inoculated cultures of L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae. Both L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae gave high population numbers. The use of L. thermotolerans in mixed and sequential cultures led to an increase in final total acidity content in the wines, varying in the range 5.40-6.28 g/l (as tartaric acid), compared to pure culture S. cerevisiae, which gave the lowest level of total acidity (5 g/l). The increase was in the order of 1.18-2.06 g/l total acidity. Increase in final acidity by the use of L. thermotolerans might be useful to improve wines with low acidity due to global climate change. Volatile acidity levels (as acetic acid) were in the range 0.53-0.73 g/l, while the concentration of ethyl alcohol varied in the range 10.76-11.62% v/v. Sequential fermentations of wines and pure culture fermentation of L. thermotolerans resulted in reduction in the concentrations of acetaldehyde and higher alcohols, with exception of N-propanol and esters. According to the sensory analysis, wine obtained with sequential inoculation of L. thermotolerans followed by inoculation of S. cerevisiae after 24 h, and simultaneous inoculation of these yeasts, was the most preferred. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27113383

  13. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Giri, Abhishek; Thi Thuy Chinh BKrong, Nguyen; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2014-01-01

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600 CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease. PMID:24495921

  14. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 μg/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity. PMID:23999063

  15. Phyllosilicates in the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite - Evidence for aqueous alteration in an oxidizing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Most CV chondrites contain little if any phyllosilicate mineralization. A petrographic and transmission electron microscopy study of the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite shows that the matrix, chondrules, aggregates, and inclusions all contain considerable amounts of phyllosilicates. The mineralogy and occurrence of phyllosilicates in Mokoia differ from those in the CI and CM chondrites. The differences suggests that aqueous alteration of the three meteorite groups probably occurred under a variety of conditions.

  16. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-06-05

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with I{kappa}B-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  17. Visualization of HDF/HDF-EOS Format Earth Observing System Data Using the ISIS "cv" Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torson, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The "cv" (Cube Visualization) program has been used for a number of years as part of the ISIS image processing system (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) [1],[2]. In addition to reading the native ISIS image cube format, "cv" has recently been enhanced to directly read the HDF and HDF-EOS file formats used for distributing data from various Earth Observing System (EOS) Missions (e.g. the Terra and Landsat-7 satellites). Files based on HDF Version 4.x are supported; files based on the new HDF 5.x are not yet supported. "cv" is now packaged so that it can be used without installing the rest of the ISIS software system. The capabilities of the program include: Displays (as images) any Swath/Grid data fields in HDF-EOS files; Displays (as images) any Scientific Data Set (SDS) data fields in HDF files; Combines multiple HDF/HDF-EOS fields to form one display object; Subarea selection and/or subsampling (allows handling large files); Simultaneous display of multiple images/files; Plots intensity profiles along any of the three axes in a 3D data set; Writes displayed data fields to binary files (allows doing further processing using ISIS programs or using other software packages); Reports cursor location and pixel value (includes reporting Latitude/Longitude with optional conversion between geocentric and geographic coordinates); Includes many additional flexible display options. The "cv" program is implemented in the IDL language and makes use of the IDL CALL_EXTERNAL capability to call I/O and utility routines written in C and Fortran. Pre-compiled versions of "cv" are available for Sun Solaris, Compaq Alpha and PC Linux platforms. To obtain "cv", go to the USGS anonymous ftp site (ftpflag.wr.usgs.gov). Do a "cd dist/isis" and get (in binary mode) the README_CV.TXT file (installation instructions) and the tar file for the desired platform (cv_sun.tar, cv_alpha.tar, cv_pc.tar). More information on ISIS is available at the ISIS website (http

  18. [In vitro activity of different fungicides on the growth in Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis Stover and Dickson, Cladosporium musae Morelet and Deightoniella torulosa (Syd.) Ellis, isolated parasites of the banana phyllosphere in the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Koné, Daouda; Badou, Odjochoumou Jean; Bomisso, Edson Lezin; Camara, Brahima; Ake, Séverin

    2009-05-01

    In Côte-d'Ivoire, banana leaf surfaces are attacked by Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis, Cladosporium musae, and Deigthonielle torulosa. Control is based on fungicides recommanded for Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Fungicides belonging to triazoles and strobilurines types were added, at different concentrations, to the PDA medium, using this PDA medium containing no fungicide as the control. Mycelium disc and spores of Cladosporium musae, Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Deightoniella torulosa were put on the different media. Total inhibition of mycelium growth of every fungus on the PDA amended with propiconazole was observed. The fungicides used show different activities according to their concentration and their mode of action. The application of a fungicide should talke into account the pathogenic fungus involved in the leaf attacked. Against Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis, the Ci(50) are different according to the concentrations (0.44 to 1.06 ppm). Correlations ranked from 0.71 to 0.91 are also different according to fungicide used. The Ci(50) of Cladosporium musae (0.10 to 2.44 ppm) and Deightoniella torulosa (0.26 to 0.52 ppm) are different and their correlations are respectively 0.78 to 0.99 and 0.86 to 0.95. An assessment of the sensitivity of parasitic fungi of banana can be made by mycelium growth measurement of fungi isolated from resistance zones.

  19. Banana (Musa sp.).

    PubMed

    Pérez Hernández, Juan B; Remy, Serge; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated bananas are vegetatively propagating herbs, which are difficult to breed because of widespread male and female sterility. As a complementary gene transfer method in banana, the described Agrobacterium protocol relies on highly regenerable embryogenic cell cultures. Embryogenic cells are infected and co-cultivated in the presence of acetosyringone with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plasmid vector to obtain a mixed population of transformed and untransformed plant cells. Transformed plant cells are promoted to grow for 2 to 3 mo on a cell colony induction medium containing the antibiotics geneticin or hygromycin as selective agents, while agrobacteria are counterselected by timentin. The whole procedure, including plant regeneration, takes approx 6 mo and results in an average frequency of 25 to 50 independent transgenic plants per plate, which equals 50 mg of embryogenic cells. This method has been applied to a wide range of cultivars and to generate large populations of transgenic colonies and plants for tagging genes and promoters in banana. PMID:17033061

  20. Banana (Musa sp.).

    PubMed

    Pérez Hernández, Juan B; Remy, Serge; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated bananas are vegetatively propagating herbs, which are difficult to breed because of widespread male and female sterility. As a complementary gene transfer method in banana, the described Agrobacterium protocol relies on highly regenerable embryogenic cell cultures. Embryogenic cells are infected and co-cultivated in the presence of acetosyringone with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plasmid vector to obtain a mixed population of transformed and untransformed plant cells. Transformed plant cells are promoted to grow for 2 to 3 mo on a cell colony induction medium containing the antibiotics geneticin or hygromycin as selective agents, while agrobacteria are counterselected by timentin. The whole procedure, including plant regeneration, takes approx 6 mo and results in an average frequency of 25 to 50 independent transgenic plants per plate, which equals 50 mg of embryogenic cells. This method has been applied to a wide range of cultivars and to generate large populations of transgenic colonies and plants for tagging genes and promoters in banana.

  1. Abstract morphemes and lexical representation: the CV-Skeleton in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2004-07-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the phonological shape of the surface word and its primary syntactic function, which has no surface phonetic content (McCarthy, J. J. (1981). A prosodic theory of non-concatenative morphology, Linguistic Inquiry, 12 373-418). The other two morphemes are proposed to be the vocalic melody, which conveys additional syntactic information, and the root, which defines meaning. In three experiments using masked, cross-modal, and auditory-auditory priming we examined the role of the vocalic melody and the CV-Skeleton as potential morphemic units in the processing and representation of Arabic words. Prime/target pairs sharing the vocalic melody but not the CV-Skeleton consistently failed to prime. In contrast, word pairs sharing only the CV-Skeleton primed reliably throughout, with the amount of priming being as large as that observed between word pattern pairs sharing both vocalic melody and CV-Skeleton. Priming between morphologically related words can be observed when there is no overlap either in meaning or in surface phonetic form.

  2. Non-contact C-V measurements of ultra thin dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, P.; Savtchouk, A.; Wilson, M.; D'Amico, J.; Kochey, J. N.; Marinskiy, D.; Lagowski, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we present a non-contact C-V technique for ultra-thin dielectrics on silicon. The technique uses incremental corona charging of dielectric and a measurement of the surface potential with a vibrating capacitive electrode. A differential quasistatic C-V curve is generated using time-resolved measurements. The technique incorporates transconductance corrections that enable corresponding ultra-low electrical oxide thickness (EOT) determination down to the sub-nanometer range. It also provides a means for monitoring the flat band voltage, V{FB}, the interface trap spectrum, D{IT}, and the total dielectric charge, Q{TOT}. This technique is seen as a replacement for not only MOS C-V measurements but also for mercury-probe C-V. In addition, EOT measurement by the corona C-V has a major advantage over optical thickness methods because it is not affected by water adsorption and molecular airborne contamination, MAC. These effects have been a problem for optical metrology of ultra-thin dielectrics.

  3. [Identification and analysis on the error of Guanyuan (CV 4) point in Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse)].

    PubMed

    Gang, Wei-juan; Huang, Long-xiang

    2009-02-01

    After investigation on the contents about Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse) and Guanyuan (CV 4) in Chinese ancient medical works of the successive dynasties, the authors of the present paper found some errors of recording on CV4. In fact, Guanyuan (CV 4) in the current edition Yulong Ge should be the extra point Lanmen. The author hold that this error mainly results from similar writing in Chinese character, repeated copy, such as [Chinese characters: see text] etc.

  4. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e−07) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and 13C- and 15N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel α + β fold containing two anti-parallel β-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one α-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum. PMID:22837698

  5. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  6. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  7. Analysis of Positive Superhump Shapes Near Superoutburst Maximum in CV SU UMa-like Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobertz, Michele; Voloshina, Irina; Goel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Positive superhumps are hump-shaped modulations in light curves of some Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) that have a period that is slightly longer than the orbital period. In CV SU UMa-like systems, the shape of the positive superhump is known to change throughout the superoutburst, which thus slightly changes the published, observed, positive superhump period. In this presentation, we analyze numerical simulations of prograde precession in accretion disks of CV SU UMa-like systems near superoutburst maximum. We compare the simulated positive superhump shapes with the shapes obtained from observations, using AW Sge as our model. Similarly, we compare associated Fourier Transforms with associated periodograms. We conclude with our analysis of the likely sources that generate the shape of the positive superhump in CV SU UMa-like systems near superoutburst maximum.

  8. An amoeboid olivine inclusion (AOI) in CK3 NWA 1559, comparison to AOIs in CV3 Allende, and the origin of AOIs in CK and CV chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2013-03-01

    An amoeboid olivine inclusion in CK3 NWA 1559 (0.54 × 1.3 mm) consists of a diopside-rich interior (approximately 35 vol%) and an olivine-rich rim (approximately 65 vol%). It is the first AOI to be described in CK chondrites; the apparent paucity of these inclusions is due to extensive parent-body recrystallization. The AOI interior contains irregular 3-15 μm-sized Al-bearing diopside grains (approximately 70 vol%), 2-20 μm-sized pores (approximately 30 vol%), and traces of approximately 2 μm plagioclase grains. The 75-160 μm-thick rim contains 20-130 μm-sized ferroan olivine grains, some with 120º triple junctions. A few coarse (25-50 μm-sized) patches of plagioclase with 2-18 μm-thick diopside rinds occur in several places just beneath the rim. The occurrence of olivine rims around AOI-1 and around many AOIs in CV3 Allende suggests that CK and CV AOIs formed by the acquisition of porous forsteritic rims around fine-grained, rimless CAIs that consisted of diopside, anorthite, melilite, and spinel. Individual AOIs in carbonaceous chondrites may have formed after transient heating events melted their olivine rims as well as portions of the underlying interiors. In AOI-1, coarse plagioclase grains with diopside rinds crystallized immediately below the olivine rim. Secondary parent-body alteration transformed forsterite in the rims of CV and CK AOIs into more-ferroan olivine. Some of the abundant pores in the interior of AOI-1 may have formed during aqueous alteration after fine-grained melilite and anorthite were leached out. Chondrite groups with large chondrules tend to have large AOIs. AOIs that formed in dust-rich nebular regions (where CV and CK chondrites later accreted) tend to be larger than AOIs from less-dusty regions.

  9. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  10. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-08-01

    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  11. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics. PMID:27481298

  12. Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Effect of Musa balbisiana Root Extract: A Potent Agent for Glucose Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Himadri; Boruah, Dulal C; Deori, Meetali; Hazarika, Ankita; Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Folklore studies have revealed that Musa balbisiana Colla (MB; Family: Musaceae) has high medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant activity of MB extracts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of MB extracts, i.e., root extract (RE), shoot extract and inflorescence extract were determined by using various methods viz 1,-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and a method to assess their possible effect on glucose diffusion across gastrointestinal tract and identify bioactive compound of potent extract. In vivo antilipidemic and antidiabetic activity was evaluated by administrating oral dose of RE for 15 days on STZ- induced diabetic rat. RE showed highest antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radical (IC50 32.96 μg/ml) and inhibit 30% glucose movement in vitro. The methanol extract of root showed the presence of calyx [4] arene category of the compound. Furthermore, RE treated rat revealed a reduction in fasting blood glucose (62.5%), serum total cholesterol (36.2%), triglyceride (54.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (50.94%) after 15 days as compared to STZ treated animal. There was an initiation of regenerative structures of the affected organs after 15 days of RE treatment. Histopathological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney of STZ and RE treated group. The presence of calyx [4] arene class of compound may be responsible for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties by absorbing glucose in vivo. PMID:27199747

  13. Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Effect of Musa balbisiana Root Extract: A Potent Agent for Glucose Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Himadri; Boruah, Dulal C.; Deori, Meetali; Hazarika, Ankita; Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Folklore studies have revealed that Musa balbisiana Colla (MB; Family: Musaceae) has high medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant activity of MB extracts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of MB extracts, i.e., root extract (RE), shoot extract and inflorescence extract were determined by using various methods viz 1,-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and a method to assess their possible effect on glucose diffusion across gastrointestinal tract and identify bioactive compound of potent extract. In vivo antilipidemic and antidiabetic activity was evaluated by administrating oral dose of RE for 15 days on STZ- induced diabetic rat. RE showed highest antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radical (IC50 32.96 μg/ml) and inhibit 30% glucose movement in vitro. The methanol extract of root showed the presence of calyx [4] arene category of the compound. Furthermore, RE treated rat revealed a reduction in fasting blood glucose (62.5%), serum total cholesterol (36.2%), triglyceride (54.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (50.94%) after 15 days as compared to STZ treated animal. There was an initiation of regenerative structures of the affected organs after 15 days of RE treatment. Histopathological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney of STZ and RE treated group. The presence of calyx [4] arene class of compound may be responsible for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties by absorbing glucose in vivo. PMID:27199747

  14. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. PMID:24716518

  15. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156

  16. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  17. Evidence that the proliferation stage of micropropagation procedure is determinant in the expression of banana streak virus integrated into the genome of the FHIA 21 hybrid (Musa AAAB).

    PubMed

    Dallot, S; Acuña, P; Rivera, C; Ramírez, P; Côte, F; Lockhart, B E; Caruana, M L

    2001-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is causing increasing concern in almost every producing area of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) worldwide. This situation appeared partially linked to some breeding lines and micropropagated hybrids. A complete BSV sequence integrated into the genome of a triploid plantain has been recently characterised and it has been hypothesised that it could give rise to infectious virus via recombination. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a routine micropropagation procedure on the expression of BSV in the FHIA 21 tetraploid hybrid. The widespread presence of integrated sequences and the absence of episomal BSV in thirty FHIA 21 "mother plants" selected for micropropagation were first confirmed by specific PCR and IC-PCR tests. The proliferation stage of the procedure, characterised by an intensive production of neoformed buds, appeared determinant in BSV expression whereas the rooting and acclimatisation stages had little or no effect. The duration in culture and the way of subdividing the clumps of proliferation influenced greatly the percentage of episomal BSV infections, reaching 58% of infected micropropagated lines after six in vitro subcultures. These data suggest that the expression of episomal BSV observed during the in vitro procedure is correlated with the presence of an integrated form.

  18. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, C. O.; Iroaganachi, M.; Eleazu, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23971053

  19. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156

  20. SuperSAGE combined with PCR walking allows global gene expression profiling of banana (Musa acuminata), a non-model organism.

    PubMed

    Coemans, Bert; Matsumura, Hideo; Terauchi, Ryohei; Remy, Serge; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2005-10-01

    Super-serial analysis of gene expression (SuperSAGE) was used to characterize, for the first time, the global gene expression pattern in banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 10,196 tags were generated from leaf tissue, representing 5,292 expressed genes. Forty-nine tags of the top 100 most abundantly expressed transcripts were annotated by homology to cDNA or EST sequences. Typically for leaf tissue, analysis of the transcript profiles showed that the majority of the abundant transcripts are involved in energy production, mainly photosynthesis. However, the most abundant tag was derived from a type 3 metallothionein transcript, which accounted for nearly 3% of total transcripts analysed. Furthermore, the 26-bp long SuperSAGE tags were applied in 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'RACE) for the identification of unknown tags. In combination with thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR), this allowed the recovery of a full gene sequence of a novel NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, the key enzyme in chlorophyll biosynthesis. SuperSAGE in conjunction with 3'RACE and TAIL-PCR will be a powerful tool for transcriptomics of non-model, but otherwise important organisms.

  1. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  3. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management.

  4. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management. PMID:24726969

  5. Outburst of CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungana, G.; Ferrante, F. V.; Staten, R.; Kehoe, R.

    2015-02-01

    Further to ATel#1272, we report observations of an outburst of the U Geminorum-type CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0 in unfiltered CCD images taken by the 0.45 m ROTSE-IIIb telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas.

  6. Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. PMID:23040992

  7. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  8. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  9. Simple Cp/Cv Resonance Apparatus Suitable for the Physics Teaching Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a resonance apparatus for the measurement of Cp/Cv for different gases. In the apparatus a magnetically supported piston in a vertical cylindrical glass tube containing the gas is forced into oscillation by means of a standard audio signal generator. (Author/GA)

  10. SIMS Oxygen Isotope Study of Chondrules in the Least Metamorphosed CV3 Chondrite Kaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, A.; Defouilloy, C.; Kita, N. T.

    2016-08-01

    High-precision SIMS oxygen three isotope analyses of chondrules in Kaba CV3 show that most chondrules are internally homogeneous in oxygen isotopes and dominated by high Mg# (≥98) and Δ17O from –6‰ to –4‰.

  11. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  12. Beryllium-Boron Systematics of Refractory Inclusions in CR2 and CV3 Chondrites: Evidence for 10Be Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.

    2016-08-01

    Be-B systematics of Allende (CV3), Axtell (CV3), and NWA 5028 (CR2) CAIs suggests that 10Be was distributed heterogeneously in the early solar system which implies that 10Be was produced in the solar nebula by irradiation of nebular gas or dust.

  13. NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711) C-141 KAO, CV-990 (712) Galileo, T-38, YO-3A, Lear Jet, X-14, U-2, OH-6, CH-47, SH-3G, RSRA, AH-1G, XV-15, UH-1H

  14. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    PubMed

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  15. Formation timescales of CV chondrites from component specific Hf-W systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maike; Hezel, Dominik C.; Schulz, Toni; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Münker, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important meteorite group that closely resembles the bulk composition of the solar system. We report the first elemental and isotope dataset for Hf-W in carbonaceous chondrites that includes chondrules, matrix, magnetic fractions as well as bulk compositions. Our study focuses on the three CV3 chondrites, Allende, Vigarano and Bali. Compared to bulk chondrites, matrix splits have low Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions, whereas chondrule splits are characterized by high, but more variable, Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions. Thus, Hf/W ratios behave complementary between chondrules and matrix in the analysed CV chondrites, supporting the view that both components formed from the same parental reservoir. Strong nucleosynthetic effects were observed in most of the analysed CV3 components, especially in matrices and chondrule splits that were found to have large ε183W anomalies of several ε-units. All separates define a rough correlation between initial 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, in agreement with theoretical model trends based on calculations for stellar nucleosynthesis. Our results, therefore, indicate a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the different CV3 chondrite components, arguing for selective thermal processing of early solar system matter during chondrule formation. After correcting for nucleosynthetic anomalies, chondrules and matrix splits of reduced (Vigarano) as well as oxidised (Allende) CV3 chondrites define a linear correlation in ε182W vs. 180Hf/184W space, which is interpreted as an isochron, covering an age interval within the first ∼2.6 Ma after solar system formation. As peak metamorphic temperatures for CV3 chondrites were well below the 182Hf-182W closure temperature, the resulting isochron within its error most likely defines a common formation interval for all components. The calculated age interval is for the first time based on a combined chondrule-matrix isochron, a

  16. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  17. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  18. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  19. Characterization of polyphenols and evaluation of antioxidant capacity in grape pomace of the cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel R; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2015-07-01

    Low molecular weight polyphenols (LMW-PPs) and anthocyanins, along with the antioxidant capacity, were assessed in grape pomace extract (GPE) of red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec. Twenty-six phenolics (13 LMW-PPs and 13 anthocyanins) were characterized and quantified by HPLC-MWD and UPLC-ESI-MS. The maximum concentrations of LMW-PPs corresponded to the flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas malvidin-3-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin. Piceatannol, a stilbene analogue to resveratrol with higher antioxidant activity, was firstly identified and quantified in GPE of the cv. Malbec. The antioxidant activity for Malbec GPE determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was 2,756 μmol TEg(-1) GPE. Therefore, the data reported sustain the use of winemaking by-products as a cheap source of phenolic compounds suitable for biotechnological applications, as a strategy for sustainable oenology.

