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Sample records for cyanea capillata medusae

  1. Acute lion's mane jellyfish, Cyanea capillata (Cnideria: Scyphozoa), exposure to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Powell, M D; Åtland, Å; Dale, T

    2018-05-01

    Jellyfish-induced gill pathology relies upon occasional diagnostic observations yet the extent and impact of jellyfish blooms on aquaculture may be significant. Idiopathic gill lesions are often observed in apparently healthy fish. This study exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts to macerated Cyanea capillata at 2.5 and 5 g/L for 2 hr under controlled laboratory conditions. Blood chemistry and gill histopathology were examined over a subsequent 4-week period. Fish showed an acute response to the presence of jellyfish, including characteristic external "whiplash" discoloration of the skin and acute increases in blood electrolytes and CO 2 concentration; however, these were resolved within 4 days after exposure. Histopathologically, gills showed first an acute oedema with epithelial separation followed by focal haemorrhage and thrombus formation, and then progressive inflammatory epithelial hyperplasia that progressively resolved over the 4 weeks post-exposure. Results were consistent with the envenomation of gills with cytotoxic neurotoxins and haemolysins known to be produced by C. capillata. This study suggests that many focal hyperplastic lesions on gills, especially those involving focal thrombi, may be the result of jellyfish stings. Thus, the presence of jellyfish and their impact may be severe and understated in terms of marine fish aquaculture and fish welfare. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models

    PubMed Central

    Headlam, Jasmine L.; MacLoughlin, Eoin

    2017-01-01

    Lion’s mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More® Spray did not. Post-sting temperature treatments affected sting severity, with 40 min of hot-pack treatment reducing lysis of sheep’s blood (in agar plates), a direct representation of venom load, by over 90%. Ice pack treatment had no effect on sting severity. These results indicate that sting management protocols for Cyanea need to be revised immediately to discontinue rinsing with seawater and include the use of heat treatment. PMID:28686221

  3. Density and sound speed of two gelatinous zooplankton: ctenophore (Mnemiopsis leidyi) and lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata).

    PubMed

    Warren, Joseph D; Smith, Joy N

    2007-07-01

    The density and sound speed of two coastal, gelatinous zooplankton, Mnemiopsis leidyi (a ctenophore) and Cyanea capillata (lion's mane jellyfish), were measured. These parameters are important inputs to acoustic scattering models. Two different methods were used to measure the density of individual animals: one used a balance and graduated cylinder to determine the mass and displacement volume of the animal, the other varied the density of the solution the animal was immersed in. When the same animal was measured using both methods, density values were within 1% of each other. A travel-time difference method was used to measure the sound speed within the animals. The densities of both zooplankton slightly decreased as the animals increased in length, mass, and volume. The ratio of animal density and sound speed to the surrounding seawater (g and h, respectively) are reported for both animals. For Mnemiopsis leidyi ranging in length from 1 to 5 cm, the mean value (+/-standard deviation) of g and h were 1.009 (+/-0.004) and 1.007 (+/-0.001). For Cyanea capillata ranging in bell diameter from 2 to 11 cm, the mean value (+/-standard deviation) of g and single value of h were 1.009 (+/-0.004) and 1.0004.

  4. Identification and activity of a lower eukaryotic serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) from Cyanea capillata: analysis of a jellyfish serpin, jellypin.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elisabeth B; Miller, David; Rometo, David; Greenberg, Robert M; Brömme, Dieter; Cataltepe, Sule; Pak, Stephen C; Mills, David R; Silverman, Gary A; Luke, Cliff J

    2004-09-21

    Delineating the phylogenetic relationships among members of a protein family can provide a high degree of insight into the evolution of domain structure and function relationships. To identify an early metazoan member of the high molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, we initiated a cDNA library screen of the cnidarian, Cyanea capillata. We identified one serpin cDNA encoding for a full-length serpin, jellypin. Phylogenetic analysis using the deduced amino acid sequence showed that jellypin was most similar to the platyhelminthe Echinococcus multiocularis serpin and the clade P serpins, suggesting that this serpin evolved approximately 1000 million years ago (MYA). Modeling of jellypin showed that it contained all the functional elements of an inhibitory serpin. In vitro biochemical analysis confirmed that jellypin was an inhibitor of the S1 clan SA family of serine proteinases. Analysis of the interactions between the human serine proteinases, chymotrypsin, cathepsin G, and elastase, showed that jellypin inhibited these enzymes in the classical serpin manner, forming a SDS stable enzyme/inhibitor complex. These data suggest that the coevolution of serpin structure and inhibitory function date back to at least early metazoan evolution, approximately 1000 MYA.

  5. Cardiovascular Effect Is Independent of Hemolytic Toxicity of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    Qianqian, Wang; Sihua, Liu; Yang, Wang; Guoyan, Liu; Jia, Lu; Xuting, Ye; Liming, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have confirmed that the crude tentacle-only extract (cTOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Cyaneidae) exhibits hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities simultaneously. So, it is quite difficult to discern the underlying active component responsible for heart injury caused by cTOE. The inactivation of the hemolytic toxicity from cTOE accompanied with a removal of plenty of precipitates would facilitate the separation of cardiovascular component and the investigation of its cardiovascular injury mechanism. In our research, after the treatment of one-step alkaline denaturation followed by twice dialysis, the protein concentration of the treated tentacle-only extract (tTOE) was about 1/3 of cTOE, and SDS-PAGE showed smaller numbers and lower density of protein bands in tTOE. The hemolytic toxicity of tTOE was completely lost while its cardiovascular toxicity was well retained. The observations of cardiac function, histopathology and ultrastructural pathology all support tTOE with significant cardiovascular toxicity. Blood gas indexes and electrolytes changed far less by tTOE than those by cTOE, though still with significant difference from normal. In summary, the cardiovascular toxicity of cTOE can exist independently of the hemolytic toxicity and tTOE can be employed as a better venom sample for further purification and mechanism research on the jellyfish cardiovascular toxic proteins. PMID:22905209

  6. Physiological and chemical analysis of neurotransmitter candidates at a fast excitatory synapse in the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter A V; Trapido-Rosenthal, H G

    2009-12-01

    Motor nerve net (MNN) neurons in the jellyfish Cyanea capillata communicate with one another by way of fast, bidirectional excitatory chemical synapses. As is the case with almost all identified chemical synapses in cnidarians, the identity of the neurotransmitter at these synapses is unclear. MNN neurons are large enough for stable intracellular recordings. This, together with the fact that they can be exposed, providing unlimited access to them and to their synapses, prompted a study of the action of a variety of neurotransmitter candidates, including those typically associated with fast synapses in higher animals. Only the amino acids taurine and beta-alanine produced physiological responses consistent with those of the normal EPSP in these cells. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that both taurine and beta-alanine are present in the neurons and released by depolarization. These various findings strongly suggest that either or both of these amino acids, or a closely related compound is the neurotransmitter at the fast chemical synapses between MNN neurons.

  7. Intervention effects of five cations and their correction on hemolytic activity of tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cations have generally been reported to prevent jellyfish venom-induced hemolysis through multiple mechanisms by spectrophotometry. Little attention has been paid to the potential interaction between cations and hemoglobin, potentially influencing the antagonistic effect of cations. Here, we explored the effects of five reported cations, La3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+, on a hemolytic test system and the absorbance of hemoglobin, which was further used to measure their effects on the hemolysis of tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. All the cations displayed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effects on TE-induced hemolysis with various dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) values as follows: La3+ 1.5 mM, Mn2+ 93.2 mM, Zn2+ 38.6 mM, Cu2+ 71.9 μM and Fe2+ 32.8 mM. The transparent non-selective pore blocker La3+ did not affect the absorbance of hemoglobin, while Mn2+ reduced it slightly. Other cations, including Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+, greatly decreased the absorbance with Kd values of 35.9, 77.5 and 17.6 mM, respectively. After correction, the inhibitory Kd values were 1.4 mM, 45.8 mM, 128.5 μM and 53.1 mM for La3+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+, respectively. Mn2+ did not inhibit TE-induced hemolysis. Moreover, the inhibitory extent at the maximal given dose of all cations except La3+ was also diminished. These corrected results from spectrophotometry were further confirmed by direct erythrocyte counting under microscopy. Our results indicate that the cations, except for La3+, can interfere with the absorbance of hemoglobin, which should be corrected when their inhibitory effects on hemolysis by jellyfish venoms are examined. The variation in the inhibitory effects of cations suggests that the hemolysis by jellyfish venom is mainly attributed to the formation of non-selective cation pore complexes over other potential mechanisms, such as phospholipases A2 (PLA2), polypeptides, protease and oxidation. Blocking the pore-forming complexes may be a

  8. First Report of a Thioredoxin Homologue in Jellyfish: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Antioxidant Activity of CcTrx1 from Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yonghong; Wang, Qianqian; Chang, Yinlong; Wang, Beilei; Zheng, Jiemin; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trx proteins) are a family of small, highly-conserved and ubiquitous proteins that play significant roles in the resistance of oxidative damage. In this study, a homologue of Trx was identified from the cDNA library of tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and named CcTrx1. The full-length cDNA of CcTrx1 was 479 bp with a 312 bp open reading frame encoding 104 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the putative CcTrx1 protein harbored the evolutionarily-conserved Trx active site 31CGPC34 and shared a high similarity with Trx1 proteins from other organisms analyzed, indicating that CcTrx1 is a new member of Trx1 sub-family. CcTrx1 mRNA was found to be constitutively expressed in tentacle, umbrella, oral arm and gonad, indicating a general role of CcTrx1 protein in various physiological processes. The recombinant CcTrx1 (rCcTrx1) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then purified by affinity chromatography. The rCcTrx1 protein was demonstrated to possess the expected redox activity in enzymatic analysis and protection against oxidative damage of supercoiled DNA. These results indicate that CcTrx1 may function as an important antioxidant in C. capillata. To our knowledge, this is the first Trx protein characterized from jellyfish species. PMID:24824597

  9. Global Transcriptome Analysis of the Tentacle of the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata Using Deep Sequencing and Expressed Sequence Tags: Insight into the Toxin- and Degenerative Disease-Related Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Qianqian; Ruan, Zengliang; He, Qian; Zhang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background Jellyfish contain diverse toxins and other bioactive components. However, large-scale identification of novel toxins and bioactive components from jellyfish has been hampered by the low efficiency of traditional isolation and purification methods. Results We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of the tentacle tissue of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. A total of 51,304,108 reads were obtained and assembled into 50,536 unigenes. Of these, 21,357 unigenes had homologues in public databases, but the remaining unigenes had no significant matches due to the limited sequence information available and species-specific novel sequences. Functional annotation of the unigenes also revealed general gene expression profile characteristics in the tentacle of C. capillata. A primary goal of this study was to identify putative toxin transcripts. As expected, we screened many transcripts encoding proteins similar to several well-known toxin families including phospholipases, metalloproteases, serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors. In addition, some transcripts also resembled molecules with potential toxic activities, including cnidarian CfTX-like toxins with hemolytic activity, plancitoxin-1, venom toxin-like peptide-6, histamine-releasing factor, neprilysin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiotensin-converting enzyme-like and endothelin-converting enzyme 1-like proteins. Most of these molecules have not been previously reported in jellyfish. Interestingly, we also characterized a number of transcripts with similarities to proteins relevant to several degenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This is the first description of degenerative disease-associated genes in jellyfish. Conclusion We obtained a well-categorized and annotated transcriptome of C. capillata tentacle that will be an important and valuable resource for further understanding of jellyfish at the molecular

  10. Tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata increases proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Guoyan; He, Qian; Zhang, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex biological process, and current research finds that jellyfish have a great capacity for promoting growth and healing. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms and effects of a tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata) on cell proliferation and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). First, our results showed that TE at the concentration of 1 μg/ml could promote cell proliferation over various durations, induce a transition of the cells from the G1-phase to the S/G2-phase of the cell cycle, and increase the expression of cell cycle proteins (CyclinB1 and CyclinD1). Second, we found that TE could activate the PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways but not the NF-κB signaling pathway or the apoptosis signaling cascade. Finally, we demonstrated that the TE-induced expression of cell cycle proteins was decreased by ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 but not by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or JNK inhibitor SP600125. Similarly, the TE-enhanced migration ability of HUVECs was also markedly attenuated by PD98059. Taken together, our findings indicate that TE-induced proliferation and migration in HUVECs mainly occurred through the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. These results are instructively important for further research on the isolation and purification of growth-promoting factors from C. capillata and are hopeful as a means to improve human wound repair in unfavorable conditions. PMID:29261770

  11. Global Transcriptome Analysis of the Tentacle of the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata Using Deep Sequencing and Expressed Sequence Tags: Insight into the Toxin- and Degenerative Disease-Related Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyan; Zhou, Yonghong; Liu, Dan; Wang, Qianqian; Ruan, Zengliang; He, Qian; Zhang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish contain diverse toxins and other bioactive components. However, large-scale identification of novel toxins and bioactive components from jellyfish has been hampered by the low efficiency of traditional isolation and purification methods. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of the tentacle tissue of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. A total of 51,304,108 reads were obtained and assembled into 50,536 unigenes. Of these, 21,357 unigenes had homologues in public databases, but the remaining unigenes had no significant matches due to the limited sequence information available and species-specific novel sequences. Functional annotation of the unigenes also revealed general gene expression profile characteristics in the tentacle of C. capillata. A primary goal of this study was to identify putative toxin transcripts. As expected, we screened many transcripts encoding proteins similar to several well-known toxin families including phospholipases, metalloproteases, serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors. In addition, some transcripts also resembled molecules with potential toxic activities, including cnidarian CfTX-like toxins with hemolytic activity, plancitoxin-1, venom toxin-like peptide-6, histamine-releasing factor, neprilysin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiotensin-converting enzyme-like and endothelin-converting enzyme 1-like proteins. Most of these molecules have not been previously reported in jellyfish. Interestingly, we also characterized a number of transcripts with similarities to proteins relevant to several degenerative diseases, including Huntington's, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. This is the first description of degenerative disease-associated genes in jellyfish. We obtained a well-categorized and annotated transcriptome of C. capillata tentacle that will be an important and valuable resource for further understanding of jellyfish at the molecular level and information on the underlying

  12. Tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata increases proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beilei; Liu, Dan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Guoyan; He, Qian; Zhang, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex biological process, and current research finds that jellyfish have a great capacity for promoting growth and healing. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms and effects of a tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata) on cell proliferation and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). First, our results showed that TE at the concentration of 1 μg/ml could promote cell proliferation over various durations, induce a transition of the cells from the G1-phase to the S/G2-phase of the cell cycle, and increase the expression of cell cycle proteins (CyclinB1 and CyclinD1). Second, we found that TE could activate the PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways but not the NF-κB signaling pathway or the apoptosis signaling cascade. Finally, we demonstrated that the TE-induced expression of cell cycle proteins was decreased by ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 but not by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or JNK inhibitor SP600125. Similarly, the TE-enhanced migration ability of HUVECs was also markedly attenuated by PD98059. Taken together, our findings indicate that TE-induced proliferation and migration in HUVECs mainly occurred through the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. These results are instructively important for further research on the isolation and purification of growth-promoting factors from C. capillata and are hopeful as a means to improve human wound repair in unfavorable conditions.

  13. β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca2+ release by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Bo; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2017-07-25

    Intracellular Ca 2+ overload induced by extracellular Ca 2+ entry has previously been confirmed to be an important mechanism for the cardiotoxicity as well as the acute heart dysfunction induced by jellyfish venom, while the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Under extracellular Ca 2+ -free or Ca 2+ -containing conditions, the Ca 2+ fluorescence in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes pre-incubated with tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and β blockers was scanned by laser scanning confocal microscope. Then, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration and protein kinase A (PKA) activity in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were determined by ELISA assay. Furthermore, the effect of propranolol against the cardiotoxicity of TE was evaluated in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and intact rats. The increase of intracellular Ca 2+ fluorescence signal by TE was significantly attenuated and delayed when the extracellular Ca 2+ was removed. The β adrenergic blockers, including propranolol, atenolol and esmolol, partially inhibited the increase of intracellular Ca 2+ in the presence of 1.8 mM extracellular Ca 2+ and completely abolished the Ca 2+ increase under an extracellular Ca 2+ -free condition. Both cAMP concentration and PKA activity were stimulated by TE, and were inhibited by the β adrenergic blockers. Cardiomyocyte toxicity of TE was antagonized by β adrenergic blockers and the PKA inhibitor H89. Finally, the acute heart dysfuction by TE was antagonized by propranolol in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and intact rats. Our findings indicate that β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca 2+ overload through intracellular Ca 2+ release by TE from the jellyfish C. capillata.

  14. First Report of a Peroxiredoxin Homologue in Jellyfish: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Functional Characterization of CcPrx4 from Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zengliang; Liu, Guoyan; Wang, Beilei; Zhou, Yonghong; Lu, Jia; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    We first identified and characterized a novel peroxiredoxin (Prx), designated as CcPrx4, from the cDNA library of the tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. The full-length cDNA sequence of CcPrx4 consisted of 884 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a mature protein of 247 amino acids. It showed a significant homology to peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) with the highly conserved F-motif (93FTFVCPTEI101), hydrophobic region (217VCPAGW222), 140GGLG143 and 239YF240, indicating that it should be a new member of the Prx4 family. The deduced CcPrx4 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 27.2 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 6.3. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CcPrx4 mRNA could be detected in all the jellyfish tissues analyzed. CcPrx4 protein was cloned into the expression vector, pET-24a, and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) pLysS. Recombinant CcPrx4 protein was purified by HisTrap High Performance chelating column chromatography and analyzed for its biological function. The results showed that the purified recombinant CcPrx4 protein manifested the ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide and protect supercoiled DNA from oxidative damage, suggesting that CcPrx4 protein may play an important role in protecting jellyfish from oxidative damage. PMID:24413803

  15. Medusae Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 31 July 2002) This image crosses the equator at about 155 W longitude and shows a sample of the middle member of the Medusae Fossae formation. The layers exposed in the southeast-facing scarp suggest that there is a fairly competent unit underlying the mesa in the center of the image. Dust-avalanches are apparent in the crater depression near the middle of the image. The mesa of Medusae Fossae material has the geomorphic signatures that are typical of the formation elsewhere on Mars, but the surface is probably heavily mantled with fine dust, masking the small-scale character of the unit. The close proximity of the Medusae Fossae unit to the Tharsis region may suggest that it is an ignimbrite or volcanic airfall deposit, but it's eroded character hasn't preserved the primary depositional features that would give away the secrets of formation. One of the most interesting feature in the image is the high-standing knob at the base of the scarp in the lower portion of the image. This knob or butte is high standing because it is composed of material that is not as easily eroded as the rest of the unit. There are a number of possible explanations for this feature, including volcano, inverted crater, or some localized process that caused once friable material to become cemented. Another interesting set of features are the long troughs on the slope in the lower portion of the image. The fact that the features keep the same width for the entire length suggests that these are not simple landslides.

  16. Medusae Fossae #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This southern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.0 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  17. Medusae Fossae #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This northern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.4 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  18. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  19. Medusae Fossae #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-13

    Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This northern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.4 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west. Science Magazine, Volume 279, Number 5357, 13 March 1998, M. C. Malin, et. al., "Early Views of the Martian Surface from the Mars Orbiter Camera of Mars Global Surveyor", pp. 1681-1685 (Fig. 1A) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00800

  20. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 16 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 11o N, 159o W (201o E) and shows examples of the remarkable variations that can be seen in the erosion of the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region, like many others throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, the surface has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to erode the landscape of Mars. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Within this single image it is possible to see differing amounts of erosion and stripping of layers in the Medusae Fossae Formation. Near the bottom (southern) edge of the image a rock layer with a relatively smooth upper surface covers much of the image. Moving upwards (north) in the image this layer becomes more and more eroded. At first there are isolated regions where the smooth unit has been eroded to produce sets of parallel ridges and knobs. Further north these linear knobs increase in number, and only small, isolated patches of the smooth upper surface remain. Finally, at the top of the image, even the ridges have been removed, exposing the remarkably smooth top of hard, resistant layer below. This sequence of layers with differing hardness and resistance to erosion is common on Earth and on Mars, and suggests significant variations in the physical properties, composition, particle size, and/or cementation of these martian layers. As is common throughout the Medusae Fossae Formation, very few impact craters are visible, indicating that the surface exposed is relatively young, and that the process of erosion may be active today

  2. Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. In the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shown on the right, the crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The MOC image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The context image (left; the best Viking view of the area; VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this poster presentation is to develop technologies to enable fundamental research into understanding the potential for and limits to chemolithoautotrophic life. The Medusa Isosampler (isobaric sampler), for sampling fluids eminating from deep sea hydrothermal vents and cold seep sites analogous to extraterrestrial environments, is described by the presentation. The following instruments are integrated with the isosampler, and also described: in situ flow-through chemical sensor, intrinsic fluorescent-based microbial detector, isotope ratio spectral detector.

  4. Stars and gas in the Medusa merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manthey, E.; Hüttemeister, S.; Aalto, S.; Horellou, C.; Bjerkeli, P.

    2008-11-01

    The Medusa (NGC 4194) is a well-studied nearby galaxy with the disturbed appearance of a merger and evidence for ongoing star formation. In order to test whether it could be the result of an interaction between a gas-rich disk-like galaxy and a larger elliptical, we have carried out optical and radio observations of the stars and the gas in the Medusa, and performed N-body numerical simulations of the evolution of such a system. We used the Nordic Optical Telescope to obtain a deep V-band image and the Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope to map the large-scale distribution and kinematics of atomic hydrogen. A single Hi tail was found to the South of the Medusa with a projected length of ~56 kpc (~5') and a gas mass of 7 × 10^8~M⊙, thus harbouring about one third of the total Hi mass of the system. Hi was also detected in absorption toward the continuum in the center. Hi was detected in a small nearby galaxy to the North-West of the Medusa at a projected distance of 91 kpc. It is, however, unlikely that this galaxy has had a significant influence on the evolution of the Medusa. The simulations of the slightly prograde infall of a gas-rich disk galaxy on an larger, four time more massive elliptical (spherical) galaxy reproduce most of the observed features of the Medusa. Thus, the Medusa is an ideal object to study the merger-induced star formation contribution from the small galaxy of a minor merger. Movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Medusa: A Scalable MR Console Using USB

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Pascal P.; Conolly, Steven M.; Santos, Juan M.; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

    2012-01-01

    MRI pulse sequence consoles typically employ closed proprietary hardware, software, and interfaces, making difficult any adaptation for innovative experimental technology. Yet MRI systems research is trending to higher channel count receivers, transmitters, gradient/shims, and unique interfaces for interventional applications. Customized console designs are now feasible for researchers with modern electronic components, but high data rates, synchronization, scalability, and cost present important challenges. Implementing large multi-channel MR systems with efficiency and flexibility requires a scalable modular architecture. With Medusa, we propose an open system architecture using the Universal Serial Bus (USB) for scalability, combined with distributed processing and buffering to address the high data rates and strict synchronization required by multi-channel MRI. Medusa uses a modular design concept based on digital synthesizer, receiver, and gradient blocks, in conjunction with fast programmable logic for sampling and synchronization. Medusa is a form of synthetic instrument, being reconfigurable for a variety of medical/scientific instrumentation needs. The Medusa distributed architecture, scalability, and data bandwidth limits are presented, and its flexibility is demonstrated in a variety of novel MRI applications. PMID:21954200

  6. The Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, F. T.; Schultz, A.; Gupta, M.; Powers, L.; Klinkhammer, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System (MSMS) is a technology development project that is designed to enable fundamental research into understanding the potential for and limits to chemolithoautotrophic life. This is life within which inorganic carbon is converted to organic carbon and where only inorganic compounds serve as electron acceptors and electron donors. Such life forms are postulated to be capable of surviving in a Europan ocean. If we can prove that such life forms exist on Earth it would provide credence to the hypothesis that they might exist on other planets or moons in our Solar System. It has been hypothesized that one environment which might foster such life is associated with sub-seafloor hydrothermal vent structures. The goal of the MSMS project is to develop an instrument capable of testing this hypothesis. The MSMS instrument is an evolution of a sea floor monitoring system developed by Dr. Adam Schultz. Its design is the result of many generations of hardware and dive programs. Medusa provides the capability to measure and sample effluent and influent sea floor hydraulic flows associated with hydrothermal vent structures, active sea mounds, and sea floor bore holes. Through this proposal we are developing the next generation Medusa system and initiating the integration of several select chemical and biological sensors into the Medusa backbone. These sensors are an in situ flow-through spectral chemistry system, a cavity ringdown 12C/13C system, and an intrinsic fluorescence instrument. der way. This instrument can be used to target and discriminate between biological samples for automated sample collection

  7. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, C.; Salvador, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Munoz, O.; Tapia, A.; Arredondo, V.; Chavez, R.; Nieto, A.; Gonzalez, J.; Garza, A.; Estrada, I.; Jasso, E.; Acosta, C.; Briones, C.; Cavazos, G.; Martinez, J.; Morones, J.; Almaguer, J.; Fonck, R.

    2011-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R < 0.14m, a < 0.10m, BT < 0.5T, Ip < 40kA, 3ms pulse) is currently being recomissioned at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico, as part of an agreement between the Faculties of Mech.-Elect. Eng. and Phy. Sci.-Maths. The main objective for having MEDUSA is to train students in plasma physics & technical related issues, aiming a full design of a medium size device (e.g. Tokamak-T). Details of technical modifications and a preliminary scientific programme will be presented. MEDUSA-MX will also benefit any developments in the existing Mexican Fusion Network. Strong liaison within national and international plasma physics communities is expected. New activities on plasma & engineering modeling are expected to be developed in parallel by using the existing facilities such as a multi-platform computer (Silicon Graphics Altix XE250, 128G RAM, 3.7TB HD, 2.7GHz, quad-core processor), ancillary graph system (NVIDIA Quadro FE 2000/1GB GDDR-5 PCI X16 128, 3.2GHz), and COMSOL Multiphysics-Solid Works programs.