  20. Fayalitic olivine in CV3 chondrite matrix and dark inclusions: A nebular origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Michael K.; Prinz, Martin

    1998-09-01

    Fayalitic olivine (Fa>32) is the major component of the matrices and Dark Inclusions (DI) of CV3 and other unequilibrated chondrites. It occurs most commonly as rims, veins and halos in and around chondrule silicates in the Allende-type (CV3OxA) chondrites and to a much lesser extent in the reduced (CV3R) and Bali-type (CV3OxB) chondrites. The olivines have distinctive platy, tabular and lath- or irregular-shaped crystals, with the ratio the two types varying widely. In CV3OxB chondrites, matrix fayalitic olivines range up to Fa99.9, whereas in the other CV3 chondrites the range is much smaller. The platy and tabular anisotropic forms of the fayalitic olivines strongly suggest growth from a vapor and the nature of occurrences suggests that CV3 matrices are unequilibrated mixtures of nebular materials. We argue that the parent body hydration/dehydration model has numerous inconsistencies that make this hypothesis highly unlikely. These include: (1) There is no direct evidence linking fayalitic olivine to precursor phyllosilicates. (2) Dehydration of phyllosilicates cannot explain the wide range of morphologies of the fayalitic olivines. (3) Fayalitic olivine clearly predates the formation of the hydrous phases in CV3 chondrites and is one of the phases that breaks down to form phyllosilicates (Keller et al., 1994). (4) The unequilibrated nature of the matrix, including fine scale zoning in 10=B5-sized fayalitic olivine crystals, would not survive the parent body metamorphism required in the dehydration model. (5) A DI in the Ningqiang chondrite contains fayalitic olivine rimmed by glassy and microcrystalline material (Zolensky et al., 1997), which probably formed by radiation damage. This indicates that the fayalitic olivine was exposed to solar radiation in a nebular setting. (6) Some Allende chondrules contain unaltered primary, anhydrous glassy mesostasis in contact with the host matrix (e.g., Ikeda and Kimura, 1995). Chondrule mesostases would not have survived

  1. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  2. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  3. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  4. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  5. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes. PMID:17390809

  6. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening. PMID:22419220

  7. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes.

  8. Stereoselective oxidation of racemic 1-arylethanols by basil cultured cells of Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Kaoru; Utsukihara, Takamitsu; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, C Akira

    2008-05-01

    The biotransformation of racemic 1-phenylethanol (30 mg) with plant cultured cells of basil (Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens, 5 g wet wt) by shaking 120 rpm at 25 degrees C for 7 days in the dark gave (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol and acetophenone in 34 and 24% yields, respectively. The biotransformation can be applied to other 1-arylethanols and basil cells oxidized the (S)-alcohols to the corresponding ketones remaining the (R)-alcohols in excellent ee.

  9. Comparison of direct mercury analyzer and FIA-CV-AAS in determination of methylmercury in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Nakatsubo, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been determined in fish reference materials by direct mercury analyzer (DMA 80) and FIA-CV-AAS. In order to evaluate accuracy, certified reference materials (Fish protein, NRCC - Dorm 4 and fish material, Ipen - Dourada 1) were analyzed after extraction and separation of mercury species. Good agreement of the results have been obtained (relative error of the determination between the methods varied from 1.5% to 39%). The repeatability of the results varied from 4% to 26%.

  10. Long-term treatment of bromocriptine-intolerant prolactinoma patients with CV 205-502.

    PubMed

    Glaser, B; Nesher, Y; Barziliai, S

    1994-06-01

    Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are an importance cause of male and female infertility. Dopaminergic drug therapy is the cornerstone of treatment. However, the currently available drugs, particularly bromocriptine, are associated with frequent adverse effects. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with a new dopaminergic agent, CV 205-502 (CV) in prolactinoma patients previously intolerant of bromocriptine. Nine patients (five male, four female) were treated for up to 39 months. Six had macroprolactinomas, and three had microprolactinomas; four had had previous transphenoidal surgery. Prolactin levels, tumor size and pituitary function were determined before treatment. These parameters and indices of drug toxicity were monitored at regular intervals. Prolactin decreased from 546 +/- 381 (SE) to 19.3 +/- 9.4 micrograms/L on CV doses ranging from 75 to 600 micrograms orally, given at bedtime (percent decrease, 37-99; mean +/- SE, 87 +/- 6.5%). Levels were normalized in six patients. Twenty-four-hour prolactin profiles documented adequate suppression with a single daily dose. All clinical symptoms related to hyperprolactinemia subsided. One accidental pregnancy occurred, and two other women had normalization of menstrual function. One man regained a normal sperm count. Of the four patients who presented with arrested puberty, only the one without previous surgery completed normal puberty during CV treatment. Mild drug-related adverse effects were reported by three patients. Dose reduction eliminated the adverse effects with adequate prolactin suppression in two; the third stopped treatment. Tumor size decreased in three of six macroprolactinoma patients. Liver and kidney function, hematocrit, WBC and platelet counts, EKG and urinalysis remained normal in all.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  12. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  13. Biochemical analysis of SV40 small t mediated theophylline resistance in CV-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The papovavirus SV40 encodes for the two tumor antigens, large T and small t. While much is known about large T, little information is available about the role of small t in the viral life cycle. The authors have developed a system for studying small t antigen based on its ability to overcome the G/sub 0/ growth arrest induced by the methylxanthine, theophylline. Uninfected CV-1 cells, the permissive host for SV40, are arrested by 1-2mM theophylline. In contrast, Wt-infected cells are not arrested by the same concentrations of this drug. Biochemical studies were designed to analyze the effects of theophylline and the means by which small t can overcome the growth arrest of CV-1 cells. Theophylline, a cyclic AMP analogue, does not appear to arrest CV-1 cells by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Theophylline appears to arrest CV-1 cells by inhibiting sodium influx. Both /sub 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake were inhibited by theophylline. Amiloride and TMB-8, drugs which are known to inhibit the plasma membrane Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter, decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake to the same degree as theophylline. Because these drugs also arrested mock and D1- but not Wt-infected cells it is possible that theophylline inhibits sodium uptake by inhibiting this antiporter. Furthermore, because Wt-infected cells are resistant to the growth arrest induced by these drugs, it is possible that small t acts either by directly altering this antiporter or by bypassing the step which requires the activity of the antiporter.

  14. MIRRORCLE-CV The Portable Synchrotron For Precise Non-Destructive Testing And Medical Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-30

    We are developing the portable synchrotron MIRRORCLE-CV series, which provides a high quality x-ray beam for high precision non-destructive testing (NDT). Computer simulations for the magnetic field design and electron dynamics reveal that the outer diameter of the synchrotron magnet can be as small as 30 cm. This synchrotron size approaches that of a conventional x-ray tube.

  15. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  16. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  17. Utrophins compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx3cv in adhered platelets.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Mondragón, Ricardo; Candelario, Aurora; García-Sierra, Francisco; Mornet, Dominique; Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila

    2008-01-01

    Platelet adhesion is a critical step due to its hemostatic role in stopping bleeding after vascular damage. Short dystrophins are the most abundant dmd gene products in nonmuscle tissues, and in association with cytoskeleton proteins contribute to their intrinsic function; while utrophins are dystrophin-homologous related family proteins with structural and functional similarities. We previously demonstrated the presence of Dp71 isoforms, utrophins, and various dystrophin-associated proteins and their participation in cytoskeleton re-organization, filopodia and lamellipodia extension, and in centralizing cytoplasmic granules during the adhesion process of human platelets. To evaluate the morphologic changes and actin-based structures of mdx(3cv) platelets during the adhesion process, we compared the topographic distribution of Dp71d/Dp71Delta110(m) and dystrophin-associated protein in adhered platelets from dystrophic mdx(3cv) mouse. By confocal microscopy, we showed that absence of Dp71 isoforms in platelets from this animal model disrupted dystrophin-associated protein expression and distribution without modifying the platelet morphology displayed during the glass-adhesion process. By immunoprecipitation assays, we proved that up-regulated utrophins were associated with dystrophin-associated proteins to conform the dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to utrophins, which might compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx(3cv) platelets.

  18. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity in chondrules from the Mokoia CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Guan, Yunbin; Sharp, Zachary D.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Schilk, Alan J.

    2004-08-01

    We report a study of the oxygen isotope ratios of chondrules and their constituent mineral grains from the Mokoia, oxidized CV3 chondrite. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of 23 individual chondrules were determined by laser ablation fluorination, and oxygen isotope ratios of individual grains, mostly olivine, were obtained in situ on polished mounts using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our results can be compared with data obtained previously for the oxidized CV3 chondrite, Allende. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of Mokoia chondrules form an array on an oxygen three-isotope plot that is subparallel to, and slightly displaced from, the CCAM (carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals) line. The best-fit line for all CV3 chondrite chondrules has a slope of 0.99, and is displaced significantly (by δ 17O ˜ -2.5‰) from the Young and Russell slope-one line for unaltered calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) minerals. Oxygen isotope ratios of many bulk CAIs also lie on the CV-chondrule line, which is the most relevant oxygen isotope array for most CV chondrite components. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of most chondrules in Mokoia have δ 18O values around 0‰, and olivine grains in these chondrules have similar oxygen isotope ratios to their bulk values. In general, it appears that chondrule mesostases have higher δ 18O values than olivines in the same chondrules. Our bulk chondrule data spread to lower δ 18O values than any ferromagnesian chondrules that have been measured previously. Two chondrules with the lowest bulk δ 18O values (-7.5‰ and -11.7‰) contain olivine grains that display an extremely wide range of oxygen isotope ratios, down to δ 17O, δ 18O around -50‰ in one chondrule. In these chondrules, there are no apparent relict grains, and essentially no relationships between olivine compositions, which are homogeneous, and oxygen isotopic compositions of individual grains. Heterogeneity of oxygen isotope ratios within these chondrules may be the

  19. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from

  20. Using the HP-41CV calculator as a data acquisition system for personal carbon monoxide exposure monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fitz-Simons, T.; Sauls, H.B.

    1984-09-01

    The use of small, personal monitors as instruments for air pollution data acquisition, storage, and retrieval presents a new set of monitoring considerations. Portability, ruggedness, power supplies, and data capture are functions to be addressed in designing personal monitoring systems. The emphasis herein is on the data capture function. This paper describes experiences using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV system as a data management system interfaced with personal carbon monoxide monitors (General Electric Carbon Monoxide Detector, Model 15EC53CO3). In general, the HP-41CV proved to be reliable, adaptable, and easy to use. Problems with the monitor power source (battery failure) were more frequent than with the HP-41CV itself. Using the HP-41CV for the specific data collection requirements of the Washington Microenvironment Study is a focal point of this presentation.

  1. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  2. Describing Assay Precision – Reciprocal of Variance is correct, not CV percent: its use should significantly improve laboratory performance

    PubMed Central

    Jelliffe, Roger W.; Schumitzky, Alan; Bayard, David; Fu, Xiaowei; Neely, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Describing assay error as percent coefficient of variation (CV%) fails as measurements approach zero [1]. Results are censored if below some arbitrarily chosen lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). CV% gives incorrect weighting to data obtained by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), with incorrect parameter values in the resulting pharmacokinetic models, and incorrect dosage regimens for patient care. Methods CV% was compared with the reciprocal of the variance (1/var) of each assay measurement. This method [2] has not been considered by the laboratory community. A simple description of assay standard deviation (SD) as a polynomial function of the assay measurement over its working range was developed, the reciprocal of the assay variance determined, and its results compared with CV%. Results CV% does not provide correct weighting of measured serum concentrations as required for optimal TDM. It does not permit optimally individualized models of the behavior of a drug in a patient, resulting in incorrect dosage regimens. The assay error polynomial described here, using 1/var, provides correct weighting of such data, all the way down to and including zero. There is no need to censor low results, and no need to set any arbitrary lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). Conclusion Reciprocal of variance is the correct measure of assay precision, and should replace CV%. The information is easily stored as an assay error polynomial. The laboratory can serve the medical community better. There is no longer any need for LLOQ, a significant improvement. Regulatory agencies should implement this more informed policy. PMID:25970509

  3. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system. PMID:27649138

  4. Potato virus Y CFH, a putative recombinant isolate from Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero.

    PubMed

    Comes, S; Fanigliulo, A; Pacella, R; Parrella, G; Crescenzi, A

    2006-01-01

    Ornamental plants of Chili pepper, Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero, with symptoms of leaf mosaic, necrotic rings on fruits and necrotic stems were observed in June 2003 in a private garden in the province of Naples (Italy). Preliminary serological characterisation allowed the association of these symptoms with infections by Potato virus Y (PVY). The virus was isolated on Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi and characterised by mechanical inoculation on herbaceous hosts and molecular characterisation of the P1 and the coat protein (CP) genes. Symptoms produced on indicator plants were generally consistent with those described for PVY. The identity of PVY was further confirmed by reaction with PVYN, PVYC and PVYO specific monoclonal antibodies: the isolate reacted only with the PVYC specific Mab. Immuno capture reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) was performed on extracts of PVY-CFH infected N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants, using two couples of primers specifically designed out of the P1 and the CP coding regions of the so far fully sequenced PVY isolates. PCR products were then cloned into pCRII-TOPO vector using TOPO-TA cloning kit (Invitrogen) and sequenced. Sequence analysis suggests that PVY-CFH originated from a recombination event involving a virus of the PVYO type and another parental virus, maybe resembling the PVYNP isolates, given the reasonably high similarity shared by PVY-CFH and, respectively, non potato PVY isolates in the CP coding region, PVYO isolates in the P1 coding region. Evidence for the existence of such a recombination comes, apart from similarity analysis, by the different locations of CFH within phylogenetic trees constructed from P1 and CP genomic regions.

  5. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  6. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  7. [Root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Wei; Pan, Cun-De

    2012-09-01

    By the methods of layered digging and image scanning analysis, this paper studied the root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation. The root system of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing was mainly constituted by fine roots (d < or = 1 mm), while medium roots (12 mm) only had a small proportion. For the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old, the percentage of fine root length in the total root length was 90.9%, 88.4%, and 79.9% respectively, the root length density increased with tree age, and the length density of the roots with different diameter classes was 15-year old>10-year old>5-year old. In vertical direction, the root length density decreased after an initial decrease, and the root dry mass density had a significant difference between soil layers. The intensive distribution region of the root biomass density for the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old was 30-80 cm, 30-100 cm, and 30-100 cm soil depth within the 200 cm range from the trees, respectively. In horizontal direction, the root dry mass density at different distances from the trees had significant difference, i. e., the farther the distance from the tree trunk, the smaller the root dry mass density. In order to decrease the overlap between the tree line and to reduce water and nutrient competition, the row ledge of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation should not be less than 6 m. PMID:23285988

  8. [Root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Wei; Pan, Cun-De

    2012-09-01

    By the methods of layered digging and image scanning analysis, this paper studied the root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation. The root system of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing was mainly constituted by fine roots (d < or = 1 mm), while medium roots (12 mm) only had a small proportion. For the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old, the percentage of fine root length in the total root length was 90.9%, 88.4%, and 79.9% respectively, the root length density increased with tree age, and the length density of the roots with different diameter classes was 15-year old>10-year old>5-year old. In vertical direction, the root length density decreased after an initial decrease, and the root dry mass density had a significant difference between soil layers. The intensive distribution region of the root biomass density for the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old was 30-80 cm, 30-100 cm, and 30-100 cm soil depth within the 200 cm range from the trees, respectively. In horizontal direction, the root dry mass density at different distances from the trees had significant difference, i. e., the farther the distance from the tree trunk, the smaller the root dry mass density. In order to decrease the overlap between the tree line and to reduce water and nutrient competition, the row ledge of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation should not be less than 6 m.

  9. Antifeedant and mosquitocidal compounds from Delphinium x cultorum cv. Magic fountains flowers.

    PubMed

    Miles, J E; Ramsewak, R S; Nair, M G

    2000-02-01

    Six volatile compounds, ethylmethylbenzene (1), 1-isopentyl-2,4, 5-trimethylbenzene (2), 2-(hex-3-ene-2-one)phenylmethyl ketone (3), E and Z isomers of 3-butylidene-3H-isobenzofuran-1-one (4 and 5), and 2-penten-1-ylbenzoic acid (6), were isolated from the mosquitocidal hexane extract of Delphinium x cultorum cv. Magic Fountains flowers. In addition, the ethyl acetate extract, which displayed corn earworm antifeedant activity, yielded 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanol (8). However, compounds 7 and 8 were not biologically active. PMID:10691665

  10. Ultrastructural changes in shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) treated with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa

    2008-04-15

    In the present research, structure and ultrastructure of shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) under salinity conditions were investigated. The experiments were conducted in five groups (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) under greenhouse conditions. Sampling of apical meristem and TEM tissue preparation procedure were carried out. Semithin and ultrathin sections were prepared and viewed in light and electron microscopy, respectively. The results included reduction of meristem size, disorders in meristem structure. Also formation of autophagic vacuoles was observed that is probably one of the plant responses to salt stress for more water storage in these vacuoles and decreasing of cell water requirements.

  11. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    PubMed

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse.

  12. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  13. Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

    1990-01-01

    The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

  14. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    PubMed

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse. PMID:24226709

  15. Preliminary measurements of aircraft airframe noise with the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. C.; Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted in a CV-990 jet transport with engines at idle power to investigate aircraft airframe noise. Test results showed that airframe noise was measured for the aircraft in the landing configuration. The results agreed well with the expected variation with the fifth power of velocity. For the aircraft in the clean configuraton, it was concluded that airframe noise was measured only at higher airspeeds with engine idle noise present at lower speeds. The data show that landing gear and flaps make a significant contribution to airframe noise.

  16. Low-lift-to-drag-ratio approach and landing studies using a CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kock, B. M.; Fulton, F. L.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a flight-test program utilizing a CV-990 airplane, flow in low-lift-to-drag-ratio (L/D) configurations, to simulate terminal area operation, approach, and landing of large unpowered vehicles. The results indicate that unpowered approaches and landings are practical with vehicles of the size and performance characteristics of the proposed shuttle vehicle. Low L/D landings provided touchdown dispersion patterns acceptable for operation on runways of reasonable length. The dispersion pattern was reduced when guidance was used during the final approach. High levels of pilot proficiency were not required for acceptable performance.

  17. The light curve of CV Serpentis, the sometimes-eclipsing Wolf-Rayet star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R.; Liller, W.

    1975-01-01

    New photoelectric observations of the B-magnitude of CV Ser made in 1973 and 1974 show no clear evidence of an eclipse, but they establish night-to-night variability of several percent, a systematic brightness change of 0.035 mag during a portion of the single orbit observed in 1973, and irregular flaring in 1974. We made iris photometer measurements of Harvard patrol plates taken between 1905 June and 1953 July, and find no evidence of a very deep eclipse such as observed by Hjellming and Hiltner. We present several new light curves and discuss then in the light of the recent results of Cowley et al.

  18. Expression of ACO1, ERS1 and ERF1 genes in harvested bananas in relation to heat-induced defense against Colletotrichum musae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangfei; Wang, Aiping; Zhu, Shijiang; Zhang, Lubin

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between heat-induced ethylene signal changes and enhanced disease resistance. Heat enhanced ripening and elevated MaACO1 expression in naturally ripened bananas (NRB), while it delayed ripening and reduced MaACO1expression in the ethephon-treated bananas (ETB). However, in both cases, heat reduced lesion sizes infected by Colletotrichum musae. This indicates that heat-induced disease resistance in bananas was independent of ripening rate. The expression of MaERS1 gene was inhibited by heat treatment in both NRB and ETB, implying that heat as a physical signal could be sensed by banana fruits through the inhibition of ethylene receptor gene expression. The intensity of MaERF1 transcript signals was elevated in heated bananas, suggesting that the enhanced accumulation of MaERF1 transcript following heat treatment could play an important role in activation of the defense system. In ETB, inhibition of JA biosynthesis by application of IBU down-regulated the expression of MaERF and significantly weakened disease resistance, suggesting involvement of endogenous JA in induction of the gene expression, which was reconfirmed by the fact that exposure to exogenous MeJA following the combination of heat plus IBU treatment restored part of the gene expression. On the other hand, in NRB, application of IBU elevated level of MaERF1 expression at 24h and enhanced disease resistance, suggesting that, when banana was not exposed to ethephon, the expression of MaERF1 gene was not JA dependent, which was verified by the fact that MeJA application did not enhance MaERF1 gene expression. In conclusion, heat-induced disease resistance in harvested bananas could involve down-regulation of MaERS1 expression and up-regulation of MaERF1 expression and JA pathway could be involved in heat activation of the defense system in bananas exposed to ethephon. PMID:21511361

  19. Expression of ACO1, ERS1 and ERF1 genes in harvested bananas in relation to heat-induced defense against Colletotrichum musae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangfei; Wang, Aiping; Zhu, Shijiang; Zhang, Lubin

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between heat-induced ethylene signal changes and enhanced disease resistance. Heat enhanced ripening and elevated MaACO1 expression in naturally ripened bananas (NRB), while it delayed ripening and reduced MaACO1expression in the ethephon-treated bananas (ETB). However, in both cases, heat reduced lesion sizes infected by Colletotrichum musae. This indicates that heat-induced disease resistance in bananas was independent of ripening rate. The expression of MaERS1 gene was inhibited by heat treatment in both NRB and ETB, implying that heat as a physical signal could be sensed by banana fruits through the inhibition of ethylene receptor gene expression. The intensity of MaERF1 transcript signals was elevated in heated bananas, suggesting that the enhanced accumulation of MaERF1 transcript following heat treatment could play an important role in activation of the defense system. In ETB, inhibition of JA biosynthesis by application of IBU down-regulated the expression of MaERF and significantly weakened disease resistance, suggesting involvement of endogenous JA in induction of the gene expression, which was reconfirmed by the fact that exposure to exogenous MeJA following the combination of heat plus IBU treatment restored part of the gene expression. On the other hand, in NRB, application of IBU elevated level of MaERF1 expression at 24h and enhanced disease resistance, suggesting that, when banana was not exposed to ethephon, the expression of MaERF1 gene was not JA dependent, which was verified by the fact that MeJA application did not enhance MaERF1 gene expression. In conclusion, heat-induced disease resistance in harvested bananas could involve down-regulation of MaERS1 expression and up-regulation of MaERF1 expression and JA pathway could be involved in heat activation of the defense system in bananas exposed to ethephon.

  20. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  1. CV Protection in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial: A "Thrifty Substrate" Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Mark, Michael; Mayoux, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The striking and unexpected relative risk reductions in cardiovascular (CV) mortality (38%), hospitalization for heart failure (35%), and death from any cause (32%) observed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial using an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk have raised the possibility that mechanisms other than those observed in the trial-modest improvement in glycemic control, small decrease in body weight, and persistent reductions in blood pressure and uric acid level-may be at play. We hypothesize that under conditions of mild, persistent hyperketonemia, such as those that prevail during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors, β-hydroxybutyrate is freely taken up by the heart (among other organs) and oxidized in preference to fatty acids. This fuel selection improves the transduction of oxygen consumption into work efficiency at the mitochondrial level. In addition, the hemoconcentration that typically follows SGLT2 inhibition enhances oxygen release to the tissues, thereby establishing a powerful synergy with the metabolic substrate shift. These mechanisms would cooperate with other SGLT2 inhibition-induced changes (chiefly, enhanced diuresis and reduced blood pressure) to achieve the degree of cardioprotection revealed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. This hypothesis opens up new lines of investigation into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic and nondiabetic heart disease. PMID:27289126

  2. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  3. The Glycine max cv. Enrei Genome for Improvement of Japanese Soybean Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Michihiko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Setsuko; Namiki, Nobukazu; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kamatsuki, Kaori; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Ryoichi; Ishimoto, Masao; Kaga, Akito; Katayose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We elucidated the genome sequence of Glycine max cv. Enrei to provide a reference for characterization of Japanese domestic soybean cultivars. The whole genome sequence obtained using a next-generation sequencer was used for reference mapping into the current genome assembly of G. max cv. Williams 82 obtained by the Soybean Genome Sequencing Consortium in the USA. After sequencing and assembling the whole genome shotgun reads, we obtained a data set with about 928 Mbs total bases and 60,838 gene models. Phylogenetic analysis provided glimpses into the ancestral relationships of both cultivars and their divergence from the complex that include the wild relatives of soybean. The gene models were analyzed in relation to traits associated with anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthesis and an overall profile of the proteome. The sequence data are made available in DAIZUbase in order to provide a comprehensive informatics resource for comparative genomics of a wide range of soybean cultivars in Japan and a reference tool for improvement of soybean cultivars worldwide.

  4. In vitro induction of tetraploid plants from diploid Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua.

    PubMed

    Gu, X F; Yang, A F; Meng, H; Zhang, J R

    2005-12-01

    Tetraploid plants of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua were obtained with in vitro colchicine treatment. Shoot tips from in vitro-grown plants were treated with five different concentrations of colchicine (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3%) in liquid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962), and shaken (100 rpm) at 25 degrees C in darkness for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h, respectively. Tetraploids were obtained at a frequency of over 3% by using 0.05% colchicine (48 h, 72 h) and 0.1% colchicine (24 h, 48 h) treatment as determined by flow cytometry. Cytological and morphological evidence confirmed the results of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome number of diploid plants was 24 and that of tetraploid plants was 48. The stomata sizes of tetraploid plants were significantly larger than those of diploid plants, while the frequency of stomata were reduced significantly. Similarly, the chloroplast number of guard cells of tetraploid plants increased significantly. The selected tetraploid plants were grafted onto mature trees of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua in the field, resulted in thicker stems, rounder and succulent leaves, larger flowers and a delay in florescence time (3-4 days later) than diploid plants. PMID:16094528

  5. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  6. CV205-502, a new non-ergot dopamine agonist, reduces prolactinoma size in man.

    PubMed

    Barnett, P S; Dawson, J M; Butler, J; Coskeran, P B; Maccabe, J J; McGregor, A M

    1990-08-01

    Seven patients with large prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were treated for 8 weeks with once-daily doses of the new, potent, non-ergot, long-acting dopamine agonist CV205-502. In five patients previous treatment with bromocriptine had failed to control their disease or been poorly tolerated and had therefore ceased. In all seven patients serum prolactin levels fell over the 8-week period of CV205-502 treatment with the decrease ranging from 33 to 99%. Associated with this decline in prolactin all patients showed symptomatic improvement with two of the five women beginning to menstruate and the two patients with visual field impairment showing marked improvement. Tolerance of the drug, with doses at 8 weeks ranging from 0.075 to 0.3 mg, was excellent with only minimal and transient side-effects being noted in three patients in none of whom was discontinuation of therapy necessary. In one patient noncompliance after 6 weeks of therapy was associated with a rapid return of her serum prolactin towards pretreatment levels. In all seven patients the clinical and biochemical improvement was accompanied by a marked reduction in tumour size.

  7. Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.

    PubMed

    Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-07-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp.

  8. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals.

  9. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A.; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dimitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step. PMID:21827737

  10. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dmitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V

    2011-08-26

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step.

  11. Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO.

    PubMed

    Albert, Andreas; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Heller, Werner; Seidlitz, Harald K; Zidorn, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Plants in alpine habitats are exposed to many environmental stresses, in particular temperature and radiation extremes. Recent field experiments on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO indicated pronounced altitudinal variation in plant phenolics. Ortho-diphenolics increased with altitude compared to other phenolic compounds, resulting in an increase in antioxidative capacity of the tissues involved. Factors causing these variations were investigated by climate chamber (CC) experiments focusing on temperature and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. Plants of A. montana L. cv. ARBO were grown in CCs under realistic climatic and radiation regimes. Key factors temperature and UV-B radiation were altered between different groups of plants. Subsequently, flowering heads were analyzed by HPLC for their contents of flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives. Surprisingly, increased UV-B radiation did not trigger any change in phenolic metabolites in Arnica. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the ratio of B-ring ortho-diphenolic (quercetin) compared to B-ring monophenolic (kaempferol) flavonols resulted from a decrease in temperature by 5 degrees C in the applied climate regime. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation is probably not the key factor triggering shifts in the phenolic composition in Arnica grown at higher altitudes but rather temperature, which decreases with altitude.

  12. Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.

    PubMed

    Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-07-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp. PMID:23898551

  13. An automated Dengue virus microneutralization plaque assay performed in human Fc{gamma} receptor-expressing CV-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, W W Shanaka I; Alcena, Danielle C; Rose, Robert C; Jin, Xia; Schlesinger, Jacob J

    2009-01-01

    We describe microneutralization assays that used automated 96-well enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-SPOT) readout instrumentation to measure human anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in CV-1 cells that were stably transfected to express human FcgammaRIIA (CD32) using conventional Vero cells as a comparator. Classic plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) end-point titers were determined by probit analysis. Neutralization titers against DENV measured in CV-1 transfectants were expressed in terms of both conventional 50% to 90% PRNT end-point titers and differential infectivity of antibody-treated virus in control and CD32-expressing CV-1 cells. Significantly reduced PRNT titers and strikingly heightened infectivity (up to 100-fold) of antibody-treated DENV was observed in CV-1 CD32 transfectants compared with that observed in control CV-1 or Vero cells. Because DENVs may preferentially replicate in CD32-expressing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, in vivo, it is possible that CD32 introduced into a conventional DENV neutralization assay might provide results that better correlate with protection.

  14. Electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via Wnt-β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huailing; Ji, Feng; Lin, Ying; Zhang, Mulan; Qin, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 (also termed Guanyuan) on femoral osteocalcin also termed bone gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanics, as well as the Wnt‑β‑catenin signaling pathway in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Sprague‑Dawley rats (4.5‑months old) were randomly divided into sham, Ovx, CV4 and mock groups (n=10/group). With the exception of those in the sham group, the rats were ovariectomized to induce postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rats in the CV4 and mock groups were given electroacupuncture at CV4 and non‑acupoint, respectively. The rats in the Ovx model and sham groups underwent identical fixing procedures, but did not undergo electroacupuncture. Following treatment, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe morphological changes in the left femoral trabecular bone, and a three‑point‑bending test was used to analyze femur biomechanics and determine the BMD. In addition, an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum levels of ALP/BGP and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used detect the expression levels of Wnt3a, β‑catenin and Runx2. In the present study, it was demonstrated that electroacupuncture at CV4 significantly improved the osteoporotic morphological changes that occurred in the ovariectomized rats, increased serum ALP and BGP levels, enhanced the maximum and fracture loads, increased BMD (P<0.01), and activated the Wnt‑β‑catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 affected bone formation and promoted bone metabolism in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis, possibly by activating the Wnt‑β‑catenin signaling pathway.

  15. Electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via Wnt-β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    FAN, HUAILING; JI, FENG; LIN, YING; ZHANG, MULAN; QIN, WEI; ZHOU, QI; WU, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 (also termed Guanyuan) on femoral osteocalcin also termed bone gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanics, as well as the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (4.5-months old) were randomly divided into sham, Ovx, CV4 and mock groups (n=10/group). With the exception of those in the sham group, the rats were ovariectomized to induce postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rats in the CV4 and mock groups were given electroacupuncture at CV4 and non-acupoint, respectively. The rats in the Ovx model and sham groups underwent identical fixing procedures, but did not undergo electroacupuncture. Following treatment, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe morphological changes in the left femoral trabecular bone, and a three-point-bending test was used to analyze femur biomechanics and determine the BMD. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum levels of ALP/BGP and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used detect the expression levels of Wnt3a, β-catenin and Runx2. In the present study, it was demonstrated that electroacupuncture at CV4 significantly improved the osteoporotic morphological changes that occurred in the ovariectomized rats, increased serum ALP and BGP levels, enhanced the maximum and fracture loads, increased BMD (P<0.01), and activated the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 affected bone formation and promoted bone metabolism in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis, possibly by activating the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26846191

  16. More evidence for a partially differentiated CV chondrite parent body from paleomagnetic studies of ALH 84028 and ALH 85006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, B. Z.; Weiss, B. P.; Carporzen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of the CV carbonaceous chondrites Allende and Kaba and numerical modeling studies have suggested that the CV chondrite parent body may have been partially differentiated, with a molten metallic core, dynamo magnetic field, and an unmelted chondritic lid. To further evaluate this hypothesis, here we present new paleomagnetic analyses of two previously unstudied CV3 chondrites: the unshocked, Allende-type oxidized chondrite ALH 84028 and the weakly shocked, Bali-type oxidized chondrite ALH 85006. We preformed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization experiments, AF-based paleointensity experiments, and rock magnetic experiments on mutually oriented subsamples of each meteorite. Both meteorites pass fusion crust baked contact tests, indicating that their interiors retain a magnetization predating atmospheric entry. In the interior of ALH 84028, we identified a unidirectional medium temperature (blocked to 300°C), high coercivity (blocked to >420 mT) component. In the interior of ALH 85006, we identified MT components blocked up to 400-475°C. The unblocking temperatures and unidirectional nature of the MT components in both meteorites indicates their origin as a partial thermoremanence or thermochemical remanence acquired during metamorphism following accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. Our paleointensity experiments indicate paleofield intensities of 32-73 μT for ALH 84028 and 14-45 μT for ALH 85006 . When combined with similar recent results for Allende and Kaba, there is now consistent evidence for dynamo fields from four CV chondrites with collectively diverse lithologies and shock states. Therefore, the magnetic field on the CV parent body was not a localized event like that expected for a field generated by meteoroid impact plasmas and instead likely had a wide spatial extent. Further, given the younger I-Xe ages for Kaba compared to Allende (9-10 Ma and 2-3 Ma after Stillwater respectively), CV parent body

  17. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  18. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

  19. C-V measurements of micron diameter metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using a scanning-electron-microscope-based nanoprobe.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T; Jia, H; Wallace, R M; Gnade, B E

    2007-10-01

    The C-V electrical characterization of microstructures on a standard probe station is limited by the magnification of the imaging system and the precision of the probe manipulators. To overcome these limitations, we examine the combination of in situ electrical probing and a dual column scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam system. The imaging parameters and probing procedures are carefully chosen to reduce e-beam damage to the metal oxide semiconductor capacitor device under test. Estimation of shunt capacitance is critical when making femtofarad level measurements. C-V measurements of micron size metal-oxide-silicon capacitors are demonstrated. PMID:17979444

  20. Humudifucol and Bioactive Prenylated Polyphenols from Hops (Humulus lupulus cv. "Cascade").

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Pace, Simona; Chianese, Giuseppina; Santagostini, Laura; Werner, Markus; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Fico, Gelsomina; Werz, Oliver; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-03-25

    Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. "Cascade" has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations.

  1. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  2. Humudifucol and Bioactive Prenylated Polyphenols from Hops (Humulus lupulus cv. "Cascade").

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Pace, Simona; Chianese, Giuseppina; Santagostini, Laura; Werner, Markus; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Fico, Gelsomina; Werz, Oliver; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-03-25

    Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. "Cascade" has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations. PMID:26918635

  3. Partial Melting of the Aliende (CV3) Meteorite: Implications for Origins of Basaltic Meteorites.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, A J; Mittlefehldt, D W; Jones, J H

    1991-05-01

    Eucrites and angrites are distinct types of basaltic meteorites whose origins are poorly known. Experiments in which samples of the Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite were partially melted indicate that partial melts can resemble either eucrites or angrites, depending only on the oxygen fugacity (fo(2)). Melts are eucritic if thefo(2) is below that of the iron-wüstite buffer or angritic if above the fo(2) of that buffer. With changing pressure, the graphite-oxygen redox reaction can produce oxygen fugacities that are above or below those of the iron-wüstite buffer. Therefore, a single, homogeneous, carbonaceous planetoid >110 kilometers in radius could produce melts of drastically different composition, depending on the depth of melting.

  4. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  5. The fractionation of noble gases in diamonds of CV3 Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Semjonova, L. F.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown that in diamonds of Efremovka CV3 the noble gases with normal isotopic compositions are fractionated in different degree while the correlation of isotopic anomalous components is nearly constant. Some data for noble gases in DE-4 sample of Efremovka chondrite are considered. In contrast to DE-2 sample the DE-4 was treated except conc. HClO4, 220 C in addition with mixture of conc. H2SO4+H3PO4 (1:1), 220 C, twice. Noble gases analysis were performed in Germany at Max Plank Institute fur Chemie. Noble gases were released by oxidation of samples at stepped heating from 420 C to 810 C and by pyrolysis at 580, 590, and 680 C.

  6. Mundrabilla 012: A New CV2(?) Chondrite Find from the Southwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulff-Moller, F.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Grundvig, S.

    1993-07-01

    and fractures in olivine--terrestrial oxidation of metal would probably have created a rusty crust and vein filllings of goethite instead. The coarse-grained matrix patches were formed by a mild metamorphic event that did not cause any notable equilibration. Because of the predominating hydrothermal imprint, we propose "petrologic type 2" for the meteorite although the metamorphic event probably was in the low part of the "type 3" range or of very brief duration. Classification and Discussion: The size and abundance of chondrules, the abundance of "metal" and the presence of a Ca-Al inclusion are characteristic of the CV chondrite group and inconsistent with the properties of known CI, CO, CM, CR, and CK carbonaceous chondrites. Aligned, elongate chondrules also occur in Leoville (CV3). Most known CV chondrites belong to petrologic type 3 or 4 and hydrothermally altered members are unusual though not unique. Thorough hydrothermal alteration also affected Read Bluff (CV3), which, however, still contains some metal [1]. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Carlsberg Foundation. Our description is based on a polished thin section (150 mm^2) kindly provided by David New. References: [1] Treiman A. H. and DeHart J. M. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 299.

  7. Seed Development in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Seminole: II. Precocious Germination in Late Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fountain, D W; Outred, H A

    1990-07-01

    Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Seminole in late maturation phase germinated precociously in vitro. Germination occurred in the absence of free water after 5 days but within 24 to 48 hours in contact with water. Excised axes germinated within 12 hours and embryos by 48 hours only if supplied with water. Ethylene accelerated the germination of seeds and embryos irrespective of water availability. There was no effect of ethylene on the rate of axis germination. Ethylene was equally effective within the range 0.5 to 1000 parts per million and 1 hour exposure was fully effective. Induction of precocious germination in vivo was observed by manipulating water content inside pods or by ethylene injection, whether pods were attached to the parent plant or not. These results demonstrate the importance of endogenous regulation of water supply in suppressing precocious germination. Ethylene is identified as a powerful antagonist to the natural control.

  8. Changes in color and phenolic compounds during the raisining of grape cv. Pedro Ximenez.

    PubMed

    Serratosa, María P; Lopez-Toledano, Azahara; Merida, Julieta; Medina, Manuel

    2008-04-23

    Changes in color parameters and phenolic compounds during the sun-drying grape raisining of cv. Pedro Ximenez to obtain sweet wines are studied. Browning increases during the process as a result of the contribution to a greater extent of the low and medium molecular size polymers than the high molecular size polymers. Raisining decreases hue and lightness and increases chroma, all measured as CIELab parameters, indicating a color change to dark reddish hues that is also preferentially due to low and medium molecular size polymers. Most of the phenols studied increase in concentration during raisining, essentially through the concentration effect resulting from the loss of water in the grapes. The concentration changes, however, are comparatively small for hydroxycinnamic esters and flavan-3-ol derivatives, suggesting that these phenolic fractions undergo predominantly oxidative degradation reactions by enzymatic pathways, contributing strongly to the browning of grapes. PMID:18345634

  9. [Effects of simulated acid rain on chloroplast activity in Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. wulongling leaves].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dongliang; Liu, Xinghui

    2002-12-01

    A decreased content of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid (Car) was found in the Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. wulongling leaves when treated with < pH 3.5 acid rain. The decline of Chl content was caused by the reduction of Chla, while Chlb was less sensitive to the acid rain, which resulted in a decrease of Chla/Chlb ratio. The content of Car and the ratio of Chla to Chlb reduced with the duration of stress time. The injury of acid rain to photosynthetic pigments was intensified by illumination. The activities of photoreduction, photophosphorylation and H(+)-ATPase activity decreased with the reduction of pH value under the simulated acid rain. Therefore, the injury of electron transport chain and the uncoupling of photophosphorylation might lead to the ineffective absorption, transportation and transformation of light energy. In our study, the process of photophosphorylation was more sensitive to acid rain than that of photoreduction.

  10. Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

    2002-01-30

    Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

  11. Analysis of ultraviolet atmospheric eclipses in the Wolf-Rayet binary CV Serpentis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.; Khaliullin, Kh. F.

    1985-01-01

    While no eclipses deeper than 0.04 mag are noted in the present UV spectra, covering one-half of an orbital cycle of CV Ser, in the electron scattering continuum at 2400-3200 A or in fine error sensor observations, marked atmospheric eclipses of up to 0.5 mag depth are observed in individual strong lines and over large ranges of the continuum at shorter wavelengths. The flux above the continuum in the C II 1247 A, Si IV 1400 A, and Si IV 1723 lines showed similar phase dependence with emission weakening, as well as with the emission's going into absorption as phase progresses from superior to inferior conjunction of the WC star (primary eclipse). These observations show effects very similar to the behavior of WN stars in the UV.

  12. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  13. Flight-determined derivatives and dynamic characteristics of the CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Flight-determined longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives are presented for the CV-990 airplane for various combinations of Mach number, altitude, and flap setting throughout the flight envelope up to a Mach number of 0.87. Also presented are the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft calculated from the flight-obtained derivatives and the measured phugoid characteristics. The derivative characteristics were obtained from flight records of longitudinal and lateral-directional transient oscillation maneuvers by using a modified Newton-Raphson digital derivative determination technique. Generally the derivatives exhibited consistent variation with lift coefficient in the low-speed data and with Mach number and altitude in the high-speed data. Many also varied with flap deflection, notably spoiler effectiveness and directional stability.

  14. Persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit: some physical, chemical and nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai

    2008-01-01

    The persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki) fruits were analysed for some physical properties (fruit dimensions, fruit mass, fruit volume, fruit density, aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, spread area, projected area, bulk density, skin and flesh firmness, skin and flesh colour as L, a and b values, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces and porosity), chemical properties (moisture, ash, pH, acidity, vitamin C, total soluble solids) and nutritional properties (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc). The fruit characteristics ranged from 169 g for average fruit mass, 65.97 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 1.03% for sphericity and 180 cm3 for volume of fruit. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 5,817 N/m3, 9,300 N/m3 and 38.06%, respectively. The present study also revealed important nutritional values of persimmon fruits.