  8. Western Medusa Fossae Formation: Dust and Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-16

    This beautifully contrasted infrared-color image shows an area approximately 600 by 900 meters. This is a close-up from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft of the western Medusa Fossae formation where we can see dust-covered rocky, bedrock surfaces beige and a bluish-tinted sand sheet that transitions into several dunes. The bluish sand is thought to originate from the bedrock that lies beneath the dust. If true, this has implications for the composition of the formation, which has been highly debated over the years. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19939

  9. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Guadamuz, Saul; Mora, Jaime; Ansejo, Jose; Zamora, Esteban; Herrera, Julio; Chaves, Esteban; Romero, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R<0.14m, a<0.10m, BT<0.5T, Ip<40kA, 3ms pulse)[1] is in a process of donation to Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objective of MEDUSA is to train students in plasma physics /technical related issues which will help all tasks of the very low aspect ratio stellarator SCR-1(A≡R/>=3.6, under design[2]) and also the ongoing activities in low temperature plasmas. Courses in plasma physics at undergraduate and post-graduate joint programme levels are regularly conducted. The scientific programme is intend to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including transport, heating and current drive via Alfv'en wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter[3,4]. [1] G.D.Garstka, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1997 [2] L.Barillas et al., Proc. 19^th Int. Conf. Nucl. Eng., Japan, 2011 [3] C.Ribeiro et al., IEEJ Trans. Electrical and Electronic Eng., 2012(accepted) [4] C.Ribeiro et al., Proc. 39^th EPS Conf. Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Sweden, 2012

  10. Medusae Fossae Formation - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. The Age of the Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a complicated and discontinuous formation located in the southern parts of Elysium Planitia and Amazonis Planitia (130°-230°E and 12°S-12°N), covering an area of approximately 2.1 x 106 km2 and having an estimated volume of 1.4 x 106 km3 [1]. It is thought to have been deposited during the Amazonian period [2,3]. However, much of the cratering record may have been erased as friable units were eroded and long-buried terrains exhumed [4-6]. The formation is characterized by large accumulations of fine-grained, friable deposits and evidence of large amounts of erosion. There are many theories regarding the emplacement of this formation; recently the literature has focused on three possibilities: ignimbrites, ash fall, and aeolian dust. Some modified and inverted fluvial channels have been found within the deposit [7,8], (Fig. 1), indicating that there was some fluvial activity during or after the emplacement of the MFF. If the MFF is among the youngest surficial deposits on Mars [9], it is implied that meandering, channelized flow must have extended into the Amazonian, a significant constraint when considering the atmospheric evolution of the planet through time. Because of the wide implications that these findings have for the evolution of Mars and the Martian atmosphere, it is instructive to re-examine the evidence for the Amazonian age of the MFF. The initial conclusion comes from two main arguments: the relatively few superposed craters on the unit, and the superposition of the MFF on young lowland lava deposits [1, 9]. Using new high resolution data, we reexamine the relationships both within the MFF and with respect to adjacent units. Cratering Record The cratering record of the MFF and other easily eroded units has often been deemed unreliable [4, 10, 12], but it continues to be cited as evidence for the formation's young age. Throughout the MFF, pedestal craters, inverted craters, and remnant knobs can be

  12. MEDUSA (Martian Environmental DUst Systematic Analyser)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, R.; Colangeli, L.; della Corte, V.; Esposito, F.; Ferrini, G.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Palomba, E.; Palumbo, P.; Panizza, A.; Rotundi, A.

    2003-04-01

    ) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor. Seasonal variations in the column abundance are due to the combined effect of exchange of H_2O between atmosphere and water reservoirs (i.e. polar caps, regolith) and atmospheric transport. Despite the low absolute water content (0.03% by volume), relative humidity can exceed 100% leading to frosting phenomena, thanks to low Martian temperatures. The typical value of the pressure at surface, close to the triple point value of water phase diagram, makes the persistence of liquid water at the surface of Mars highly improbable. This means that the water is probably present exclusively in gaseous and solid states, at the surface level. Attempts to use space-born and earth-based observations to estimate quantitatively surface and near-surface sources and sinks of water vapour have had good but also partial success. Most important questions that appear from the present knowledge is how the water vapour atmospheric circulation occurs and how to explain the difference in the hemispheric and seasonal behaviour of the water vapour. Despite TES results showed that a percentage of hemispheric "asymmetry" of the seasonal vapour abundance was probably due to the presence of two dust storms during MAWD observations, an evident difference remains partially unexplained. In this context, it is extremely important to study the role of the different contributions to the production of atmospheric vapour from the main reservoirs and to the formation of water ice clouds most probably catalysed by the atmospheric dust. At present, no in situ measurement of water vapour content was performed yet. We discuss the possibility of using a new concept instrument for extraterrestrial planetary environments, based on the past experience acquired for dust monitoring in space and on Earth and new possible technologies for space applications. MEDUSA (Martian Environmental Dust Analyser) project is a multisensor and multistage instrument based on an optical detector of dust

  13. Calocybe cyanea : a rare and beautiful agaric is discovered in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Timothy J. Baroni; Nick W. Legon; Rytas Vilgalys; D. Jean. Lodge

    1999-01-01

    A rare find of Calocybe cyanea from Puerto Rico is described and illustrated. A discussion of all species of Calocybe found in the Caribbean is provided. Since nearly one-half of the described species of Calocybe can be found in the Neotropics (nine out of the 20 or so known taxa), a key to the species of Calocybe which are found in the Neotropics is included.

  14. Bulked segregant analysis identifies molecular markers linked to Melampsora medusae resistance in Populus deltoides

    Treesearch

    G. M. Tabor; Thomas L. Kubisiak; N. B. Klopfenstein; R. B. Hall; Henry S. McNabb

    2000-01-01

    In the north central United States, leaf rust caused by Melampsora medusae is a major disease problem on Populus deltoides. In this study we identified molecular markers linked to a M. medusae resistance locus (Lrd1) that was segregating 1:1 within an intraspecific P. deltoides...

  15. Indole Alkaloids from the Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora and Homarine from Octopus cyanea.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Kamel H; Göhl, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    The two new indole alkaloids 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-4H-imidazol-4-one (1), 2-amino-5-[(6-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-3,5-dihydro-3-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one (2), and auramine (3) have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis aurora. Both indole alkaloids were synthesized for the confirmation of the structures. Homarine (4), along with uracil (5), hypoxanthine (6), and inosine (7) have been obtained from Octopus cyanea. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Why is Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) Invasive in North America and not in its Native Eurasia?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) is an exotic annual grass introduced to North America in 1887 that has since invaded an estimated four million ha of rangelands. Contrary, in its native ranges of Eurasia, T. caput-medusae is not considered to be invasive. Why is it that T. caput-medusae expre...

  17. MEDUSA: an airborne multispectral oil spill detection and characterization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Peter; Hengstermann, Theo; Zielinski, Oliver

    2000-12-01

    MEDUSA is a sensor network, consisting of and effectively combining a variety of different remote sensing instruments. Installed in 1998 it is operationally used in a maritime surveillance aircraft maintained by the German Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing. On one hand routine oil pollution monitoring with remote sensing equipment like Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR), Infrared/Ultraviolet Line Scanner (IR/UV line scanner), Microwave Radiometer (MWR), Imaging Airborne Laserfluorosensor (IALFS) and Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) requires a complex network and communication structure to be operated by a single operator. On the other hand the operation of such a variety of sensors on board of one aircraft provides an excellent opportunity to establish new concepts of integrated sensor fusion and data evaluation. In this work a general survey of the German surveillance aircraft instrumentation is given and major features of the sensor package as well as advantages of the design and architecture are presented. Results from routine operation over North and Baltic Sea are shown to illustrate the successful application of MEDUSA in maritime patrol of oil slicks and polluters. Recently the combination of the different sensor results towards one multispectral information has met with increasing interest. Thus new application fields and parameter sets could be derived, like oceanography or river flood management. The basic concepts and first results in the fusion of sensoric information will conclude the paper.

  18. Using Age-Based Life History Data to Investigate the Life Cycle and Vulnerability of Octopus cyanea

    PubMed Central

    Herwig, Jade N.; Depczynski, Martial; Roberts, John D.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gagliano, Monica; Heyward, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Octopus cyanea is taken as an unregulated, recreationally fished species from the intertidal reefs of Ningaloo, Western Australia. Yet despite its exploitation and importance in many artisanal fisheries throughout the world, little is known about its life history, ecology and vulnerability. We used stylet increment analysis to age a wild O. cyanea population for the first time and gonad histology to examine their reproductive characteristics. O. cyanea conforms to many cephalopod life history generalisations having rapid, non-asymptotic growth, a short life-span and high levels of mortality. Males were found to mature at much younger ages and sizes than females with reproductive activity concentrated in the spring and summer months. The female dominated sex-ratios in association with female brooding behaviours also suggest that larger conspicuous females may be more prone to capture and suggests that this intertidal octopus population has the potential to be negatively impacted in an unregulated fishery. Size at age and maturity comparisons between our temperate bordering population and lower latitude Tanzanian and Hawaiian populations indicated stark differences in growth rates that correlate with water temperatures. The variability in life history traits between global populations suggests that management of O. cyanea populations should be tailored to each unique set of life history characteristics and that stylet increment analysis may provide the integrity needed to accurately assess this. PMID:22912898

  19. Jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii) decomposition and its potential influence on marine environments studied via simulation experiments.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-Feng; Song, Jin-Ming; Li, Ning; Li, Xue-Gang; Yuan, Hua-Mao; Duan, Li-Qin; Ma, Qing-Xia

    2015-08-15

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the jellyfish population in Chinese seas is increasing, and decomposition of jellyfish strongly influences the marine ecosystem. This study investigated the change in water quality during Cyanea nozakii decomposition using simulation experiments. The results demonstrated that the amount of dissolved nutrients released by jellyfish was greater than the amount of particulate nutrients. NH4(+) was predominant in the dissolved matter, whereas the particulate matter was dominated by organic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus. The high N/P ratios demonstrated that jellyfish decomposition may result in high nitrogen loads. The inorganic nutrients released by C. nozakii decomposition were important for primary production. Jellyfish decomposition caused decreases in the pH and oxygen consumption associated with acidification and hypoxia or anoxia; however, sediments partially mitigated the changes in the pH and oxygen. These results imply that jellyfish decomposition can result in potentially detrimental effects on marine environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Leaf Volatiles of Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven in the Attraction of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mitra, Saubhik; Karmakar, Amarnath; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Barik, Anandamay

    2017-07-01

    Larvae and adults of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae), commonly known as willow primrose, which is considered a biocontrol agent of the weed. Volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 4, 12, and 36 h of continuous feeding by A. cyanea larvae or adult females and after mechanical damaging were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty nine compounds were identified from undamaged plants. 2Z-Penten-1-ol, geraniol, and 1-tridecanol were present in all plants damaged by larvae. In contrast, feeding by adults caused the release of 2Z-penten-1-ol only after 12 and 36 h; whereas geraniol and 1-tridecanol appeared only after 36 h. Farnesyl acetone was detected after 12 and 36 h of feeding by larvae and after 36 h of feeding by adults. Farnesene was detected after 36 h of feeding by larvae and adults. Linalool was unique after 36 h of feeding by larvae. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays, A. cyanea females were attracted to volatiles after 36 h of feeding by larvae or adults compared to volatiles released by undamaged plants. The insects were attracted to five synthetic compounds: 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol. Synthetic blends were more attractive than individual compounds. Compared to undamaged plants, volatiles released by plants, damaged by conspecific individuals, were more attractive to A. cyanea females, due to elevated emissions of 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol.

  1. Investigation into the hemolytic activity of tentacle venom from jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-03-01

    Cyanea nozakii Kishinouy e ( C. nozakii), a giant cnidarian of the class Scyphomedusae, order Semaeostomeae and family Cyaneidae, is widely distributed in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and is abundant from late summer to early autumn. Venom produced by C. nozakii during mass agglomerations can contaminate seawater resulting in death of the halobios and seriously damage commercial fisheries. Swimmers and fishermen commonly suff er painful stings from this jellyfish, resulting in local edema, tingling, breathing difficulties, depressed blood pressure and even death. Such effects arise from the complex mixture of biologically active molecules that make up jellyfish venom. In the present study, the hemolytic activity of venom from tentacles of C. nozakii and factors aff ecting its activity were assayed. The HU50 ( defined as the amount of protein required to lyse 50 % of erythrocytes) of the venom against dove and chicken erythrocytes was 34 and 59 μg/mL, respectively. Carboxylmethyl chitosan and glycerol could increase hemolytic activity at concentrations greater than 0.06% and 0.2 mol/L, respectively.

  2. Characterisation of acid-soluble and pepsin-solubilised collagen from jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Rui; Huang, Lei; Song, Yujie; Regenstein, Joe M

    2014-05-01

    Annual outbreaks of the Jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye) in the waters of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are regarded as a nuisance. Thus, utilizing this jellyfish species is of great significance to reduce harm to fisheries and marine environments. The yield of the acid-soluble collagens (ASCs) from the C. nozakii umbrella was 13.0% (dry weight) and that of the pepsin-solubilised collagens (PSCs) was 5.5% (dry weight). The SDS-PAGE patterns of the ASCs and PSCs differed from that of type I collagen, which indicate the presence of (α1)3. The denaturation temperature (Td) of the collagens was approximately 23.8°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved that the ASCs and PSCs retained their helical structures and the As, Pb, and Hg content of the collagens, detected by ICP-MS, were considerably lower than the national standards. The results suggest that collagens isolated from C. nozakii can potentially be used as an alternative source of collagen for use in various applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Control and Data Acquisition for the Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA-CR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Christian; Gonzalez, Jeferson; Carvajal, Johan; Ribeiro, Celso

    2013-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R < 0.14 m, a < 0.10 m, BT < 0.5 T, Ip < 40 kA, 3 ms pulse) is being recommissioned in Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objectives of the MEDUSA-CR project are training and to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including beta studies in bean-shaped ST plasmas, transport, heating and current drive via Alfvén wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter. We present here the control and data acquisition systems for MEDUSA-CR device which are based on National Instruments (NI) software (LabView) and hardware on loan to our laboratory via NI-Costa Rica. The interface with the energy, gas fueling, and security systems are also presented. VIE-ITCR, IAEA-CRP contract 17592, National Instruments of Costa Rica.

  4. Energy, Vacuum, Gas Fueling, and Security Systems for the Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA-CR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Jeferson; Soto, Christian; Carvajal, Johan; Ribeiro, Celso

    2013-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R < 0.14 m, a < 0.10 m, BT < 0.5 T, Ip < 40 kA, 3 ms pulse) is being recommissioned in Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objectives of the MEDUSA-CR project are training and to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including beta studies in bean-shaped ST plasmas, transport, heating and current drive via Alfvén wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter. We present here the energy, vacuum, gas fueling, and security systems for MEDUSA-CR device. The interface with the control and data acquisition systems based on National Instruments (NI) software (LabView) and hardware (on loan to our laboratory via NI-Costa Rica) are also presented. VIE-ITCR, IAEA-CRP contract 17592, National Instruments of Costa Rica.

  5. The value of oak woodland habitats as control for medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae)

    Treesearch

    Elise S. Gornish; Jeremy J. James; Emilio A. Laca

    2015-01-01

    Although medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) is one of the most dominant invasive rangeland grasses in the West, we know surprisingly little about the environmental factors that drive medusahead abundance. Understanding the conditions that influence spread dynamics is central for developing effective monitoring, prevention and control programs...

  6. Increased depth-diameter ratios in the Medusae Fossae Formation deposits of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Depth to diameter ratios for fresh impact craters on Mars are commonly cited as approximately 0.2 for simple craters and 0.1 for complex craters. Recent computation of depth-diameter ratios in the Amazonis-Memnonia region of Mars indicates that craters within the Medusae Fossae Formation deposits found in this region display greater depth-diameter ratios than expected for both simple and complex craters. Photoclinometric and shadow length techniques have been used to obtain depths of craters within the Amazonis-Memnonia region. The 37 craters in the 2 to 29 km diameter range and displaying fresh impact morphologies were identified in the area of study. This region includes the Amazonian aged upper and middle members of the Medusae Fossae Formation and Noachian aged cratered and hilly units. The Medusae Fossae Formation is characterized by extensive, flat to gently undulating deposits of controversial origin. These deposits appear to vary from friable to indurated. Early analysis of crater degradation in the Medusae Fossae region suggested that simple craters excavated to greater depths than expected based on the general depth-diameter relationships derived for Mars. However, too few craters were available in the initial analysis to estimate the actual depth-diameter ratios within this region. Although the analysis is continuing, we are now beginning to see a convergence towards specific values for the depth-diameter ratio depending on geologic unit.

  7. Expression of Wnt pathway genes in polyps and medusa-like structures of Ectopleura larynx (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Annalise M; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2013-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is conserved in its role in axial patterning throughout Metazoa. In some hydrozoans (Phylum Cnidaria), Wnt signaling is implicated in oral-aboral patterning of the different life cycle stages-the planula, polyp and medusa. Unlike most hydrozoans, members of Aplanulata lack a planula larva and the polyp instead develops directly from a brooded or encysted embryo. The Aplanulata species Ectopleura larynx broods such embryos within gonophores. These gonophores are truncated medusae that remain attached to the polyps from which they bud, and retain evolutionary remnants of medusa structures. In E. larynx, gonophores differ between males and females in their degree of medusa truncation, making them an ideal system for examining truncated medusa development. Using next-generation sequencing, we isolated genes from Wnt signaling pathways and examined their expression in E. larynx. Our data are consistent with the Wnt pathway being involved in axial patterning of the polyp and truncated medusa. Changes in the spatial expression of Wnt pathway genes are correlated with the development of different oral structures in male and female gonophores. The absence of expression of components of the Wnt pathway and presence of a Wnt pathway antagonist SFRP in the developing anterior end of the gonophore suggest that downregulation of the Wnt pathway could play a role in medusa reduction in E. larynx. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ecosystem relevance of variable jellyfish biomass in the Irish Sea between years, regions and water types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Thomas; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Beggs, Steven E.; Hays, Graeme C.; Doyle, Thomas K.

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring the abundance and distribution of taxa is essential to assess their contribution to ecosystem processes. For marine taxa that are difficult to study or have long been perceived of little ecological importance, quantitative information is often lacking. This is the case for jellyfish (medusae and other gelatinous plankton). In the present work, 4 years of scyphomedusae by-catch data from the 2007-2010 Irish Sea juvenile gadoid fish survey were analysed with three main objectives: (1) to provide quantitative and spatially-explicit species-specific biomass data, for a region known to have an increasing trend in jellyfish abundance; (2) to investigate whether year-to-year changes in catch-biomass are due to changes in the numbers or in the size of medusa (assessed as the mean mass per individual), and (3) to determine whether inter-annual variation patterns are consistent between species and water masses. Scyphomedusae were present in 97% of samples (N = 306). Their overall annual median catch-biomass ranged from 0.19 to 0.92 g m-3 (or 8.6 to 42.4 g m-2). Aurelia aurita and Cyanea spp. (Cyanea lamarckii and Cyanea capillata) made up 77.7% and 21.5% of the total catch-biomass respectively, but species contributions varied greatly between sub-regions and years. No consistent pattern was detected between the distribution and inter-annual variations of the two genera, and contrasting inter-annual patterns emerged when considering abundance either as biomass or as density. Significantly, A. aurita medusae were heavier in stratified than in mixed waters, which we hypothesize may be linked to differences in timing and yield of primary and secondary productions between water masses. These results show the vulnerability of time-series from bycatch datasets to phenological changes and highlight the importance of taking species- and population-specific distribution patterns into account when integrating jellyfish into ecosystem models.

  9. Jellyfish stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Lion's mane ( Cyanea capillata ). Portuguese man-of-war ( Physalia physalis in the Atlantic and Physalia utriculus ... Skin burning and blistering (severe) PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR Abdominal pain Changes in pulse Chest pain Chills ...

  10. Isoindolinone-containing meroterpenoids with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from mushroom Hericium caput-medusae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Li, Zheng-Hui; Yao, Jian-Neng; Peng, Yue-Ling; Huang, Rong; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2017-10-01

    Hericium caput-medusae is an edible and medicinal mushroom closely relative to H. erinaceus. According to our detailed chemical investigation, two novel isoindolinone-containing meroterpene dimers, caputmedusins A (1) and B (2), as well as nine analogues, caputmedusins C-K (3-11), were isolated from the fermentation broth of H. caput-medusae. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were speculated based on the specific optical rotation and biogenetic consideration. The absolute configurations of 10 and 11 were rationalized by the calculation of 1 H NMR chemical shifts. Caputmedusins A-C (1-3) showed moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with the IC 50 values of 39.2, 36.2 and 40.8μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geo-logic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.

  12. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geologic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.

  13. Medusa consumption and prey selection of silver pomfret Pampus argenteus juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunsheng; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Chen, Siqing; Shi, Zhaohong; Yan, Jingping; Liu, Changlin

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored Aurelia aurita and Rhopilema esculent um consumption by silver pomfret juveniles, as well as their prey selection between the two jellyfish species. Silver pomfret juveniles weighing 1±0.1 g actively preyed on both the species. Their daily A. aurita consumption was 11.6 times their own body weights regardless of the size of A. aurita medusae. Their daily R. esculent um consumption was 13, 9.1, 5, and 4.1 times their own body weights when the R. esculentum medusae were 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm in bell diameter, respectively. The survival rates of the R. esculent um were higher than those of the A. aurita. When the R. esculent um medusae were more than 30 mm in bell diameter, their survival rate exceeded 92%. Silver pomfrets serve as a type of potential predators on A. aurita in coastal waters, and they have little influence on R. esculent um with a size exceeding 30 mm. Besides, A. aurita may be able to be used as fish prey in silver pomfret artificial breeding.

  14. A novel insect defensin mediates the inducible antibacterial activity in larvae of the dragonfly Aeschna cyanea (Paleoptera, Odonata).

    PubMed

    Bulet, P; Cociancich, S; Reuland, M; Sauber, F; Bischoff, R; Hegy, G; Van Dorsselaer, A; Hetru, C; Hoffmann, J A

    1992-11-01

    The injection of low doses of bacteria into the aquatic larvae of dragonflies (Aeschna cyanea, Odonata, Paleoptera) induces the appearance in their hemolymph of a potent antibacterial activity. We have isolated a 38-residue peptide from this hemolymph which is strongly active against Gram-positive bacteria and also shows activity against one of the Gram-negative bacteria which was tested. The peptide is a novel member of the insect defensin family of inducible antibacterial peptides, which had so far only been reported from the higher insect orders believed to have evolved 100 million years after the Paleoptera. Aeschna defensin is more potent than defensin from the dipteran Phormia, from which its structure differs in several interesting aspects, which are discussed in the paper.

  15. Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution. IV. Star Formation and a Rotating Core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Neff, Susan Gale; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-01-01

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features.We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0".18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 micron [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution approx. 4 km/s: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  16. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a novel acidic endoglycoceramidase from the jellyfish, Cyanea nozakii.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Y; Okino, N; Ichinose, S; Omori, A; Ito, M

    2000-10-06

    Endoglycoceramidase (EC ) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the glycosidic linkage between oligosaccharides and ceramides in various glycosphingolipids. We report here the purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a novel endoglycoceramidase from the jellyfish, Cyanea nozakii. The purified enzyme showed a single protein band estimated to be 51 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed a pH optimum of 3.0 and was activated by Triton X-100 and Lubrol PX but not by sodium taurodeoxycholate. This enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed gangliosides, especially GT1b and GQ1b, whereas neutral glycosphingolipids were somewhat resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. A full-length cDNA encoding the enzyme was cloned by 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends using a partial amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. The open reading frame of 1509 nucleotides encoded a polypeptide of 503 amino acids including a signal sequence of 25 residues and six potential N-glycosylation sites. Interestingly, the Asn-Glu-Pro sequence, which is the putative active site of Rhodococcus endoglycoceramidase, was conserved in the deduced amino acid sequences. This is the first report of the cloning of an endoglycoceramidase from a eukaryote.

  17. Development of a rapid assay to detect the jellyfish Cyanea nozakii using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongyuan; Dong, Zhijun; Liu, Dongyan

    2016-07-01

    Blooms of the harmful jellyfish Cyanea nozakii, which are a severe nuisance to fisheries and tourisms, frequently occur in the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Bohai Sea. To provide early warning of this species, a simple and effective molecular method for identifying C. nozakii was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP). The LAMP assay is highly specific and uses a set of four primers that target six different regions on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of C. nozakii. The amplification conditions, including the dNTP and betaine concentrations, the inner primer to outer primer concentration ratio, reaction time and temperature, were optimized. The LAMP assay amplified DNA extracted from tissue samples of C. nozakii but did not amplify DNA from other common scyphozoans and hydrozoans collected in the same region. In addition, the LAMP assay was more sensitive than conventional PCR. Therefore, the established LAMP assay is a sensitive, specific, fast, and easily performed method for detection of C. nozakii at different stages in their life cycle.

  18. Why is Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) Invasive in North America and not in its Native Eurasia?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead grass) is an exotic annual grass introduced to North America (NA) that has invaded ~ 4 million ha of western rangelands. In contrast, in native ranges of Eurasia (EA), medusahead is not considered to be invasive. Why is medusahead invasive in NA, but not in its...

  19. Phylogenetic analysis with multiple markers indicates repeated loss of the adult medusa stage in Campanulariidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Boero, Ferdinando; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-03-01

    The Campanulariidae is a group of leptomedusan hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) that exhibit a diverse array of life cycles ranging from species with a free medusa stage to those with a reduced or absent medusa stage. Perhaps the best-known member of the taxon is Obelia which is often used as a textbook model of hydrozoan life history. However, Obelia medusae have several unique features leading to a hypothesis that Obelia arose, in a saltational fashion, from an ancestor that lacked a medusa, possibly representing an example of a rare evolutionary reversal. To address the evolution of adult sexual stages in Campanulariidae, a molecular phylogenetic approach was employed using two nuclear (18S rDNA and calmodulin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Prior to the main analysis, we conducted a preliminary analysis of leptomedusan taxa which suggests that Campanulariidae as presently considered needs to be redefined. Campanulariid analyses are consistent with morphological understanding in that three major clades are recovered. However, several recognized genera are not monophyletic calling into question some "diagnostic" features. Furthermore, ancestral states were reconstructed using parsimony, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate possible evolutionary transitions in life-history stages. The results indicate that life-cycle transitions have occurred multiple times, and that Obelia might be derived from an ancestor with Clytia-like features.

  20. Huygens, Mackintosh, Dalí, and Medusa: Polarization engineering (and more?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2010-08-01

    As Christiaan Huygens must have felt in his bones but could not have articulated with a mathematical theory, engineering of the polarization state of light is easily accomplished with anisotropic materials. Examine a crystal to see that its capabilities are quite restricted by its rigid Cartesian morphology reminiscent of the straitened designs of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. But let loose the genius of Salvador Dalí to transform straight rods into the flowing tresses of Medusa, and you begin to appreciate what all can be done to the polarization state by nanoengineering morphology such that it is locally cartesian but globally curvilinear. If you exclaim "What rot!," a few simple examples may suffice to convince you that engineering of both the polarization state and the operating frequency band can be accomplished by nanoengineering the morphology of complex substances called sculptured thin films (STFs). These nanoengineered metamaterials offer other promises too.

  1. 'Caput medusae': tension reduction on a dehiscent native annulus in valve implantation in an endocarditis case.

    PubMed

    Albes, Johannes M

    2017-12-01

    Interrupted pledget-armed braided sutures are widely used for valve implantation. In a 74-year-old woman with aortic valve endocarditis and shallow annular abscess, annulus dehiscence resulted after resection. As resistance was too high for sufficient primary approximation, a snug fit of the valve by means of circumferential application of curbed tourniquets resembling Medusa's head after suture placement was achieved. Closest possible approximation of the upper and lower part of the annulus with the prosthesis prior to final fixation was thus possible, so that application of too much tension on a single suture could be avoided. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. North Sea Scyphomedusae; summer distribution, estimated biomass and significance particularly for 0-group Gadoid fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, S. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Shanks, A. M.