  15. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    PubMed

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit. PMID:12166965

  16. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  17. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  18. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  19. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora Phyllody Phenotype Is Associated with Misexpression of Flower Organ Identity Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Baudino, Sylvie; Just, Jeremy; Raymond, Olivier; Gu, Lianfeng; Wang, Jihua; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Tang, Kaixue

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody is a flower abnormality in which leaf-like structures replace flower organs in all whorls. Here, we investigated the origin and the molecular mechanism of phyllody phenotype in Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, an ancient naturally occurring Chinese mutant cultivar. Reciprocal grafting experiments and microscopy analyses, demonstrated that the phyllody phenotype in Viridiflora is not associated with phytoplasmas infection. Transcriptome comparisons by the mean of RNA-Seq identified 672 up-regulated and 666 down-regulated genes in Viridiflora compared to its closely related genotype R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. A fraction of these genes are putative homologs of genes known to be involved in flower initiation and development. We show that in flower whorl 2 of Viridiflora, a down-regulation of the floral organ identity genes RcPISTILLATA (RcPI), RcAPETALA3 (RcAP3) and RcSEPALLATA3 (RcSEP3), together with an up-regulation of the putative homolog of the gene SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS1 (RcSOC1) are likely at the origin of the loss of petal identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 3 of Viridiflora, ectopic expression of RcAPETALA2 (RcAP2) along with the down regulation of RcPI, RcAP3, and RcSEP3 is associated with loss of stamens identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 4, the ectopic expression of RcAP2 associated with a down-regulation of RcSEP3 and of the C-class gene RcAGAMOUS correlate with loss of pistil identity. The latter also suggested the antagonist effect between the A and C class genes in the rose. Together, these data suggest that modified expression of the ABCE flower organ identity genes is associated with the phyllody phenotype in the rose Viridiflora and that these genes are important for normal flower organs development. PMID:27462328

  20. Chondritic ingredients: I. Usual suspects and some oddballs in the Leoville CV3 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzer, Andrea; Hezel, Dominik C.; Bendel, Verena; Pack, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Reduced CV3 chondrites are relatively pristine rocks and prime candidates for studies exploring processes that predated planet formation. We closely examined the petrographic features and trace elemental composition of different CV3 constituents in the accretionary breccia Leoville. The petrographic results are presented here. Our sample (2.2 cm2) is not brecciated. The main ingredient—about 65 area%—is fine- to coarse-grained ferromagnesian type I chondrules. Minor constituents (in order of 2-D abundance) include refractory inclusions, Al-rich chondrules, and very fine-crystalline clasts of moderately volatile composition. Type II chondrules and metal nuggets occur sporadically. The chondrule-matrix ratio is approximately 3:1. Medium- and coarse-grained chondrules exhibit porphyritic textures, probably caused by incomplete melting, and frequent, partial or continuous, recrystallized dust rims. The fine-grained population most likely represents randomly sectioned dust rims. The rim material and some of the medium-grained objects are relatively troilite-rich. Iron-nickel metal is rare. In addition, almost all constituents show strikingly ragged or convoluted outlines. Only a few, rim-less components exhibit smooth contours. Evidence for incomplete melting and the formation of recrystallized or igneous rims in carbonaceous chondrites is well established, suggesting that both processes were widespread events. The observed features in Leoville support this conclusion. In addition, our findings indicate that surface abrasion in a turbulent dust-filled regime may have taken place after the consolidation of dust rims. Alternatively, the irregular, convoluted nature of at least the rimmed chondrules may have been inherent to the dust accretion event and was not erased by subsequent heating.

  1. Economic valuation of the Seto Inland Sea by using an Internet CV survey.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Takahiro; Washida, Toyoaki

    2003-01-01

    We estimate the economic value of the natural environment damaged in the Seto Inland Sea after the introduction of the Law on Temporary Measures for the Environmental Conservation of the Seto Inland Sea (Setouchi Law) and the value of the natural environment that survived, using a Contingent Valuation (CV) survey on an Internet web site. The CV survey contains three plans. Plan 1 is to restore 4 ha of reclaimed land. By estimating the Willingness To Pay (WTP) for plan 1, we can appraise the value of the natural environment that was damaged as a result of the original reclamation. Plan 2 is to transplant Zostera (eel-grass) into an area of 10 ha offshore. Plan 3 is to preserve the shore area, a natural habitat for rare animal species, under the National Trust Program. From the WTP for plans 2 and 3, we can estimate the value of the shore area and the areas a little farther offshore. The value of the natural environment damaged in the Seto Inland Sea as a result of reclaiming projects after the introduction of the Setouchi Law and the value of the existing natural environment of the Seto Inland Sea from the WTP for the plans were estimated to about 172 trillion yen (1.46 trillion dollars) and about 424 trillion yen (3.60 trillion dollars), respectively. The results indicate that in the 25 years since the introduction of the Setouchi Law, we have degraded every year about 6.88 trillion yen (58.5 billion dollars) worth of the natural environment by reclaiming. Some seaweed farms and natural shore areas, natural habitats to rare marine life-forms like the horseshoe crab and the fiddler crab have survived, but their value amounts to about 80% of Japan's GDP.

  2. [Models for estimating foliar Fe and Mn Concentration of Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing using spectral reflectance].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen-Zhu; Pan, Cun-De; Wang, Shi-Wei; Guo, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Qing-Tao; Ding, Fan; Li, Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Aimed at providing technology for a rapid nutrition diagnosis system of micronutrients in Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing, we established an element concentration estimation model for its foliar ferrum (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentration based on spectrum analysis. The foliar spectrum reflectance at various phenological periods of fruit development under different soil fertility conditions was measured by Unispec-SC spectrometer. By analyzing the correlation of foliar Fe, Mn concentration at various phenological periods of fruit development, the spectrum reflectance Rλ and its first-order differential f' (Rλ), we filtered out its sensitive bands. And we established an element concentration estimation model for its foliar Fe and Mn at various phenological periods of fruit development with the linear regression model. The results showed that the spectral sensitive bands of foliar Fe in fruit setting period were 873 and 874 nm, 375 and 437 nm in fruit core-hardening period, 836 and 837 nm in maturity period and 325 and 1 054 nm in post-harvest period. However, the spectral sensitive bands of Mn were 913 and 1 129 nm, 425 and 970 nm, 390 and 466 nm, 423 and 424 nm, respectively. The Fe and Mn concentration of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing leaves were the most relevant to the first-order differential f' (RD) of its spectrum reflectance, whose linear spectrum estimation model fitting degree was the highest and reached to a significant or highly significant level. It showed that the spectral sensitive bands of Fe and Mn element varied with different phenological periods of fruit development. The spectrum estimation models for its foliar Fe and Mn concentration could be established with linear model according to its first-order differential f' (Rλ). PMID:25532350

  3. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  4. Growth and physiological responses of Chinese cabbage cv. 'Chungwang' to different irradiances during early-to-middle growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes of the growth and morphology of Chinese cabbage cv. ‘Chungwang’ in response to five different irradiance treatments were investigated during the early and middle stages of growth. Seedlings were transplanted to 15 liter pots at the fourth leaf stage and plants were grown in controlled enviro...

  5. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  6. Experimental determination of the boundary layer at air-sample inlet positions on the NASA CV 990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, S. W.; Vedder, J. F.; Condon, E. P.

    1984-01-01

    Full-scale, in-flight measurements of the boundary-layer thickness, velocity profile, and flow angle have been made at several sample collection stations on the fuselage of the NASA CV 990. These results are given as functions of Mach number, Reynolds number, yaw, and angle of attack.

  7. Using Multidimensional Rasch Analysis to Validate the Chinese Version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ-CV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Zhang, Zhonghua; Yin, Hongbiao

    2010-01-01

    This article used the multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model to examine the construct validity and detect the substantial differential item functioning (DIF) of the Chinese version of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ-CV). A total of 1,354 Hong Kong junior high school students were administered the…

  8. Psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire--Child Version (OBQ-CV).

    PubMed

    Wolters, Lidewij H; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Koolstra, Tim; Vervoort, Leentje; Boer, Frits; Prins, Pier J M; de Haan, Else

    2011-06-01

    To improve research in cognitive theories of childhood OCD, a child version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-CV) has been developed (Coles et al., 2010). In the present study, psychometric properties of the Dutch OBQ-CV were examined in a community sample (N=547; 8-18 years) and an OCD sample (N=67; 8-18 years). Results revealed good internal consistency and adequate retest reliability (retest interval 7-21 weeks and 6-12 weeks, respectively). Children with OCD reported more beliefs than non-clinical children. Obsessive beliefs were related to self-reported OCD symptoms, but not to clinician-rated OCD severity. Beliefs were also related to anxiety and depression. This is the first study examining the factor structure of the OBQ-CV. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed best fit for four factors representing Perfectionism/Certainty, Importance/Control of Thoughts, Responsibility, and Threat, and a higher-order factor. This is in line with results from adult samples. These results support the reliability and validity of the Dutch OBQ-CV.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a virus (CvV-BW1) that infects symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria in Lake Biwa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We performed an environmental study of viruses infecting the symbiotic single-celled algae of Paramecium bursaria (Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus, PBCV) in Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan. The viruses detected were all Chlorella variabilis virus (CvV = NC64A virus). One of them, designated CvV-BW1, was subjected to further characterization. Results CvV-BW1 formed small plaques and had a linear DNA genome of 370 kb, as judged by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Restriction analysis indicated that CvV-BW1 DNA belongs to group H, one of the most resistant groups among CvV DNAs. Based on a phylogenetic tree constructed using the dnapol gene, CvV was classified into two clades, A and B. CvV-BW1 belonged to clade B, in contrast to all previously identified virus strains of group H that belonged to clade A. Conclusions We conclude that CvV-BW1 composes a distinct species within C. variabilis virus. PMID:20831832

  10. Evidence for Oxygen-Isotope Exchange in Chondrules and Refractory Inclusions During Fluid-Rock Interaction on the CV Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

    2016-08-01

    Plagioclase in chondrules, CAIs and AOAs from the carbonaceous chondrite Kaba (CV3.1) experienced oxygen-isotope exchange with a metasomatic fluid responsible for the formation of magnetite, fayalite and Ca,Fe-rich silicates on the CV parent body.

  11. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease).

    PubMed

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C; Nelson, David R

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  14. Unusual Dark Clasts in the Vigarano CV3 Chondrite: Record of Parent Body Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, T.; Tomeoka, K.; Takeda, H.

    1993-07-01

    A variety of dark lithic clasts have been reported from CV3 chondrites and are commonly called "dark inclusions" (DIs). The DIs widely range in texture from chondritic with chondrules and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) embedded in a matrix (similar to host meteorites), to fine-grained aggregates of Fe-rich olivine free of coarse-grained components [1,2]. The DIs have been interpreted to represent (1) primary aggregates of materials in the solar nebula [3-5] and (2) materials that were affected by thermal metamorphism on their parent bodies [6]. We present the results of petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of two unusual clasts found in the Vigarano CV3 chondrite. The two unusual clasts, which we will call CL1 and CL2, are approximately 1.2 x 1.0 mm^2 (CLl) and 0.8 x 0.6 mm^2 (CL2) and occur within one of the large clasts (2.8 x 1.0 mm^2). CL1 and CL2 have very similar mineralogies and textures; they contain irregular to oval-shaped inclusions consisting mostly of fine grains of Fe-rich olivine embedded in the matrix of the clasts, and are free of distinct chondrules, CAIs, and coarse mineral fragments. Thus, they resemble the fine-grained variety of DIs. Under the optical microscope, most inclusions resemble chondrules or chondrule fragments in shape and size. However, they are brownish-translucent in transmitted light and are clearly distinct from chondrules in the Vigarano host. The inclusions are characteristically flattened in direction, exhibiting apparent foliation. Our SEM observations reveal the following unusual characteristics: (1) the inclusions are not mere random aggregates of olivine grains but have peculiar internal textures, i.e., assemblies of round or oval-shaped outlines, which are suggestive of pseudomorphs after porphyritic or granular olivine chondrules; (2) one of the thick inclusion rims contains a network of vein-like strings of elongated olivine grains, (3) an Fe-Ni metal aggregate in CL1 has an Fe-, Ni-, S-rich halo

  15. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  16. NEA 2100 Ra-Shalom: K-class and Source of CV3 Chondrite Grosnaja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, M. K.; Clark, B. E.; Swetra, S.; Vilas, F.; Jarvis, K.; Lederer, S. M.

    2004-11-01

    We obtained rotationally resolved spectra of the near-Earth asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom in Aug 2003 in the visible (0.5-0.9 micron) at McDonald Observatory and infrared (0.8-2.5 micron) at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Ra-Shalom is one of the larger members of the Aten family. Its effective diameter is 2.5 km (Harris et al. Icarus 135, 441-450, 1998; Shepard et al. Icarus 147, 520-529, 2000) and its rotation period is 19.8 h (Pravec et al. Icarus 136, 124-153, 1998). Ra-Shalom has been classified as C- (Binzel et al., Icarus 170, 259-294, 2004), S- (Harris et al. 1998), and Xc- class (Bus and Binzel, Icarus 158, 146-177, 2002). Our observations show significant spectral variations with rotation phase, however their proximity to the Milky Way makes interpretation difficult. Our hemispheric-averaged spectrum is an excellent match to the CV3 chondrite Grosnaja, suggesting Ra-Shalom to be its source (RELAB sample MR-MJG-119-P1; Gaffey, JGR 81, 905-920, 1976). Given the purported link between K-class asteroids and CV3 and CO3 chondrites (Bell, Meteoritics 23, 256-257, 1988; Doressoundiram, et al. Icarus 131, 15-31, 1998; Burbine et al. Meteoritics Planet. Sci 36, 245-253, 2001), we suggest that Ra-Shalom is K-class, making it the second known Aten of that class after 1999 JD6 (Binzel et al. Icarus 151, 139-149, 2001). This raises difficult dynamical questions. The major reservoir of K-class asteroids is the Eos family in the outer main-belt ( 3 AU). Dynamical simulations by Bottke et al. (Icarus 156, 399-433, 2002) suggest that Atens originate from the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter (2.5 AU), the nu6 secular resonance (2.1-2.3 AU), or the Mars crossing population (2.1-2.8 AU). Specific computations for Ra-Shalom mirror this (Bottke, personal comm.). Either there is an unknown dynamical path or another K-class source to populate the Atens.

  17. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), 3N from the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) CAI that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) CAI and UR CAI 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB CAI are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA CAI and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861174"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable progeny production of the amphidiploid resynthesized Brassica napus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hanakkori, a newly bred vegetable.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujii, K; Ohmido, N</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Resynthesized Brassica napus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hanakkori (AACC, 2n = 38) was produced by cross-hybridization between B. rapa (AA, 2n = 20) and B. oleracea (CC, 2n = 18) as a new vegetative crop. Many studies have provided evidences for the instability and close relationship between A and C genome in the resynthesized B. napus cultivars. In fact, seed produced to obtain progeny in Hanakkori had unstable morphological characters and generated many off-type plants. In this study, we investigated the pollen fertility, chromosome number, structure, and behavior linked to various Hanakkori phenotypes to define factors of unstable phenotypic expression in the progeny. Hanakkori phenotypes were categorized into five types. The results of pollen fertility, chromosome number, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for somatic mitosis cells indicated that the off-type plants had lower pollen fertility, aberrant chromosome number, and structures with small chromosome fragments. Observation of chromosomes at meiosis showed that the meiotic division in off-type plants led to appreciably higher abnormalities than in on-type plants. However, polyvalent chromosomes were observed frequently in both on- and off-type plants in diplotene stage of meiosis. We assume that the unstable morphological characters in resynthesized progeny were the result of abnormal division in meiosis. It results as important that the plants of normal phenotype, chromosome structure and minimized abnormal meiosis are selected to stabilize progeny.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27381473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27381473"><span id="translatedtitle">Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pinot noir pomace and lees as potential sources of bioactive compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reis, Gabriel M; Faccin, Henrique; Viana, Carine; Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos da; de Carvalho, Leandro M</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Food and agricultural industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of two by-products (pomace and lees) from Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pinot noir. We found a different distribution of phenolic classes (flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes) and singular scavenging activity against free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and peroxyl radicals). The major class of phenolics in pomace was flavanols and in lees was flavonols, with catechin (117.9 ± 2.5 μg g(-1)) and quercetin (42.4 ± 1.2 μg g(-1)) being the most abundant individual compounds. We also found high potential on scavenging activity against superoxide radicals in pomace (80% of scavenging activity) and radical peroxyl (67% scavenging activity). These results show the possibility of using Pinot noir by-products as promising additives or as a source for the development of new products in different segments of the food and cosmetic industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz) latex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees’ latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins’ autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5640533','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5640533"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danvers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574547"><span id="translatedtitle">Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz</p> <p>2013-04-24</p> <p>Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26442011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26442011"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way. PMID:26442011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...33H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...33H"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualisation and quantification of <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite petrography using micro-tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hezel, Dominik C.; Elangovan, Premkumar; Viehmann, Sebastian; Howard, Lauren; Abel, Richard L.; Armstrong, Robin</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Micro-computed tomography is a non-destructive technique that allows the study of 3D meteorite petrography. The technique produces a unique and instructive visualisation of the meteorite for quantifying its components. We studied the overall petrography of the two <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites Allende and Mokoia to constrain their formation histories. A set of movies and stereographic images detail the 3D petrography. Component modal abundances agree with previous reports and modal abundance differences between Allende and Mokoia support the chondrule-matrix complementarity and that chondrules and matrix formed from the same chemical reservoir. We identified two types of chondrules, a normal type and one where a normal type I or II chondrule is almost completely encapsulated by an opaque-rich layer. This layer was probably acquired during a late stage condensation process. The appearance of opaques in chondrules and matrix is different, not supporting a genetic relationships between these. Low abundances of compound chondrules (1.75 vol% in Allende and 2.50 vol% in Mokoia) indicate low chondrule densities and/or low relative component velocities in chondrule formation regions. Porosities on a scale <10-20 μm allowed for only local aqueous alteration processes on the meteorite parent bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) Peel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1066031','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1066031"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiology of Movements in the Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Alaska 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Phototropic response in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Alaska) seedlings is poor. However, the curvature induced by unilateral blue light can be hastened and increased in magnitude by a previously administered red light pulse followed by several hours of darkness. Phytochrome is involved in the red light effect. Phototropic response was almost completely inhibited by removal of the apical bud and hook, but it was restored if exogenous indole-3-acetic acid was applied apically to the cut stump. Therefore, the stem contains both the phototropic photoreceptor and response mechanism. Perception of gravity and gravitropic response were also localized in the stem, but gravitropism was scarcely inhibited by decapitation. It was also observed that the kinetics and curvature pattern of gravitropism differed greatly from those of phototropism. Like phototropism, stem nutation required auxin and was promoted by red light. Unlike phototropism, photoenhanced nutational curvature required the apical hook and was propagated as a wave down the stem. Naphthylphthalamic acid inhibited, in order of decreasing effect, nutation, phototropism/gravitropism, and growth. Phototropism, gravitropism, and nutation appear to represent distinct forms of stem movement with fundamental differences in the mechanisms of curvature development. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16662824</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=drilling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddrilling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=drilling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddrilling"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the <span class="hlt">CV</span>990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387087"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of preservative agents on the respiration rate of minimally processed potato (Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Monalisa).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petri, E; Arroqui, C; Angós, I; Vírseda, P</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The shelf life of minimally processed potatoes (MPP) is limited by enzyme-catalyzed browning reactions, with the increase in respiration being another factor that affects quality retention of this product. Sulfites are commonly used as effective preservative agents in minimally processing potatoes, but ascorbic acid and citric acid are considered natural sulfite substitutes and more accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to study the effect of combinations of the preservative agents cited above (sodium metabisulfite 0.1% and 0.5%; citric acid 0.1% and 0.5%; ascorbic acid 0.5%) on the respiration rate of MPP (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Monalisa) processed at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. The results have revealed that there is a significant effect of dipping treatment and temperature on respiration rate of MPP. Sodium metabisulfite (SM) reduces respiratory activity up to 0.8 mL/kg/h. The addition of either citric or ascorbic acid enhanced the effect of SM on the reduction of the respiration rate of MPP. The strongest effect (up to 3.3 mL/kg/h) was observed when a combination of all 3 agents at the higher concentrations was employed at a temperature of 18 degrees C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264640"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bethlehem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax. PMID:27264640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B43C0447S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B43C0447S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Transpiration, crop coefficient and water use of Olive tree (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cordovil) in Southern Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, F. L.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Orchard olive transpiration, soil water status and stomatal response in relation to water deficit were investigated to clarify mechanisms of tree water uptake and stomatal control to improve the irrigation scheduling of low-density olive trees of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cordovil grown in typical Mediterranean environment of Southern Portugal. Trees were subject to three irrigation treatments. Treatment A received 100% of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system, a sustained deficit (SDI)treatment B received 60% of crop evapotranspiration, a regulated deficit(RDI) irrigation treatment C received irrigation water before-flowering and just before pit-hardening, and a Dry-farming treatment. Tree and orchard transpiration and the dynamics of water uptake by roots were estimated from sap flow measurements and water balance technique. Stomatal conductance was modeled from local meteorological variables, measured sap flow and tree canopy variables. Higher than treatment A and B stomatal conductance and the high tree fruit production recommend treatment C as most suitable for scheduling irrigation of olive orchards in wet years of well distributed late summer rainfall. For drier years of no summer and early autumn rains that minimizes available water to extract by roots outside the wet bulb of drip irrigation and for the scarce readily available irrigation water years, as so often occurs in the region, the sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) regime seems a better option. Nonetheless, for years of limited available water resources that preclude sustained deficit irrigation, careful management of the proposed RDI could also allow for efficient use of irrigation water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073"><span id="translatedtitle">Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span> Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19937456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19937456"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing the robustness of phenological models for Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chardonnay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caffarra, Amelia; Eccel, Emanuele</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Phenological models are important tools for planning viticultural practices in the short term and for projecting the impact of climate change on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in the long term. However, the difficulties in obtaining phenological models which provide accurate predictions on a regional scale prevent them from being exploited to their full potential. The aim of this work was to obtain a robust phenological model for V. vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chardonnay. During calibration of the sub-models for budburst, flowering and veraison we implemented a series of measures to prevent overfitting and to give greater physiological meaning to the models. Among these were the use of experimental information on the response of Chardonnay to forcing temperatures, restriction of parameter space into physiologically meaningful limits prior to calibration, and simplification of the previously selected sub-models. The resulting process-based model had good internal validity and a good level of accuracy in predicting phenological events from external datasets. Model performance was especially high for the prediction of flowering and veraison, and comparison with other models confirmed it as a better predictor of phenology, even in extremely warm years. The modelling study highlighted a different phenological behaviour at the only mountain station, Cembra. We hypothesised that phenotypical plasticity could lead to growth rates adapting to a lower mean temperature, a mechanism not usually accounted for by phenological models. PMID:19937456</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23561174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23561174"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of chlorophyll oxidation mediated by peroxidative activity in olives (Olea europaea L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hojiblanca.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz</p> <p>2013-08-15</p> <p>The oxidation of chlorophyll a (chl a) catalysed by peroxidase (POD) from mesocarp of the olive fruit (Olea europaea L., <span class="hlt">cv</span> Hojiblanca) in the presence of H2O2 and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), is characterised via the individualised quantification of the products of the enzymatic reaction using a new methodology of HPLC-UV spectrometry. This innovation has allowed the discovery that, in addition to 13(2) OH chl a and 15(1) OH lactone chl a, which are the first products of POD on chl a, the reaction process sequentially creates another series of oxidised chlorophyll derivatives which have not been previously described. Their origins have been linked to POD activity in the presence of 2,4-DCP. Likewise, a study of the effect of the concentration of the various cosubstrates on the POD reaction rate demonstrated that the correct establishment of the relative concentrations of the same ([H2O2]/[2,4-DCP]/[Chl]=1:3:0.02) is crucial to explaining inhibition effects by substrates and carrying out optimum measurements. Therefore, new essential parameters for the determination of POD activity on a chlorophyll substrate are established. PMID:23561174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16664902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16664902"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Ethylene in Lactuca sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span> ;Grand Rapids' Seed Germination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abeles, F B</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>Promotion of thermoinhibited (30 degrees C) lettuce (Lactuca sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span> ;Grand Rapids') seed germination by ethylene is similar to the action of the gas in other hormonal systems. Ethylene was more active than propylene and ethane was inactive. An inhibitor of ethylene production, aminoethoxy-vinylglycine, reduced ethylene evolution and germination. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as, 5-methyl-7-chloro-4-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,5-norbornadiene, and silver thiosulfate inhibited germination and the effect was reversed by the addition of ethylene to the gas phase. The action of ethylene appears to be due to the promotion of radial cell expansion in the embryonic hypocotyl. The action of N6-benzyladenine and fusiccocin, which also overcome thermoinhibition, appears to be due to a promotion of hypocotyl elongation. None of the germination promoters studied appeared to function by lowering the mechanical resistance of the endosperm to embryonic growth. Data presented here are consistent with the view that ethylene plays a role in lettuce seed germination under thermoinhibited and normal conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4652765','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4652765"><span id="translatedtitle">G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and <span class="hlt">CV</span> fluorescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (<span class="hlt">CV</span>). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the Watson–Crick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome. PMID:26202971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998151"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A</p> <p>2005-07-13</p> <p>The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733436"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomonitoring of air pollution with mercury in Croatia by using moss species and <span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spirić, Zdravko; Vučković, Ivana; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir; Bačeva, Katerina</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Moss samples from four dominant species (Hypnum cupressiforme, Pleurozium schreberi, Homalothecium sericeum and Brachythecium rutabulum) were collected during the summer and autumn of 2010 from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the territory of Croatia. Samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion system, whilst mercury was analysed by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS). Descriptive statistics were done from analyses of mercury in all moss samples. The content of mercury ranged from 0.010 to 0.145 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 0.043 mg kg(-1). Hg distribution map shows the sites of the country with higher levels of this element. High contents of Hg were found in moss samples collected from the regions of Podravina and Istria as a result of anthropogenic pollution. Comparison of median values and ranges with those found in moss samples in 2006 shows slight reduction of mercury air pollution. When compared to the results obtained from recent studies conducted in Slovenia, Macedonia and especially in Norway-which serves as a reference considering the fact that it is a pristine area-mercury air pollution in Croatia is insignificant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471628"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenolics from strawberry <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Falandi and their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Dan; Xie, Haihui; Jiang, Yueming; Wei, Xiaoyi</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Three new phenolic glucosides, falandiosides A (1), B (2), and C (6) were isolated from strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Falandi fruit, together with three flavone glucuronides (3-5), eleven lignan glycosides (12-22), and five others. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All the known phenolics were reported from strawberry for the first time. They were evaluated for antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Three new and fifteen known phenolics showed potent 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity with IC50 values of 22.50-4.28μM in comparison to l-ascorbic acid (14.21μM). Quercetin 3-(6-methylglucuronide) (4), (+)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (12), and (-)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (13) were active in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Moreover, compounds 12 and 13 had moderate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Further, two new and seven known phenolics exhibited more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 537.43-25.39μM than acarbose (619.94μM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25711423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25711423"><span id="translatedtitle">An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of strawberry <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Camarosa by a dual plasmid system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haddadi, Fatemeh; Aziz, Maheran Abd; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Tan, Soon Guan; Kamaladini, Hossein</p> <p>2015-02-23</p> <p>An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100%) of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24) produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86%) in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21827138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21827138"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of foliar fertilization with P and K on chemical constituents of grape <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Cardinal'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Topalović, Ana; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Knezević, Mirko; Veberic, Robert</p> <p>2011-09-28</p> <p>The foliar fertilization has been used as an important agrotechnical measure to avoid deficiencies and to improve quality. During the two consecutive years, a study has been performed on Vitis vinifera L. (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Cardinal') to examine whether a grape berry quality has been affected by the foliar application of PK fertilizer. A liquid mineral fertilizer containing 15% P2O5, 20% K2O with 0.1% B, 0.1% Mn and 0.01% Mo (% w/w) has been sprayed three times at rate of 8 L ha(-1) every 14-15 days starting at about 15 days before veraison. The sugars, organic acids and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols) have been analyzed by the high performance liquid chromatography in the grape berries. The foliar fertilization of grapevine can accelerate the accumulation of sugars and anthocyanins, whereas climatic factors and yearly fluctuations influence the content of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in general. The effect of fertilizer spraying on flavonols and flavan-3-ols has not been found. PMID:21827138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067057','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067057"><span id="translatedtitle">Promotion of Flowering in Brassica campestris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ceres by Sucrose</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Friend, Douglas J. C.; Bodson, Monique; Bernier, Georges</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Flower initiation of the quantitative long-day plant Brassica campestris <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ceres was earlier and at a lower final leaf number when sucrose was added to the medium in which plants were grown in sterile culture. The optimal concentration of sucrose was 40 to 80 millimolar. This flower-promoting effect of sucrose was not osmotic, as mannitol, sodium chloride, and polyethylene glycol were not effective at equal osmotic potentials. Seedlings grown heterotrophically after treatment with 4-chloro-5-(dimethylamino)-2-phenyl-3-(2H)-pyridazinone to prevent chlorophyll accumulation were also induced to form flower primordia earlier as the sucrose concentration in the medium was increased up to 80 millimolar. Inclusion of 4 millimolar sodium nitrate in the culture medium of green plants did not reduce the flower-promoting effects of sucrose but delayed initiation in plants grown without added sucrose. Removal of CO2 during a single main or supplementary light period, or both, greatly reduced flower initiation. It is concluded that sucrose may be an important controlling factor determining floral initiation in Brassica. PMID:16663739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700"><span id="translatedtitle">Brassinosteroid stimulation of hypocotyl elongation and wall relaxation in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tzannwei Wang; Cosgrove, D.J.; Arteca, R.N. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Hypocotyl elongation of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi) was stimulated by applying 300 ng of brassinosteroid (2[alpha],3[alpha],22[beta],23[beta]-tetrahydroxy-24[beta]-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5[alpha]-cholestan-6-one, BR) in 1 [mu]L of 50% ethanol to the apex of hypocotyls. BR had its greatest effect on elongation of the apical 3-mm region below the cotyledonary node (75% stimulation) between 6 and 18 h after treatment. Stress/strain (Instron) analysis of this 3-mm region revealed that plastic and elastic components of extension were not significantly different between BR-treated and control seedlings. In pressure-block experiments, the initial rate of relaxation was 2-fold faster in BR-treated plants as compared with controls, whereas after 125 min the total amount of relaxation and the relaxation rate were the same for the two treatments. Osmotic pressure of cell sap expressed from this 3-mm region showed a large decrease (28%) in BR-treated seedlings compared to the controls. The authors conclude that BR stimulates growth in pakchoi by accelerating the biochemical processes that cause wall relaxation, without inducing a large change in wall mechanical properties. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424"><span id="translatedtitle">Germination and Plantlet Regeneration of Encapsulated Microshoots of Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taha, Rosna Mat; Saleh, Azani; Mahmad, Noraini; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Mohajer, Sadegh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 3–5 mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1 mg/L BAP, and 0.1 mg/L α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (15–30 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1 mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4°C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds. PMID:22919338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22451246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22451246"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25241592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25241592"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro regeneration in olive (Olea europaea L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>, 'Frontio' from nodal segments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mangal, Manisha; Sharma, Dheeraj; Sharma, Mamta; Kumar, Sunil</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>An efficient and reproducible protocol for plantlet regeneration from nodal segments of Olive <span class="hlt">cv</span> 'Frontio' has been developed. Media and explants browning due to exudation of phenolics from the explants were controlled by fortification of the medium with 100 mg/L ascorbic acid. Best establishment of olive explants was observed on half-strength MS salts fortified with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which resulted in 56.2% of bud break and 93.7% survival whereas, a combination of full strength MS medium with 1.0 mg/L each of 3-indole-butyric-acid (IBA) and kinetin was found to be the best for shoot multiplication, in terms of number of shoots (3.6 shoots/explant) and shoot length (2.2 cm). The in vitro shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium fortified with 0.2 mg/L IBA and 0.2 mg/L alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with 1.5 g/L activated charcoal, which supported optimum rooting (60%), with an average of 2-3 roots/shoot, about 2.4 cm length were produced on four weeks of culture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713"><span id="translatedtitle">[In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation. PMID:25796713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.452..133F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.452..133F"><span id="translatedtitle">Hidden secrets of deformation: Impact-induced compaction within a <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forman, L. V.; Bland, P. A.; Timms, N. E.; Collins, G. S.; Davison, T. M.; Ciesla, F. J.; Benedix, G. K.; Daly, L.; Trimby, P. W.; Yang, L.; Ringer, S. P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 Allende is one of the most extensively studied meteorites in worldwide collections. It is currently classified as S1-essentially unshocked-using the classification scheme of Stöffler et al. (1991), however recent modelling suggests the low porosity observed in Allende indicates the body should have undergone compaction-related deformation. In this study, we detail previously undetected evidence of impact through use of Electron Backscatter Diffraction mapping to identify deformation microstructures in chondrules, AOAs and matrix grains. Our results demonstrate that forsterite-rich chondrules commonly preserve crystal-plastic microstructures (particularly at their margins); that low-angle boundaries in deformed matrix grains of olivine have a preferred orientation; and that disparities in deformation occur between chondrules, surrounding and non-adjacent matrix grains. We find heterogeneous compaction effects present throughout the matrix, consistent with a highly porous initial material. Given the spatial distribution of these crystal-plastic deformation microstructures, we suggest that this is evidence that Allende has undergone impact-induced compaction from an initially heterogeneous and porous parent body. We suggest that current shock classifications (Stöffler et al., 1991) relying upon data from chondrule interiors do not constrain the complete shock history of a sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4566059','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4566059"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way. PMID:26442011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357129"><span id="translatedtitle">The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter</p> <p>2014-04-20</p> <p>As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and β{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16513209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16513209"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Micro-Tom).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574547"><span id="translatedtitle">Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz</p> <p>2013-04-24</p> <p>Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20836498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20836498"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and modes of antifungal action by Vicia faba <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Egypt trypsin inhibitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Evandro Fei; Hassanien, Abdallah Abd Elazeem; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Soliman, Saeed Saad; Ng, Tzi Bun</p> <p>2010-10-13</p> <p>A new 15 kDa Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (termed VFTI-E1) from fava beans (Vicia faba <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Egypt 1) was isolated using liquid chromatography. Though it exhibited substantial homology in N-terminal amino acid sequence to other protease inhibitors, VFTI-E1 showed antiproteolytic activity against trypsin (K(i) 11.9 × 10(-9) M) but hardly any activity against chymotrypsin. It demonstrated antifungal activity toward the filamentous fungus Valsa mali with an IC(50) of 20 μM. The mechanism of its antifungal action toward V. mali included (1) induction of alteration of hyphal morphology, (2) growth inhibition by chitin deposition at hyphal tips, and (3) permeabilization of fungal membrane. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 was dependent on the ambient ionic strength as increasing concentrations of NaCl, CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) diminished the activity. The membranolytic action of VFTI-E1 was confined to fungus, but not exerted on human and rabbit erythrocytes. This study sheds light on the mode of hyphal growth inhibitory activity of protease inhibitors with antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 amplifies the scope of its potential applications. PMID:20836498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840038496&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840038496&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA <span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA <span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2661133','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2661133"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. (Anasazi Beans)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Arishya; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Lin, Peng</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80°C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells with an IC50 of 1.3 μM, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 μM. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. PMID:19343172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212957"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871543"><span id="translatedtitle">Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span> Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161167','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161167"><span id="translatedtitle">TE7, An Inefficient Symbiotic Mutant of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Jemalong.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benaben, V.; Duc, G.; Lefebvre, V.; Huguet, T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A mutagenesis program using ethylmethane sulfonate on Medicago truncatula Gaertn <span class="hlt">cv</span> Jemalong, an annual, autogamous and diploid lucerne, permitted the isolation of a mutant (TE7) unable to establish an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, [Nod+Fix-], with Rhizobium meliloti wild-type strains. The mutant phenotype is characterized by an altered infection process that leads to the formation of two kinds of inefficient nodules on the same root system. A certain proportion of the nodules are small, round, and uninfected, with infection threads limited to the outer root cortical cells. Others develop to a normal elongated shape and are infected; bacterial release occurs but the bacteria do not differentiate into bacteroids. The ratio of invaded to uninvaded nodules depends on the bacterial strain used. Throughout the infection process, certain events correlated with the plant defense response against pathogens can be observed: (a) the presence of polyphenolic compounds associated with the walls of infected cells and also with some parts of infection threads in the root cortex; (b) appositions on infection thread walls during the early stage of infection and also within the central tissue of infected nodules; and (c) autophagy of the plant cells that contain released bacteria. Genetic data suggest that the phenotype of TE7 is under monogenic and recessive control; this gene has been designated Mtsym1. PMID:12228341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945643"><span id="translatedtitle">Priming and temperature limits for germination of dispersal units of Urochloa brizantha (Stapf) Webster <span class="hlt">cv</span>. basilisk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakao, E A; Cardoso, V J M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of priming treatments on the upper and lower thermal limits for germination of Urochloa brizantha <span class="hlt">cv</span>. basilisk, and testing the hypothesis that pré-imbibition affect thermal parameters of the germination. Pre-imbibed seeds both in distilled water (0 MPa) and PEG 6000 solution (-0.5 MPa) were put to germinate in different temperatures. It is suggested that U. brizantha seeds have low response to priming when they were placed to germinate in medium where water is not limiting. The response of U. brizantha seeds to priming is dependent on the temperature and water potential conditions at which the seeds are pre-imbibed, as well as on the germination temperature. The optimum temperature for germination of U. brizantha shift toward warmer temperatures in primed seeds. Priming effect was more pronounced at temperatures closer to the upper and lower limit for germination, but probably that response cannot be accounted for changes in the thermal time constant (θT(g)) and ceiling temperature (Tc(g)). Otherwise, a decrease in the base temperature (Tb) was observed in primed seeds, suggesting that the Tb distribution in U. brizantha seeds is influenced by priming.