    Data on the by-catch of Scyphomedusae from pelagic trawls was collected during the routine ICES International 0-group Gadoid Surveys of the North Sea, in June and July of the years 1971-1986 (except 1984). These data are used to describe the distributions, abundances and biomasses of three common North Sea Scyphomedusae: Aurelia aurita (L.), Cyanea capillata (L.) and C. lamarckii (Péron & Lesuer). Information is also presented on inter-annual variability, size (umbrella diameter) frequencies and, for the Cyanea species, umbrella diameter: wet weight relationships. The general role and ecological significance of Scyphomedusae is discussed and, given the well known 'shelter' relationships between Scyphomedusae and certain 0-group fish, whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) and haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus), in particular. The data were examined for evidence of such relationships. Aurelia aurita, although fairly widespread in the northern North Sea was virtually absent from the central North Sea but very abundant in coastal waters. This species was particularly abundant off the Scottish east coast and especially in the Moray Firth. Cyanea lamerckii was most abundant in the southern and eastern North Sea. More widespread than Aurelia, this species was also most abundant in coastal regions, particularly off the Danish west coast. Cyanea capillata, with a more northern distribution was also more widely distributed and abundant offshore. This species was most abundant in the area between the Orkney/Shetland Isles and the Norwegian Deep and in shelf waters of the north west approaches to the North Sea. As with C. lamarckii it was also, in some years, abundant off the Scottish east coast and west of Denmark. The abundance and the size frequency of the jellyfish show considerable inter-annual variability, and variability between regions of the North Sea. It is considered that hydrographic variability and differences in food supply to both medusae and to their sessile

  3. 13CO 1-0 imaging of the Medusa merger, NGC 4194. Large scale variations in molecular cloud properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, S.; Beswick, R.; Jütte, E.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: Studying molecular gas properties in merging galaxies gives important clues to the onset and evolution of interaction-triggered starbursts. The frac{12CO}{13CO} line intensity ratio can be used as a tracer of how dynamics and star formation processes impact the gas properties. The Medusa merger (NGC 4194) is particularly interesting to study since its {L_FIRover L_CO} ratio rivals that of ultraluminous galaxies (ULIRGs), despite the comparatively modest luminosity, indicating an exceptionally high star formation efficiency (SFE) in the Medusa merger. Methods: High resolution OVRO (Owens Valley Radio Observatory) observations of the 13CO 1-0 have been obtained and compared with matched resolution OVRO 12CO 1-0 data to investigate the molecular gas cloud properties in the Medusa merger. Results: Interferometric observations of 12CO and 13CO 1-0 in the Medusa (NGC 4194) merger show the {{12CO} over {13CO}} 1-0 intensity ratio ({\\cal R}) increases from normal, quiescent values (7-10) in the outer parts (r > 2 kpc) of the galaxy to high (16 to > 40) values in the central (r < 1 kpc) starburst region. In the central two kpc there is an east-west gradient in {\\cal R} where the line ratio changes by more than a factor of three over 5” (945 pc). The integrated 13CO emission peaks in the north-western starburst region while the central 12CO emission is strongly associated with the prominent crossing dust-lane. Conclusions: We discuss the central east-west gradient in {\\cal R} in the context of gas properties in the starburst and the central dust lane. We suggest that the central gradient in {\\cal R} is mainly caused by diffuse gas in the dust lane. In this scenario, the actual molecular mass distribution is better traced by the 13CO 1-0 emission than the 12CO. The possibilities of temperature and abundance gradients are also discussed. We compare the central gas properties of the Medusa to those of other minor mergers and suggest that the extreme and transient

  4. MEDUSA: The ExoMars experiment for in-situ monitoring of dust and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Nørnberg, P.; Della Corte, V.; Esposito, F.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Merrison, J.; Molfese, C.; Palumbo, P.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J. F.; Rotundi, A.; Visconti, G.; Zarnecki, J. C.; The International Medusa Team

    2009-07-01

    Dust and water vapour are fundamental components of the Martian atmosphere. In view of tracing the past environmental conditions on Mars, that possibly favoured the appearing of life forms, it is important to study the present climate and its evolution. Here dust and water vapour have (and have had) strong influence. Of major scientific interest is the quantity and physical, chemical and electrical properties of dust and the abundance of water vapour dispersed in the atmosphere and their exchange with the surface. Moreover, in view of the exploration of the planet with automated systems and in the future by manned missions, it is of primary importance to analyse the hazards linked to these environmental factors. The Martian Environmental Dust Systematic Analyser (MEDUSA) experiment, included in the scientific payload of the ESA ExoMars mission, accommodates a complement of sensors, based on optical detection and cumulative mass deposition, that aims to study dust and water vapour in the lower Martian atmosphere. The goals are to study, for the first time, in-situ and quantitatively, physical properties of the airborne dust, including the cumulative dust mass flux, the dust deposition rate, the physical and electrification properties, the size distribution of sampled particles and the atmospheric water vapour abundance versus time.

  5. Plant-pathogen interactions: leaf physiology alterations in poplars infected with rust (Melampsora medusae).

    PubMed

    Gortari, Fermín; Guiamet, Juan José; Graciano, Corina

    2018-06-01

    Rust produced by Melampsora sp. is considered one of the most relevant diseases in poplar plantations. Growth reduction in poplar plantations takes place because rust, like other pathogens, alters leaf physiology. There is not a complete evaluation of several of the physiological traits that can be affected by rust at leaf level. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, in an integrative way and in the same pathosystem, which physiological processes are affected when Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. leaves are infected by rust (Melampsora medusae Thümen). Leaves of two clones with different susceptibility to rust were analyzed. Field and pot experiments were performed, and several physiological traits were measured in healthy and infected leaves. We conclude that rust affects leaf mesophyll integrity, and so water movement in the leaf in liquid phase is affected. As a consequence, gas exchange is reduced, affecting both carbon fixation and transpiration. However, there is an increase in respiration rate, probably due to plant and fungal respiration. The increase in respiration rate is important in the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, but also some damage in the photosynthetic apparatus limits leaf capacity to fix carbon. The decrease in chlorophyll content would start later and seems not to explain the reduction in net photosynthetic rate. Both clones, although they have different susceptibility to rust, are affected in the same physiological mechanisms.

  6. [Spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter released during the metabolic process of small medusa].

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-Hui; Yi, Yue-Yuan; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Wei-Dong

    2012-06-01

    The metabolic processes of jellyfish can produce dissolved organic matter (DOM) which will influence the functioning of the aquatic ecosystems, yet the optical properties of DOM released by jellyfish are unknown. Here we report the absorption and fluorescence properties of DOM released by a medusa species Black fordia virginica during a 24 h incubation experiment. Compared with the control group, an obvious increase in the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption coefficient (a280) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) was observed in incubation group. This clearly demonstrated the release of DOM, chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and dissolved nutrients by B. virginica which feed on enough of Artemia sp. before the experiment. The increase in spectral slope ratio (SR) and decrease in humification index (HIX) indicated that the released DOM was less-humified and had relatively lower molecular weight. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) decomposed the fluorescence matrices of DOM into three humic-like components (C1-C3) and one protein-like component (C4). The Fmax of two components (C2: < 250, 295/386 nm; C4: 275/334 nm) with the emission wavelength < 400 nm increased significantly during the metabolic process of B. virginica. However, the Fmax of the other two components with the emission wavelength > 400 nm showed little changes. Thus, we suggested a zooplankton index (ZIX) to trace and characterize the DOM excreted by metabolic activity of zooplankton, which is calculated as the ratio of the sum of Fmax of all fluorescence components with the emission wavelength < 400 nm to the sum of Fmax of the other components with the emission wavelength > 400 nm.

  7. Shallow radar (SHARAD) sounding observations of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.M.; Campbell, B.A.; Watters, T.R.; Phillips, R.J.; Putzig, N.E.; Safaeinili, A.; Plaut, J.J.; Okubo, C.H.; Egan, A.F.; Seu, R.; Biccari, D.; Orosei, R.

    2009-01-01

    The SHARAD (shallow radar) sounding radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter detects subsurface reflections in the eastern and western parts of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF). The radar waves penetrate up to 580 m of the MFF and detect clear subsurface interfaces in two locations: west MFF between 150 and 155?? E and east MFF between 209 and 213?? E. Analysis of SHARAD radargrams suggests that the real part of the permittivity is ???3.0, which falls within the range of permittivity values inferred from MARSIS data for thicker parts of the MFF. The SHARAD data cannot uniquely determine the composition of the MFF material, but the low permittivity implies that the upper few hundred meters of the MFF material has a high porosity. One possibility is that the MFF is comprised of low-density welded or interlocked pyroclastic deposits that are capable of sustaining the steep-sided yardangs and ridges seen in imagery. The SHARAD surface echo power across the MFF is low relative to typical martian plains, and completely disappears in parts of the east MFF that correspond to the radar-dark Stealth region. These areas are extremely rough at centimeter to meter scales, and the lack of echo power is most likely due to a combination of surface roughness and a low near-surface permittivity that reduces the echo strength from any locally flat regions. There is also no radar evidence for internal layering in any of the SHARAD data for the MFF, despite the fact that tens-of-meters scale layering is apparent in infrared and visible wavelength images of nearby areas. These interfaces may not be detected in SHARAD data if their permittivity contrasts are low, or if the layers are discontinuous. The lack of closely spaced internal radar reflectors suggests that the MFF is not an equatorial analog to the current martian polar deposits, which show clear evidence of multiple internal layers in SHARAD data. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Impact assessment of non-indigenous jellyfish species on the estuarine community dynamic: A model of medusa phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muha, Teja Petra; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan

    2017-03-01

    Non-indigenous jellyfish species (NIJS) Blackforida virginica have recently been introduced to the Guadiana Estuary. A modelling approach was used for the assessment of the species-specific impact on the native community, during the medusa phase. The novel interactions between NIJS and the native community are assessed through biomass variation including hydrodynamic and climatic variables. Sensitivity analysis shows that both native species, as well as NIJS highly depend on the water discharge regime, nutrient contribution and the amount of detritus production. Abiotic factors such as the Northern Atlantic Oscillation, water discharge, nutrient load and detritus production are the most influential factors for the dynamics of the estuarine ecosystem demonstrated by the model. Low water discharge and low nutrient retention rate appear to be the most favourable conditions for B. virginica. The species is a non-selective predator able to integrate into the system effectively and has caused a decrease in the biomass of other organisms in the estuarine ecosystem throughout the summer after dam removal. The B. virginica significant impact can be evaluated only when the jellyfish detritus food pathway is involved. The B. virginica predatory impact potential, as well as food preference, appears to be the most influential factors for the overall biomass variation. On the contrary, winter freshwater pulses reduce the survival rate of jellyfish polyps which results in a decrease of medusa during summer. The model presents a strong ecohydrology movement where the fluctuation of organism biomass strongly depends on the hydrological conditions including the amount of nutrient load.

  9. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars (MC-8 SE and MC-23 NW) and the Northern Lowlands of Venus (V-16 and V-15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of a mapping project supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, funding for which became available on July 18, focusing on the mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. The report also briefly discusses the status of maps of Venus and Ascraeus Mons, begun under previous NASA grants but which are still in progress.

  10. Interacting elevated CO2 and tropospheric O3 predisposes aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) to infection by rust (Melampsora medusa f. sp. tremuloidae).

    Treesearch

    D.F. Karnosky; Kevin E. Percy; Bixia Xiang; Brenda Callan; Asko Noormets; Blanka Mankovska; Anthony Hopkin; Jaak Sober; Wendy Jones; R.E. Dickson; J.G. Isebrands

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of elevated CO2 and/or (Ozone) O3 on the occurrence and severity of aspen leaf rust (Malampsora medusae Thuem. f. sp. tremuloidae) on trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides MIchx.) Furthermore, we examined the role of changes in...

  11. MEDUSA (Martian Environmental DUst Systematic Analyser) for the monitoring of the Martian atmospheric dust and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Battaglia, R.; della Corte, V.; Esposito, F.; Ferrini, G.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Palomba, E.; Palumbo, P.; Panizza, A.; Rotundi, A.

    2004-03-01

    The knowledge of Martian airborne dust properties and about mechanisms of dust settling/raising to/from the surface are important to determine climate and surface evolution on Mars. Water is an important tracer of climatic changes on long time-scales and is strictly related to the presence of life forms. The study in situ of dust and water vapour properties and evolution in Martian atmosphere is useful to trace back the planet climate, also in function of life form development. This investigation is also appropriate in preparation to future manned exploration of the planet (in relation to hazardous conditions). In this work we discuss the concept of the MEDUSA (Martian Environmental Dust Analyser) experiment that is designed to provide data on grain size and mass distribution, number density, velocity and scattering properties and on water vapour concentration. The instrument is a multisensor system based on optical and impact detection of grains, coupled with cumulative deposition sensors.

  12. Distribution patterns of the mesozooplankton, principally siphonophores and medusae, in the vicinity of the Antarctic Slope Front (eastern Weddell Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagès, Francesc; Schnack-Schiel, Sigrid B.

    1996-12-01

    The composition, abundance and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton, particularly siphonophores and medusae (27 species), collected along two transects in the eastern Weddell Sea have been analysed. Both transects were characterized by a steep thermocline that on approaching the coastline defined the Antarctic Slope Front. The front acted as a strong boundary in the shelf-slope and caused a pronounced cross frontal gradient in the populations of cnidarians. Few species and low abundances were found in the upper cold waters and most of the populations concentrated in and below the thermocline. The analysis of the gastrozooids of the physonect siphonophore Pyrostephos vanhoeffeni showed a wide variety of prey but the relatively high contribution of krill larvae reveals a substantial trophic impact when both organisms co-occur.

  13. Comparative study of the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of nematocyst venoms from the jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye and Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Min; Xu, Jintao; Liu, Yunlong; Zhang, Xuelei

    2017-10-01

    Two species of jellyfish, Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye and Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye, have occurred off coastal areas of the northeastern China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Bohai Sea in recent years. They influence marine ecosystem safety and fishery production, and also pose a risk to human health. The current study examined the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of crude venoms extracted from the nematocysts of C. nozakii and N. nomurai. The results showed that there were more nematocysts on tentacles from C. nozakii than on tentacles of the same length from N. nomurai. The protein concentration per nematocyst extracted from N. nomurai was higher than that from C. nozakii. Both nematocyst venoms showed dose- and time-dependent hemolytic activity on erythrocytes from chicken, pigeon, and sheep, with sheep erythrocytes being the most sensitive, with EC50 values of 69.69 and 63.62 μg/mL over a 30-min exposure with N. nomurai and C. nozakii nematocyst venoms, respectively. A cytotoxic assay of both jellyfish venoms on A431 human epidermal carcinoma cells resulted in IC50 values of 68.6 and 40.9 μg/mL after 24-h incubation, respectively, with venom from C. nozakii showing stronger cytotoxic activity than that from N. nomurai. The results of current study indicate that nematocyst venom from C. nozakii had stronger hemolytic and cytotoxic activities than that from N. nomurai and, thus, C. nozakii might be more harmful to the health of humans and other species than are N. nomurai when they appear in coastal waters.

  14. Understanding Aggregation and Estimating Seasonal Abundance of Chrysaora quinquecirrha Medusae from a Fixed-station Time Series in the Choptank River, Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, J.; Hood, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    Although jellyfish exert strong control over marine plankton dynamics (Richardson et al. 2009, Robison et al. 2014) and negatively impact human commercial and recreational activities (Purcell et al. 2007, Purcell 2012), jellyfish biomass is not well quantified due primarily to sampling difficulties with plankton nets or fisheries trawls (Haddock 2004). As a result, some of the longest records of jellyfish are visual shore-based surveys, such as the fixed-station time series of Chrysaora quinquecirrha that began in 1960 in the Patuxent River in Chesapeake Bay, USA (Cargo and King 1990). Time series counts from fixed-station surveys capture two signals: 1) demographic change at timescales on the order of reproductive processes and 2) spatial patchiness at shorter timescales as different parcels of water move in and out of the survey area by tidal and estuarine advection and turbulent mixing (Lee and McAlice 1979). In this study, our goal was to separate these two signals using a 4-year time series of C. quinquecirrha medusa counts from a fixed-station in the Choptank River, Chesapeake Bay. Idealized modeling of tidal and estuarine advection was used to conceptualize the sampling scheme. Change point and time series analysis was used to detect demographic changes. Indices of aggregation (Negative Binomial coefficient, Taylor's Power Law coefficient, and Morisita's Index) were calculated to describe the spatial patchiness of the medusae. Abundance estimates revealed a bloom cycle that differed in duration and magnitude for each of the study years. Indices of aggregation indicated that medusae were aggregated and that patches grew in the number of individuals, and likely in size, as abundance increased. Further inference from the conceptual modeling suggested that medusae patch structure was generally homogenous over the tidal extent. This study highlights the benefits of using fixed-station shore-based surveys for understanding the biology and ecology of jellyfish.

  15. MEDUSA-2.0: an intermediate complexity biogeochemical model of the marine carbon cycle for climate change and ocean acidification studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Anderson, T. R.

    2013-10-01

    MEDUSA-1.0 (Model of Ecosystem Dynamics, nutrient Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification) was developed as an "intermediate complexity" plankton ecosystem model to study the biogeochemical response, and especially that of the so-called "biological pump", to anthropogenically driven change in the World Ocean (Yool et al., 2011). The base currency in this model was nitrogen from which fluxes of organic carbon, including export to the deep ocean, were calculated by invoking fixed C:N ratios in phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus. However, due to anthropogenic activity, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has significantly increased above its natural, inter-glacial background. As such, simulating and predicting the carbon cycle in the ocean in its entirety, including ventilation of CO2 with the atmosphere and the resulting impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems, requires that both organic and inorganic carbon be afforded a more complete representation in the model specification. Here, we introduce MEDUSA-2.0, an expanded successor model which includes additional state variables for dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and detritus carbon (permitting variable C:N in exported organic matter), as well as a simple benthic formulation and extended parameterizations of phytoplankton growth, calcification and detritus remineralisation. A full description of MEDUSA-2.0, including its additional functionality, is provided and a multi-decadal spin-up simulation (1860-2005) is performed. The biogeochemical performance of the model is evaluated using a diverse range of observational data, and MEDUSA-2.0 is assessed relative to comparable models using output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5).

  16. Polygonal ridge networks on Mars: Diversity of morphologies and the special case of the Eastern Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Laura; Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Grosfils, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Polygonal ridge networks, also known as boxwork or reticulate ridges, are found in numerous locations and geological contexts across Mars. Distinguishing the morphologies and geological context of the ridge networks sheds light on their potential as astrobiological and mineral resource sites of interest. The most widespread type of ridge morphology is characteristic of the Nili Fossae and Nilosyrtis region and consists of thin, criss-crossing ridges with a variety of heights, widths, and intersection angles. They are found in ancient Noachian terrains at a variety of altitudes (between -2500 and 2200 m) and geographic locations and are likely to be chemically altered fracture planes or mineral veins. They occur in the same general areas as valley networks and ancient lake basins, but they are not more numerous where these water-related features are concentrated, and can appear in places where th morphologies are absent. Similarly, some of the ridge networks are located near hydrated mineral detections, but there is not a one-to-one correlation. Smaller, light-toned ridges of variable widths have been found in Gale Crater and other rover sites and are interpreted to be smaller versions of the Nili-like ridges, mostly formed by the mineralization of fractures. This type of ridge is likely to be found in many other places on Mars as more high-resolution data become available. Sinus Meridiani contains many flat-topped ridges arranged into quasi-circular patterns. The ridges are eroding from a clay-rich unit, and could be formed by a similar process as the Nili-type ridges, but at a much larger scale and controlled by fractures made through a different process. Hellas Basin is host to a fourth type of ridge morphology consisting of large, thick, light-toned ridges forming regular polygons at several superimposed scales. While still enigmatic, these are most likely to be the result of sediment-filled fractures. The Eastern Medusae Fossae Formation contains large swaths

  17. Medusae Fossae-Elysium Region, Mars: Depression in the HEND/Odyssey Map of Mars Epithermal Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft showed that the low neutron fluxes characterize both subpolar regions of Mars. The low neutron fluxes mean the presence of hydrogen-rich soils and have been interpreted as an indication on abundant water ice in these areas. The equatorial region of Mars (equatorward of approx. 50 deg) is characterized by higher fluxes of both epithermal (0.4 eV-100 keV, come from depth 1-2 m) and fast (3.4-7.3 MeV, come from depth 0.2-0.3 m) neutrons meaning that this area is mostly dry. The pattern of distribution of the neutron fluxes is in a good agreement with the theoretical predictions on the stability of ground ice on present Mars. The actual distribution of the ice, however, depends on variations of thermal inertia of soils and albedo of the surface. The flux of the epithermal neutrons detected by the HEND instrument, which is part of GRS, has two noticeable depressions in the equatorial region, one in Arabia Terra and another in the Medusae Fossae-Elysium region (MFER). Here we present the initial results of analysis of characteristics of the neutron fluxes and regional geological setting of the epithermal neutron depression in this area. The main goal of our study was to put some constraints on the time of the anomaly formation and to assess possible form of hydrogen (ground ice vs. chemically bound water) there.

  18. Mapping Variability in the Medusae Fossae Formation: Yardang Morphologies, Fluvial Reworking, and Crater Depth to Diameter Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuller, A. R.; Kerber, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a voluminous, fine-grained deposit thought to be of pyroclastic origin. While it contains widespread, well-preserved inverted fluvial features, its pervasive cover of dust means that little is known about its composition, and indirect means must be used to characterize its material properties. This project aims to correlate fluvial features in the Western MFF with other indicators of material strength: yardang morphology and crater depth-to-diameter ratios. For this work, Context Camera (CTX) images were used to map features of fluvial origin (inverted channels, sinuous ridges, alluvial fans). The presence of rounded, meso-yardangs in close proximity to fluvial features was also mapped. Crater depth-diameter (d/D) ratios (for craters 1-512km) were analyzed using a global Mars crater database (Robbins and Hynek, 2012) as a proxy for material strength. Approximately 1400 fluvial segments were mapped, with the most populous cluster located in Aeolis and Zephyria Plana. Rounded meso-yardangs were found to be common in areas that also have fluvial features. In agreement with previous work (Barlow, 1993), MFF craters were found to have a greater d/D ratio (0.0523) than the global mean (0.0511). Ratios between MFF lobes differ significantly, providing insight into the heterogeneity of induration within the formation. The deepest craters are found in Eumenides Dorsum and the shallowest in Aeolis Planum, consistent with a greater degree of induration and reworking in the western part of the formation where the fluvial features and "salt-playa" meso-yardangs are found. It also suggests that Eumenides, which is the tallest MFF outcrop, could also be the least compacted. The presence of long, complex, and sometimes overlapping branching networks imply multiple relative episodes of channel formation. Rounded meso-yardangs, which are associated with salt playa surfaces on Earth, provide additional evidence for the presence of liquid water

  19. Emulation of the MBM-MEDUSA model: exploring the sea level and the basin-to-shelf transfer influence on the system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Ilya; Crucifix, Michel; Munhoven, Guy

    2013-04-01

    Complex climate models require high computational burden. However, computational limitations may be avoided by using emulators. In this work we present several approaches for dynamical emulation (also called metamodelling) of the Multi-Box Model (MBM) coupled to the Model of Early Diagenesis in the Upper Sediment A (MEDUSA) that simulates the carbon cycle of the ocean and atmosphere [1]. We consider two experiments performed on the MBM-MEDUSA that explore the Basin-to-Shelf Transfer (BST) dynamics. In both experiments the sea level is varied according to a paleo sea level reconstruction. Such experiments are interesting because the BST is an important cause of the CO2 variation and the dynamics is potentially nonlinear. The output that we are interested in is the variation of the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the atmosphere over the Pleistocene. The first experiment considers that the BST is fixed constant during the simulation. In the second experiment the BST is interactively adjusted according to the sea level, since the sea level is the primary control of the growth and decay of coral reefs and other shelf carbon reservoirs. The main aim of the present contribution is to create a metamodel of the MBM-MEDUSA using the Dynamic Emulation Modelling methodology [2] and compare the results obtained using linear and non-linear methods. The first step in the emulation methodology used in this work is to identify the structure of the metamodel. In order to select an optimal approach for emulation we compare the results of identification obtained by the simple linear and more complex nonlinear models. In order to identify the metamodel in the first experiment the simple linear regression and the least-squares method is sufficient to obtain a 99,9% fit between the temporal outputs of the model and the metamodel. For the second experiment the MBM's output is highly nonlinear. In this case we apply nonlinear models, such as, NARX, Hammerstein model, and an 'ad

  20. Medusa-Isosampler: A modular, network-based observatory system for combined physical, chemical and microbiological monitoring, sampling and incubation of hydrothermal and cold seep fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A.; Flynn, M.; Taylor, P.

    2004-12-01

    The study of life in extreme environments provides an important context from which we can undertake the search for extraterrestrial life, and through which we can better understand biogeochemical feedback in terrestrial hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The Medusa-Isosampler project is aimed at fundamental research into understanding the potential for, and limits to, chemolithoautotrophic life, i.e. primary production without photosynthesis. One environment that might foster such life is associated with the high thermal and chemical gradient environment of hydrothermal vent structures. Another is associated with the lower thermal and chemical gradient environment of continental margin cold seeps. Under NERC, NASA and industrial support, we have designed a flexible instrumentation system, operating as networked, autonomous modules on a local area network, that will make possible simultaneous physical and chemical sampling and monitoring of hydrothermal and cold seep fluids, and the in situ and laboratory incubation of chemosynthetic microbes under high pressure, isobaric conditions. The system has been designed with long-term observatory operations in mind, and may be reconfigured dynamically as the requirements of the observatory installation change. The modular design will also accommodate new in situ chemical and biosensor technologies, provided by third parties. The system may be configured for seafloor use, and can be adapted to use in IODP boreholes. Our overall project goals are provide an instrumentation system capable of probing both high and low-gradient water-rock systems for chemolithoautotrophic biospheres, to identify the physical and chemical conditions that define these microhabitats and explore the details of the biogeochemical feedback loops that mediate these microhabitats, and to attempt to culture and identify chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities that might exist there. The Medusa-Isosampler system has been produced and is now

  1. Monitoring the airborne dust and water vapor in the low atmosphere of Mars: the MEDUSA experiment for the ESA ExoMars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Francesca; Colangeli, Luigi; Palumbo, Pasquale; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Molfese, Cesare; Merrison, Jonathan; Nornberg, Per; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez Gomez, Julio

    rates and geographic variability are matter of controversy. The instrument MEDUSA (Martian Environmental DUst Systematic Analyser) has been designed to measure directly and quantitatively in situ the cumulative dust mass flux and dust deposition rate, the physical and electrification properties, the size distribution of intercepted particles and the water vapour abundance versus time, a goal that has never been reached so far. MEDUSA has been selected by ESA as one of the environmental instruments to be included in the payload Humboldt of ExoMars lander.