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595066"><span id="translatedtitle">Resequencing of Curcuma longa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kedaram through transcriptome profiling reveals various novel transcripts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahoo, Ambika; Jena, Sudipta; Sahoo, Suprava; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Kar, Basudeba</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), of the family Zingiberaceae, is one of the economically as well as medicinally important plant species. It is a sterile, polyploid and vegetatively propagated spice crop cultivated usually in Southeast Asia. In the current study, we carried out re-sequencing through transcriptome profiling of Curcuma longa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kedaram (Cl_Ked_6). We acquired a total of 1 GB raw data by resequencing through paired-end sequencing using Nextseq 500 platform. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in NCBI database with accession number of SRR3928562 with bioproject accession number PRJNA324755. Cufflinks-2.2.1 tool was used for transcriptome assembly which resulted in 39,554 numbers of transcripts. The transcript length ranged from 76 to 15,568, having N50 value of 1221 and median transcript length of 860. We annotated the transcripts using multiple databases. This data will be beneficial for studying sequence variations particularly SNPs between cultivars of turmeric towards authentic identification and discovery of novel functional transcripts in Kedaram. PMID:27595066</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179184"><span id="translatedtitle">Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shoji, Kazuaki; Miki, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kato, Chiharu; Yoshida, Kumi</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and element contents by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analyses revealed that the anthocyanin and flavonol compositions in both purple and blue colored protoplasts were the same; delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (1) and major three flavonol glycosides, manghaslin (2), rutin (3) and mauritianin (4). The vacuolar pH values of the purple and blue protoplasts were 5.5 and 5.6, respectively, without any significant difference. However, the Fe(3+) content in the blue protoplast was approximately 9.5 mM, which was 25 times higher than that in the purple protoplasts. We could reproduce the purple solution by mixing 1 with two equimolar concentrations of flavonol with lambda(vismax) = 539 nm, which was identical to that of the purple protoplasts. Furthermore, addition of Fe(3+) to the mixture of 1-4 gave the blue solution with lambda(vismax) = 615 nm identical to that of the blue protoplasts. We have established that Fe(3+) is essential for blue color development in the tulip.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677i0013H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677i0013H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequence analysis of ORF IV RTBV isolated from tungro infected Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ciherang</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Astuti, Dwi; Estiati, Amy; Nugroho, Satya</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Effort to increase rice production is often constrained by pest and disease such as Tungro. The Tungro disease is caused by the joint infection with two dissimilar viruses; a bacil-form-DNA virus, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus(RTBV) and the spherical RNA virus, Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and transmitted by Green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens). The symptom of disease is caused by the presence of RTBV. The genome of RTBV consists of four Open reading frames (ORFs) which encode functional proteins. Of the four, ORF IV is unique because it exists only in RTBV. The most efficient method of generating disease resistance plants is to look for natural sources of resistance genes in wild or germplasm and then transfer the gene and the accompanying resistance in cultivated crop varieties. The aim of this study is, therefore, to isolate and analyze of 1170 bp gene of ORF 4 of Tungro virus isolated from an Indonesian rice cultivar, Ciherang (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Indica). DNA sequencing analysis using BLAST showed 94% similarity with the reference sequence gen bank Acc.M65026.1. The comparisons and mutation analysis of DNA sequences were discussed in this research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975106"><span id="translatedtitle">[Chemical constituents from polarity part in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chuanbaizhi].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Gai-gai; Gui, Zhi-jia; Yang, Xiu-wei</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The chemical constituents from polarity part in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as tert-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(R)-byakangelicin (1), (2"S) -3"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), marmesinin (3), sec-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-byakangelicin (4), isofraxidin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 8-O-β-D-glycopyranosylxanthotoxol (7), prenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), scopolin (9), (2' R) -5'-hydroxymarmesin-5'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), (2'S,3'R) -3'-hydroxymarmesinin (11), skimmin (12), benzyl-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"--> 6')-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and decuroside IV (14). Among them, compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10-13 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16653179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16653179"><span id="translatedtitle">Sink to Source Transition in Tendrils of a Semileafless Mutant, Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Curly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Côté, R; Gerrath, J M; Peterson, C A; Grodzinski, B</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Sink to source transition parallels loss of thigmotropic capacity in tendrils of a semileafless mutant, Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Curly. Macroscopic tendril development is subdivided based on thigmotropic capacity. Stage I is the elongation stage and, although the rate of photosynthesis is similar to that of stage II and III tendrils, dark respiration rates are higher in stage I. During stage II, tendrils are thigmotropic and act as a sink. Even though stage II tendrils have CO(2) exchange characteristics similar to those of stage III tendrils, which are coiled, our fluorescein, (14)C-partitioning, and (11)C-translocation experiments suggest that stage I and II tendrils do not export carbon. Only stage III tendrils act as sources of newly fixed carbon. Export from them is blocked by cold, heat girdling of the petiole, or anoxia treatment of the tendrils. A late stage II tendril complex, in which coiling is occurring, may be exporting photoassimilates; however, this phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that the pea leaf is a compound structure and there may be one or more stage III tendrils, no longer thigmotropic, within the tendril complex. Photosynthetic maturity in pea tendrils occurs at stage III and is characterized by the ability of these tendrils to export photoassimilates. PMID:16653179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713"><span id="translatedtitle">[In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005777"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloning, characterization and localization of CHS gene from blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Ruby.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Xu; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Feng</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Chalcone synthase (CHS) is involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, a full-length DNA of CHS gene (named as CsCHS-bo) was cloned from the blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Ruby. The gene was 1,512 bp in size containing an open reading frame (1,176 bp) encoding 391 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced protein of CsCHS-bo was highly homologous to CHS from other plant species. The protein of CsCHS-bo had four CHS-specific conserved motifs and a CHS-family signature sequence GFGPG. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the protein of CsCHS-bo was in a subgroup with CHS of Ruta Palmatum. The CsCHS-bo was localized to the chromosomes 2p, 4p and 6p by an improved fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, indicating that at least three copies of CsCHS-bo were present in the genome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24669668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24669668"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenylpropanoid enzymes, phenolic polymers and metabolites as chemical defenses to infection of Pratylenchus coffeae in roots of resistant and susceptible bananas (<span class="hlt">Musa</span> spp.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vaganan, M Mayil; Ravi, I; Nandakumar, A; Sarumathi, S; Sundararaju, P; Mustaffa, M M</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Activity differences of the first (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL) and the last (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CAD) enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway in the roots of resistant (Yangambi Km5 and Anaikomban) and susceptible (Nendran and Robusta) banana cultivars caused by root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae, were investigated. Also, the accumulation of phenolics and deposition of lignin polymers in cell walls in relation to resistance of the banana cultivars to the nematode were analyzed. Compared to the susceptible cultivars, the resistant cultivars had constitutively significantly higher PAL activity and total soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics than in susceptible cultivars. The resistant cultivars responded strongly to the infection of the nematode by induction of several-time higher PAL and CAD enzymes activities, soluble and wall-bound phenolics and enrichment of lignin polymers in cell wall and these biochemical parameters reached maximum at 7th day postinoculation. In addition, profiles of phenolic acid metabolites in roots of Yangambi Km5 and Nendran were analyzed by HPLC to ascertain the underlying biochemical mechanism of bananas resistance to the nematode. Identification and quantification of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids showed six metabolites and only quantitative, no qualitative, differences occurred between the resistant and susceptible cvs. and between constitutive and induced contents. A very prominent increase of p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, which are precursors of monolignols of lignin, in resistant <span class="hlt">cv</span>. was found. These constitutive and induced biochemical alterations are definitely the chemical defenses of resistant cvs. to the nematode infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840064486&hterms=Solids+chemistry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSolids%2Bchemistry','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840064486&hterms=Solids+chemistry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSolids%2Bchemistry"><span id="translatedtitle">The mineral chemistry and origin of inclusion matrix and meteorite matrix in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kornacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the inclusion and meteorite matrices in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite are described, and the physical and chemical parameters of the conventional equilibrium condensation model of the origin of chondrite meteorites are evaluated. An alternative model of the origin of the mafic constituent of Allende inclusions is presented, on the basis of a new model of chondrule petrogenesis and the physical evolution of the primitive solar nebula. The model shows that the mineral chemistry of the olivine matrix in Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 seems to preserve a good record of nebular and planetary processes, including: (1) vapor-to-solid condensation under relatively oxidizing nonequilibrium conditions; (2) Fe/Mg equilibration in the meteorite parent body; and (3) recrystallization and incipient melting in the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941331"><span id="translatedtitle">Essential oil composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Diamante and their lemon hybrids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Zappalá, Mario; Condurso, Cettina; Cotroneo, Antonella</p> <p>2005-06-15</p> <p>In this paper we report the volatile fraction composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Diamante and two new lemon hybrids obtained by cross-breeding them with the tetraploid Citrus limon Burm. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cavone. Both parent and hybrid oils were laboratory-extracted from the peel fruits and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Sixty-three components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards. The average composition as single components for all the oils analyzed is reported. Moreover, the data obtained were statistically analyzed. Since limonene is by far the main component of all the essential oils examined, analysis of variance and multivariate analysis gave interesting information on the similarities and differences between the oils analyzed. The new hybrid oils analyzed have potential commercial value because they could be an acceptable alternative to the valuable lemon oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22125160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22125160"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rollo).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kanota and A. sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18179027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18179027"><span id="translatedtitle">[Leaf anatomy of the mosaic ficus benjamina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Starlight and interaction of source and sink chimera components].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Labunskaia, E A; Zhigalova, T V; Chub, V V</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Leaf anatomy was studied in the mosaic Ficus benjamina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Starlight and non-chimeric Ficus benjamina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Daniel. The number of chloroplasts in a white, chlorophyll-deficient tissue declines as compared to the green tissue. However, their functional activity is retained. The leaf of the mosaic F. benjamina contains two or, sometimes, three subepidermal layers. Mesophyll forms one layer in the green and white parts of leaf palisade and one white and one green layer in the transitional zone (edge). In the transitional zone, green spongy mesophyll is located between two white spongy layers and the proportion of photosynthesizing cells varies. In <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Daniel, there are two subepidermal layers and one layer of columnar mesophyll cells. According to the morphometry data, the proportion of white zone in the leaf correlates with the leaf position in the whole shoot: the higher the branch order, the larger the proportion of white zone. The total leaf area depends also on its position in the shoot. No such correlation was found in non-chimeric F. benjamina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Daniel. In the mosaic chimera, the source-sink status appears to depend on the leaf position in the shoot. Experiments with individual shoots of the same order and elimination of all lateral shoots have shown that the proportion of white zone in new leaves on the shoot increases with the total area of green zone. Thus, the area of assimilating shoot surface affects the formation of leaves in the meristem. A hypothesis was put forward that the source-sink state affects the ratio of green and white parts in the leaf primordium. Products of photosynthesis (carbohydrates) are a possible metabolic signal affecting the meristem. It cannot be excluded as well that the hormonal state undergoes changes in the chimeric plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012119&hterms=BDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBDS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012119&hterms=BDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBDS"><span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012126&hterms=BDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBDS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012126&hterms=BDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBDS"><span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012118&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012118&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012134&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012134&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6784120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6784120"><span id="translatedtitle">Specific disruption of vimentin filament organization in monkey kidney <span class="hlt">CV</span>-1 cells by diphtheria toxin, exotoxin A, and cycloheximide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharpe, A H; Chen, L B; Murphy, J R; Fields, B N</p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>We have examined the effect of diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, and cycloheximide on the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-1 cell cytoskeleton. Within a few hours after producing an inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, all these agents specifically disrupted the organization of the vimentin filament system with no discernable effect on microtubules or microfilaments during the period of observation. Furthermore, just as the inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide is reversible, so was the disruption of vimentin filaments by cycloheximide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763832"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarić, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusić, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosić, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911477"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasertsincharoen, Noppadol; Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey; Elliman, Jennifer</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552748"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) in Chilean Children and Adolescents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martínez-González, Agustín E.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A.; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span> in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10–18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span> is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4475882','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4475882"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen. PMID:25911477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093261"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and functional characterization of proteinase inhibitors from seeds of Cajanus cajan (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. ICP 7118).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swathi, Marri; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Kannan, Monica; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Proteinase inhibitors (C11PI) from mature dry seeds of Cajanus cajan (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. ICP 7118) were purified by chromatography which resulted in 87-fold purification and 7.9% yield. SDS-PAGE, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrum and two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis together resolved that C11PI possessed molecular mass of 8385.682 Da and existed as isoinhibitors. However, several of these isoinhibitors exhibited self association tendency to form small oligomers. All the isoinhibitors resolved in Native-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis showed inhibitory activity against bovine pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as Achaea janata midgut trypsin-like proteases (AjPs), a devastating pest of castor plant. Partial sequences of isoinhibitor (pI 6.0) obtained from MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and N-terminal sequencing showed 100% homology to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs) of leguminous plants. C11PI showed non-competitive inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin. A marginal loss (<15%) in C11PI activity against trypsin at 80 (°)C and basic pH (12.0) was associated with concurrent changes in its far-UV CD spectra. Further, in vitro assays demonstrated that C11PI possessed significant inhibitory potential (IC50 of 78 ng) against AjPs. On the other hand, in vivo leaf coating assays demonstrated that C11PI caused significant mortality rate with concomitant reduction in body weight of both larvae and pupae, prolonged the duration of transition from larva to pupa along with formation of abnormal larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates. Being smaller peptides, it is possible to express C11PI in castor to protect them against its devastating pest A. janata. PMID:25093261</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1091943','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1091943"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapidly Induced Wound Ethylene from Excised Segments of Etiolated Pisum sativum L., <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saltveit, Mikal E.; Dilley, David R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Wound-induced ethylene synthesis by subapical stem sections of etiolated Pisum sativum L., <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska seedlings, as described by Saltveit and Dilley (Plant Physiol 1978 61: 447-450), was half-saturated at 3.6% (v/v) O2 and saturated at about 10% O2. Corresponding values for CO2 production during the same period were 1.1% and 10% O2, respectively. Anaerobiosis stopped all ethylene evolution and delayed the characteristic pattern of wound ethylene synthesis. Exposing tissue to 3.5% CO2 in air in a flow-through system reduced wound ethylene synthesis by 30%. Enhancing gas diffusivity by reducing the total pressure to 130 mm Hg almost doubled the rate of wound ethylene synthesis and this effect was negated by exposure to 250 μl liter−1 propylene. Applied ethylene or propylene stopped wound ethylene synthesis during the period of application, but unlike N2, no lag period was observed upon flushing with air. It is concluded that the characteristic pattern of wound-induced ethylene synthesis resulted from negative feedback control by endogenous ethylene. No wound ethylene was produced for 2 hours after excision at 10 or 38 C. Low temperatures prolonged the lag period, but did not prevent induction of the wound response, since tissue held for 2 hours at 10 C produced wound ethylene immediately when warmed to 30 C. In contrast, temperatures above 36 C prevented induction of wound ethylene synthesis, since tissue cooled to 30 C after 1 hour at 40 C required 2 hours before ethylene production returned to normal levels. The activation energy between 15 and 36 C was 12.1 mole kilocalories degree−1. PMID:16660362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941088"><span id="translatedtitle">Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Abosora.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14607490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14607490"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a cysteine protease from wheat Triticum aestivum (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Giza 164).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fahmy, Afaf S; Ali, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Saleh A</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>Enzymes, especially proteases, have become an important and indispensable part of the processes used by the modern food and feed industry to produce a large and diversified range of products for human and animal consumption. A cysteine protease, used extensively in the food industry, was purified from germinated wheat Triticum aestivum (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Giza 164) grains through a simple reproducible method consisting of extraction, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 61000+/-1200-62000+/-1500 by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The cysteine protease had an isoelectric point and pH optimum at 4.4 and 4.0, respectively. The enzyme exhibited more activity toward azocasein than the other examined substrates with K(m) 2.8+/-0.15 mg azocasein/ml. In addition, it had a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C and based on a heat stability study 55% of its initial activity remained after preincubation of the enzyme at 50 degrees C for 30 min prior to substrate addition. All the examined metal cations inhibited the enzyme except Co(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Li(+). The proteolytic activity of the enzyme was inhibited by thiol-specific inhibitors, whereas iodoacetate and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate caused a competitive inhibition with Ki values 6+/-0.3 mM and 21+/-1.2 microM, respectively. Soybean trypsin inhibitor had no effect on the enzyme. The enzyme activity remained almost constant for 150 days of storage at -20 degrees C. The properties of this enzyme, temperature and pH optima, substrate specificity, stability and sensitivity to inhibitors or activators, meet the prerequisites needed for food industries. PMID:14607490</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067123','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067123"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiology of Movements in Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska 12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Gravitropism and nutation in the stems of dark-grown, seedling peas (Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska) were recorded on time-lapse photographs made with photomorphogenetically inactive light. Although gravitropism and nutation have been connected by several different theories in the past, our experiments indicate that the two processes are in fact dissociable. The evidence is as follows: (a) Nutational patterns are asymmetric. There is much greater amplitude of oscillation in the plane parallel (∥) to the plane of the apical hook than in the plane perpendicular (⊥), yet the average gravitropic response is equal in these two planes. (b) Brief red light irradiation given 16 to 24 hours before observation greatly increases the amplitude of nutation in the ∥-plane, but has no influence on the kinetics of gravitropic response. (c) An inhibitor of auxin transport, α-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly inhibits nutation at 5 micromolar but affects gravitropism only at higher concentrations. (d) Nutation is also strongly inhibited by removal of the apical bud, but gravitropism is unaffected. (e) The period of nutation does not exhibit a constant relationship to the response time of gravitropism. The above evidence is inconsistent with theories that gravitropism is an asymmetrically modified nutation or, alternatively, that nutational oscillations result in a simple fashion from gravitropic overshoots. The evidence is consistent with, although not proof of, autonomous factors such as an endogenous rhythm of growth as the cause of nutation in pea stems. However, gravity and nutation do interact. Nutation in a population of seedlings can be synchronized and brought into phase by a single gravitropic induction. Furthermore, the response time and initial rate of gravitropic curvature depend to some extent on the phase of nutational curvature at which gravitropic induction is begun. PMID:16662458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81.1059C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81.1059C"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tommy Atkins)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018265&hterms=graphite+diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgraphite%2Bdiamond','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018265&hterms=graphite+diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgraphite%2Bdiamond"><span id="translatedtitle">Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 meteorite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733"><span id="translatedtitle">How will climate change influence grapevine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721320C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721320C"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale-Dependent Measurements of Meteorite Strength and Fragmentation: Tamdakht (H5) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Asphaug, Erik; Garvie, Laurence; Morris, Melissa; Rai, Ashwin; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Chawla, Nikhilesh</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Meteorites are pieces of natural space debris, which have survived ejection from their parent bodies and passage through the Earth’s atmosphere. As such, they provide a unique opportunity to study the fundamental physical and mechanical properties of early Solar System materials. But to date, few direct studies of physical properties have been conducted on meteoritic materials, in contrast to extensive chemical and isotopic analyses. It is important to determine these properties as they are related to disruption and fragmentation of bolides and asteroids, and activities related to sample return and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Here we present results from an ongoing suite of scale-dependent studies of meteorite strength and fragmentation. The meteorites studied are Tamdakht (H5), an ordinary chondrite that exhibits a heterogeneous structure criss-crossed with shock veins and centimeter-sized regions of white and light grey, and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3), which suitable pieces are light grey with abundant chondrules and CAIs. Uniaxial compression tests are performed on meteorite cubes ranging from 0.5 to 4 centimeters using an Instron 5985 frame with a 250 kN load cell and compression fixtures with 145mm diameter radial platens. All tests are conducted at room temperature and in displacement control with a displacement rate of 0.25 mm per minute to ensure quasi-static conditions. A three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) system that enables noncontact measurement of displacement and strain fields is also used. Analysis of the strength and failure process of the two meteorite types is conducted and compared to terrestrial materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH11A1889C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH11A1889C"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale-Dependent Measurements of Meteorite Strength and Fragmentation: Tamdakht (H5) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cotto-Figueroa, D.; Asphaug, E. I.; Garvie, L. A. J.; Morris, M. A.; Rai, A.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Johnston, J.; Borkowski, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Meteorites are pieces of natural space debris, which have survived ejection from their parent bodies and passage through the Earth's atmosphere. As such, they provide a unique opportunity to study the fundamental physical and mechanical properties of early Solar System materials. But to date, few direct studies of physical properties have been conducted on meteoritic materials, in contrast to extensive chemical and isotopic analyses. It is important to determine these properties as they are related to disruption and fragmentation of bolides and asteroids, and activities related to sample return and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Here we present results from an ongoing suite of scale-dependent studies of meteorite strength and fragmentation. The meteorites studied are Tamdakht (H5), an ordinary chondrite that exhibits a heterogeneous structure criss-crossed with shock veins and centimeter-sized regions of white and light grey, and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3), which suitable pieces are light grey with abundant chondrules and CAIs. Uniaxial compression tests are performed on meteorite cubes ranging from 0.5 to 4 centimeters using an Instron 5985 frame with a 250 kN load cell and compression fixtures with 145mm diameter radial platens. All tests are conducted at room temperature and in displacement control with a displacement rate of 0.25 mm per minute to ensure quasi-static conditions. A three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) system that enables noncontact measurement of displacement and strain fields is also used. Analysis of the strength and failure process of the two meteorite types is conducted and compared to terrestrial materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24735825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24735825"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen supply affects anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in grapevine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon berries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soubeyrand, Eric; Basteau, Cyril; Hilbert, Ghislaine; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Accumulation of anthocyanins in grape berries is influenced by environmental factors (such as temperature and light) and supply of nutrients, i.e., fluxes of carbon and nitrogen feeding the berry cells. It is established that low nitrogen supply stimulates anthocyanin production in berry skin cells of red varieties. The present works aims to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of anthocyanin accumulation to nitrogen supply in berries from field grown-plants. To this end, we developed an integrated approach combining monitoring of plant nitrogen status, metabolite measurements and transcript analysis. Grapevines (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) were cultivated in a vineyard with three nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60 and 120 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen applied on the soil). Anthocyanin profiles were analyzed and compared with gene expression levels. Low nitrogen supply caused a significant increase in anthocyanin levels at two ripening stages (26 days post-véraison and maturity). Delphinidin and petunidin derivatives were the most affected compounds. Transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis confirmed the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid-3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plant cultivated without nitrogen compared to the ones cultivated with 120 kg ha(-1) nitrogen fertilization. The results indicate that nitrogen controls a coordinated regulation of both positive (MYB transcription factors) and negative (LBD proteins) regulators of the flavonoid pathway in grapevine. PMID:24735825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396288"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and development of modified atmosphere packaging system for guava (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baruipur).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mangaraj, S; Goswami, T K; Giri, S K; Joshy, C G</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a dynamic system during which respiration and permeation occur simultaneously. Hence factors affecting both respiration and permeation were considered for designing a package. In the design of MA packages for guava (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baruipur) a total of 13 variables were considered. The independent variables includes: weight of fruits, surface area of packaging film, free volume of the package, thickness of the film and permeabilities of film to O2 and CO2 gas. The fixed variables considered were: the surrounding gas composition and temperature, the respiration rates for O2 consumption and CO2 evolution, and the equilibrium gas compositions to be attained in the package so that the fruit's shelf-life is extended. Two types of MA packages, having package size of 19 cm × 19 cm for a fill weight of 1,000 ± 100 g were developed. Packages were designed to accommodate a fill weight range of 0.90-1.10 kg. Various package parameters were optimized to facilitate establishment of dynamic equilibrium at target levels of O2 and CO2 concentration in the package. The storage study of MA packages was performed at 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C temperatures. The performance of film packages was evaluated for their ability to establish equilibrium at target levels and to extend the shelf life of the packaged fruit. The MA packaging system increased the shelf life of guava by 128-200 % compared to the unpacked fruits at various storage temperatures with a quality comparable with the freshly harvested commodity. PMID:26396288</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733"><span id="translatedtitle">How will climate change influence grapevine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions. PMID:25786733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211345"><span id="translatedtitle">Radical scavenging activity and phenolic compounds in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Mopan).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, X N; Fan, J F; Yue, X; Wu, X R; Li, L T</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Mopan persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Mopan) is the major cultivar of astringent persimmon in northern China. This study investigates the radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radical, and the content of total and individual phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid) with apple, grape, and tomato as controls. The radical scavenging activities against ABTS and DPPH radicals of the Mopan persimmon are 23.575 and 22.597 microm trolox eq/g f.w., respectively. These findings suggest that the Mopan persimmon's antioxidant activity is significantly (P < 0.05) stronger than that of reference materials. The Mopan persimmon showed the highest content of total phenolics among the 4 materials tested. Significant correlations (R(2)= 0.993, P < 0.05, ABTS radical; R(2)= 0.980, P < 0.05, DPPH radical) are found between the total phenolics and the radical scavenging activities. The total content of these 6 kinds of phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid) is significantly correlated (R(2)= 0.831, P < 0.05, ABTS radical; R(2)= 0.745, P < 0.05, DPPH radical) with the individual radical scavenging activity of the 4 materials, although the total content of the 6 phenolics accounts for no more than 20% of the total phenolics in the Mopan persimmon. Gallic acid exhibits the strongest antioxidant activity in all 6 kinds of phenolics and its content is the largest in the Mopan persimmon, presumably being responsible for its much higher antioxidant activity as compared to apple, grape, and tomato.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20117938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20117938"><span id="translatedtitle">Localisation of hydrogen peroxide accumulation during Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rywal hypersensitive response to Potato virus Y.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Otulak, Katarzyna; Garbaczewska, Grazyna</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was detected cytochemically in Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rywal tissues as a hypersensitive response (HR) 24 and 48 h after a Potato virus Y (PVY) infection. Hydrogen peroxide was detected in vivo by its reaction with 3.3-diaminobenzidine, producing a reddish-brown staining in contact with H(2)O(2). Hydrogen peroxide was detected in the necrotic area of the epidermal and mesophyll cells 24 and 48 h after the PVY infection. Highly localised accumulations of H(2)O(2) were found within xylem tracheary elements, and this was much more intensive than in non-infected leaves. Hydrogen peroxide was detected cytochemically in HR also by its reaction with cerium chloride, producing electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides. Inoculation with PVY(NTN) and also PVY(N) Wi induced a rapid hypersensitive response during which highly localised accumulations of H(2)O(2) was detected in plant cell walls. The most intensive accumulation was present in the bordering cell walls of necrotic mesophyll cells and the adjacent non-necrotic mesophyll cells. Intensive electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxide were found along ER cistrenae and chloroplast envelopes connected with PVY particles. The precipitates of hydrogen peroxide were detected in the nuclear envelope and along tracheary elements, especially when virus particles were present inside. The intensive accumulation of H(2)O(2) at the early stages of potato-PVY interaction is consistent with its role as an antimicrobial agent and for this reason it has been regarded as a signalling molecule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3134346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3134346"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chasselas)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPBu...40...12H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPBu...40...12H"><span id="translatedtitle">Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 <span class="hlt">CV</span> 26.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hills, Kevin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Lightcurves for five asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2012 July-September: 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 <span class="hlt">CV</span>26.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of a subgenomic <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Coxsackieviruses B (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replication activities in human target cell models. PMID:26800776</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27316499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27316499"><span id="translatedtitle">Presence of elevated non-HDL among patients with T2DM with <span class="hlt">CV</span> events despite of optimal LDL-C - A report from South India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumpatla, Satyavani; Soni, Anju; Narasingan, S N; Viswanathan, Vijay</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was the commonest lipid abnormality among T2DM patients with cardiovascular events (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) events. Prevalence of elevated non-HDL-C was 21.6% among patients who were on statin therapy and with optimal low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Despite an optimal LDL-C level, 47% of the T2DM patients with <span class="hlt">CV</span> events had elevated non-HDL-C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of a subgenomic <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Coxsackieviruses B (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replication activities in human target cell models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824474"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptomic Analysis of Grapevine (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black) Leaf, Using the Illumina Platform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pervaiz, Tariq; Haifeng, Jia; Salman Haider, Muhammad; Cheng, Zhang; Cui, Mengjie; Wang, Mengqi; Cui, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Proceeding to illumina sequencing, determining RNA integrity numbers for poly RNA were separated from each of the four developmental stages of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black leaves by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The sums of 272,941,656 reads were generated from vitis vinifera leaf at four different developmental stages, with more than 27 billion nucleotides of the sequence data. At each growth stage, RNA samples were indexed through unique nucleic acid identifiers and sequenced. KEGG annotation results depicted that the highest number of transcripts in 2,963 (2Avs4A) followed by 1Avs4A (2,920), and 3Avs4A (2,294) out of 15,614 (71%) transcripts were recorded. In comparison, a total of 1,532 transcripts were annotated in GOs, including Cellular component, with the highest number in "Cell part" 251 out of 353 transcripts (71.1%), followed by intracellular organelle 163 out of 353 transcripts (46.2%), while in molecular function and metabolic process 375 out of 525 (71.4%) transcripts, multicellular organism process 40 out of 525 (7.6%) transcripts in biological process were most common in 1Avs2A. While in case of 1Avs3A, cell part 476 out of 662 transcripts (71.9%), and membrane-bounded organelle 263 out of 662 transcripts (39.7%) were recorded in Cellular component. In the grapevine transcriptome, during the initial stages of leaf development 1Avs2A showed single transcript was down-regulated and none of them were up-regulated. While in comparison of 1A to 3A showed one up-regulated (photosystem II reaction center protein C) and one down regulated (conserved gene of unknown function) transcripts, during the hormone regulating pathway namely SAUR-like auxin-responsive protein family having 2 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated transcripts, phytochrome-associated protein showed 1 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated transcripts, whereas genes associated with the Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase family protein showed 7 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated transcript, meanwhile Auxin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732810','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732810"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptomic Analysis of Grapevine (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black) Leaf, Using the Illumina Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pervaiz, Tariq; Haifeng, Jia; Salman Haider, Muhammad; Cheng, Zhang; Cui, Mengjie; Wang, Mengqi; Cui, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Proceeding to illumina sequencing, determining RNA integrity numbers for poly RNA were separated from each of the four developmental stages of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black leaves by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The sums of 272,941,656 reads were generated from vitis vinifera leaf at four different developmental stages, with more than 27 billion nucleotides of the sequence data. At each growth stage, RNA samples were indexed through unique nucleic acid identifiers and sequenced. KEGG annotation results depicted that the highest number of transcripts in 2,963 (2Avs4A) followed by 1Avs4A (2,920), and 3Avs4A (2,294) out of 15,614 (71%) transcripts were recorded. In comparison, a total of 1,532 transcripts were annotated in GOs, including Cellular component, with the highest number in “Cell part” 251 out of 353 transcripts (71.1%), followed by intracellular organelle 163 out of 353 transcripts (46.2%), while in molecular function and metabolic process 375 out of 525 (71.4%) transcripts, multicellular organism process 40 out of 525 (7.6%) transcripts in biological process were most common in 1Avs2A. While in case of 1Avs3A, cell part 476 out of 662 transcripts (71.9%), and membrane-bounded organelle 263 out of 662 transcripts (39.7%) were recorded in Cellular component. In the grapevine transcriptome, during the initial stages of leaf development 1Avs2A showed single transcript was down-regulated and none of them were up-regulated. While in comparison of 1A to 3A showed one up-regulated (photosystem II reaction center protein C) and one down regulated (conserved gene of unknown function) transcripts, during the hormone regulating pathway namely SAUR-like auxin-responsive protein family having 2 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated transcripts, phytochrome-associated protein showed 1 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated transcripts, whereas genes associated with the Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase family protein showed 7 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated transcript, meanwhile Auxin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1000C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1000C"><span id="translatedtitle">A secondary origin of chondrule magnetization in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span> carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carporzen, L.; Fu, R.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a key role in the radial transport of angular momentum and mass during the early accretional phase of the solar system. Chondrules and many calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), millimeter sized silicate objects found in most chondritic meteorites, were heated to high temperatures and cooled in the nebula and therefore may have recorded a thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) from the nebula field. Additionally, primitive magnetization in chondrules and CAIs may yield constraints about their mode of formation. However, any such primary magnetization may have been significantly altered during subsequent metamorphism and aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. We performed two tests to determine the nebular origins of remanent magnetization in chondrules and refractory inclusions in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite: 1) a classic paleomagnetic conglomerate test to identify post-accretional remagnetization events and 2) a unidirectionality test of subsamples taken from individual chondrules and CAIs. We conducted individual measurements of mutually oriented chondrules, CAIs, and matrix as well as SQUID microscope maps of the magnetic fields of 30 μm thin sections. All samples and thin sections were mutually oriented to within 5°. Our results confirm previous findings that all subsamples of the meteorite carry a unidirectional overprint blocked up to 260°-290°C (MT component). Chondrules and CAIs also carry a higher temperature (HT) remanence oriented in scattered directions unrelated to the direction of the MT overprint. We have confirmed that this HT magnetization is not an artifact of the demagnetization procedure but is a preterrestrial component. Measurements of subsamples of single chondrules and CAIs show that the HT magnetization is not unidirectional within each inclusion. Petrographic data suggests that most magnetic minerals in Allende were the product of parent body alteration. These facts suggest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040140824&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040140824&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury Abundances and Isotopic Compositions in the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>)Carbonaceous Chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lauretta, D. S.; Klaue, B.; Blum, J. D.; Buseck, P. R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of both the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) carbonaceous chondrites using single- and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bulk abundances of Hg are 294 6 15 ng/g in Murchison and 30.0 6 1.5 ng/g in Allende. These values are within the range of previous measurements of bulk Hg abundances by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Prior studies suggested that both meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Hg, with d l 96/202Hg values for the anomalous, thermal-release components from bulk samples ranging from 2260 %o to 1440 9/00 in Murchison and from 2620 9/00 to 1540 9/00 in Allende (Jovanovic and Reed, 1976a; 1976b; Kumar and Goel, 1992). Our multi-collector ICP-MS measurements suggest that the relative abundances of all seven stable Hg isotopes in both meteorites are identical to terrestrial values within 0.2 to 0.5 9/00m. On-line thermal-release experiments were performed by coupling a programmable oven with the singlecollector ICP-MS. Powdered aliquots of each meteorite were linearly heated from room temperature to 900 C over twenty-five minutes under an Ar atmosphere to measure the isotopic composition of Hg released fiom the meteorites as a h c t i o n of temperature. In separate experiments, the release profiles of S and Se were determined simultaneously with Hg to constrain the Hg distribution within the meteorites and to evaluate the possibility of Se interferences in previous NAA studies. The Hg-release patterns differ between Allende and Murchison. The Hg-release profile for Allende contains two distinct peaks, at 225" and 343"C, whereas the profile for Murchison has only one peak, at 344 C. No isotopically anomalous Hg was detected in the thermal-release experiments at a precision level of 5 to 30 9/00, depending on the isotope ratio. In both meteorites the Hg peak at ;340"C correlates with a peak in the S-release profile. This correlation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22889530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22889530"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation and structure elucidation of tetrameric procyanidins from unripe apples (Malus pumila <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Fuji) by NMR spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakashima, Shohei; Oda, Chihiro; Masuda, Susumu; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Procyanidins are plant secondary metabolites widely consumed and known to have various physiological functions, but their bioavailability and mechanism of action are still unclear especially for larger oligomers. One of the reasons is scarce information about the detailed structure of oligomeric procyanidins. As for apple, structures of procyanidin components larger than trimers are scarcely known. In this study, 11 tetrameric procyanidins including two known compounds were isolated from unripe apples (Malus pumila <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Fuji) and identified by NMR spectroscopic analysis and phloroglucinol degradation. As a result, the detailed structural diversity of tetrameric procyanidins in apple was established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8979507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8979507"><span id="translatedtitle">Chromium uptake and toxicity effects on growth and metabolic activities in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. UP 2003.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, D C; Sharma, C P</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Chromium (Cr) at graded levels when added in sand culture of wheat (T. aestivum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. UP2003) under glasshouse conditions resulted in reduction in biomass, chlorophyll and activities of catalase and peroxidase while enhanced acid phosphatase and ribonuclease activities. Elevated levels of Cr supply significantly reduced the concentration of inorganic phosphorus. With an increase in Cr supply the uptake of chromium also increased significantly in different plant parts especially in roots. Above metabolic lesions due to Cr in wheat provided evidence that the element in nutrient medium if present in excess may be inhibitory to plant growth and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040059293&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040059293&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">Opaque Mineral Assemblages at Chondrule Boundaries in the Vigarano <span class="hlt">CV</span> Chondrite: Evidence for Gas-Solid Reactions Following Chondrule Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lauretta, Dante S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies of opaque minerals in primitive ordinary chondrites suggest that metal grains exposed at chondrule boundaries were corroded when volatile elements recondensed after the transient heating event responsible for chondrule formation. Metal grains at chondrule boundaries in the Bishunpur (LL3.1) chondrite are rimmed by troilite and fayalite. If these layers formed by gas solid reaction, then the composition of the corrosion products can provide information on the chondrule formation environment. Given the broad similarities among chondrules from different chondrite groups, similar scale layers should occur on chondrules in other primitive meteorite groups. Here I report on metal grains at chondrule boundaries in Vigarano (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462104','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462104"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight) averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144345"><span id="translatedtitle">A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (<span class="hlt">Musa</span> spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Banana (<span class="hlt">Musa</span> sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement. PMID:27144345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26118934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26118934"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of banana (<span class="hlt">Musa</span> acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, <span class="hlt">Musa</span> acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598183"><span id="translatedtitle">Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and <span class="hlt">Musa</span> paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and <span class="hlt">Musa</span> paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P < .05) and glucose (P < .001) concentrations with a concomitant increase in insulin levels (P < .05). P. granatum decreased LPO in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively) and serum glucose concentration (P < .01). M. paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. PMID:18598183</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906123"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of hot-water extract of banana (<span class="hlt">Musa</span> acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, <span class="hlt">Musa</span> acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4856271','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4856271"><span id="translatedtitle">A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (<span class="hlt">Musa</span> spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E.; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Banana (<span class="hlt">Musa</span> sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement. PMID:27144345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018744','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018744"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of F106B and <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 in-flight lightning data and form factor determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rudolph, T.; Horembala, J.; Eriksen, F. J.; Weigel, H. S.; Elliott, J. R.; Parker, S. L.; Perala, R. A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Two topics of in-flight aircraft/lightning interaction are addressed. The first is the analysis of measured data from the NASA F106B Thunderstorm Research Aircraft and the <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 research program run by the FAA and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 data was investigated in a mostly qualitative sense, while the F106B data was subjected to both statistical and quantitative analysis using linear triggered lightning finite difference models. The second main topic is the analysis of field mill data and the calibration of the field mill systems. The calibration of the F106B field mill system was investigated using an improved finite difference model of the aircraft having a spatial resolution of one-quarter meter. The calibration was applied to measured field mill data acquired during the 1985 thunderstorm season. The experimental determination of form factors useful for field mill calibration was also investigated both experimentally and analytically. The experimental effort involved the use of conducting scale models and an electrolytic tank. An analytic technique was developed to aid in the understanding of the experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24234763','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24234763"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra <span class="hlt">cv</span> Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra <span class="hlt">cv</span> Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils. PMID:24234763</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23573031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23573031"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro regeneration through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishna, Gaurav; Reddy, P Sairam; Ramteke, Pramod W; Rambabu, Pogiri; Sohrab, Sayed S; Rana, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Parthasarathi</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In vitro regeneration of pigeon pea through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was demonstrated with pigeon pea <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105. Embryonic axes explants of pigeon pea showed greater regeneration of shoot buds on 2.5 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the medium, followed by further elongation at lower concentrations. Rooting of shoots was observed on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 % sucrose and 0.5 mg L(-1) 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA). On the other hand, the regeneration of globular embryos from cotyledon explant was faster and greater with thidiazuron (TDZ) than BAP with sucrose as carbohydrate source. These globular embryos were maturated on MS medium with abscisic acid (ABA) and finally germinated on half-strength MS medium at lower concentrations of BAP. Comparison of regeneration pathways in pigeon pea <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105 showed that the turnover of successful establishment of plants achieved through organogenesis was more compared to somatic embryogenesis, despite the production of more embryos than shoot buds. PMID:23573031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24234763','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24234763"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra <span class="hlt">cv</span> Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra <span class="hlt">cv</span> Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21339152','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21339152"><span id="translatedtitle">Summer pruning: an ecological alternative to postharvest calcium treatment to improve storability of high quality apple <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Reinette du Canada'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guerra, M; Casquero, P A</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Two strategies, summer pruning and postharvest Ca treatment, were studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Reinette du Canada' in order to analyze its effect on the fruit quality during storage. Summer pruning and Ca treatment reduced external and internal bitter-pits; so after 180 days of storage, both treatments decreased external bitter-pit by 10.0% and 16.7%, respectively. Summer pruning influenced color, firmness, total soluble solids and titratable acidity (TA) of fruit during storage, whereas Ca treatment only affected firmness and TA. Fruit from pruned trees had significant lower K and Mg than those from unpruned trees and Ca treatment increased Ca content. Orchard management, by means of summer pruning, combined with Ca postharvest application would be useful to prevent losses due to bitter-pit during storage in commercial orchards. However, in organic orchards, summer pruning would be the ecological alternative to decrease bitter-pit incidence during storage in high quality apple <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Reinette du Canada'. K/Ca ratio, on the peel at harvest, turned out to be the best parameter to correlate with external and internal bitter-pits during storage; so this ratio would be useful to predict bitter-pit on long-term storage.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028743"><span id="translatedtitle">Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Flame Seedless.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Flame Seedless.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23573031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23573031"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro regeneration through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishna, Gaurav; Reddy, P Sairam; Ramteke, Pramod W; Rambabu, Pogiri; Sohrab, Sayed S; Rana, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Parthasarathi</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In vitro regeneration of pigeon pea through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was demonstrated with pigeon pea <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105. Embryonic axes explants of pigeon pea showed greater regeneration of shoot buds on 2.5 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the medium, followed by further elongation at lower concentrations. Rooting of shoots was observed on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 % sucrose and 0.5 mg L(-1) 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA). On the other hand, the regeneration of globular embryos from cotyledon explant was faster and greater with thidiazuron (TDZ) than BAP with sucrose as carbohydrate source. These globular embryos were maturated on MS medium with abscisic acid (ABA) and finally germinated on half-strength MS medium at lower concentrations of BAP. Comparison of regeneration pathways in pigeon pea <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105 showed that the turnover of successful establishment of plants achieved through organogenesis was more compared to somatic embryogenesis, despite the production of more embryos than shoot buds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8764E..0YG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8764E..0YG"><span id="translatedtitle">Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on Open<span class="hlt">CV</span> Gaussian mixture model algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the Open<span class="hlt">CV</span> version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the Open<span class="hlt">CV</span> GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25895266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25895266"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on quality and vase life of cut Gerbera jamesonii <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Balance' flowers by silver nanoparticles and chlorophenol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Safa, Zakieh; Hashemabadi, Davood; Kaviani, Behzad; Nikchi, Narges; Zarchini, Mohammad</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Cut gerbera flowers are sensitive to microbial contamination and have a short vase life. Silver nanoparticles are used in various applications as an antimicrobial agent. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of SNP and chlorophenol to extend the vase life and postharvest quality of gerbera (Gerberajamesonii <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Balance') cut flowers. Cut gerbera flowers were kept in solutions containing 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1) SNP and/or 0, 5 and 10 mM chlorophenol for 24 hr; then held in vase solution containing 250 mg l(-1) 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate and 3% sucrose. The maximum vase life (16.33 days) was observed in flowers held in solution containing 10 mg l(-1) SNP. The 5 mg l(-1) SNP plus 10 mM chlorophenol and 10 mg l(-1) SNP plus 5 mM chlorophenol inhibited bacterial growth in the vase solution. The minimum fresh weight loss (6.48 gr) during the vase period was observed for flowers kept in solution containing 20 mg l(-1)1 SNP. The results revealed that SNP and chlorophenol have the potential to extend vase life and enhanc the postharvest quality of cut gerbera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Balance' flowers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51.1701D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51.1701D"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetite in the unequilibrated CK chondrites: Implications for metamorphism and new insights into the relationship between the <span class="hlt">CV</span> and CK chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunn, Tasha L.; Gross, Juliane; Ivanova, Marina A.; Runyon, Simone E.; Bruck, Andrea M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Bulk isotopic and elemental compositions of <span class="hlt">CV</span> and CK chondrites have led to the suggestion that both originate from the same asteroid. It has been argued that magnetite compositions also support this model; however, magnetite has been studied almost exclusively in the equilibrated (type 4-6) CKs. Magnetite in seven unequilibrated CKs analyzed here is enriched in MgO, TiO2, and Al2O3 relative to the equilibrated CKs, suggesting that magnetite compositions are affected by metamorphism. Magnetite in CKs is compositionally distinct from CVs, particularly in abundances of Cr2O3, NiO, and TiO2. Although there are minor similarities between <span class="hlt">CV</span> and equilibrated CK chondrite magnetite, this is contrary to what we would expect if the CVs and CKs represent a single metamorphic sequence. <span class="hlt">CV</span> magnetite should resemble CK3 magnetite, as both were metamorphosed to type 3 conditions. Oxygen fugacities and temperatures of CVox and CK chondrites are also difficult to reconcile using existing <span class="hlt">CV</span>-CK parent body models. Mineral chemistries, which eliminate issues of bulk sample heterogeneity, provide a reliable alternative to techniques that involve a small amount of sample material. <span class="hlt">CV</span> and CK chondrite magnetite has distinct compositional differences that cannot be explained by metamorphism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS..tmp..354D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS..tmp..354D"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetite in the unequilibrated CK chondrites: Implications for metamorphism and new insights into the relationship between the <span class="hlt">CV</span> and CK chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunn, Tasha L.; Gross, Juliane; Ivanova, Marina A.; Runyon, Simone E.; Bruck, Andrea M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Bulk isotopic and elemental compositions of <span class="hlt">CV</span> and CK chondrites have led to the suggestion that both originate from the same asteroid. It has been argued that magnetite compositions also support this model; however, magnetite has been studied almost exclusively in the equilibrated (type 4-6) CKs. Magnetite in seven unequilibrated CKs analyzed here is enriched in MgO, TiO2, and Al2O3 relative to the equilibrated CKs, suggesting that magnetite compositions are affected by metamorphism. Magnetite in CKs is compositionally distinct from CVs, particularly in abundances of Cr2O3, NiO, and TiO2. Although there are minor similarities between <span class="hlt">CV</span> and equilibrated CK chondrite magnetite, this is contrary to what we would expect if the CVs and CKs represent a single metamorphic sequence. <span class="hlt">CV</span> magnetite should resemble CK3 magnetite, as both were metamorphosed to type 3 conditions. Oxygen fugacities and temperatures of CVox and CK chondrites are also difficult to reconcile using existing <span class="hlt">CV</span>-CK parent body models. Mineral chemistries, which eliminate issues of bulk sample heterogeneity, provide a reliable alternative to techniques that involve a small amount of sample material. <span class="hlt">CV</span> and CK chondrite magnetite has distinct compositional differences that cannot be explained by metamorphism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JAP...117o4101K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JAP...117o4101K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous <span class="hlt">C-V</span> response correlated to relaxation processes in TiO2 thin film based-metal-insulator-metal capacitor: Effect of titanium and oxygen defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kahouli, A.; Marichy, C.; Sylvestre, A.; Pinna, N.