  2. Offshore dispersion of ephyrae and medusae of Aurelia aurita s.l. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) from port enclosures: Physical and biological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makabe, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Hidetaka; Uye, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l. have been increasingly significant, particularly in human perturbed coastal waters, where numerous artificial constructions increase suitable habitat for polyp populations. We examined the spatiotemporal dispersion process in 6 ports of ephyrae of A. aurita after release from strobilating polyps, to offshore waters of northern Harima Nada (eutrophic eastern Inland Sea of Japan) from January to May 2010. Almost exclusive occurrence of the ephyra stage in the ports demonstrated that their seeding polyps reside in the port enclosures, and liberated ephyrae are rapidly exported offshore by tidal water exchange. Post-ephyra stages occurred primarily outside the ports, and their age increased gradually offshore, ca. up to 9 km off the ports, and the pattern of age increase could be simulated by a simple diffusion model. However, there was an abrupt decline in A. aurita density beyond ca. 3 km off the shore, where jellyfish-eating Chrysaora pacifica medusae were prevalent. We conclude that physical forces are primarily responsible for offshore dispersion of A. aurita, and a biological factor, i.e. predation by C. pacifica, jointly affects the distribution pattern of A. aurita.

  3. Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on fat deposition in broilers.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong Mei; Song, Hui; Shen, Si Jie; Yao, Xu; Wu, Bo; Wang, Li Na; Jiang, Yun Yao; Ding, Guo Dong

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the lipid-lowering effect of polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFCP) in broilers. A total of 480 female Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, each consisting of six pens as replicates, and fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3 or 5 g kg(-1) HFCP. The results revealed that the average daily gain of broilers increased (linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01) when the HFCP levels increased. The serum cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (Q, P < 0.05) while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased (Q, P < 0.05) when the HFCP levels increased. The caecum Escherichia coli count and pH decreased (Q, P < 0.01) while the lactobacilli count and bifidobacteria count increased (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.05) when the HFCP levels increased. The propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations increased (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) while the abdominal fat rate and liver fat content decreased (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.05) when the HFCP levels increased. Dietary supplementation with HFCP may lead to the development of low abdominal fat of broilers as demanded by health-conscious consumers. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of dietary fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on growth performance, digestibility, and intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong Mei; Song, Hui; Xing, Ya Li; Niu, Shu Li; Ding, Guo Dong; Jiang, Yun Yao; Liang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFC) on growth performance, digestibility, intestinal microbiology, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into five dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with six pens per treatment): CON (basal diet), ANT (basal diet supplemented with 5 mg kg(-1) flavomycin) and HFC (basal diet supplemented with 6, 12, and 18 g kg(-1) HFC). The experimental lasted for 42 days. The results revealed that the average daily gain [linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01] of broilers increased when the HFC levels increased during the starter (days 1-21), finisher (days 22-42), and the overall experiment period (days 1 to 42). In the small intestinal digesta and the caecum digesta, the Escherichia coli count (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.001) decreased while the Lactobacilli count (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) and Bifidobacteria count (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. The crude protein digestibility of broilers (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. Dietary supplementation with HFC increased gut Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts and inhibited E. coli growth, improved nutrient utilisation and intestine villus structure, and thus improved the growth of broilers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Cratered cones in Southern Cerberus Palus, Mars: Evidence for phreatovolcanism associated with interactions between Amazonian aged lavas and the Medusae Fossae Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, K.; Kerber, L.

    2017-12-01

    Abundant cratered cones have been identified in Southern Cerberus Palus where young, Cerberus Fossae-derived lavas interact with Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) materials from Aeolis Planum and Zephyria Planum. These regions contain cones analogous to Icelandic pseudocraters, but the cones display characteristics that differentiate them from others that have been previously described elsewhere on Mars. The cones in this study are found abutting the MFF border, where yardang fleets are embayed by Cerberus lavas, and within flood lavas that overlie MFF deposits west of Zephyria Planum. Rootless cones have formerly been observed in areas of Athabasca Valles, Amazonis Planitia, Elysium Planitia, and Marte Valles. Using HiRISE and CTX imagery from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Southern Cerberus Palus cones are observed to preferentially form along the tops of partially and fully embayed yardangs. In addition, the cones often form in circular groups atop impact crater rims, and occasionally have large cracks along their flanks. Some cones are also found in linear chains along fissures of obscured origins. Several of these attributes have been noted in previous studies of Martian cratered cones and interpreted as a result of unusual contact geometries with the substrate and a tendency to form at topographic highs, where overburden pressures are minimal (Jaeger et al 2007). Surrounding many cones are areas of light colored, smooth material with lobate margins, below the level of the neighboring rubbly lava. The surface texture of this material is similar to the smooth, polygonally fractured material often found in rifts between Cerberus lava plates, but do not appear to result from tearing in the surrounding lava surface, as they have no preferred size or direction. Due to their overall morphology and distribution, the cones in this study are interpreted to most likely be rootless, hydrovolcanic features formed by explosive interactions between lava flows and H2O present

  6. Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. polysaccharide enhance innate immune response, immune-related genes expression and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Gou, Changlong; Wang, Jiazhen; Wang, Yuqiong; Dong, Wenlong; Shan, Xiaofeng; Lou, Yujie; Gao, Yunhang

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to add 0, 400, 800 or 1200 mg/kg of Hericium caput-medusae polysaccharide (HCMP) to the basal diet of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and determine effects on humoral innate immunity, expression of immune-related genes and disease resistance. Adding HCMP enhanced (P < 0.05) bactericidal activity at 1, 2 and 3 weeks and also lysozyme activity, complement C3, and SOD activity at 2 and 3 weeks. Supplementing 800 or 1200 mg/kg of HCMP for 2 or 3 weeks increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of total protein, albumin and globulin. Two immune-related genes (IL-1β and TNF-α) were up-regulated (P < 0.05) in HCMP supplemented groups given 800 or 1200 mg/kg HCMP after 2 and 3 weeks of feeding. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was down-regulated (P < 0.05) after receiving 800 or 1200 mg/kg HCMP for 2 or 3 weeks. Fish fed 800 mg/kg HCMP had maximal disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (65.4%). In conclusion, HCMP enhanced immune response and expression of immune-related genes and increased disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp, with greatest effects in fish given 800 mg/kg HCMP for 3 weeks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studying large jellyfish swimming hydrodynamics using a biomimetic robot named Cyro 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Colin; Krummel, Gregory; Villanueva, Alex; Marut, Kenneth; Priya, Shashank

    2015-11-01

    Some species of jellyfish can grow to great sizes, such as the lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata), which can span 2 m in diameter with tentacles 30 m long, roughly the same length as a blue whale. This is an impressive feat for an animal that begins its mobile life three orders of magnitude smaller. Such growth can require a large energy budget, suggesting that Cyanea may be a uniquely efficient swimmer, successful predator, or both. Either accolade would stem from a high level of hydrodynamic mastery as oblate jellyfish like Cyanea rely on the flow currents generated by bell pulsation for both propulsive thrust and prey encounter. However, further investigation has been hindered by the lack of reported quantitative flow measurements, perhaps due to the logistic challenges inherent to studying large specimen in vivo. Here, we used a 50 cm diameter biomimetic Cyanea robot named Cyro 2 as a proxy to study the hydrodynamics of large jellyfish. The effect of different trailing structure morphologies (e.g. oral arms and tentacles), swimming gaits, and kinematics on flow patterns were measured using PIV. Baseline swimming performance using biomimetic settings (but no trailing structures) was characterized by a cycle average velocity of 6.58 cm s-1, thrust of 1.9 N, and power input of 5.7 W, yielding a vehicle efficiency of 2.2% and a cost of transport of 15.4 J kg-1 m-1.

  8. Endobiotic bacteria and their pathogenic potential in cnidarian tentacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke

    2010-09-01

    Endobiotic bacteria colonize the tentacles of cnidaria. This paper provides first insight into the bacterial spectrum and its potential of pathogenic activities inside four cnidarian species. Sample material originating from Scottish waters comprises the jellyfish species Cyanea capillata and C. lamarckii, hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa and sea anemone Sagartia elegans. Mixed cultures of endobiotic bacteria, pure cultures selected on basis of haemolysis, but also lyophilized samples were prepared from tentacles and used for DGGE-profiling with subsequent phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA fragments. Bacteria were detected in each of the cnidarian species tested. Twenty-one bacterial species including four groups of closely related organisms were found in culture material. The species within these groups could not be differentiated from each other (one group of Pseudoalteromonas spp., two groups of Shewanella spp., one group of Vibrio spp.). Each of the hosts exhibits a specific endobacterial spectrum. Solely Cyanea lamarckii harboured Moritella viscosa. Only in Cyanea capillata, members of the Shewanella group #2 and the species Pseudoalteromonas arctica, Shewanella violacea, Sulfitobacter pontiacus and Arcobacter butzleri were detected. Hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa provided an amazingly wide spectrum of nine bacterial species. Exclusively, in the sea anemone Sagartia elegans, the bacterial species P. aliena was found. Overall eleven bacterial species detected were described recently as novel species. Four 16S rDNA fragments generated from lyophilized material displayed extremely low relationship to their next neighbours. These organisms are regarded as members of the endobiotic “terra incognita”. Since the origin of cnidarian toxins is unclear, the possible pathogenic activity of endobiotic bacteria has to be taken into account. Literature data show that their next neighbours display an interesting diversity of haemolytic, septicaemic and necrotic actions including

  9. 'Medusa head ataxia': the expanding spectrum of Purkinje cell antibodies in autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. Part 3: Anti-Yo/CDR2, anti-Nb/AP3B2, PCA-2, anti-Tr/DNER, other antibodies, diagnostic pitfalls, summary and outlook.

    PubMed

    Jarius, S; Wildemann, B

    2015-09-17

    Serological testing for anti-neural autoantibodies is important in patients presenting with idiopathic cerebellar ataxia, since these autoantibodies may indicate cancer, determine treatment and predict prognosis. While some of them target nuclear antigens present in all or most CNS neurons (e.g. anti-Hu, anti-Ri), others more specifically target antigens present in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of Purkinje cells (PC). In this series of articles, we provide a detailed review of the clinical and paraclinical features, oncological, therapeutic and prognostic implications, pathogenetic relevance, and differential laboratory diagnosis of the 12 most common PC autoantibodies (often referred to as 'Medusa head antibodies' due to their characteristic somatodendritic binding pattern when tested by immunohistochemistry). To assist immunologists and neurologists in diagnosing these disorders, typical high-resolution immunohistochemical images of all 12 reactivities are presented, diagnostic pitfalls discussed and all currently available assays reviewed. Of note, most of these antibodies target antigens involved in the mGluR1/calcium pathway essential for PC function and survival. Many of the antigens also play a role in spinocerebellar ataxia. Part 1 focuses on anti-metabotropic glutamate receptor 1-, anti-Homer protein homolog 3-, anti-Sj/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor- and anti-carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII-associated autoimmune cerebellar ataxia (ACA); part 2 covers anti-protein kinase C gamma-, anti-glutamate receptor delta-2-, anti-Ca/RhoGTPase-activating protein 26- and anti-voltage-gated calcium channel-associated ACA; and part 3 reviews the current knowledge on anti-Tr/delta notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor-, anti-Nb/AP3B2-, anti-Yo/cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2- and Purkinje cell antibody 2-associated ACA, discusses differential diagnostic aspects and provides a summary and outlook.

  10. Protective effects of batimastat against hemorrhagic injuries in delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beilei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Guoyan; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qianqian; Zheng, Jiemin; Zhou, Yonghong; He, Qian; Zhang, Liming

    2015-12-15

    Previously, we established delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) models and proposed that the hemorrhagic toxins in jellyfish tentacle extracts (TE) play a significant role in the liver and kidney injuries of the experimental model. Further, we also demonstrated that metalloproteinases are the central toxic components of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata), which may be responsible for the hemorrhagic effects. Thus, metalloproteinase inhibitors appear to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of hemorrhagic injuries in DJES. In this study, we examined the metalloproteinase activity of TE from the jellyfish C. capillata using zymography analyses. Our results confirmed that TE possessed a metalloproteinase activity, which was also sensitive to heat. Then, we tested the effect of metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat (BB-94) on TE-induced hemorrhagic injuries in DJES models. Firstly, using SR-based X-ray microangiography, we found that BB-94 significantly improved TE-induced hepatic and renal microvasculature alterations in DJES mouse model. Secondly, under synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT), we also confirmed that BB-94 reduced TE-induced hepatic and renal microvasculature changes in DJES rat model. In addition, being consistent with the imaging results, histopathological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP end labeling (TUNEL)-like staining observations also clearly corroborated this hypothesis, as BB-94 was highly effective in neutralizing TE-induced extensive hemorrhage and necrosis in DJES rat model. Although it may require further clinical studies in the near future, the current study opens up the possibilities for the use of the metalloproteinase inhibitor, BB-94, in the treatment of multiple organ hemorrhagic injuries in DJES. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Species specificity in cell-substrate interactions in medusae.

    PubMed

    Schmid, V; Bally, A

    1988-10-01

    A new system is described for the study of ECM-tissue interactions, using the ECM (called mesogloea) of various cnidarians and isolated striated muscle and endodermal tissue of jellyfish. The mesogloea consists mainly of water and collagen. It is present in all cnidarians and can be isolated without enzyme treatment. It can be used as a substrate to which cells and tissues adhere and on which they spread and migrate. Tissues of striated muscle and endoderm adhere and spread not only on mesogloea from regions they normally cover, but also from other regions of the animal. However, adhesion and spreading are highly species-specific. Species-specific adhesion is found throughout the whole mass of mesogloea even at regions where cells do not occur naturally. The cell adhesion factor can be extracted from the mesogloea so that the mesogloea no longer shows any cell adhesion properties. The extract consists mainly of a cysteine-containing collagen.

  12. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Nicholas E.C.; Newton, Jason; Houghton, Jonathan D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata) within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ13C and δ15N stable isotope values, we examined: (1) whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2) Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3) When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ15N (trophic position) were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ15N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous assertions that

  13. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Nicholas E C; Harrod, Chris; Newton, Jason; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata) within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ (13)C and δ (15)N stable isotope values, we examined: (1) whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2) Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3) When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ (15)N (trophic position) were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ (15)N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous assertions

  14. Detection of microvasculature alterations by synchrotron radiation in murine with delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Huo, Hua; Wang, Tao; Wang, Qianqian; Wu, Yuanlin; Xiao, Liang; Ren, Yuqi; Zhang, Liming

    2014-04-01

    Using the tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata, we have previously established a delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) model, which is meaningful for clinical interventions against jellyfish stings. However, the mechanism of DJES still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to explore its potential mechanism by detecting TE-induced microvasculature alterations in vivo and ex vivo. Using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, we, for the first time, directly observed the blood vessel alterations induced by jellyfish venom in vivo and ex vivo. Firstly, microvasculature imaging of whole-body mouse in vivo indicated that the small blood vessel branches in the liver and kidney in the TE-treated group, seemed much thinner than those in the control group. Secondly, 3D imaging of kidney ex vivo showed that the kidneys in the TE-treated group had incomplete vascular trees where distal vessel branches were partly missing and disorderly disturbed. Finally, histopathological analysis found that obvious morphological changes, especially hemorrhagic effects, were also present in the TE-treated kidney. Thus, TE-induced microvasculature changes might be one of the important mechanisms of multiple organ dysfunctions in DJES. In addition, the methods we employed here will probably facilitate further studies on developing effective intervention strategies against DJES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biogeographical plant-soil relations of invasive medusahead (Elymus caput-medusae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the success of invasive plant species is integral to predicting and ameliorating their negative impacts. Many hypotheses have consequently been proposed to explain invasive behavior. This lack of consensus within invasion ecology can partially be attributed...

  16. Depths and Ages of Deep-Sea Corals From the Medusa Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, D.; Adkins, J. F.; Robinson, L. F.; Scheirer, D.; Shank, T.

    2003-12-01

    From May-June 2003 we used the DSV Alvin and the RSV Atlantis to collect modern and fossil deep-sea corals from the New England and Muir Seamounts. Our goal was to collect depth transects of corals from a variety of ages to measure paleo chemical profiles in the North Atlantic. Because deep-sea corals can be dated with both U-series and radiocarbon methods, we are especially interested in measuring past D14C profiles to constrain the paleo overturning rate of the deep ocean. We collected over 3,300 fossil Desmophyllum cristagalli individuals, 10s of kgs of Solenosmillia sp. and numerous Enallopsamia rostrata and Caryophilia sp. These samples spanned a depth range from 1,150-2,500 meters and refute the notion that deep-sea corals are too sparsely distributed to be useful for paleoclimate reconstructions. Despite widespread evidence for mass wasting on the seamounts, fossil corals were almost always found in growth position. This observation alleviates some of the concern associated with dredge samples where down-slope transport of samples can not be characterized. Fossil scleractinia were often found to have recruited onto other carbonate skeletons, including large branching gorgonians. The U-series age distribution of these recruitment patterns will constrain how much paleoclimatic time a particular "patch" can represent. In addition, U-series ages, combined with the observed differences in species distribution, will begin to inform our understanding of deep-sea coral biogeography. A lack of modern D. cristagalli on Muir seamount, but an abundance of fossil samples at this site, is the most striking example of changes in oceanic conditions playing a role in where deep-sea corals grow.

  17. The occurrence of Ophiocnemis marmorata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) associated with the rhizostome medusa Rhopilema hispidum (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagaraj, Govindan; Kumar, Pithchai Sampath; Morandini, André C.

    2008-11-01

    The association of scyphomedusae with invertebrates has been long known in the literature; especially with hyperiids amphipods. The association of echinoderms with jellyfish is not common and rarely recorded. We reported the association of the ophiuroid Ophiocnemis marmorata with the rhizostome scyphomedusa Rhopilema hispidum collected in Vellar estuary (on the southeast coast of India). O. marmorata is supposed to be a filter feeding ophiuroid, quite common in soft bottom of shallow waters. The brittle stars possibly seek for food supply, shelter and protection through the association.

  18. Medusa spectroscopy of A400, A576, A1767, and A2124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintzen, P.; Hill, J. M.; Lindley, D.; Scott, J. S.; Angel, J. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Galaxy velocity data taken with the Steward Observatory multiple aperture fiber optic spectrograph are presented for four Abell clusters. The root-mean-square external errors in these velocities are about 100 km/s; accuracy which compares favorably with that obtained from single-object observations. It is expected that the recent adoption of a CCD detector should decrease external errors to about 50 km/s. All four of the clusters observed are known X-ray sources and the present data agree well with empirically derived velocity dispersion-X-ray luminosity relations for clusters of galaxies. Abell 400 is interesting in this regard, since both its X-ray luminosity and its velocity dispersion are quite small. Such objects are particularly important in determining the slope of the velocity dispersion-X-ray luminosity relation. The large microwave decrement observed in A576 was initially interpreted as due to Compton scattering of the microwave background by the X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. White and Silk have presented Einstein X-ray data which indicate that A576 contains too little gas to produce the observed microwave decrement by Compton scattering. The velocity dispersion obtained here for 47 members of this cluster strengthens their conclusion.

  19. Biomimetic and Live Medusae Reveal the Mechanistic Advantages of a Flexible Bell Margin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-07

    2008) Medusan morphospace: phylogenetic constraints, biomechanical solutions, and ecological consequences. Invertebrate Biology 127: 265–290. 4...thought to be the first metazoans to evolve muscular swimming. The simplicity yet functionality of the biomechanics of their swimming make them an ideal...many natural propulsors [17,20], but no general principles describing the function of nature’s flexible propulsors have emerged that could serve to

  20. Discovery of an Unexplored Protein Structural Scaffold of Serine Protease from Big Blue Octopus (Octopus cyanea): A New Prospective Lead Molecule.

    PubMed

    Panda, Subhamay; Kumari, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Serine proteases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyses the peptide bonds in proteins. In mammals, these enzymes help in the regulation of several major physiological functions such as digestion, blood clotting, responses of immune system, reproductive functions and the complement system. Serine proteases obtained from the venom of Octopodidae family is a relatively unexplored area of research. In the present work, we tried to effectively utilize comparative composite molecular modeling technique. Our key aim was to propose the first molecular model structure of unexplored serine protease 5 derived from big blue octopus. The other objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis with the aid of different bioinformatic tools. In the present study, molecular model has been generated with the help of I-TASSER suite. Afterwards the refined structural model was validated with standard methods. For functional annotation of protein molecule we used Protein Information Resource (PIR) database. Serine protease 5 of big blue octopus was analyzed with different bioinformatical algorithms for the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis. The functionally critical amino acids and ligand- binding site (LBS) of the proteins (modeled) were determined using the COACH program. The molecular model data in cooperation to other pertinent post model analysis data put forward molecular insight to proteolytic activity of serine protease 5, which helps in the clear understanding of procoagulant and anticoagulant characteristics of this natural lead molecule. Our approach was to investigate the octopus venom protein as a whole or a part of their structure that may result in the development of new lead molecule. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Nuclear organisation of some immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems in five species of insectivore-Crocidura cyanea, Crocidura olivieri, Sylvisorex ollula, Paraechinus aethiopicus and Atelerix frontalis.

    PubMed

    Calvey, Tanya; Patzke, Nina; Bennett, Nigel C; Consolate, Kaswera-Kyamakya; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Pettigrew, John D; Manger, Paul R

    2016-03-01

    The organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, and serotonergic neurons in the brains of five species of insectivores and the orexinergic (hypocretinergic) system in four insectivore species is presented. We aimed to investigate the nuclear complement of these neural systems in comparison to those of other mammalian species. Brains of insectivores were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. The majority of nuclei were similar among the species investigated and to mammals in general, but certain differences in the nuclear complement highlighted potential phylogenetic interrelationships. In the cholinergic system, the three shrew species lacked parabigeminal and Edinger-Westphal nuclei. In addition, the appearance of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus in all insectivores revealed a mediodorsal arch. All three of these features are the same as those present in microchiropterans. The catecholaminergic system of the three shrew species lacked the A4 and A15d nuclei, as well as having an incipient A9v nucleus, again features found in microchiropteran brains. The serotonergic and orexinergic systems of the insectivores are similar to those seen across most eutherian mammals. The analysis of similarities and differences across mammalian species indicates a potential phylogenetic relationship between the Soricidae (shrews) and the microchiropterans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MEDUSA-32: A low noise, low power silicon strip detector front-end electronics, for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicuttin, Andres; Colavita, Alberto; Cerdeira, Alberto; Fratnik, Fabio; Vacchi, Andrea

    1997-02-01

    In this report we describe a mixed analog-digital integrated circuit (IC) designed as the front-end electronics for silicon strip-detectors for space applications. In space power consumption, compactness and robustness become critical constraints for a pre-amplifier design. The IC is a prototype with 32 complete channels, and it is intended for a large area particle tracker of a new generation of gamma ray telescopes. Each channel contains a charge sensitive amplifier, a pulse shaper, a discriminator and two digital buffers. The reference trip point of the discriminator is adjustable. This chip also has a custom PMOSFET transistor per channel, included in order to provide the high dynamic resistance needed to reverse-bias the strip diode. The digital part of the chip is used to store and serially shift out the state of the channels. There is also a storage buffer that allows the disabling of non-functioning channels if it is required by the data acquisition system. An input capacitance of 30 pF introduced at the input of the front-end produces less than 1000 electrons of RMS equivalent noise charge (ENC), for a total power dissipation of only 60 μW per channel. The chip was made using Orbit's 1.2 μm double poly, double metal n-well low noise CMOS process. The dimensions of the IC are 2400 μm × 8840 μm.

  3. Seasonal and vertical distributional patterns of siphonophores and medusae in the Chiloé Interior Sea, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Sergio; Silva, Nelson; Cristina Retamal, María; Castro, Leonardo

    2011-03-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of jellyfish was assessed in the Chiloé Inland sea, in the northern area of the Chilean Patagonia. A total of 41 species of cnidarians (8 siphonophores, 31 hydromedusae, 2 scyphomedusae) were collected. Eleven jellyfish species were recorded for the first time in the area. Species richness was higher in spring than in winter (37 vs. 25 species, respectively). Species such as Muggiaea atlantica, Solmundella bitentaculata, and Clytia simplex were extremely abundant in spring. The total abundance (408,157 ind 1000 m -3) was 18 times higher in spring than in winter (22,406 ind 1000 m -3). The horizontal distribution of the most abundant species (four in winter, five in spring) showed decreasing abundances in the north-south direction in winter and spring. Peak abundances occurred in the northern microbasins (Reloncaví Fjord, Reloncaví and Ancud gulfs), where the water column stability, phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance were higher, compared with the southern microbasins (Corcovado Gulf, Boca del Guafo). During the spring higher jellyfish abundance season, the vertical distribution of the dominant species (except M. atlantica) showed peak values at mid-depth (30-50 m) and in the deepest sampled layer (50-200 m). This vertical distribution pattern reduced seaward transport in the shallowest layer through estuarine circulation and also limited mortality by predation in the more illuminated shallow layers. Thus, jellyfish were able to remain in the interior waters during the season of maximum biological production.

  4. Timing aminopyralid to prevent Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) seed production controls the invader and increases forage grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic annual grasses dominate millions of hectares of grasslands in the western U.S. Among other herbicides, growth regulators such as picloram and aminopyralid have been tested against these invaders. Recent studies demonstrate growth regulators applied at late growth stages drastically reduce s...

  5. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

    PubMed

    Heaslip, Susan G; Iverson, Sara J; Bowen, W Don; James, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83-100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1) but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1) corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1) (up to 840 kg • d(-1)) or approximately 261 (up to 664) jellyfish • d(-1). Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1) equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  6. Jellyfish Support High Energy Intake of Leatherback Sea Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): Video Evidence from Animal-Borne Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Susan G.; Iverson, Sara J.; Bowen, W. Don; James, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08–3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83–100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ•d−1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ•d−1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass•d−1 (up to 840 kg•d−1) or approximately 261 (up to 664) jellyfish•d-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass•d−1 equating to an average energy intake of 3–7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  7. Selective suppression of in situ proliferation of scyphozoan polyps by biofouling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Song; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Guang-Tao; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang

    2017-01-30

    An increase in marine artificial constructions has been proposed as a major cause of jellyfish blooms, because these constructions provide additional substrates for organisms at the benthic stage (polyps), which proliferate asexually and release a large amount of free-swimming medusae. These hard surfaces are normally covered by fouling communities, the components of which have the potential to impede the proliferation of polyps. In this study, we report an in situ experiment of polyp survival of four large scyphozoan species found in East Asian marginal seas that were exposed to biofouling, a universal phenomenon occurring on marine artificial constructions. Our results showed that the polyps of three species (Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozaki, and Rhopilema esculentum) attached to the artificial surfaces were completely eliminated by biofouling within 7-8months, and only those of moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) in the upper layers could multiply on both artificial materials and other organisms (e.g., ascidians and bryozoans). Fouling-associated competition and predation and suppressed asexual reproduction of podocysts were observed to contribute to the loss of polyps. This study shows that the natural distribution of polyps is defined by the biofouling community that colonizes the surfaces of artificial constructions. Consequently, the contribution of marine constructions to jellyfish bloom is limited only to the ability of the jellyfish species to reproduce asexually through budding and inhabit solid surfaces of fouling organisms in addition to inhabiting original artificial materials. We anticipate that fragile polyps will colonize and proliferate in harsh environments that are deleterious to biofouling, and we propose special attention to polyps in antifouling practices for excluding the possibility that they occupy the available ecological space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Monodisc strobilation in Japanese giant box jellyfish Morbakka virulenta (Kishinouye, 1910): a strong implication of phylogenetic similarity between Cubozoa and Scyphozoa.