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Capacitance-voltage (<span class="hlt">C-V</span>) and capacitance-frequency (C-f) measurements are performed on atomic layer deposited TiO2 thin films with top and bottom Au and Pt electrodes, respectively, over a large temperature and frequency range. A sharp capacitance peak/discontinuity (<span class="hlt">C-V</span> anomalous) is observed in the <span class="hlt">C-V</span> characteristics at various temperatures and voltages. It is demonstrated that this phenomenon is directly associated with oxygen vacancies. The <span class="hlt">C-V</span> peak irreversibility and dissymmetry at the reversal dc voltage are attributed to difference between the Schottky contacts at the metal/TiO2 interfaces. Dielectric analyses reveal two relaxation processes with degeneration of the activation energy. The low trap level of 0.60-0.65 eV is associated with the first ionized oxygen vacancy at low temperature, while the deep trap level of 1.05 eV is associated to the second ionized oxygen vacancy at high temperature. The DC conductivity of the films exhibits a transition temperature at 200 °C, suggesting a transition from a conduction regime governed by ionized oxygen vacancies to one governed by interstitial Ti3+ ions. Both the <span class="hlt">C-V</span> anomalous and relaxation processes in TiO2 arise from oxygen vacancies, while the conduction mechanism at high temperature is governed by interstitial titanium ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832179"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Five Light-Response Models in the Photosynthesis of Populus × Euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Zhonglin46' Leaves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Lidong; Zhang, Shuyong; Zhang, Guangcan; Liu, Xia; Xia, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Songsong; Xing, Wei; Fang, Xiaochen</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The light-response curve of photosynthesis is an important tool used to study plant ecophysiology and can provide a scientific basis for the response of plant photosynthetic characteristics to environmental factors. At present, there are five common light-response models of photosynthesis. To gain deeper insight into the applicability of different light-response models of photosynthesis and the photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Populus euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Zhonglin46', two typical light-response curves of photosynthesis in P. euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Zhonglin46' leaves, one under drought stress and the other under control conditions, were measured using a CIRAS-2 portable photosynthesis system. The light-response data were divided into two groups: one set of data was used to fit light-response curves, and the other set of data was used to test them. The accuracy of the fitting and the predictions of the different models were evaluated by mean square error and mean absolute error. The results showed that the light-response curves of P. euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Zhonglin46' under drought stress matched the light-saturated inhibition type and that those under the control condition matched the approaching light-saturation type. The two new models (i.e., the modified rectangular hyperbola model and modified exponential model) fit the two light-response curves and their characteristic parameters well, and the fitting results of the two models were similar. Conversely, the three traditional models (i.e., the rectangular hyperbola model, nonrectangular hyperbola model, and exponential model) did not fit the two light-response curves well; in particular, they overestimated the maximum net photosynthetic rate, underestimated the light saturation point (LSP), and did not fit the net photosynthetic rate during the light-saturated stage. The LSP calculated by the "linear method" combined with the traditional models was significantly lower than the measured values; additionally, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1482463','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1482463"><span id="translatedtitle">Normal photoresponses and altered b-wave responses to APB in the mdx<span class="hlt">Cv</span>3 mouse isolated retina ERG supports role for dystrophin in synaptic transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>GREEN, DANIEL G.; GUO, HAO</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The mdx<span class="hlt">Cv</span>3 mouse is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is an X-linked disorder with defective expression of the protein dystrophin, and which is associated with a reduced b-wave and has other electroretinogram (ERG) abnormalities. To assess potential causes for the abnormalities, we recorded ERGs from pieces of isolated C57BL/6J and mdx<span class="hlt">Cv</span>3 mouse retinas, including measurements of transretinal and intraretinal potentials. The ERGs from the isolated mdx<span class="hlt">Cv</span>3 retina differ from those of control retinas in that they show reduced b-wave amplitudes and increased b-wave implicit times. Photovoltages obtained by recording across the photoreceptor outer segments of the retinas did not differ from normal, suggesting that the likely causes of the reduced b-wave are localized to the photoreceptor to ON-bipolar synapse. At a concentration of 50 μM, the glutamate analog DL-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB) blocks the b-wave component of the ERG, by binding to sites on the postsynaptic membrane. The On-bipolar cell contribution to the ERG was inferred by extracting the component that was blocked by APB. We found that this component was smaller in amplitude and had longer response latencies in the mdx<span class="hlt">Cv</span>3 mice, but was of similar overall time course. To assess the sensitivity of sites on the postsynaptic membrane to glutamate, the concentration of APB in the media was systematically varied, and the magnitude of blockage of the light response was quantified. We found that the mdx<span class="hlt">Cv</span>3 retina was 5-fold more sensitive to APB than control retinas. The ability of lower concentrations of APB to block the b-wave in mdx<span class="hlt">Cv</span>3 suggests that the ERG abnormalities may reflect alterations in either glutamate release, the glutamate postsynaptic binding sites, or in other proteins that modulate glutamate function in ON-bipolar cells. PMID:15683561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535146','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535146"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and Expression of Two Novel Cytochrome P450 Genes, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38, in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Jun; Li, Chuan; Yang, Zhifan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée can cause severe losses in rice. Cytochrome P450s play crucial roles in the metabolism of allelochemicals in herbivorous insects. Two novel P450 cDNAs, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38, were cloned from the midgut of C. medinalis. CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 encodes a protein of 500 amino acid residues, while CYP9A38-predicted protein has 531 amino acid residues. Both cDNA-predicted proteins contain the conserved functional domains for all P450s. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 is grouped in the cluster containing CYP6B members, while CYP9A38 is in the cluster including CYP9 members. However, both clusters are contained in the same higher lineage. Homologous analysis revealed that CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 is most similar to CYP6B8, CYP6B7, CYP6B6, CYP6B2, and CYP6B4 with the highest amino acid identity of 41%. CYP9A38 is closest to CYP9A17, CYP9A21, CYP9A20, and CYP9A19 with the highest amino acid identity of 66%. Studies of temporal expression profiles revealed that CYP9A38 showed a steady increase in mRNA level during the five instar stages, but a low-expression level in pupae, and then presented at a high-expression level again in adults. Similar expression patterns were obtained with CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1. In the fifth instar larvae, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 was mainly expressed in midgut and fat bodies, whereas CYP9A38 was mainly expressed in midgut. Expression studies also revealed a 3.20-fold over-expression of CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and 3.54-fold over-expression of CYP9A38 after larval exposure to host rice resistance. Our results suggest that both CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38 may be involved in detoxification of rice phytochemicals. PMID:25896119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018096','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018096"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies in electron phenomena in MOS structures: The pulsed <span class="hlt">C-V</span> method. M.S. Thesis. Abstract Only</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaplan, G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The pulse hysteresis capacitance voltage (<span class="hlt">C-V</span>) provides a straight forward technique for measuring the change of various charges in MOS structures and a tool for investigating the kinetics of various electron phenomena is developed and described. The method can be used for measuring the energy distribution and kinetics of surface states with the resolution of about 1/5 x 10 to the -9 power cm eV. Some transients in an MOS structure, particularly, the thermal generation of minority charge carriers via surface states and the relaxation of minority charge carriers supplied from the inversion layer outside the MOS structure are theoretically investigated. Analytical expressions which clearly present the physics of those electron phenomena are derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23398279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23398279"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of different production systems on chemical profiles of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Top Crop) pods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jakopic, Jerneja; Slatnar, Ana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Bavec, Franci; Bavec, Martina</p> <p>2013-03-13</p> <p>The chemical composition of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Top Crop was compared among five production systems: conventional, integrated, organic, and biodynamic production systems and the control. Determination of sugars and organic acids was performed with a HPLC system, and identification of individual phenolic compounds using HPLC-MS. The chemical composition of the beans was unaffected by the production systems; however, the content levels of individual compounds were changed. The pods from integrated production contained the lowest levels of glucose and sucrose and the highest levels of catechin, procyanidin dimers, and a vanillic acid derivative. The control treatment, as well as organic and biodynamic productions, positively affected the levels of sugar content and caused a lower content of catechin and trans-p-coumaroylaldaric acids. Beans from the conventional production system contained the lowest levels of fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, and many phenolics from various groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9836631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9836631"><span id="translatedtitle">53Mn-53Cr dating of fayalite formation in the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite Mokoia: evidence for asteroidal alteration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Keil, K; Phinney, D L; Scott, E R</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>Fayalite grains in chondrules in the oxidized, aqueously altered <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite Mokoia have large excesses of radiogenic chromium-53. These excesses indicate the in situ decay of short-lived manganese-53 (half-life = 3.7 million years) and define an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio of 2.32 (+/-0.18) x 10(-6). This ratio is comparable to values for carbonates in CI and CM chondrites and for several classes of differentiated meteorites. Mokoia fayalites formed 7 to 16 million years after Allende calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, during hydrothermal activity on a geologically active asteroid after chondritic components had ceased forming in the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25751309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25751309"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of ethrel in causation of floral malformation in mango <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amrapali: a scanning electron microscopy study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Bains, Gurdeep</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Floral malformation is a main constraint to reduce fruit yield in mango plants. Recently, we report on the role of putrescine in normalizing the functional morphology of mango flower by reducing various adverse effects of ethylene. Here, ethrel, an ethylene releasing compound, was exogenously applied to mango plant <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amrapali to evaluate the response of flower development under high level of ethylene. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed that ethrel treated flowers were observed to progressively be deformed and remain unbloom. The flower buds were not distinguishable and flower parts such as petals, sepals, anther and stigma were not properly developed. The stamen showed fused anther lobes and carpel depicted curved style with pointed stigma. The findings of present study suggest the involvement of ethylene to abort the functional morphology of flower and thereby development of malformation. PMID:25751309</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22225625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22225625"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring melatonin and its isomer in Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Malbec by UHPLC-MS/MS from grape to bottle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, María Fernanda</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Several studies have shown the presence of melatonin and related compounds in grapes and wines. The latter provides evidence of the possibility to enhance the nutraceutical properties of premium wines. However, there are many external factors that can influence the levels of this indolamine in grape and wines. In this study, the monitoring of melatonin and its tentatively identified isomer was carried out during the entire winemaking process in Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Malbec by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Laboratory and pilot studies were carried out to elucidate the role of grape, yeasts, and tryptophan in the evolution of the indolamines during the fermentation process. Melatonin was detected in grape extract within the range 120-160 ng/g while its isomer was found in musts and finished wines. Our results demonstrate that Saccaromyces cervisiae plays a decisive role in contributing to the content of melatonin and its isomer in wine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134527"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete genome sequence of a banana bract mosaic virus isolate infecting the French plantain <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nendran in India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The first complete genome sequence of an Indian isolate (TRY) of Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) was determined following virus RNA extraction from the French plantain <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nendran (AAB). The complete genome was 9711 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and had a genome organization similar to that of a Philippine (PHI) isolate characterized earlier. When compared to BBrMV-PHI, the complete genome sequence of BBrMV-TRY was 94% identical at the nucleotide level and its ten mature proteins had amino acid sequence identities ranging from 88 to 98%. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the BBrMV-TRY isolate is closely related to the BBrMV-PHI isolate. PMID:22134527</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049284&hterms=rare+earth+elements&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Drare%2Bearth%2Belements','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049284&hterms=rare+earth+elements&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Drare%2Bearth%2Belements"><span id="translatedtitle">Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and <span class="hlt">CV</span> meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12842146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12842146"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of dusky reddish-brown "kaki" color development of Japanese morning glory, Ipomoea nil <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danjuro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshida, Kumi; Osanai, Minako; Kondo, Tadao</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The mechanism of dusky reddish-brown "kaki" color development of morning glory, Ipomoea nil <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danjuro, was studied. Three major known anthocyanins were isolated as glucosylated pelargonidin derivatives. Measurement of the vacuolar pH with proton-selective microelectrodes revealed the vacuolar pH of the colored cell of open flowers to be 6.8, while that of buds was 5.8. Mixing of the three anthocyanins according to the composition ratio in petals at pH 6.8 allowed the identical color to that of petals to be reproduced. The typical "kaki" color development was mostly caused by 5-OH free acylated anthocyanins, which have two lambdamax around 435 and 535 nm in the visible region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586329"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete genome sequence of a strain of Actinidia virus X detected in Ribes nigrum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baldwin showing unusual symptoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>James, Delano; Phelan, James</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A Ribes-infecting strain of the potexvirus Actinidia virus X (AVX-RV3124) was isolated from black currant plants (Ribes nigrum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baldwin, accession 3124-03D1) showing symptoms of leaf chlorosis and deformity. This is the first description of the complete genome sequence of an isolate of this virus and the first detection of a potexvirus in Ribes. The genome of AVX-RV3124 consists of 6,888 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly(A) tail at the 3' terminus. When AVX-RV3124 was compared to the available sequence of the AVX isolate in GenBank (accession no. KC568202), two large indel events (72 nt and 33 nt) were identified in the replicase coding region of RV3124. Evidence of recombination was detected upstream of the 3' terminus of the replicase gene of both virus isolates, providing further evidence of a common origin. PMID:26586329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134527"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete genome sequence of a banana bract mosaic virus isolate infecting the French plantain <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nendran in India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The first complete genome sequence of an Indian isolate (TRY) of Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) was determined following virus RNA extraction from the French plantain <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nendran (AAB). The complete genome was 9711 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and had a genome organization similar to that of a Philippine (PHI) isolate characterized earlier. When compared to BBrMV-PHI, the complete genome sequence of BBrMV-TRY was 94% identical at the nucleotide level and its ten mature proteins had amino acid sequence identities ranging from 88 to 98%. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the BBrMV-TRY isolate is closely related to the BBrMV-PHI isolate.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15108018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15108018"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct embryogenesis and green plant regeneration from isolated microspores of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bogo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The use of doubled haploids improves the efficiency of cultivar development in many crops and can be helpful in genetic and molecular studies. The major problem with this approach is the low efficiency of green plant regeneration. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bogo. The absence of growth regulators in the induction medium was the most effective condition for the formation of embryo-like structures. The highest induction rates were observed at microspore densities of 1.5x10(5) microspores and 2x10(5) microspores per milliliter. Such cultures produced an average of 54.9 green plants per single donor spike. The frequency of albino plants ranged from 9.3% to 22.9%. Among the green progeny tested, 30.8% were spontaneously doubled haploids. PMID:15108018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25751309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25751309"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of ethrel in causation of floral malformation in mango <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amrapali: a scanning electron microscopy study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Bains, Gurdeep</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Floral malformation is a main constraint to reduce fruit yield in mango plants. Recently, we report on the role of putrescine in normalizing the functional morphology of mango flower by reducing various adverse effects of ethylene. Here, ethrel, an ethylene releasing compound, was exogenously applied to mango plant <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amrapali to evaluate the response of flower development under high level of ethylene. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed that ethrel treated flowers were observed to progressively be deformed and remain unbloom. The flower buds were not distinguishable and flower parts such as petals, sepals, anther and stigma were not properly developed. The stamen showed fused anther lobes and carpel depicted curved style with pointed stigma. The findings of present study suggest the involvement of ethylene to abort the functional morphology of flower and thereby development of malformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586329"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete genome sequence of a strain of Actinidia virus X detected in Ribes nigrum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baldwin showing unusual symptoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>James, Delano; Phelan, James</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A Ribes-infecting strain of the potexvirus Actinidia virus X (AVX-RV3124) was isolated from black currant plants (Ribes nigrum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baldwin, accession 3124-03D1) showing symptoms of leaf chlorosis and deformity. This is the first description of the complete genome sequence of an isolate of this virus and the first detection of a potexvirus in Ribes. The genome of AVX-RV3124 consists of 6,888 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly(A) tail at the 3' terminus. When AVX-RV3124 was compared to the available sequence of the AVX isolate in GenBank (accession no. KC568202), two large indel events (72 nt and 33 nt) were identified in the replicase coding region of RV3124. Evidence of recombination was detected upstream of the 3' terminus of the replicase gene of both virus isolates, providing further evidence of a common origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916251"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23411300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23411300"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705290','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705290"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L−1) and NAA (2 mg L−1) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5–1.5 mg L−1), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L−1 of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L−1), Kin (1.5 mg L−1), NAA (0.5 mg L−1) and TDZ (0.5 mg L−1) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots. PMID:26858569</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.454..213T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.454..213T"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for impact induced pressure gradients on the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 parent body: Consequences for fluid and volatile transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tait, Alastair W.; Fisher, Kent R.; Srinivasan, Poorna; Simon, Justin I.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Carbonaceous chondrites, such as those associated with the Vigarano (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) parent body, exhibit a diverse range of oxidative/reduced alteration mineralogy (McSween, 1977). Although fluids are often cited as the medium by which this occurs (Rubin, 2012), a mechanism to explain how this fluid migrates, and why some meteorite subtypes from the same planetary body are more oxidized than others remains elusive. In our study we examined a slab of the well-known Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3OxA) meteorite. Using several petrological techniques (e.g., Fry's and Flinn) and Computerized Tomography (CT) we discover it exhibits a strong penetrative planar fabric, resulting from strain partitioning among its major components: Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) (64.5%CT) > matrix (21.5%Fry) > chondrules (17.6%CT). In addition to the planar fabric, we found a strong lineation defined by the alignment of the maximum elongation of flattened particles interpreted to have developed by an impact event. The existence of a lineation could either be non-coaxial deformation, or the result of a mechanically heterogeneous target material. In the later case it could have formed due to discontinuous patches of sub-surface ice and/or fabrics developed through prior impact compaction (MacPherson and Krot, 2014), which would have encouraged preferential flow within the target material immediately following the impact, compacting pore spaces. We suggest that structurally controlled movement of alteration fluids in the asteroid parent body along pressure gradients contributed to the formation of secondary minerals, which may have ultimately lead to the different oxidized subtypes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028743"><span id="translatedtitle">Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Flame Seedless.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Flame Seedless. PMID:26028743</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12926872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12926872"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality and enhancement of bioactive phenolics in <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Napoleon table grapes exposed to different postharvest gaseous treatments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A</p> <p>2003-08-27</p> <p>Ten different gaseous treatments were evaluated for their efficacy in the keeping quality of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Napoleon table grapes during 38 days of storage at 0 degrees C followed by 6 days of shelf life at 15 degrees C in air. These storage methods included modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with and without SO(2) or natural fungicides (hexanal and hexenal), two controlled atmospheres (CA), and intermittent and continuous applications of O(3). As a control, air atmosphere during cold storage was used. Most of the treatments applied kept the postharvest quality of the grapes, although the best results were obtained by the use of a MAP with 5 kPa of O(2) plus 15 kPa of CO(2) plus 80 kPa of N(2). The total anthocyanin content at harvest was 170 +/- 19 microg/g of fresh weight (fw) of grapes, which declined in most of the treatments applied and was reflected in the loss of red color. Peonidin 3-glucoside was detected at all sampling times as the major anthocyanin (always >50% from the total content). Treatments applied kept or decreased the total flavonol content from that measured at harvest (17 +/- 1.4 microg/g of fw of berries). However, an increase of up to 2-fold in total stilbenoid content after shelf life for CA and O(3) treatments was observed. At all sampling times for almost every treatment piceid concentration remained unaltered or slightly changed, whereas large increases were observed after shelf life for resveratrol (1.2 +/- 0.6 microg/g of fw of grapes sampled at harvest), even up to 3- and 4-fold for O(3)-treated grapes and 2-fold for CA-treated ones. Therefore, improved techniques for the keeping quality of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Napoleon table grapes during long-term storage seem to maintain or enhance their antioxidant compound content. PMID:12926872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634258"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary supplement of banana (<span class="hlt">Musa</span> acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, <span class="hlt">Musa</span> acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=306490','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=306490"><span id="translatedtitle">First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia fulgida <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Goldsturm’) in Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The North American perennial black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Goldsturm’) is an important nursery crop, prized by gardeners and landscapers for its persistent bloom and ease of cultivation. In September 2013 disease symptoms characteristic of downy mildew were observed from multiple plants a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED262248.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED262248.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Hewlett-Packard HP-41<span class="hlt">CV</span> Hand-Held Computer as a Medium for Teaching Mathematics to Fire Control Systems Repairers. Research Report 1408.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boldovici, John A.; Scott, Thomas D.</p> <p></p> <p>A study compared the benefits of using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41<span class="hlt">CV</span> hand-held computer, as opposed to conventional training without computers, in teaching mathematics to fire control systems repairers. Thirty soldiers in a course to train fire control systems repairers received training in technical mathematics using the hand-held computer, whereas…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=207063','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=207063"><span id="translatedtitle">Omega Gliadin Genes Expressed in Triticum Aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Butte 86: Effects of Post-anthesis Fertilizer on Transcript Accumulation During Grain Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The partial coding sequences of omega gliadin genes expressed in developing wheat kernels Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Butte 86 were identified in EST databases. Three gene assemblies encode proteins with PQQPFP as the predominant repetitive motif. Of these, two encode proteins with at least one cysteine an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208901','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208901"><span id="translatedtitle">High Efficiency Somatic Embrogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Suspension Cultures of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid (Hedychium muluense x <span class="hlt">cv</span> ‘Starburst’)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of an ornamental ginger hybrid, Hedychium muluense x <span class="hlt">cv</span> ‘Starburst’. H. muluense is a dwarf species and ‘Starburst’ is a hybrid cultivar with white and very fragrant flowers in a circular, wheel-like arrang...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2597317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2597317"><span id="translatedtitle">[Pharmacognostic studies on the peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco <span class="hlt">cv</span>. zhangshuensis and Citrus reticulata Blanco Var. kinokuni (Tanaka) H. H. Hu produced in Jiangxi].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, C S; Wang, A S</p> <p>1989-10-01</p> <p>Pharmacognostical studies on the peel of Citrus reticulata <span class="hlt">cv</span>. zhangshuensis and Citrus reticulata var. kinokuni have been carried out in comparison with four crude drugs of Chenpi. Information on the research of resources of these two drugs is provided. PMID:2597317</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=258963','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=258963"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving the french fry quality of russeted potatoes through transformation with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the Chipping <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Snowden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Microtubers of two dual-purpose russeted potatoes were transformed with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Snowden using well know Agrobacterium tumifaciens mediated transformation system. Seventy-two and twenty-four distinct transformants of AOND95292-3Russ and ND7882b-7Russ, respectivel...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-31/pdf/2011-28037.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-31/pdf/2011-28037.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 67209 - United States v. Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de <span class="hlt">C.V</span>., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-31</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de <span class="hlt">C.V</span>., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), that a proposed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=186104&keyword=Euthanasia&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68471313&CFTOKEN=48244902','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=186104&keyword=Euthanasia&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68471313&CFTOKEN=48244902"><span id="translatedtitle">USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) DISEASE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse <span class="hlt">CV</span> consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965088"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maccabi).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=238005','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=238005"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Blanco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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