    PubMed

    Toshino, Sho; Miyake, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Adachi, Aya; Kondo, Yusuke; Okada, Shoma; Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Hiratsuka, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Both sexes of the Japanese giant box jellyfish Morbakka virulenta were collected from the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan in December 2011, in order to observe the developmental processes from polyps to medusae. The medusa production in M. virulenta is up to now a unique process in cubozoans in that it exhibits a form of monodisc strobilation where the polyp is regenerated before the medusa detaches. This mode of medusa production was previously thought to be exclusive to scyphozoans. The general shape of young medusae resembles that of other cubozoans such as Alatina moseri and Copula sivickisi, but is differentiated from these by the short capitate tentacles and the lack of gastric filaments in the stomach. The unique medusa production of M. virulenta highly implies a phylogenetic similarity between cubozoans and scyphozoans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Midwater Bioluminescence Assessment in the West Alboran Gyre (Mediterranean Sea)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    of bioluminescence.I KEYWORDS I ALBORAN SEA JOHNSON-SEA-LINK BATHYPHOTOMETER MEDUSAE BIOLUMINESCENCE SEWARD JOHNSON I RV CTENOPHORES SIPHONOPHORES ...30 C tenophores................................................................ 32 Siphonophores ...good, however, for ctenophores, salps, siphonophores and medusae. Table 2 Specimen No. Genus, Spec!es Taxon I 1896 12 Sappharina sp. Copepod 1896 32b

  10. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies. PMID:26690755

  11. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communication System. Ecological Monitoring Program: Wisconsin Bird Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    Passerina cyanea Chipping Sparrow 15 12 10 1 19 4 25 3 69 20 3 Spizella passerina Lark Sparrow 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 0 7 0 3...27 2 1 Passerina cyanea Chipping Sparrow 9 2 3 6 8 0 7 0 27 8 Spizella passerina Lark Sparrow 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Chondestes prammacus Song Sparrow 19...Chipping Sparrow 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 Spizella passerina I Song Sparrow 3 1 9 1 4 0 9 1 25 3 Melospiza melodia I Swamp Sparrow 6

  12. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae).

    PubMed

    Helm, Rebecca R; Dunn, Casey W

    2017-01-01

    Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa). To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole) on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae). In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: B supergiants (McEvoy+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, C. M.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Kalari, V. M.; Markova, N.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Vink, J. S.; Walborn, N. R.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    The majority of the VFTS data were obtained using the Medusa mode of FLAMES, which uses fibres to feed the light from up to 130 targets simultaneously to the Giraffe spectrograph. Nine Medusa configurations (Fields A to I) were observed in the 30 Dor region, with the targets sampling its different clusters and the local field population. The analysis presented here employs the FLAMES-Medusa observations obtained with two of the standard Giraffe settings (LR02 and LR03), giving coverage of the λλ3960-5050Å region at a resolving power of ~7000. (5 data files).

  14. Comprehensive Base Realignment/Closure and Fort Belvoir Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Passerina cyanea rufous-sided towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus American tree sparrow Spizella arborea chipping sparrow Spizella passerina field... sparrow Spizella pusilla vesper sparrow Pooecetes gramineus savanah sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis fox sparrow Passerella iliaca song sparrow Melospiza...and Realignment Commission the relocation of selected information Systems command elements from Fort Belvoir to Fort Ritchie or another

  15. Morning Nest Arrivals in Cowbird Hosts: their Role in Aggression, Cowbird Recognition, and Host Response to Parasitism

    Treesearch

    Dirk E. Burhans

    2000-01-01

    Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea) nesting in old-field habitats in central Missouri are parasitized at least four times as often as Field Sparrows. I used model cowbirds placed near nests to test if host aggression explained this difference. Although both Field Sparrows and Indigo Buntings responded to Brown-headed Cowbird models with significantly...

  16. Factors affecting predation at songbird nests in old fields

    Treesearch

    Dirk E. Burhans; Donald Dearborn; Frank R. III Thompson; John Faaborg

    2002-01-01

    We determined the effects of microhabitat, year, weather, time of season, stage of the nesting cycle, and brood parasitism on nest predation from a 7-year dataset on field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) in central Missouri, USA. Year, site, and the interaction of species and 2-week interval of the season were important factors...

  17. Landscape forest cover and edge effects on songbird nest predation vary by nest predator

    Treesearch

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; John Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    Rates of nest predation for birds vary between and within species across multiple spatial scales, but we have a poor understanding of which predators drive such patterns. We video-monitored nests and identified predators at 120 nests of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) at eight...

  18. Cost of Parasitism Incurred by Two Songbird Species and Their Quality As Cowbird Hosts1

    Treesearch

    Dirk Burhans; Frank R. Thompson III

    2000-01-01

    We measured the costs of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism incurred by Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). We predicted that the frequent occurrence of nest desertion as a response to cowbird parasitism in Field Sparrows would be reflected by a higher cost of...

  19. Memnonia Sulci

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    The wind-sculpted yardangs in this scene from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft are part of the Medusae Fossae Formation, a regionally extensive geologic unit that probably was produced from the accumulation of volcanic ash.

  20. Effect of protein supplementation on forage utilization by cattle in annual grass-dominated rangelands in the Channel Scablands of Eastern Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) has become a major component replacing vegetation on the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington. Livestock typically avoid grazing medusahead and forage alternatives are becoming limited in the region. We hypothesized that protein supplementat...

  1. Molecular characterization of aspartylglucosaminidase, a lysosomal hydrolase upregulated during strobilation in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Natsumi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Hiroki; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Arakawa, Kenji; Kuniyoshi, Hisato

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, alternates between a benthic asexual polyp stage and a planktonic sexual medusa (jellyfish) stage. Transition from polyp to medusa is called strobilation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of strobilation, we screened for genes that are upregulated during strobilation using the differential display method and we identified aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), which encodes a lysosomal hydrolase. Similar to AGAs from other species, Aurelia AGA possessed an N-terminal signal peptide and potential N-glycosylation sites. The genomic region of Aurelia AGA was approximately 9.8 kb in length and contained 12 exons and 11 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that AGA expression increased during strobilation, and was then decreased in medusae. To inhibit AGA function, we administered the lysosomal acidification inhibitors, chloroquine or bafilomycin A1, to animals during strobilation. Both inhibitors disturbed medusa morphogenesis at the oral end, suggesting involvement of lysosomal hydrolases in strobilation.

  2. Marine Bioluminescence: Mechanisms and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    440 to 506 nm. Ctenophores (41 species) had characteristically longer wavelengths than medusae (34 species), and the wavelengths from siphonophores (25...species) had a bimodal distribution across species. Four species each produced two different wavelengths of light, and in the siphonophore Abylopsis...Bioluminescent spectra of shallow and deep-sea gelatinous zooplankton: medusae, ctenophores and siphonophores . Marine Biology. Haddock, S.H.D., Neilson, D.J

  3. Ray Modeling Methods for Range Dependent Ocean Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    the eikonal equation, gives rise to equations for ray paths which are perpendicular to the wave fronts. Equation II.4, the transport equation, leads... databases for use by MEDUSA. The author has assisted in the installation of MEDUSA at computer facilities which possess databases containing archives of...sound velocity profiles, bathymetry, and bottom loss data. At each computer site, programs convert the archival data retrieved by the database system

  4. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event.

    PubMed

    Klein, Shannon G; Pitt, Kylie A; Carroll, Anthony R

    2016-02-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL(-1), 10ngL(-1), 2μgL(-1), 20μgL(-1)) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  5. Optimal hash arrangement of tentacles in jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Takuya; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-06-01

    At first glance, the trailing tentacles of a jellyfish appear to be randomly arranged. However, close examination of medusae has revealed that the arrangement and developmental order of the tentacles obey a mathematical rule. Here, we show that medusa jellyfish adopt the best strategy to achieve the most uniform distribution of a variable number of tentacles. The observed order of tentacles is a real-world example of an optimal hashing algorithm known as Fibonacci hashing in computer science.

  6. Feeding Currents generated by Cassiopea jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, M. G.; Santhanakrishnan, A.

    2016-02-01

    Feeding currents generated by organisms dwelling in the benthic boundary layer can enhance nutrient fluxes in coastal habitats with low-speed ambient flows. Patchy aggregations of Cassiopea medusae, commonly referred to as the "upside-down" jellyfish, are seen in sheltered marine environments such as mangrove forests and coral reefs in shallow regions saturated with sunlight. They exhibit a sessile, non-swimming lifestyle, and are oriented such that their bells are attached to the substrate and oral arms directed toward the free surface. Pulsations of their bells drive flow toward and away from the body, assisting in suspension feeding and for exchange of inorganic and organic matter across the water column. The feeding currents generated by aggregations of these medusae and subsequent effects on mixing in the water column have not been examined. We experimentally investigated currents generated by groups of Cassiopea medusae in a low-speed recirculating water tunnel. Multiple medusae grouping arrangements were tested in the tunnel based on time-lapse videos of the organisms obtained overnight in laboratory aquaria. Fluorescent dye introduced underneath the substrate was used to investigate release of porewater via bell motion. Quantitative flow visualization studies of Cassiopea currents were conducted using 2D high-speed particle image velocimetry. Vertical mixing of medusa-induced jets were observed in the presence of minimal background flow. The implications of feeding currents generated by groups of Cassiopea medusae on mixing in the water column will be presented.

  7. Jumping across biomedical contexts using compressive data fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The rapid growth of diverse biological data allows us to consider interactions between a variety of objects, such as genes, chemicals, molecular signatures, diseases, pathways and environmental exposures. Often, any pair of objects—such as a gene and a disease—can be related in different ways, for example, directly via gene–disease associations or indirectly via functional annotations, chemicals and pathways. Different ways of relating these objects carry different semantic meanings. However, traditional methods disregard these semantics and thus cannot fully exploit their value in data modeling. Results: We present Medusa, an approach to detect size-k modules of objects that, taken together, appear most significant to another set of objects. Medusa operates on large-scale collections of heterogeneous datasets and explicitly distinguishes between diverse data semantics. It advances research along two dimensions: it builds on collective matrix factorization to derive different semantics, and it formulates the growing of the modules as a submodular optimization program. Medusa is flexible in choosing or combining semantic meanings and provides theoretical guarantees about detection quality. In a systematic study on 310 complex diseases, we show the effectiveness of Medusa in associating genes with diseases and detecting disease modules. We demonstrate that in predicting gene–disease associations Medusa compares favorably to methods that ignore diverse semantic meanings. We find that the utility of different semantics depends on disease categories and that, overall, Medusa recovers disease modules more accurately when combining different semantics. Availability and implementation: Source code is at http://github.com/marinkaz/medusa Contact: marinka@cs.stanford.edu, blaz.zupan@fri.uni-lj.si PMID:27307649

  8. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae)

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Casey W.

    2017-01-01

    Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms—in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa). To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole) on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae). In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa. PMID:29281657

  9. The effect of shot noise on the start up of the fundamental and harmonics in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, H. P.; Miner, W. H. Jr.; Giannessi, L.

    2008-12-15

    The problem of radiation start up in free-electron lasers (FELs) is important in the simulation of virtually all FEL configurations including oscillators and amplifiers in both seeded master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) modes. Both oscillators and SASE FELs start up from spontaneous emission due to shot noise on the electron beam, which arises from the random fluctuations in the phase distribution of the electrons. The injected power in a MOPA is usually large enough to overwhelm the shot noise. However, this noise must be treated correctly in order to model the initial start up ofmore » the harmonics. In this paper, we discuss and compare two different shot noise models that are implemented in both one-dimensional wiggler-averaged (PERSEO) and non-wiggler-averaged (MEDUSA1D) simulation codes, and a three-dimensional non-wiggler-averaged (MEDUSA) formulation. These models are compared for examples describing both SASE and MOPA configurations in one dimension, in steady-state, and time-dependent simulations. Remarkable agreement is found between PERSEO and MEDUSA1D for the evolution of the fundamental and harmonics. In addition, three-dimensional correction factors have been included in the MEDUSA1D and PERSEO, which show reasonable agreement with MEDUSA for a sample MOPA in steady-state and time-dependent simulations.« less

  10. Abundance, seasonal patterns and diet of the non-native jellyfish Blackfordia virginica in a Portuguese estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F.; Chainho, P.; Costa, J. L.; Domingos, I.; Angélico, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Blackfordia virginica, a non-indigenous hydrozoan introduced in many systems around the world, has been observed in the Mira estuary, southwest of Portugal, since 1984. Monthly sampling (January 2013-January 2014) at a fixed location with high abundance of the medusae confirmed the occurrence of a seasonal cycle associated with temperature and photoperiod. The beginning of the medusa cycle occurred in May immediately after the spring zooplankton bloom during April. Examination of the gut contents of B. virginica medusae revealed that copepods, the most abundant group in the zooplankton community, were highly predated. Barnacle nauplii, decapod crustacean larvae and anchovy eggs were also identified in the guts. The medusae showed positive selection for copepods, and negative selection for barnacle nauplii, decapod crustacean larvae and anchovy eggs. The mortality rate of copepods (used as a model prey group) induced by medusae predation was estimated and showed the potential impact of this species in the ecosystem, ranging between 2.34 d-1 and 0.02 d-1, with a minimum copepod half-life of 0.30 days.

  11. Predicting the Presence of Scyphozoan Jellyfish in the Gulf of Mexico Using a Biophysical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksa, K. T.; Nero, R. W.; Wiggert, J. D.; Graham, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    The study and quantification of jellyfish (cnidarian medusae and ctenophores) is difficult due to their fragile body plan and a composition similar to their environment. The development of a predictive biophysical jellyfish model would be the first of its kind for the Gulf of Mexico and could provide assistance in ecological research and human interactions. In this study, the collection data of two scyphozoan medusae, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Aurelia spp., were extracted from SEAMAP trawling surveys and were used to determine biophysical predictors for the presence of large jellyfish medusae in the Gulf of Mexico. Both in situ and remote sensing measurements from 2003 to 2013 were obtained. Logistic regressions were then applied to 27 biophysical parameters derived from these data to explore and determine significant predictors for the presence of medusae. Significant predictors identified by this analysis included water temperature, chlorophyll a, turbidity, distance from shore, and salinity. Future application for this model include foraging assessment of gelatinous predators as well as possible near real time monitoring of the distribution and movement of these medusae in the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. SciTech Connect

    Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Lu, Megan; Huntemann, Marcel

    Saccharomonospora cyanea Runmao et al. 1988 is a member of the genus Saccharomonospora in the family Pseudonocardiaceae that is moderately well characterized at the genome level thus far. Members of the genus Saccharomonospora are of interest because they originate from diverse habitats, such as soil, leaf litter, manure, compost, surface of peat, moist, over-heated grain, and ocean sediment, where they probably play a role in the primary degradation of plant material by attacking hemicellulose. Species of the genus Saccharomonospora are usually Gram-positive, non-acid fast, and are classified among the actinomycetes. S. cyanea is characterized by a dark blue (= cyanmore » blue) aerial mycelium. After S. viridis, S. azurea, and S. marina, S. cyanea is only the fourth member in the genus for which a completely sequenced (non-contiguous finished draft status) type strain genome will be published. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence, and annotation. The 5,408,301 bp long chromosome with its 5,139 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE funded Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2010 at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).« less

  13. Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Millam, Kendra C.; Mast, Austin R.; Paterson, Thomas B.; Theim, Terra J.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Henss, Jillian M.; Smith, James F.; Wood, Kenneth R.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian lobeliads are exceptionally species rich and exhibit striking diversity in habitat, growth form, pollination biology and seed dispersal, but their origins and pattern of diversification remain shrouded in mystery. Up to five independent colonizations have been proposed based on morphological differences among extant taxa. We present a molecular phylogeny showing that the Hawaiian lobeliads are the product of one immigration event; that they are the largest plant clade on any single oceanic island or archipelago; that their ancestor arrived roughly 13 Myr ago; and that this ancestor was most likely woody, wind-dispersed, bird-pollinated, and adapted to open habitats at mid-elevations. Invasion of closed tropical forests is associated with evolution of fleshy fruits. Limited dispersal of such fruits in wet-forest understoreys appears to have accelerated speciation and led to a series of parallel adaptive radiations in Cyanea, with most species restricted to single islands. Consistency of Cyanea diversity across all tall islands except Hawai `i suggests that diversification of Cyanea saturates in less than 1.5 Myr. Lobeliad diversity appears to reflect a hierarchical adaptive radiation in habitat, then elevation and flower-tube length, and provides important insights into the pattern and tempo of diversification in a species-rich clade of tropical plants. PMID:18854299

  14. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish - metagenesis revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-07-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  15. The giant deep-sea octopus Haliphron atlanticus forages on gelatinous fauna

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, H.J.T.; Haddock, S.H.D.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions of many deep-sea pelagic organisms are still unknown. This is also true for pelagic cephalopods, some of which are very abundant in oceanic ecosystems and which are known for their elaborate behaviors and central role in many foodwebs. We report on the first observations of the giant deep-sea octopus Haliphron atlanticus with prey. Using remotely operated vehicles, we saw these giant octopods holding medusae in their arms. One of the medusae could be identified as Phacellophora camtschatica (the egg-yolk jelly). Stomach content analysis confirmed predation on cnidarians and gelatinous organisms. The relationship between medusae and H. atlanticus is discussed, also in comparison with other species of the Argonautoidea, all of which have close relationships with gelatinous zooplankton. PMID:28344325

  16. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish – metagenesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed. PMID:26153534

  17. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish--metagenesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S; Riascos, José M

    2015-07-08

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) "metagenesis" which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  18. Die Metamorphose des Polypen von Tripedalia cystophora (Cubozoa, Carybdeidae) in die Meduse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, B.

    1983-09-01

    The life cycle of the Cubozoa is unique due to the complete metamorphosis of the sessible solitary polyp into one single medusa which starts a pelagic way of life. Contrary to the other metagenetic classes of Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa, the cubozoan polyp terminates its polypoid existence definitely when it metamorphosizes. Generally, the metamorphosis of the cubopolyp is characterized by the transformation of its simple, sac-like multiradial body into the tetraradial structures of the much more complicated medusa. The macroscopic phases of the metamorphosis of Tripedalia cystophora Conant are reviewed, and the internal developmental processes which effect and underlie the transformation are described in detail from new histological investigations. Only the oral pole of the polyp is involved in the active processes of transformation whereas the basal pole follows in a more passive way. The most important process is the invagination of a quadrangular furrow around the hypostome of the polyp by which (a) the subumbrellar room (bell cavity) of the developing medusa is formed, and (b) the four gastric pockets within the wall of the bell are folded off from the polyp's simple stomach. The description of the metamorphosis on the whole and the detailed comparison of the principal developmental processes provide evidence that medusa formation of Cubozoa is different from that of the other metagenetic classes of Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa. The systematic and evolutionary consequences as well as general aspects of medusa formation in the phylum Cnidaria are discussed in detail. In conclusion, the pelagic medusa generation has been “invented” by the ancestors of the recent metagenetic cnidarian classes three times independently.

  19. Modeling Global Relationships Between Climate and Scyphozoan Jellyfish Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschke, N.; Stock, C. A.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Scyphozoan jellyfish have a complex lifecycle that involves alternation between a sexually reproducing medusa stage and a benthic, asexually reproducing polyp. Elevated jellyfish concentrations, or blooms, are a natural feature of healthy pelagic ecosystems, but it has been suggested that the frequency and magnitude of these blooms may increase globally as a result of anthropogenic changes such as overfishing, eutrophication and climate change. It has been difficult to substantiate this hypothesis, however, due to insufficient long-term datasets and limited life cycle data, particularly for the polyp stage. Polyp mortality is considered to be more important than medusa mortality for determining the biomass of the medusa population. We have developed a population model that incorporates both benthic and pelagic life history stages to better understand controls on jellyfish distributions their response to climate variability and change. The model tracks cohorts of both life stages with temperature and/or consumption driven relationships for growth, reproduction and mortality. The model was forced with a time-series of temperature and zooplankton biomass from three locations: Southampton Estuary, the Gulf of Mexico and the Black Sea and compared against co-located long-term ( 20 years) near monthly samples of jellyfish biomass. The model reproduces seasonal cycles and average medusa biomass at each location. Medusa biomass is positively correlated with increased temperature and food availability, and was more sensitive to changes in polyp mortality than medusa mortality - confirming the importance of the benthic polyp generation in regulating jellyfish bloom size. We are presently studying drivers of inter-annual variability at these sites before integration with global simulations.

  20. KSC00pp1850

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During In-Flight Maintenance training, STS-107 Mission Specialist Michael Anderson looks over a “Medusa,” a piece of a Biotube experiment that will be on the STS-107 mission. The Medusa is part of a watering system for plants. As a research mission, STS-107 will carry the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first research flight into space and a broad collection of experiments ranging from material science to life science. It is scheduled to launch July 19, 2001

  1. KSC-00pp1850

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During In-Flight Maintenance training, STS-107 Mission Specialist Michael Anderson looks over a “Medusa,” a piece of a Biotube experiment that will be on the STS-107 mission. The Medusa is part of a watering system for plants. As a research mission, STS-107 will carry the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first research flight into space and a broad collection of experiments ranging from material science to life science. It is scheduled to launch July 19, 2001

  2. Automation of the CCTV-mediated detection of individuals illegally carrying firearms: combining psychological and technological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darker, Iain T.; Kuo, Paul; Yang, Ming Yuan; Blechko, Anastassia; Grecos, Christos; Makris, Dimitrios; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Gale, Alastair G.

    2009-05-01

    Findings from the current UK national research programme, MEDUSA (Multi Environment Deployable Universal Software Application), are presented. MEDUSA brings together two approaches to facilitate the design of an automatic, CCTV-based firearm detection system: psychological-to elicit strategies used by CCTV operators; and machine vision-to identify key cues derived from camera imagery. Potentially effective human- and machine-based strategies have been identified; these will form elements of the final system. The efficacies of these algorithms have been tested on staged CCTV footage in discriminating between firearms and matched distractor objects. Early results indicate the potential for this combined approach.

  3. Searching for microbial biological control candidates for invasive grasses: coupling expanded field research with strides in biotechnology and grassland restoration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly invasive grasses (e.g. Bromus spp., Pennisetum ciliare, Taeniatherum caput-medusae) are largely unabated in much of the arid Western U.S., despite more than 70 years of control attempts with a wide array of tools and management practices. The development and sustained integration of new appro...

  4. Comparison of entomofauna between native and medusahead-invaded habitats in northeastern California and northwestern Nevada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) is a weedy grass species that has invaded large tracts of open rangeland in the western USA. Medusahead is unpalatable to livestock, reducing forage value of land, and duff from dead, matted medusahead plants increases the frequency and intensity of wildfire,...

  5. Seeding medusahead-invaded rangeland following mechanical disturbance on the channeled scablands of eastern Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetation on the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington has been altered to a medusahead-lupine dominated landscape. Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) is seldom utilized by livestock, decreases carrying capacity, and can lead to the consumption of poisonous plants. Velvet lupin...

  6. Revegetation of medusahead-invaded rangelands in the channeled scablands of eastern Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetation on the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington has been altered to a community dominated by medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski). Medusahead is unpalatable and seldom utilized by livestock thus, decreasing carrying capacity. The objective of this study was to determine if...

  7. Sex determination and differentiation in Aurelia sp.1: the absence of temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunsheng; Gu, Zhifeng; Xing, Mengxin; Sun, Yun; Chen, Siqing; Chen, Zhaoting

    2018-03-01

    Cnidarians, being regarded as `basal' metazoan animals, are considered to have relatively high plasticity in terms of sex reversal. In this study we used an experimental approach to demonstrate sexual differentiation and plasticity in benthic polyps and pelagic medusae of Aurelia sp.1 maintained at different temperatures. Results indicated that in Aurelia sp.1, sex differentiation has been determined at the polyp stage and that all medusae originating from a given polyp are, phenotypically, of the same sex. In addition, the sex of polyps budding from the same clone (either male or female) at different temperatures appears to be the same as that of the parent. The sex of medusae that had originated from a known-sex polyp was observed to remain the same as that of the parent, irrespective of differences in strobilation or rearing temperatures. These results indicate that the mechanism of sex determination of Aurelia sp.1. is not influenced by prevailing temperature regimes. A comparison of variability in terms of sexual plasticity of Aurelia sp.1 with that of Hydrozoa and Anthozoa suggests that species characterized by a free-swimming medusa life stage have a high dispersal potential, which probably results in a lower rate of sex reversal.

  8. Temporally and spatially restricted expression of a gland cell gene during regeneration and in vitro transdifferentiation in the hydrozoan Podocoryne carnea.

    PubMed

    Baader, C D; Schuchert, P; Schmid, V; Heiermann, Reinhard; Plickert, Günter

    1995-01-01

    An antiserum to transdifferentiated striated muscle cells from the medusa of Podocoryne carnea was prepared and used to screen a λ gt11-expression library prepared from gonozoids of P. carnea. We isolated a cDNA clone termed Pod-EPPT with at least 63 tandem repeats of the tetrapeptide-motive glu-pro-pro-thr, named Pod-EPPT. Using Pod-EPPT as a molecular marker for head quality the morphological relationship between the two metagenic life stages of this hydroid, the polyp and the medusa, was studied. In situ hybridization demonstrated that expression of the gene corresponding is restricted to secretory cells in the endoderm of the oral hypostome region of polyps and medusae and, presumably, to progenitor cells of this type. Cells expressing Pod-EPPT could not be observed in the larval stage. During head regeneration in polyps, Pod-EPPT expression is upregulated soon after head removal in previously non-expressing cells and in newly differentiating secretory cells. This activation of a head-specific gene precedes the morphologically obvious events of head regeneration. Pod-EPPT is one of the genes that are activated during manubrium (mouth) regeneration from experimentally combined subumbrellar plate endoderm and striated muscle of the medusa.

  9. Ecology, genetics, and biological control of invasive annual grasses in the Great Basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several annual grass species native to Eurasia, including cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), red brome (B. rubens), and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) have become invasive in the western USA. These invasive species degrade rangelands by compromising forage, outcompeting native flora, and exacerb...

  10. Challenging Public Perceptions of Childcare Teachers through Cixous's "écriture feminine"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Cultural stories provide us with a repertoire of narratives through which we interpret and construct our understandings of the world, including our gendered understandings of the early childhood teacher. Through her notion of "écriture feminine", Cixous [1976. "The Laugh of the Medusa." Trans K. Cohen and P. Cohen. "Signs:…

  11. A Working Ranch with an Effective Medusahead Management Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since 2005, rancher Ben McGough, owner of the Circle Bar Ranch in Mitchell, Oregon, has been working with USDA-ARS rangeland ecologist Roger Sheley to implement EBIPM on the ranch. More than 600 acres were infested with medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) when they began working together. We de...

  12. Species-specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Carman, Mary R; Grunden, David W; Govindarajan, Annette F

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia . We assessed species-specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus ) also consumed Gonionemus , but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus , which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab-jellyfish trophic relationship.

  13. Reproduction of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae), in 2006-2008 as peripherally-transported populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Naoki; Lee, Hye Eun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Suam

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the sexual maturation process, release of spermatozoa or eggs and oocyte diameter of the rhizostomid medusae Nemopilema nomurai using samples collected from August 2006 to June 2008 from the waters around Korea and Japan, including peripheral areas outside the species’ usual habitat. Immature medusae were observed from June to October only in the western sector of the study area. The onset of spermatozoa and egg release occurred in September and October, respectively, and peaked in December and January. Medusae migrated eastward from source areas with the Tsushima Warm Current, where they formed gametes and spawned. Peak position and maximum oocyte diameter increased as the gonads developed according to the size-frequency distribution of oocytes. No fertilized eggs or embryos were found in the gonads. The correlation was analyzed with bell diameter, maximum oocyte diameter, sampling date, surface water temperature and gonad color to estimate which environmental factors and maturation indices were related to the maturation stage of females. Maturation stage correlated well with maximum oocyte diameter, which correlated negatively with surface water temperature. There was no significant correlation between bell diameter and maturation stage. Therefore, bell diameter was inappropriate for determining maturation index. Sex could not be distinguished clearly by gonad color. However, light pink gonads were more prevalent in males and various deep colors such as orange and brown were more frequent in female medusae.

  14. Vertical distribution (0 1000 m) of macrozooplankton, estimated using the Underwater Video Profiler, in different hydrographic regimes along the northern portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmann, L.; Hosia, A.; Youngbluth, M. J.; Søiland, H.; Picheral, M.; Gorsky, G.

    2008-01-01

    The vertical distribution (0-1000 m depth) of macrozooplankton along the northern portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (59°58N, 25°53W to 41°29N, 28°19W) was investigated during the MAR-ECO program (June and July 2004) using the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP). Twelve relatively large (>1 cm) groups were selected from the recorded images: sarcodines (with two sub-groups), crustaceans (excluding copepods), chaetognaths, ctenophores (with two sub-groups cydippids and lobates), siphonophores, medusae (with three sub-groups Aeginura grimaldii, Aglantha spp. and all other medusae), appendicularians, and thaliaceans. The numerically dominant groups over the whole area were crustaceans (26%), medusae (20%) and appendicularians (17%). The gelatinous fauna were consistently most numerous at 400-900 m. Appendicularians, ctenophores and Aeginura grimaldii occurred mostly below 300 m (maximum concentrations of 75, 58, and 30 individuals 100 m -3, respectively). Siphonophores, Aglantha spp. and the other medusae were more uniformly distributed in the water column (maxima of 42, 42 and 300 individuals 100 m -3, respectively). The macrozooplankton community below 200 m varied with the spatial distribution of the water masses, suggesting that the Sub-Polar Front restricts the mixing of macrozooplankton communities down to 1000 m depth.

  15. The effects of precipitation and soil type on three invasive annual grasses in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Sheel Bansal; Jeremy J. James; Roger L. Sheley

    2014-01-01

    Multiple species of annual grasses are invading sagebrush-steppe communities throughout the western United States. Most research has focused on dominant species such as Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), yet other, less studied annual grasses such as Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) and Ventenata dubia (ventenata) are spreading rapidly. Future precipitation regimes...

  16. Teaching Art with Art: Grotesque Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a type of visual art called grotesque art and includes four different examples of grotesque art: (1) the painting "Head of Medusa" by Peter Paul Rubens; (2) Rangda, the widow witch from Bali (Indonesia); (3) totem poles; and (4) grotesque sculptures from the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Paris, France). (CMK)

  17. Longer-term evaluation of revegetation of medusahead-invaded sagebrush steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) and other exotic annual grasses have invaded millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia L.) steppe. Revegetation of medusahead-invaded sagebrush steppe with perennial vegetation is critically needed to restore productivity and decrease the risk o...

  18. Perseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (abbrev. Per, gen. Persei; area 615 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Andromeda and Auriga, and culminates at midnight in early November. It is named after the hero in Greek mythology who beheaded the Gorgon Medusa and rescued Andromeda from being sacrificed to the sea monster Cetus. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  19. SI NMNH - Jellyfish Romance - Setting the Scene

    Science.gov Websites

    at least one species, Copula sivickisi (originally described as Carybdea sivickisi), has a more sivickisi medusae are probably not the animals that come to mind when one pictures a jellyfish. They are study were between four millimeters and ten millimeters across (smaller than a dime), and they can

  20. Populus species and hybrid clones resistant to Melampsora, Marssonina, and Septoria.

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Ostry; Harold S. Jr. McNabb

    1986-01-01

    Trees were rated for their resistance to the foliar pathogens Melampsora medusae and Marssonina brunnea and the foliar and canker pathogen Septoria musiva. Many clones were found to be too susceptible to one or more diseases to be safely planted in the north central United States. The P. X euramericana clones...

  1. Species–specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Mary R.; Grunden, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia. We assessed species–specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) also consumed Gonionemus, but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus, which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab–jellyfish trophic relationship. PMID:29085761

  2. Medusahead: Available soil N and microbial communities in native and invasive soils

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Blank; Rene Sforza; Tye Morgan

    2008-01-01

    To better understand why medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) is invasive, we quantified soil N availability and characterized soil microbial communities between native and invasive populations. No consistent differences in soil N mineralization potentials were noted between native medusahead sites in Spain, Turkey, France, and Greece and two...

  3. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of Hawai’i and other Pacific Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    threat to fisheries and fisheries restoration operations. Another invasive jellyfish is the upside down jelly Cassiopea andromeda , a shallow-water form...Carybdea sivickisi Cubozoan ST Aurelia sp. Schyphozoan ST HI B Cassiopea andromeda Schyphozoan ST HI B Cassiopea medusa Schyphozoan HI B Phyllorhiza

  4. Multi-dimensional free-electron laser simulation codes : a comparison study.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.; Chae, Y. C.; Dejus, R. J.

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  5. Multi-Dimensional Free-Electron Laser Simulation Codes: A Comparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  6. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  7. Contrasting submergence tolerance in two species of stem-succulent halophytes is not determined by differences in stem internal oxygen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Konnerup, Dennis; Moir-Barnetson, Louis; Pedersen, Ole; Veneklaas, Erik J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-02-01

    Many stem-succulent halophytes experience regular or episodic flooding events, which may compromise gas exchange and reduce survival rates. This study assesses submergence tolerance, gas exchange and tissue oxygen (O2) status of two stem-succulent halophytes with different stem diameters and from different elevations of an inland marsh. Responses to complete submergence in terms of stem internal O2 dynamics, photosynthesis and respiration were studied for the two halophytic stem-succulents Tecticornia auriculata and T. medusa. Plants were submerged in a glasshouse experiment for 3, 6 and 12 d and O2 levels within stems were measured with microelectrodes. Photosynthesis by stems in air after de-submergence was also measured. Tecticornia medusa showed 100 % survival in all submergence durations whereas T. auriculata did not survive longer than 6 d of submergence. O2 profiles and time traces showed that when submerged in water at air-equilibrium, the thicker stems of T. medusa were severely hypoxic (close to anoxic) when in darkness, whereas the smaller diameter stems of T. auriculata were moderately hypoxic. During light periods, underwater photosynthesis increased the internal O2 concentrations in the succulent stems of both species. Stems of T. auriculata temporally retained a gas film when first submerged, whereas T. medusa did not. The lower O2 in T. medusa than in T. auriculata when submerged in darkness was largely attributed to a less permeable epidermis. The submergence sensitivity of T. auriculata was associated with swelling and rupturing of the succulent stem tissues, which did not occur in T. medusa. The higher submergence tolerance of T. medusa was not associated with better internal aeration of stems. Rather, this species has poor internal aeration of the succulent stems due to its less permeable epidermis; the low epidermal permeability might be related to resistance to swelling of succulent stem tissues when submerged. © The Author 2014. Published by

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of the siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Casey W; Pugh, Philip R; Haddock, Steven H D

    2005-12-01

    Siphonophores are a group of pelagic colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) that have long been of general interest because of the division of labor between the polyps and medusae that make up these "superorganisms." These polyps and medusae are each homologous to free living animals but are generated by an incomplete asexual budding process that leaves them physiologically integrated. They are functionally specialized for different tasks and are precisely organized within each colony. The number of functional types of polyps and medusae varies across taxa, and different authors have used this character to construct phylogenies polarized in opposite directions, depending on whether they thought siphonophore evolution proceeded by a reduction or an increase in functional specialization. We have collected taxa across all major groups of siphonophores, many of which are found exclusively in the deep sea, using remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) and by SCUBA diving from ships in the open ocean. We have used 52 siphonophores and four outgroup taxa to estimate the siphonophore phylogeny with molecular data from the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S) and the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S). Parsimony reconstructions indicate that functionally specialized polyps and medusae have been gained and lost across the phylogeny. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of morphological data suggest that the transition rate for decreased functional specialization is greater than the transition rate for increased functional specialization for three out of the four investigated categories of polyps and medusae. The present analysis also bears on several long-standing questions about siphonophore systematics. It indicates that the cystonects are sister to all other siphonophores, a group that we call the Codonophora. We also find that the Calycophorae are nested within the Physonectae, and that the Brachystelia, a historically recognized grouping of

  9. Social structure affects mating competition in a damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacker, Sebastian; Ness, Miriam Horstad; Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Amundsen, Trond

    2017-12-01

    The strength of mating competition and sexual selection varies over space and time in many animals. Such variation is typically driven by ecological and demographic factors, including adult sex ratio and consequent availability of mates. The spatial scale at which demographic factors affect mating competition and sexual selection may vary but is not often investigated. Here, we analyse variation in size and sex ratio of social groups, and how group structure affects mating competition, in the site-attached damselfish Chrysiptera cyanea. Site-attached reef fishes are known to show extensive intraspecific variation in social structure. Previous work has focused on species for which the size and dynamics of social groups are constrained by habitat, whereas species with group structure unconstrained by habitat have received little attention. Chrysiptera cyanea is such a species, with individuals occurring in spatial clusters that varied widely in size and sex ratio. Typically, only one male defended a nest in multi-male groups. Nest-holding males were frequently visited by mate-searching females, with more visits in groups with more females, suggesting that courtship and mating mostly occur within groups and that male mating success depends on the number of females in the group. Male-male aggression was frequent in multi-male groups but absent in single-male groups. These findings demonstrate that groups are distinct social units. In consequence, the dynamics of mating and reproduction are mainly a result of group structure, largely unaffected short term by overall population demography which would be important in open social systems. Future studies of the C. cyanea model system should analyse longer-term dynamics, including how groups are formed, how they vary in relation to density and time of season and how social structure affects sexual selection.

  10. New data on the stem and leaf anatomy of two conifers from the Lower Cretaceous of the Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil, and their taxonomic and paleoecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Maria Edenilce Peixoto; Silva, Delmira da Costa; Sales, Marcos A. F.; Sá, Artur A.; Saraiva, Antônio A. F.; Loiola, Maria Iracema Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    Pseudofrenelopsis and Brachyphyllum are two conifers that were part of the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) taphoflora of the Crato Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil. The former genus includes, so far, P. capillata and indeterminate species, whilst the latter is mainly represented by B. obesum, the most common plant megafossil recovered from that stratigraphic unit. Here, the stem and leaf anatomy of Pseudofrenelopsis sp. and B. obesum specimens is revisited, including the first report of some epidermal and vascular traits for both taxa from the Crato Formation. Along with its paleoecological significance, the new data suggest the presence of more than one Pseudofrenelopsis species in the Aptian taphoflora of the Araripe Basin and further support the taxonomic placement of B. obesum within Araucariaceae. PMID:28257466

  11. The value of small habitat islands for the conservation of genetic variability in a steppe grass species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wódkiewicz, Maciej; Dembicz, Iwona; Moysiyenko, Ivan I.

    2016-10-01

    The habitat loss and fragmentation due to agricultural land-conversion affected the steppe throughout its range. In Ukraine, 95% of steppe was destroyed in the last two centuries. Remaining populations are confined to few refuges, like nature reserves, loess ravines, and kurgans (small burial mounds), the latter being often subject to destruction by archeological excavations. Stipa capillata L. is a typical grass species of Eurasian steppes and extrazonal dry grasslands, that was previously used as a model species in studies on steppe ecology. The aim of our research was to assess genetic diversity of S. capillata populations within different types of steppe refuges (loess ravines, biosphere reserve, kurgan) and to evaluate the value of the latter group for the preservation of genetic diversity in the study species. We assessed genetic diversity of 266 individuals from 15 populations (nine from kurgans, three from loess ravines and three from Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve) with eight Universal Rice Primers (URPs). Studied populations showed high intra-population variability (I: 0.262-0.419, PPB: 52.08-82.64%). Populations from kurgans showed higher genetic differentiation (ΦST = 0.247) than those from loess ravines (ΦST = 0.120) and the biosphere reserve (ΦST = 0.142). Although the diversity metrics were to a small extent lower for populations from kurgans than from larger refugia we conclude that all studied populations of the species still preserve high genetic variability and are valuable for protection. To what extent this pattern holds true under continuous fragmentation in the future must be carefully monitored.

  12. A Predictive Model of the Oxygen and Heme Regulatory Network in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kundaje, Anshul; Xin, Xiantong; Lan, Changgui; Lianoglou, Steve; Zhou, Mei; Zhang, Li; Leslie, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Deciphering gene regulatory mechanisms through the analysis of high-throughput expression data is a challenging computational problem. Previous computational studies have used large expression datasets in order to resolve fine patterns of coexpression, producing clusters or modules of potentially coregulated genes. These methods typically examine promoter sequence information, such as DNA motifs or transcription factor occupancy data, in a separate step after clustering. We needed an alternative and more integrative approach to study the oxygen regulatory network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a small dataset of perturbation experiments. Mechanisms of oxygen sensing and regulation underlie many physiological and pathological processes, and only a handful of oxygen regulators have been identified in previous studies. We used a new machine learning algorithm called MEDUSA to uncover detailed information about the oxygen regulatory network using genome-wide expression changes in response to perturbations in the levels of oxygen, heme, Hap1, and Co2+. MEDUSA integrates mRNA expression, promoter sequence, and ChIP-chip occupancy data to learn a model that accurately predicts the differential expression of target genes in held-out data. We used a novel margin-based score to extract significant condition-specific regulators and assemble a global map of the oxygen sensing and regulatory network. This network includes both known oxygen and heme regulators, such as Hap1, Mga2, Hap4, and Upc2, as well as many new candidate regulators. MEDUSA also identified many DNA motifs that are consistent with previous experimentally identified transcription factor binding sites. Because MEDUSA's regulatory program associates regulators to target genes through their promoter sequences, we directly tested the predicted regulators for OLE1, a gene specifically induced under hypoxia, by experimental analysis of the activity of its promoter. In each case, deletion of the candidate

  13. Kaolin and copper-based products applications: ecotoxicology on four natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Bengochea, P; Amor, F; Saelices, R; Hernando, S; Budia, F; Adán, A; Medina, P

    2013-05-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of kaolin clays and two copper-based products on four natural enemies found in olive orchards Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hem. Anthocoridae), Chelonus inanitus (L.) (Hym. Braconidae), Chilocorus nigritus (F.) (Col. Coccinellidae) and Scutellysta cyanea Motschulsky (Hym. Pteromalidae) are described. Both kaolin and copper can be applied for controlling the olive fruit fly and the olive moth, two important pests of this crop. The products did not increase the mortality of any of the insects studied, with the exception of A. nemoralis. The sublethal effects, however, differed depending on the parameter evaluated and the insect studied. Both kaolin and coppers slightly, but significantly, reduced the life span of C. inanitus and S. cyanea. Number of eggs laid by A. nemoralis females were reduced, but not significantly compared to the controls. In the behavioural experiments, clear preference for remaining on kaolin-untreated surfaces when insects were able to choose was observed. Despite having some negative effects, the negative impact on natural enemies was lower than the impact caused by products commonly applied in this crop against the pests stated above. Therefore, both kaolin and copper can be considered as alternative products to be applied in olive orchards if an effective resistance management programme is to be developed. Furthermore, both of them are allowed in organic farming, in which the number of products that can be applied is more restricted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The homeobox gene Msx in development and transdifferentiation of jellyfish striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Galle, Sabina; Yanze, Nathalie; Seipel, Katja

    2005-01-01

    Bilaterian Msx homeobox genes are generally expressed in areas of cell proliferation and in association with multipotent progenitor cells. Likewise, jellyfish Msx is expressed in progenitor cells of the developing entocodon, a cell layer giving rise to the striated and smooth muscles of the medusa. However, in contrast to the bilaterian homologs, Msx gene expression is maintained at high levels in the differentiated striated muscle of the medusa in vivo and in vitro. This tissue exhibits reprogramming competence. Upon induction, the Msx gene is immediately switched off in the isolated striated muscle undergoing transdifferentiation, to be upregulated again in the emerging smooth muscle cells which, in a stem cell like manner, undergo quantal cell divisions producing two cell types, a proliferating smooth muscle cell and a differentiating nerve cell. This study indicates that the Msx protein may be a key component of the reprogramming machinery responsible for the extraordinary transdifferentation and regeneration potential of striated muscle in the hydrozoan jellyfish.

  15. A Practical Theory of Micro-Solar Power Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-20

    Simulation Platform TOSSIM [LLWC03] ns-2 Matlab C++ AVRORA [TLP05] Reference Hardware Mica2 WINS, Medusa Mica Mica2, Medusa Mica2 Simulated Power Power...scale. From this raw data, we can 162 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 2 4 Correlation coefficient F re qu en cy Histogram of correlation...0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 1 2 Correlation coefficient F re qu en cy Histogram of correlation coefficient with solar radiation measurement (Turbidity at

  16. Natural Divertor Spherical Tokamak Plasmas with bean shape and ergodic limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Herrera, Julio; Chavez, Esteban; Tritz, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R < 0.14 m, a < 0.10 m, BT < 0.5T, Ip < 40 kA, 3 ms pulse) is being recommissioned in Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objectives of the MEDUSA-CR project are training and to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including beta studies in bean-shaped ST plasmas, transport, heating and current drive via Alfvén wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter. We report here improvements in the self-consistency of these equilibrium comparisons and a preliminary study of their MHD stability beta limits. VIE-ITCR, IAEA-CRP contract 17592, National Instruments of Costa Rica.

  17. First record of Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) in a natural freshwater lagoon of Uruguay, with notes on polyp stage in captivity.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A S J C; Peronti, A L B G; Kondo, T; Lemos, R N S

    2017-11-01

    The freshwater cnidarian Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester 1880, has invaded lakes and ponds as well as artificial water bodies throughout the world. The first record in Uruguay corresponding to the jellyfish was made in 1961 in two artificial fountains, with no mention of the polyp form. Although local reports of other related polyp species have been made, information on the benthic form of C. sowerbii is lacking. Here we report the finding of live frustules, solitary individuals, medusae and colonies from a natural lagoon in August 2010, allowing us to observe the morphology and behavior of the polyp stage in captivity. In addition, molecular identification and remarks on the potencial path of introduction are presented. This is the first record in Uruguay of both polyp and medusa stages of C. sowerbii in a natural water body, Del Medio Lagoon (Dpto. de Florida), Uruguay.

  18. Mars Pathfinder and the exploration of southern Amazonis Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Nadine G.

    1994-01-01

    The southern region of Amazonis Planitia provides a variety of target terrains for a roving vehicle such as the Mars Pathfinder Mission. A landing site is proposed at 4 deg N latitude 162 deg W longitude. This area has a reference altitude of between 0 and -1 km and consists of relatively smooth Amazonian-aged deposits within the entire 100 x 200 km landing ellipse. The proposed landing site is within the Upper Member Medusae Fossae Formation deposits (Amu) and near the boundary with Middle Member Medusae Fossae Formation deposits (Amm) and Member 1 Arcadia Formation plains (Aa(sub 1)). Slightly further afield are 107-km-diameter Nicholson crater, its ejecta deposits, and knobby terrain of proposed Hesperian age (HNu). Depending on the exact landing site of the spacecraft and the traverse distance of the rover, these materials also may be sampled.

  19. Hierarchical Process Composition: Dynamic Maintenance of Structure in a Distributed Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    One prominent hne of research stresses the independence of address space and thread of control, and the resulting efficiencies due to shared memory...cooperating processes. StarOS focuses on case of use and a general capability mechanism, while Medusa stresses the effect of distributed hardware on system...process structure and the asynchrony among agents and between agents and sources of failure. By stressing dynamic structure, we are led to adopt an

  20. Study of the Feasibility of Using an Advanced Opto-Electronic Imaging Technique for Sampling Mid-Water Nekton.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-30

    migration(diurnal) of Mycophidae and siphonophores of the suborder Physonectae. —2— _______ - ~~~~~~~~~~ _____________________________ I-~ The former...ORGANISMS PLANKTON COPEPODS TRANSLUCENT ! ARROW WORMS TRANSPARENT SIPHONOPHORES MEDUSAE AGLISCRA IGNEA FLAMING RED NEMERTEAN WORMS REDDISH ARROW WORMS...383-385 ( 1969) 9. BARHAN, Eric G., Siphonophores and the Deep Scattering Layer, Science, 140, 826—828 (1963) 10. BARHA~M , Eric C., Deep Scattering

  1. Stings of edible jellyfish (Rhopilema hispidum, Rhopilema esculentum and Nemopilema nomurai) in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, M; Uye, S; Burnett, J; Mianzan, H

    2006-11-01

    Three edible jellyfish Rhopilema hispidum, R. esculentum and Nemopilema nomurai are virulent to humans. We monitored one patient that was stung sequentially by these three species of jellyfish. The first species caused a persistent eruption, the second produced significant pruritus and the last induced only cutaneous symptoms rather than severe systemic disorders reported for its Chinese counterpart. The lesions of these jellyfish species are characteristic and common in workers harvesting medusae. There is no significant incidence of symptoms by ingesting these animals.

  2. Transcriptome profiling of the dynamic life cycle of the scypohozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    PubMed

    Brekhman, Vera; Malik, Assaf; Haas, Brian; Sher, Noa; Lotan, Tamar

    2015-02-14

    The moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a widespread scyphozoan species that forms large seasonal blooms. Here we provide the first comprehensive view of the entire complex life of the Aurelia Red Sea strain by employing transcriptomic profiling of each stage from planula to mature medusa. A de novo transcriptome was assembled from Illumina RNA-Seq data generated from six stages throughout the Aurelia life cycle. Transcript expression profiling yielded clusters of annotated transcripts with functions related to each specific life-cycle stage. Free-swimming planulae were found highly enriched for functions related to cilia and microtubules, and the drastic morphogenetic process undergone by the planula while establishing the future body of the polyp may be mediated by specifically expressed Wnt ligands. Specific transcripts related to sensory functions were found in the strobila and the ephyra, whereas extracellular matrix functions were enriched in the medusa due to high expression of transcripts such as collagen, fibrillin and laminin, presumably involved in mesoglea development. The CL390-like gene, suggested to act as a strobilation hormone, was also highly expressed in the advanced strobila of the Red Sea species, and in the medusa stage we identified betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, an enzyme that may play an important part in maintaining equilibrium of the medusa's bell. Finally, we identified the transcription factors participating in the Aurelia life-cycle and found that 70% of these 487 identified transcription factors were expressed in a developmental-stage-specific manner. This study provides the first scyphozoan transcriptome covering the entire developmental trajectory of the life cycle of Aurelia. It highlights the importance of numerous stage-specific transcription factors in driving morphological and functional changes throughout this complex metamorphosis, and is expected to be a valuable resource to the community.

  3. Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Winged Horse; abbrev. Peg, gen. Pegasi; area 1121 sq. deg.) A northern constellation that extends from Cygnus, Lacerta and Andromeda almost to the celestial equator, and culminates at midnight in early September. It is named after the winged horse in Greek mythology that sprang from the body of Medusa, the Gorgon, when she was beheaded by Perseus, and later was tamed by the hero Bellerophon. ...

  4. Biomass of scyphozoan jellyfish, and its spatial association with 0-group fish in the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Elena; Prozorkevich, Dmitry; Trofimov, Aleksandr; Howell, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An 0-group fish survey is conducted annually in the Barents Sea in order to estimate fish population abundance. Data on jellyfish by-catch have been recorded since 1980, although this dataset has never been analysed. In recent years, however, the ecological importance of jellyfish medusae has become widely recognized. In this paper the biomass of jellyfish (medusae) in 0-60 m depths is calculated for the period 1980-2010. During this period the climate changed from cold to warm, and changes in zooplankton and fish distribution and abundance were observed. This paper discusses the less well known ecosystem component; jellyfish medusae within the Phylum Cnidaria, and their spatial and temporal variation. The long term average was ca. 9×10⁸ kg, with some years showing biomasses in excess of 5×10⁹ kg. The biomasses were low during 1980s, increased during 1990s, and were highest in early 2000s with a subsequent decline. The bulk of the jellyfish were observed in the central parts of the Barents Sea, which is a core area for most 0-group fishes. Jellyfish were associated with haddock in the western area, with haddock and herring in the central and coastal area, and with capelin in the northern area of the Barents Sea. The jellyfish were present in the temperature interval 1°Cmedusae; however their biomass has showed a recent moderate decline during years with record high temperatures in the Barents Sea. Jellyfish are undoubtedly an important component of the Barents Sea ecosystem, and the data presented here represent the best summary of jellyfish biomass and distribution yet published for the region.

  5. Highly Multiplexed RNA Aptamer Selection using a Microplate-based Microcolumn Device.

    PubMed

    Reinholt, Sarah J; Ozer, Abdullah; Lis, John T; Craighead, Harold G

    2016-07-19

    We describe a multiplexed RNA aptamer selection to 19 different targets simultaneously using a microcolumn-based device, MEDUSA (Microplate-based Enrichment Device Used for the Selection of Aptamers), as well as a modified selection process, that significantly reduce the time and reagents needed for selections. We exploited MEDUSA's reconfigurable design between parallel and serially-connected microcolumns to enable the use of just 2 aliquots of starting library, and its 96-well microplate compatibility to enable the continued use of high-throughput techniques in downstream processes. Our modified selection protocol allowed us to perform the equivalent of a 10-cycle selection in the time it takes for 4 traditional selection cycles. Several aptamers were discovered with nanomolar dissociation constants. Furthermore, aptamers were identified that not only bound with high affinity, but also acted as inhibitors to significantly reduce the activity of their target protein, mouse decapping exoribonuclease (DXO). The aptamers resisted DXO's exoribonuclease activity, and in studies monitoring DXO's degradation of a 30-nucleotide substrate, less than 1 μM of aptamer demonstrated significant inhibition of DXO activity. This aptamer selection method using MEDUSA helps to overcome some of the major challenges with traditional aptamer selections, and provides a platform for high-throughput selections that lends itself to process automation.

  6. Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

  7. Prey Capture Ecology of the Cubozoan Carukia barnesi

    PubMed Central

    Sachlikidis, Nik; Jones, Rhondda

    2015-01-01

    Adult Carukia barnesi medusae feed predominantly on larval fish; however, their mode of prey capture seems more complex than previously described. Our findings revealed that during light conditions, this species extends its tentacles and ‘twitches’ them frequently. This highlights the lure-like nematocyst clusters in the water column, which actively attract larval fish that are consequently stung and consumed. This fishing behavior was not observed during dark conditions, presumably to reduce energy expenditure when they are not luring visually oriented prey. We found that larger medusae have longer tentacles; however, the spacing between the nematocyst clusters is not dependent on size, suggesting that the spacing of the nematocyst clusters is important for prey capture. Additionally, larger specimens twitch their tentacles more frequently than small specimens, which correlate with their recent ontogenetic prey shift from plankton to larval fish. These results indicate that adult medusae of C. barnesi are not opportunistically grazing in the water column, but instead utilize sophisticated prey capture techniques to specifically target larval fish. PMID:25970583

  8. Measurement of Seafloor Deformation in the Marine Sector of the Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; De Martino, Prospero; Dolce, Mario; Macedonio, Giovanni; Chierici, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura

    2018-01-01

    We present an assessment of vertical seafloor deformation in the shallow marine sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy) obtained from GPS and bottom pressure recorder (BPR) data, acquired over the period April 2016 to July 2017 in the Gulf of Pozzuoli by a new marine infrastructure, MEDUSA. This infrastructure consists of four fixed buoys with GPS receivers; each buoy is connected by cable to a seafloor multisensor module hosting a BPR. The measured maximum vertical uplift of the seafloor is about 4.2 ± 0.4 cm. The MEDUSA data were then compared to the expected vertical displacement in the marine sector according to a Mogi model point source computed using only GPS land measurements. The results show that a single point source model of deformation is able to explain both the GPS land and seafloor data. Moreover, we demonstrate that a network of permanent GPS buoys represents a powerful tool to measure the seafloor vertical deformation field in shallow water. The performance of this system is comparable to on-land high-precision GPS networks, marking a significant achievement and advance in seafloor geodesy and extending volcano monitoring capabilities to shallow offshore areas (up to 100 m depth). The GPS measurements of MEDUSA have also been used to confirm that the BPR data provide an independent measure of the seafloor vertical uplift in shallow water.

  9. Higher-order harmonics coupling in different free-electron laser codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannessi, L.; Freund, H. P.; Musumeci, P.; Reiche, S.

    2008-08-01

    The capability for simulation of the dynamics of a free-electron laser including the higher-order harmonics in linear undulators exists in several existing codes as MEDUSA [H.P. Freund, S.G. Biedron, and S.V. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27 (2000) 243; H.P. Freund, Phys. Rev. ST-AB 8 (2005) 110701] and PERSEO [L. Giannessi, Overview of Perseo, a system for simulating FEL dynamics in Mathcad, < http://www.jacow.org>, in: Proceedings of FEL 2006 Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, p. 91], and has been recently implemented in GENESIS 1.3 [See < http://www.perseo.enea.it>]. MEDUSA and GENESIS also include the dynamics of even harmonics induced by the coupling through the betatron motion. In addition MEDUSA, which is based on a non-wiggler averaged model, is capable of simulating the generation of even harmonics in the transversally cold beam regime, i.e. when the even harmonic coupling arises from non-linear effects associated with longitudinal particle dynamics and not to a finite beam emittance. In this paper a comparison between the predictions of the codes in different conditions is given.

  10. Towards a phylogenetic classification of Leptothecata (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Miranda, Thaís P.; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Marques, Antonio C.

    2016-01-01

    Leptothecata are hydrozoans whose hydranths are covered by perisarc and gonophores and whose medusae bear gonads on their radial canals. They develop complex polypoid colonies and exhibit considerable morphological variation among species with respect to growth, defensive structures and mode of development. For instance, several lineages within this order have lost the medusa stage. Depending on the author, traditional taxonomy in hydrozoans may be either polyp- or medusa-oriented. Therefore, the absence of the latter stage in some lineages may lead to very different classification schemes. Molecular data have proved useful in elucidating this taxonomic challenge. We analyzed a super matrix of new and published rRNA gene sequences (16S, 18S and 28S), employing newly proposed methods to measure branch support and improve phylogenetic signal. Our analysis recovered new clades not recognized by traditional taxonomy and corroborated some recently proposed taxa. We offer a thorough taxonomic revision of the Leptothecata, erecting new orders, suborders, infraorders and families. We also discuss the origination and diversification dynamics of the group from a macroevolutionary perspective. PMID:26821567

  11. Polyp Removal of a Bloom Forming Jellyfish, Aurelia coerulea, in Korean Waters and Its Value Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Wonduk; Chae, Jinho; Koh, Byoung-Seol; Han, Changhoon

    2018-04-01

    Aurelia coerulea is a bloom forming jellyfish that first appeared before 1980 in the western and southern Korean seas and which has been blamed for huge economical losses in all fields of marine activities. As a preventive measure to reduce economical losses, polyp removal was undertaken at Lake Shihwa, Lake Saemangeum, and Masan Bay, Korea. In the course of efforts during 2 years to remove polyps, polyps were surveyed, quantified, and removed. In these areas, the initial total polyp abundance was 5.04 × 109 and 46.25% of them were removed; Lake Shihwa the highest rates of removal and Lake Saemangeum the lowest. These efforts to remove polyps prevented the appearance of 1.20 × 109 medusae, corresponding to 78.28 × 106 kg. The cost of polyp removal was evaluated and compared with that of medusae removal. The ratio between the cost of polyp removal and that of medusae removal ranged between 0.78-3.14%, indicating large cost savings for polyp removal undertakings. However, the effect of polyp removal varied from positive to none, and we assumed that the cleared surface for polyp removal, quantity of removed polyp, and existence of polyps' hotspots in neighboring areas were the causes of the non-effectiveness of polyp removal undertakings.

  12. Pore Water Pumping by Upside-Down Jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    Patchy aggregations of Cassiopea medusae, commonly called upside-down jellyfish, are found in sheltered marine environments with low-speed ambient flows. These medusae exhibit a sessile, non-swimming lifestyle, and are oriented such that their bells are attached to the substrate and oral arms point towards sunlight. Pulsations of their bells are used to generate currents for suspension feeding. Their pulsations have also been proposed to generate forces that can release sediment locked nutrients into the surrounding water. The goal of this study is to examine pore water pumping by Cassiopea individuals in laboratory aquaria, as a model for understanding pore water pumping in unsteady flows. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were conducted to visualize the release of pore water via bell motion, using fluorescent dye introduced underneath the substrate. 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted on the same individuals to correlate PLIF-based concentration profiles with the jets generated by pulsing of medusae. The effects of varying bell diameter on pore water release and pumping currents will be discussed.

  13. Floating nurseries? Scyphozoan jellyfish, their food and their rich symbiotic fauna in a tropical estuary

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Willington; Hopfe, Charlotte; Morales, Diego; Navarrete, Ángela; Tavera, José

    2018-01-01

    Background The anthropogenic modification of trophic pathways is seemingly prompting the increase of jellyfish populations at the expense of planktivorous fishes. However, gross generalizations are often made because the most basic aspects of trophic ecology and the diverse interactions of jellyfish with fishes remain poorly described. Here we inquire on the dynamics of food consumption of the medusoid stage of the scyphozoan jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris and characterize the traits and diversity of its symbiotic community. Methods S. meleagris and their associated fauna were sampled in surface waters between November 2015 and April 2017 in Málaga Bay, an estuarine system at the Colombian Pacific. Stomach contents of medusae were examined and changes in prey composition and abundance over time analysed using a multivariate approach. The associated fauna was identified and the relationship between the size of medusae and the size those organisms tested using least-square fitting procedures. Results The presence of S. meleagris medusa in surface waters was seasonal. The gut contents analysis revealed that algae, copepods and fish early life stages were the more abundant items, and PERMANOVA analysis showed that the diet differed within the seasons (P(perm) = 0.001) but not between seasons (P(perm) = 0.134). The majority of the collected medusae (50.4%) were associated with individuals of 11 symbiotic species, 95.3% of them fishes, 3.1% crustaceans and 1.6% molluscs. Therefore, this study reports 10 previously unknown associations. The bell diameter of S. meleagris was positively related to the body sizes of their symbionts. However, a stronger fit was observed when the size relationship between S. meleagris and the fish Hemicaranx zelotes was modelled. Discussion The occurrence of S. meleagris was highly seasonal, and the observed patterns of mean body size through the seasons suggested the arrival of adult medusae to the estuary from adjacent waters. The diet

  14. Floating nurseries? Scyphozoan jellyfish, their food and their rich symbiotic fauna in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Riascos, José M; Aguirre, Willington; Hopfe, Charlotte; Morales, Diego; Navarrete, Ángela; Tavera, José

    2018-01-01

    The anthropogenic modification of trophic pathways is seemingly prompting the increase of jellyfish populations at the expense of planktivorous fishes. However, gross generalizations are often made because the most basic aspects of trophic ecology and the diverse interactions of jellyfish with fishes remain poorly described. Here we inquire on the dynamics of food consumption of the medusoid stage of the scyphozoan jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris and characterize the traits and diversity of its symbiotic community. S. meleagris and their associated fauna were sampled in surface waters between November 2015 and April 2017 in Málaga Bay, an estuarine system at the Colombian Pacific. Stomach contents of medusae were examined and changes in prey composition and abundance over time analysed using a multivariate approach. The associated fauna was identified and the relationship between the size of medusae and the size those organisms tested using least-square fitting procedures. The presence of S. meleagris medusa in surface waters was seasonal. The gut contents analysis revealed that algae, copepods and fish early life stages were the more abundant items, and PERMANOVA analysis showed that the diet differed within the seasons ( P (perm)  = 0.001) but not between seasons ( P (perm)  = 0.134). The majority of the collected medusae (50.4%) were associated with individuals of 11 symbiotic species, 95.3% of them fishes, 3.1% crustaceans and 1.6% molluscs. Therefore, this study reports 10 previously unknown associations. The bell diameter of S. meleagris was positively related to the body sizes of their symbionts. However, a stronger fit was observed when the size relationship between S. meleagris and the fish Hemicaranx zelotes was modelled. The occurrence of S. meleagris was highly seasonal, and the observed patterns of mean body size through the seasons suggested the arrival of adult medusae to the estuary from adjacent waters. The diet of S. meleagris in the study

  15. Camouflaging in a Complex Environment—Octopuses Use Specific Features of Their Surroundings for Background Matching

    PubMed Central

    Josef, Noam; Amodio, Piero; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to “blend in.” To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer. PMID:22649542

  16. Contrasting digestive strategies in four New Zealand herbivorous fishes as reflected by carbohydrase activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Skea, G L; Mountfort, D O; Clements, K D

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic degradation of algal carbohydrates was examined in the New Zealand herbivorous fishes Parma alboscapularis (Pomacentridae), Aplodactylus etheridgii (Aplodactylidae), Girella tricuspidata and G. cyanea (Girellidae). Enzyme extract taken from the anterior gut wall, gut fluid and microbial pellet from sections sampled along the gut were tested for activity against starch, carrageenan, agarose and carboxymethylcellulose. Hydrolysis of starch was greater than for all other substrates tested. Endogenous (host-produced) activity in the anterior gut fluid varied between species in the order G. tricuspidata (7700 units mL(-1))>G. cyanea (2300 units mL(-1))>P. alboscapularis (2000)>A. etheridgii (1400 units mL(-1)) where one unit is equivalent to 1 mug of reducing sugar released per minute. Activity decreased markedly along the gut in all cases, so that at the posterior end of the gut only 0.3-8% of the anterior activity remained in the gut fluid. Enzyme activity against structural carbohydrates was lower than that against starch, and was of exogenous (produced by resident microbiota) origin in all species although the location of activity along the gut differed. The microbial extract of A. etheridgii displayed the highest activity against carrageenan and agarose in all gut sections, reaching maxima of 47 units mL(-1) against carrageenan and 35 units mL(-1) against agarose in the mid-gut microbial extract. Carrageenase and agarase activity in the other three species was <10 units mL(-1) for all gut sections. Results suggest that carrageenan and agarose are potentially important substrates for microbial fermentation, particularly in A. etheridgii, and that there is microbial activity in the mid-gut of this species, rather than primarily in the hind-gut as in other herbivorous species.

  17. Chitinozoan zones of the western United States (Great basin), and their comparison with those of the Canning basin, western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, T.J.

    Within the Basin and Ranges of the Great basin of the western US, Ordovician chitinozoans have been recovered in two major lithic facies; the western eugeosynclinal facies and the eastern miogeosynclinal facies. Chitinozoans recovered from these facies range in age from Arenig to Ashgill. Extensive collections from this area make possible the establishment of chitinozoan faunal interval zones from the Ordovician. These zones are compared with those of other investigators for the Canning basin of Western Australia. Selected species of biostratigraphic value include, in chronostratigraphic order, Lagenochitina ovidea Benoit Taugourdeau 1961, Conochitina langei Combaz Peniguel 1972, Conochitina poumoti Combaz Peniguel,more » Desmochitina cf. nodosa Eisenack 1931 , Conochitina moclartii Combaz Peniguel 1972, Conochitina robusta Eisenack 1959, Angochitina capillata Eisenack 1937, Sphaerochitina lepta Jenkins 1970 and Ancyrochitina merga Jenkins 1970. In many cases these zones can be divided into additional subzones using chitinozoans and acritarchs. In all cases, these chitinozoan faunal zones are contrasted with established American graptolite zones, as well as correlated with British standard graptolite zones. The composition of these faunas of the Western US Great basin and Western Australia Canning basin is similar to that from the Marathon region of west Texas, and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico.« less

  18. Influence of top-down control in the plankton food web on vertical carbon flux: a mesocosm study in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J.; Steinberg, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of predation on carbon export in planktonic food webs are poorly known, but likely play a key role in the biological pump. Gelatinous zooplankton (GZ) dominate the zooplankton community in the Chesapeake Bay during summer months, exerting considerable top-down control on the planktonic food web. The medusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha preys upon the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, which in turn is a major predator of the omnivorous copepod Acartia tonsa. This trophic cascade is known to significantly affect copepod abundance in Chesapeake Bay, but the resulting changes to particulate organic carbon (POC) flux are unknown. We hypothesized that additions or exclusions of GZ predators would result in changes in both total POC flux and the composition of exported particles (e.g., phytoplankton aggregates, fecal pellets). We conducted mesocosm experiments in the York River tributary of Chesapeake Bay during summer and fall, 2015 to quantify the cascading effects of GZ blooms on POC flux. The mesocosms contained a natural assemblage of phytoplankton and microzooplankton, and A. tonsa copepods, and received one of four treatments of GZ: 1) a control with no GZ added, 2) addition of ctenophores, 3) addition of medusae, and 4) addition of both ctenophores and medusae. POC flux from each mesocosm was measured over multiple 2-day experimental runs and grazing rates of GZ on each other and on copepods were calculated. There were no significant differences in total POC flux between treatments, but the composition of both the final zooplankton assemblage and exported organic matter differed between treatments. As a result of grazing on copepods by ctenophores, treatments which included GZ had lower final copepod abundances and a corresponding decrease in flux of copepod fecal pellets. We discuss how this change in composition of exported material as a result of cascading trophic interactions may affect the efficiency of the biological pump and benthic processes.

  19. Locomotor adaptations of some gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q

    1985-01-01

    Swimming behaviour and locomotor adaptations are described in chaetognaths, larvacean tunicates, some cnidaria, and thaliacean tunicates. The first two groups swim by oscillating a flattened tail, the others by jet propulsion. In chaetognaths, the locomotor muscle fibres are extensively coupled and relatively sparsely innervated, they exhibit compound spike-like potentials. The motoneurons controlling the rhythmic activity of the locomotor muscle lie in a ventral ganglion whose organization is briefly described. Rhythmic swimming bursts in larvaceans are similarly driven by a caudal ganglion near the base of the tail, but each caudal muscle cell is separately innervated by two sets of motor nerves, as well as being coupled to its neighbours. The external epithelium is excitable, and linked to the caudal ganglion by the axons of central cells. Mechanical stimulation of the epithelium evokes receptor potentials followed by action potentials and by bursts of rapid swimming. The trachyline medusa Aglantha and the small siphonophore Chelophyes also show rapid escape responses; in Aglantha these are driven by a specialized giant axon system lacking in other hydromedusae, and in Chelophyes. Slow swimming in Aglantha apparently involves a second nerve supply to the same muscle sheets used in rapid swimming, whereas in Chelophyes slow swimming results from the activity of the smaller posterior nectophore. Slow swimming in siphonophores is more economical than the rapid responses. In the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis (as in Chelophyes) action potentials in the locomotor muscle sheet change in shape during swimming bursts, and their duration is related to the size of the medusa; they are not simply triggers of muscular contraction. The two groups of thaliacean tunicates are specialized differently. Doliolum is adapted for single rapid jet pulses (during which it achieves instantaneous velocities of 50 body lengths s-l), whilst salps are adapted for slow continuous swimming. The

  20. Timoides agassizii Bigelow, 1904, little-known hydromedusa (Cnidaria), appears briefly in large numbers off Oman, March 2011, with additional notes about species of the genus Timoides.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Jasmine; Kharusi, Lubna Al; Mills, Claudia E; Ghielani, Hamed; Marzouki, Mohammad Al

    2013-12-11

    A bloom of the hydromedusan jellyfish, Timoides agassizii, occurred in February 2011 off the coast of Sohar, Al Batinah, Sultanate of Oman, in the Gulf of Oman. This species was first observed in 1902 in great numbers off Haddummati Atoll in the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean and has rarely been seen since. The species appeared briefly in large numbers off Oman in 2011 and subsequent observation of our 2009 samples of zooplankton from Sohar revealed that it was also present in low numbers (two collected) in one sample in 2009; these are the first records in the Indian Ocean north of the Maldives. Medusae collected off Oman were almost identical to those recorded previously from the Maldive Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands, Guam, the South China Sea, and Okinawa. T. agassizii is a species that likely lives for several months. It was present in our plankton samples together with large numbers of the oceanic siphonophore Physalia physalis only during a single month's samples, suggesting that the temporary bloom off Oman was likely due to the arrival of mature, open ocean medusae into nearshore waters. We see no evidence that T. agassizii has established a new population along Oman, since if so, it would likely have been present in more than one sample period. We are unable to deduce further details of the life cycle of this species from blooms of many mature individuals nearshore, about a century apart. Examination of a single damaged T. agassizii medusa from Guam, calls into question the existence of its congener, T. latistyla, known only from a single specimen.

  1. Automated assessment of joint synovitis activity from medical ultrasound and power doppler examinations using image processing and machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Cupek, Rafal; Ziębiński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease with arthritis, and causes substantial functional disability in approximately 50% patients after 10 years. Accurate measurement of the disease activity is crucial to provide an adequate treatment and care to the patients. The aim of this study is focused on a computer aided diagnostic system that supports an assessment of synovitis severity. This paper focus on a computer aided diagnostic system that was developed within joint Polish-Norwegian research project related to the automated assessment of the severity of synovitis. Semiquantitative ultrasound with power Doppler is a reliable and widely used method of assessing synovitis. Synovitis is estimated by ultrasound examiner using the scoring system graded from 0 to 3. Activity score is estimated on the basis of the examiner's experience or standardized ultrasound atlases. The method needs trained medical personnel and the result can be affected by a human error. The porotype of a computer-aided diagnostic system and algorithms essential for an analysis of ultrasonic images of finger joints are main scientific output of the MEDUSA project. Medusa Evaluation System prototype uses bone, skin, joint and synovitis area detectors for mutual structural model based evaluation of synovitis. Finally, several algorithms that support the semi-automatic or automatic detection of the bone region were prepared as well as a system that uses the statistical data processing approach in order to automatically localize the regions of interest. Semiquantitative ultrasound with power Doppler is a reliable and widely used method of assessing synovitis. Activity score is estimated on the basis of the examiner's experience and the result can be affected by a human error. In this paper we presented the MEDUSA project which is focused on a computer aided diagnostic system that supports an assessment of synovitis severity.

  2. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  3. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Roure, Béatrice; Philippe, Hervé; Collins, Allen G; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2013-01-09

    Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) - cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage - and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) - cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that the shared morphological characters in

  4. How Well Can We Detect Lineage-Specific Diversification-Rate Shifts? A Simulation Study of Sequential AIC Methods.

    PubMed

    May, Michael R; Moore, Brian R

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by the extreme differences in species numbers across branches of the Tree of Life. This has motivated the development of statistical methods for detecting shifts in the rate of lineage diversification across the branches of phylogenic trees. One of the most frequently used methods, MEDUSA, explores a set of diversification-rate models, where each model assigns branches of the phylogeny to a set of diversification-rate categories. Each model is first fit to the data, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is then used to identify the optimal diversification model. Surprisingly, the statistical behavior of this popular method is uncharacterized, which is a concern in light of: (1) the poor performance of the AIC as a means of choosing among models in other phylogenetic contexts; (2) the ad hoc algorithm used to visit diversification models, and; (3) errors that we reveal in the likelihood function used to fit diversification models to the phylogenetic data. Here, we perform an extensive simulation study demonstrating that MEDUSA (1) has a high false-discovery rate (on average, spurious diversification-rate shifts are identified [Formula: see text] of the time), and (2) provides biased estimates of diversification-rate parameters. Understanding the statistical behavior of MEDUSA is critical both to empirical researchers-in order to clarify whether these methods can make reliable inferences from empirical datasets-and to theoretical biologists-in order to clarify the specific problems that need to be solved in order to develop more reliable approaches for detecting shifts in the rate of lineage diversification. [Akaike information criterion; extinction; lineage-specific diversification rates; phylogenetic model selection; speciation.]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  5. How Well Can We Detect Lineage-Specific Diversification-Rate Shifts? A Simulation Study of Sequential AIC Methods

    PubMed Central

    May, Michael R.; Moore, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by the extreme differences in species numbers across branches of the Tree of Life. This has motivated the development of statistical methods for detecting shifts in the rate of lineage diversification across the branches of phylogenic trees. One of the most frequently used methods, MEDUSA, explores a set of diversification-rate models, where each model assigns branches of the phylogeny to a set of diversification-rate categories. Each model is first fit to the data, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is then used to identify the optimal diversification model. Surprisingly, the statistical behavior of this popular method is uncharacterized, which is a concern in light of: (1) the poor performance of the AIC as a means of choosing among models in other phylogenetic contexts; (2) the ad hoc algorithm used to visit diversification models, and; (3) errors that we reveal in the likelihood function used to fit diversification models to the phylogenetic data. Here, we perform an extensive simulation study demonstrating that MEDUSA (1) has a high false-discovery rate (on average, spurious diversification-rate shifts are identified ≈30% of the time), and (2) provides biased estimates of diversification-rate parameters. Understanding the statistical behavior of MEDUSA is critical both to empirical researchers—in order to clarify whether these methods can make reliable inferences from empirical datasets—and to theoretical biologists—in order to clarify the specific problems that need to be solved in order to develop more reliable approaches for detecting shifts in the rate of lineage diversification. [Akaike information criterion; extinction; lineage-specific diversification rates; phylogenetic model selection; speciation.] PMID:27037081

  6. Startup and stability of a small spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garstka, Gregory Douglas

    1997-09-01

    The spherical tokamak (ST) is an evolutionary extension of the conventional tokamak concept where the aspect ratio is less than 2. These devices may possess significant advantages over standard tokamaks-they are capable of achieving higher values of /beta, seem to be more resilient to disruptions, and are significantly smaller than conventional tokamaks. Two important questions for the next generation of spherical tokamaks concern startup and internal reconnection events (IREs). Understanding startup is crucial due to the limited amount of ohmic flux in an ST. The IREs are disruption- like events observed on STs that do not result in termination of the current channel. Experiments have been conducted on the Madison EDUcational Small Aspect-ratio (MEDUSA) tokamak to answer some of the questions about startup and IREs in STs. MEDUSA is a small ohmic tokamak with an insulating vacuum vessel. Major parameters are R=12 cm, a=8 cm, Ip=10-40 kA, BT=0.2-0.45 T, /Delta tpulse=1-2 ms, /langle ne/rangle/approx5×1019/ m-3, and Te0/approx100 eV. The experiments in this work were aided by an internal magnetic probe array that constrained the reconstruction of MHD equilibria. It was found that startup efficiency, measured by the Ejima coefficient CE, improved with increasing loop voltage and toroidal field. Double tearing modes were found to be an important mechanism for current penetration in MEDUSA; their presence early in the discharge can improve the magnetic flux consumption. The lowest achieved value of the Ejima coefficient was 0.61 (0.13 for 'OH only') for a discharge with 0.375 T toroidal field and 9.4 V startup loop voltage. The study of internal reconnection events revealed the presence of a heretofore undiscovered precursor, which in MEDUSA was manifested as coherent oscillations in the internal poloidal field at 65-75 kHz for 100 μs prior to the IRE. These events were found to result in decreased /ell i and /beta, inward movement of the magnetic axis, dramatically

  7. Wind-Eroded Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    5 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust-mantled, wind-eroded landscape in the Medusae Sulci region of Mars. Wind eroded the bedrock in this region, and then, later, windblown dust covered much of the terrain.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 160.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  8. The Mysteries and Curiosities of Mars: A Tour of Unusual and Unexplained Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.

    2017-12-01

    The large amount of data available from orbiting satellites around Mars has provided a wealth of information about the Martian surface and geological history. The published literature tends to focus on regions of Mars for which there are ready explanations; however, many regions of Mars remain mysterious. In this contribution, we present some of the strangest and least explained terrains on Mars: The Taffy Terrain: This complex terrain, consisting of swirling layers with variably sized bands, is present mostly at the bottom of Hellas Basin, but versions of it can also be found on the floor of Melas Chasma and in the Medusae Fossae Formation near Apollinaris Sulci. While little has been written about the taffy terrain, hypotheses include "glacial features" and salt domes. The taffy terrain bears some resemblance to submarine salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico, glacial deposits with mixed ash and ice in Iceland, or chalk formations in Egypt's White Desert. The Fishscale Terrain: At the northern edge of Lucus Planum, the friable Medusae Fossae Formation transitions into a chaos-like terrain with hundreds of mesas forming a pattern like the scales of a fish. While chaos terrains are mysterious in general, this morphologically fresh, near-equatorial chaos is especially unusual. Polygonal Ridges in Gordii Dorsum: Also a part of the Medusae Fossae Formation, the ridges in Gordii Dorsum represent a negative image of the fishscale terrain—a intricate lattice of slender black ridges. These are thought to form via the embayment of the fishscale terrain with lava and the subsequent erosion of the original mesas. Horseshoe Features: These geomorphological features look like inverted barchan dunes, but they are actually pits eroded into the surface of the Medusae Fossae Formation. Channels surrounding Elysium Mons: These channel systems are among the most complex on Mars, but they appear on a young Amazonian lava surface. The channels cut through topography, anastomose, and

  9. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  10. [Conversations with the Sphinx. Images of Greek myth in Freud's collection].

    PubMed

    Burke, Janine

    2006-01-01

    In Freud's art collection, the myth of Oedipus, a central tenet of psychoanalysis, is represented by several Greek statues and vases, as well as a reproduction of Ingres' painting. Originally a protective male Egyptian deity, in Greek myth, the Sphinx was female and associated with death. In addition, Freud had sculptures of Medusa the Gorgon, a terrifying winged female, and of provocative Baubo, both also figuring in his writings. By describing these works of art and some of their mythological ramifications, the author suggests that they represented aspects of feminity not really covered by Freud's theories.

  11. Increasing marketability and profitability of product line thru PATRAN and NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Art

    1989-01-01

    Starting with the design objective the operational cycle life of the Swaging Tool was increased. To accomplish this increase in cycle life without increasing the size or weight of the tool would be engineering achievement. However, not only was the operational cycle life increased between 2 to 10 times but simultaneously the size and weight of the Swage Tool was decreased by about 50 percent. This accomplishment now becomes an outstanding engineering achievement. This achievement was only possible because of the computerized Patran, Nastran and Medusa programs.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase activity in Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Denker, Elsa; Chatonnet, Arnaud; Rabet, Nicolas

    2008-09-25

    Cholinesterase activity is known in representatives of all living organisms phyla but the origin of the cholinergic system as known in bilaterian animals is still undeciphered. In particular the implication of cholinesterases in the nervous system of non-bilaterian Metazoa is not well known. We thus chose to investigate this activity in the Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria) medusa. In toto histochemical staining revealed an acetylcholinesterase activity in the tentacle bulbs but not in the nervous system. Sequences homologous to acetylcholinesterase were searched within Clytia ESTs and compared to other sequences found in public databases.

  13. Properties of the Medussae Fossae Formation and its relation to the volcanic history of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Anton B.; Cantini, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Medussae Fossae (MFF) is a well known formation, stretching west of Tharsis volanoes. It is characterized as a relatively young Amazonian units (Amm, Amu), due to widespread signs of erosion. Earth based imaging radar observations at 3.5 cm [1] and 12 cm [2] have discovered a dark radar feature (Stealth), which roughly correlates with the MFF outline.Recent investigations [3], suggested that the unit emplacement is in fact during Hesperian period, but it is composed of material that can be easily eroded. It is not clear when the erosion happened and if it is a continuing process. Hypotheses on MFF formation range from volcanic material emplacement (ash flow tuffs or pyroclastic materials) to an ice-rich dusty mantle, deposited during high obliquity.In this work, we will present the latest observations of the East Medussae Fossae formation by the long wavelength MARSIS radar, continuing the work reported in [4], as well as complementing data surveyed by SHARAD data in [5]. The MARSIS radar has detected strong subsurface interfaces in the areas of Gordi and Eumenides Dorsae at depths up to 1.5km. We will present our analysis of the data, inferring the dielectric properties of the material to constrain properties of the material constituting the Medusae Fossae formation. We will also demonstrate an efficient user interface to work with MARSIS data inside a Geographical Information System (GIS).The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement 607379.[1] D. Muhleman, et al., "Radar images of mars," Science, vol. 253, no. 5027, 1991.[2] J. K. Harmon, et al., "Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces," Icarus, vol. 220, aug 2012.[3] L. Kerber, et al., "The dispersal of pyroclasts from Apollinaris Patera, Mars: Implications for the origin of the Medusae Fossae Formation," Icarus, vol. 216, nov 2011.[4] T. R. Watters, et al., "Radar Sounding of the

  14. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    PubMed

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of Population II stars in NGC 6397 (Lind+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, K.; Korn, A. J.; Barklem, P. S.; Grundahl, F.

    2010-03-01

    The target selection for the spectroscopic study is based on Stroemgren uvby photometry. The photometric observations were collected with the DFOSC instrument on the 1.5m telescope on La Silla, Chile, in 1997. Additional BVI photometric data were obtained in 2005. All spectroscopic data were collected in Service Mode, with the fibre-fed, multi-object, medium-high resolution spectrograph FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO-VLT. FLAMES allows for 132 objects to be observed simultaneously, with GIRAFFE in MEDUSA mode, between 2005 Mar 23 and Apr 04. (2 data files).

  16. The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network (DB1001)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Prinn, Ronald G. [MIT, Center for Global Change Science; Weiss, Ray F. [University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Krummel, Paul B. [CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Cape Grim; O'Doherty, Simon [University of Bristol, Barbados and Mace Head Stations; Fraser, Paul [CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere; Muhle, Jens [UCSD Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Cape Matatula Station; Reimann, Stefan [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Research (EMPA); Jungfraujoch Station; Vollmer, Martin [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Research (EMPA); Jungfraujoch Station; Simmonds, Peter G. [University of Bristol, Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group; Mace Head Station; Malone, Michela [University of Urbino; Monte Cimone Station; Arduini, Jgor [University of Urbino; Monte Cimone Station; Lunder, Chris [Norwegian Institute for Air Research; Ny Alesund Station; Hermansen, Ove [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller (Norway); Ny Alesund Station; Schmidbauer, Norbert [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller (Norway); Global Network; Young, Dickon [University of Bristol; Ragged Point Station; Wang, Hsiang J. (Ray) [Geogia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Global Network; Huang, Jin; Rigby, Matthew [University of Bristol; Global Network; Harth, Chris [UCSD, Scripps Institutioon of Oceanography; Global Network; Salameh, Peter [UCSD, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Global Network; Spain, Gerard [National University of Ireland; Global Network; Steele, Paul [CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere; Global Network; Arnold, Tim; Kim, Jooil [UCSD, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Global Network; Derek, Nada; mitrevski, Blagoj; Langenfelds, Ray

    2008-01-01

    In the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE global network program, continuous high frequency gas chromatographic measurements of four biogenic/anthropogenic gases (methane, CH4; nitrous oxide, N2O; hydrogen, H; and carbon monoxide, CO) and several anthropogenic gases that contribute to stratospheric ozone destruction and/or to the greenhouse effect have been carried out at five globally distributed sites for several years. The program, which began in 1978, is divided into three parts associated with three changes in instrumentation: the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE), which used Hewlett Packard HP5840 gas chromatographs; the Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE), which used HP5880 gas chromatographs; and the present Advanced GAGE (AGAGE). AGAGE uses two types of instruments: a gas chromatograph with multiple detectors (GC-MD), and a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). Beginning in January 2004, an improved cryogenic preconcentration system (Medusa) replaced the absorption-desorption module in the GC-MS systems at Mace Head and Cape Grim; this provided improved capability to measure a broader range of volatile perfluorocarbons with high global warming potentials. More information may be found at the AGAGE home page: http://agage.eas.gatech.edu/instruments-gcms-medusa.htm.

  17. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits: the Hardeberga Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Pedersen, Gunver K.

    2017-09-01

    During the early Cambrian, the Danish island Bornholm was situated on the northern edge of the continent Baltica with palaeolatitudes of about 35°S. An early Cambrian (Terreneuvian) transgression inundated large areas of Baltica including Bornholm creating shallow marine and coastline environments. During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well-preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal structures (medusoids) are present in the quarry, but due to the relative poor preservation of their fine-scale structures it is difficult to determine if the discoids represent true medusae imprints or inorganic structures. The preservation of the shallow-water bedforms as well as the possible medusae imprints is related to either the formation of thin mud layers, formed during a period of calm water when winds blew offshore for a longer period, or to the growth of bacterial mats. The orientation of the wave-formed bedforms indicates a local palaeoshoreline trending NE-SW and facing a large ocean to the north.

  18. Successional dynamics of marine fouling hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) at a finfish aquaculture facility in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bracale, Roberta; Carrion, Steven A.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Lezzi, Marco; Gravili, Cinzia; Piraino, Stefano; Boero, Ferdinando

    2018-01-01

    Aquaculture is increasing rapidly to meet global seafood demand. Some hydroid populations have been linked to mortality and health issues in finfish and shellfish, but their dynamics in and around aquaculture farms remain understudied. In the present work, two experiments, each with 36 panels, tested colonization (factors: depth, season of immersion) and succession (factors: depth, submersion duration) over one year. Hydroid surface cover was estimated for each species, and data were analyzed with multivariate techniques. The assemblage of hydrozoans was species-poor, although species richness, frequency and abundance increased with time, paralleling the overall increase in structural complexity of fouling assemblages. Submersion duration and season of immersion were particularly important in determining the species composition of the assemblages in the succession and colonization experiments, respectively. Production of water-borne propagules, including medusae, from the hydroids was observed from locally abundant colonies, among them the well-known fouling species Obelia dichotoma, potentially representing a nuisance for cultured fish through contact-driven envenomations and gill disorders. The results illustrate the potential importance of fouling hydroids and their medusae to the health of organisms in the aquaculture industry. PMID:29608614

  19. Jellies under ice: ROV observations from the Arctic 2005 hidden ocean expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskoff, K. A.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Kosobokova, K. N.; Purcell, J. E.; Youngbluth, M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide a baseline understanding of gelatinous zooplankton biodiversity and distribution in the rapidly changing Arctic Ocean, 12 stations were sampled across the Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge, and Chukchi Plateau with detailed deep-water ROV observations and multinet tows down to 3000 m. The complex, multi-origin water layers of the Arctic Ocean provided the backdrop for examining the vertical and horizontal distributions of the poorly understood meso and bathypelagic gelatinous taxa. Over 50 different gelatinous taxa were observed across the stations, with cnidarians being the most common group. Medusae accounted for 60% of all observations, siphonophores for 24%, larvaceans for 10%, ctenophores for 5%, and numerous interesting and rarer taxa constituted the remaining 1% of observations. Several new species were found and many major range extensions were observed. Both the vertical and horizontal distribution of species appear to be linked to water mass characteristics, as well as bottom topography and geographic location within the study area. Shallow slope and ridge areas around the Canada Basin and Chukchi Plateau appear to harbor substantially lower gelatinous zooplankton biomass and diversity than the deeper locations. Shallow stations not only show reduced abundance, but also different relative abundance of the major taxa, where the shallow water stations are dominated by large numbers of siphonophores and ctenophores, the deep stations are dominated by medusae. Taxonomic issues and ecological observations of several important species are discussed, aided by the live collection of many undamaged and fragile species.

  20. Distribution of planktonic cnidarians in response to South Atlantic Central Water intrusion in the South Brazilian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico P.; Codina, Juan C. U.

    2014-10-01

    Five oceanographic cruises were made between November 2005 and June 2006, sampling a cross-shelf transect off the South Brazilian Bight (SBB; 26°46‧S) to follow the seasonal development of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) intrusion over the shelf and its influence on the assemblage of planktonic cnidarians. An onshore wind-driven bottom intrusion of the SACW was clearly perceptible, reaching the coast in January. From March onward, the SACW influence was gradually displaced seaward due to wind and tidal mixing. By late June the SACW influence was offshore and the inshore was dominated by low-salinity waters (<34.5). The abundance, distribution, and general taxonomic composition of both medusae and siphonophores were strongly influenced by the onshore intrusion of the SACW. An inshore-offshore gradient was clear. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggested that coastal species - dominated by Liriope tetraphylla, actinula larvae and Muggiaea kochi - were mostly related to food availability and a vertically mixed environment inshore, and their abundance and extent were reduced during intrusion periods. In contrast, species with offshore affinities tended to increase their abundance and distribution during intrusion periods, and were mostly related to the presence of thermal stratification and a deep chlorophyll maximum layer. Most of these offshore species, such as Aglaura hemistoma, Rhopalonema velatum and many calycophorans, are associated with the warm upper layer. However, high concentrations of large (>20 mm in diameter) Solmaris corona were observed exclusively in cold waters, suggesting this medusa is a SACW indicator.

  1. Distribution and relative importance of jellyfish in a region of hydrothermal venting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Brenda J.; Thomson, Richard E.

    2000-09-01

    Net sampling to 3000 m depth at Endeavour Ridge in the northeast Pacific in July 1991-1994 shows that medusae in the immediate vicinity of the hydrothermal vent fields often make up a larger proportion of the total zooplankton abundance and biomass from mesopelagic to bathypelagic depths than in the surrounding waters. This was particularly evident in the dominant Trachymedusae, and least evident in the siphonophores. In addition, the large red Scyphomedusa Stygiomedusa gigantea was a major biomass component in the region of the deep (1000-1800 m depth) migrating scattering layers at the vent field, but was not found in any net tows greater than 10 km away from vents. There is no concurrent increase in relative or percent biomass of fish or chaetognaths, which are the other major predators in the community. We hypothesize that predaceous medusae respond opportunistically to the enhanced zooplankton biomass throughout the water column around vents in spring to early summer, in a way that other predators do not.

  2. 10000 pixels wide CMOS frame imager for earth observation from a HALE UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delauré, B.; Livens, S.; Everaerts, J.; Kleihorst, R.; Schippers, Gert; de Wit, Yannick; Compiet, John; Banachowicz, Bartosz

    2009-09-01

    MEDUSA is the lightweight high resolution camera, designed to be operated from a solar-powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flying at stratospheric altitudes. The instrument is a technology demonstrator within the Pegasus program and targets applications such as crisis management and cartography. A special wide swath CMOS imager has been developed by Cypress Semiconductor Cooperation Belgium to meet the specific sensor requirements of MEDUSA. The CMOS sensor has a stitched design comprising a panchromatic and color sensor on the same die. Each sensor consists of 10000*1200 square pixels (5.5μm size, novel 6T architecture) with micro-lenses. The exposure is performed by means of a high efficiency snapshot shutter. The sensor is able to operate at a rate of 30fps in full frame readout. Due to a novel pixel design, the sensor has low dark leakage of the memory elements (PSNL) and low parasitic light sensitivity (PLS). Still it maintains a relative high QE (Quantum efficiency) and a FF (fill factor) of over 65%. It features an MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) higher than 60% at Nyquist frequency in both X and Y directions The measured optical/electrical crosstalk (expressed as MTF) of this 5.5um pixel is state-of-the art. These properties makes it possible to acquire sharp images also in low-light conditions.

  3. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa) in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Canepa, Antonio; Fuentes, Verónica; Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Acevedo, Melissa; Toledo-Guedes, Kilian; Ortiz, Antonio; Durá, Elia; Bordehore, César; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae) along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain) in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models) to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current) affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates) were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary) production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  4. Diversity Dynamics in Nymphalidae Butterflies: Effect of Phylogenetic Uncertainty on Diversification Rate Shift Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Carlos; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC) is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE) and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution. PMID:25830910

  5. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa) in South-Western Mediterranean coasts

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Verónica; Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Acevedo, Melissa; Toledo-Guedes, Kilian; Ortiz, Antonio; Durá, Elia; Bordehore, César; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae) along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain) in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models) to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current) affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates) were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary) production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities. PMID:28746410

  6. Ecological aspects and potential impacts of the non-native hydromedusa Blackfordia virginica in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Filipa; Angélico, Maria Manuel; Costa, José Lino; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Presado, Patrícia; Fernandes, António; Chainho, Paula; Domingos, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    The hydrozoan Blackfordia virginica has been reported over a wide geographical area, although it is mainly restricted to scattered records within estuarine areas of temperate and tropical regions. The aim of this study was to understand the spatial and temporal variability of an established population of this non-indigenous species on a temperate estuarine ecosystem, and its impacts over the plankton community. Sampling was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in the Mira estuary (Portugal) and higher densities were observed during the summer of 2013, with a maximum of 1689.3 medusae.m-3. Spatially, higher abundances of medusae were associated with sites of higher abundance of oyster shells and higher percentage of hard substrate in the river bed. Smaller jellyfish were sampled in the vicinity of these hard substrate locations, suggesting these might be habitats for polyp fixation. A higher potential predation impact on the copepod population along the estuary was estimated for the summer of 2013, with a median half life of 6.1 days.

  7. The low diverse gastric microbiome of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata is dominated by four novel taxa.

    PubMed

    Viver, Tomeu; Orellana, Luis H; Hatt, Janet K; Urdiain, Mercedes; Díaz, Sara; Richter, Michael; Antón, Josefa; Avian, Massimo; Amann, Rudolf; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2017-08-01

    Cotylorhiza tuberculata is an important scyphozoan jellyfish producing population blooms in the Mediterranean probably due to pelagic ecosystem's decay. Its gastric cavity can serve as a simple model of microbial-animal digestive associations, yet poorly characterized. Using state-of-the-art metagenomic population binning and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we show that only four novel clonal phylotypes were consistently associated with multiple jellyfish adults. Two affiliated close to Spiroplasma and Mycoplasma genera, one to chlamydial 'Candidatus Syngnamydia', and one to bacteroidetal Tenacibaculum, and were at least one order of magnitude more abundant than any other bacteria detected. Metabolic modelling predicted an aerobic heterotrophic lifestyle for the chlamydia, which were found intracellularly in Onychodromopsis-like ciliates. The Spiroplasma-like organism was predicted to be an anaerobic fermenter associated to some jellyfish cells, whereas the Tenacibaculum-like as free-living aerobic heterotroph, densely colonizing the mesogleal axis inside the gastric filaments. The association between the jellyfish and its reduced microbiome was close and temporally stable, and possibly related to food digestion and protection from pathogens. Based on the genomic and microscopic data, we propose three candidate taxa: 'Candidatus Syngnamydia medusae', 'Candidatus Medusoplasma mediterranei' and 'Candidatus Tenacibaculum medusae'. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of the origin of giant jellyfish near Qinhuangdao in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lingjuan; Wu, Xiaofen; Bai, Tao

    2017-09-01

    A massive bloom of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai occurred in waters offQinhuangdao, a port city in Hebei Province, in July 2013. However, jellyfish larvae were not found in this location during the previous winter and spring. To determine the possible origin of the giant jellyfish medusa in the Bohai Sea, we developed a backward particle-tracking model and a series of numerical simulations were conducted by using the hydrodynamic, three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) results. The simulated results showed that passive particles, representing jellyfish medusae, released in surface waters at different dates during the summer had consistent trajectories. Particles released at the sea surface on August 1 and 15 could be traced back to the center of the Bohai Sea and to waters between Feiyan Shoal and the new Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary. Particles released on July 1 and 15 could also be traced back to the center of the Bohai Sea and to waters between Feiyan Shoal and only to Zhuangxi tide station. However, none of the particles released in the middle and bottom water layers could be traced back to those areas. Based on the results of the numerical simulations, the distribution characteristics of seafloor sediments, and observational data for giant jellyfish in the region, we suggest that waters between Feiyan Shoal and the new Huanghe River estuary are the likely origin of giant jellyfish observed near Qinhuangdao in summer.

  9. Diversity dynamics in Nymphalidae butterflies: effect of phylogenetic uncertainty on diversification rate shift estimates.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC) is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE) and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution.

  10. Evidence of Cnidarians sensitivity to sound after exposure to low frequency noise underwater sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Fontuño, José Manuel; Durfort, Mercè; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Jellyfishes represent a group of species that play an important role in oceans, particularly as a food source for different taxa and as a predator of fish larvae and planktonic prey. The massive introduction of artificial sound sources in the oceans has become a concern to science and society. While we are only beginning to understand that non-hearing specialists like cephalopods can be affected by anthropogenic noises and regulation is underway to measure European water noise levels, we still don’t know yet if the impact of sound may be extended to other lower level taxa of the food web. Here we exposed two species of Mediterranean Scyphozoan medusa, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo to a sweep of low frequency sounds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in the statocyst sensory epithelium of both species after exposure to sound, that are consistent with the manifestation of a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species. The presence of acoustic trauma in marine species that are not hearing specialists, like medusa, shows the magnitude of the problem of noise pollution and the complexity of the task to determine threshold values that would help building up regulation to prevent permanent damage of the ecosystems.

  11. Prevailing Negative Soil Biota Effect and No Evidence for Local Adaptation in a Widespread Eurasian Grass

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Viktoria; Antunes, Pedro M.; Ristow, Michael; Lechner, Ute; Hensen, Isabell

    2011-01-01

    Background Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10–80 km) and between (ca. 3300 km) regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their ‘home soil’ was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant - soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified. PMID:21479262

  12. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Seasonal changes in infection with trematode species utilizing jellyfish as hosts: evidence of transmission to definitive host fish via medusivory

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Okada, Shoma; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Shimazu, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In the Seto Inland Sea of western Japan, metacercariae of three species of trematodes, Lepotrema clavatum Ozaki, 1932, Cephalolepidapedon saba Yamaguti, 1970, and Opechona olssoni (Yamaguti, 1934), were found in the mesoglea of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l., Chrysaora pacifica, and Cyanea nozakii. Moreover, these jellyfish frequently harbored juveniles of the fish species Psenopsis anomala, Thamnaconus modestus, and Trachurus japonicus. The former two fish species are well-known medusivores. We investigated seasonal changes in the prevalence and intensity of these metacercariae in their host jellyfish from March 2010 to September 2012 and presumed that infection by the trematodes of the definitive host fish occurs through these associations. The mean intensity of metacercariae in A. aurita s.l. clearly showed seasonality, being consistently high in June of each year. The intensity of metacercariae in C. nozakii was highest among all jellyfish hosts and appeared to be enhanced by medusivory of this second intermediate, and/or paratenic host. Trophic interactions between jellyfish and associated fish were verified using both gut content and stable isotope analyses. The detection of trematodes and nematocysts in the guts of P. anomala and T. modestus juveniles, in addition to stable isotope analysis, suggests that transmission of the parasites occurs via prey-predator relationships. In addition, the stable isotope analysis also suggested that P. anomala is more nutritionally dependent on jellyfish than Th. modestus and Tr. japonicus. PMID:27055563

  14. Comparative morphology of the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera (Insecta: Odonata): Functional aspects of the flight apparatus.

    PubMed

    Bäumler, Fabian; Gorb, Stanislav N; Büsse, Sebastian

    2018-05-02

    Due to their unique flight mechanism including a direct flight musculature, Odonata show impressive flight skills. Several publications addressed the details of this flight apparatus like: sclerites, wings, musculature, and flight aerodynamics. However, 3D-analysis of the thorax musculature of adult dragonflies was not studied before and this paper allows for a detailed insight. We, therefore, focused on the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera using micro-computed tomography. Herewith, we present a comparative morphological approach to identify differences within Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, and Libellulidae. In total, 54 muscles were identified: 16 prothoracic, 19 mesothoracic, and 19 metathoracic. Recorded differences were for example, the reduction of muscle Idlm4 and an additional muscle IIIdlm1 in Aeshna cyanea, previously described as rudimentary or missing. Muscle Iscm1, which was previously reported missing in all Odonata, was found in all investigated species. The attachment of muscle IIpcm2 in Pantala flavescens is interpreted as a probable adaption to its long-distance migration behaviour. Furthermore, we present a review of functions of the odonatan flight muscles, considering previous publications. The data herein set a basis for functional and biomechanical studies of the flight apparatus and will therefore lay the foundation for a better understanding of the odonatan flight. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  16. Breeding bird assemblages associated with stages of forest succession in large river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; McColl, L.E.; Suarez, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain forests rival all other habitat types in bird density and diversity. However, major successional changes are predicted for floodplain forests along the Mississippi River in the coming decades; young forests may replace the existing mature silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) forests in some areas. We wanted to assess how the breeding bird community might respond to these changes. We studied stands of young forests along the middle Mississippi River, comparing the breeding bird assemblages among three stages of forest succession: shrub/scrub, young cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall) and willow (Salix nigra Marshall) forests, and mature silver maple dominated forests. We recorded a total of 54 bird species; the most frequently observed species were the indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Bird species richness differed among the habitat types, with mature forests supporting the largest number of species and the most species of management concern. The shrub/scrub and mature forest bird assemblages were distinct and shared few species, but the young forests had no identifiable bird species assemblage, sharing species found in both of the other habitat types. The bird assemblages we observed in young forests may become more prevalent as aging floodplain forests are replaced with younger stages of forest succession. Under this scenario, we would expect a temporary local decrease in bird species richness and habitat for species of management concern.

  17. Effects of prey density, temperature and predator diversity on nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality in a freshwater food web.

    PubMed

    Veselý, Lukáš; Boukal, David S; Buřič, Miloš; Kozák, Pavel; Kouba, Antonín; Sentis, Arnaud

    2017-12-22

    Nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality (NCM), defined as prey mortality due to predation that does not result in prey consumption, is an underestimated component of predator-prey interactions with possible implications for population dynamics and ecosystem functioning. However, the biotic and abiotic factors influencing this mortality component remain largely unexplored, leaving a gap in our understanding of the impacts of environmental change on ecological communities. We investigated the effects of temperature, prey density, and predator diversity and density on NCM in an aquatic food web module composed of dragonfly larvae (Aeshna cyanea) and marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) preying on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry. We found that NCM increased with prey density and depended on the functional diversity and density of the predator community. Warming significantly reduced NCM only in the dragonfly larvae but the magnitude depended on dragonfly larvae density. Our results indicate that energy transfer across trophic levels is more efficient due to lower NCM in functionally diverse predator communities, at lower resource densities and at higher temperatures. This suggests that environmental changes such as climate warming and reduced resource availability could increase the efficiency of energy transfer in food webs only if functionally diverse predator communities are conserved.

  18. The relative importance of prey-borne and predator-borne chemical cues for inducible antipredator responses in tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Hettyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Frommen, Joachim G; Penn, Dustin J; Van Buskirk, Josh

    2015-11-01

    Chemical cues that evoke anti-predator developmental changes have received considerable attention, but it is not known to what extent prey use information from the smell of predators and from cues released through digestion. We conducted an experiment to determine the importance of various types of cues for the adjustment of anti-predator defences. We exposed tadpoles (common frog, Rana temporaria) to water originating from predators (caged dragonfly larvae, Aeshna cyanea) that were fed different types and quantities of prey outside of tadpole-rearing containers. Variation among treatments in the magnitude of morphological and behavioural responses was highly consistent. Our results demonstrate that tadpoles can assess the threat posed by predators through digestion-released, prey-borne cues and continually released predator-borne cues. These cues may play an important role in the fine-tuning of anti-predator responses and significantly affect the outcome of interactions between predators and prey in aquatic ecosystems. There has been much confusion regards terminology used in the literature, and therefore we also propose a more precise and consistent binomial nomenclature based on the timing of chemical cue release (stress-, attack-, capture-, digestion- or continually released cues) and the origin of cues (prey-borne or predator-borne cues). We hope that this new nomenclature will improve comparisons among studies on this topic.

  19. The effects of patch shape on indigo buntings. Evidence for an ecological trap

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Aimee J.; Haddad, Nick M.

    2005-01-01

    Weldon, Aimee, J., and Nick M. Haddad. 2005. The effect of patch shape on indigo buntings: Evidence for an ecological trap. Ecology 86(6):1422-1431. Abstract. Habitat loss and fragmentation have led to a widespread increase in the proportion of edge habitat in the landscape. Disturbance-dependent bird species are widely assumed to benefit from these edges. However, anthropogenic edges may concentrate nest predators while retaining habitat cues that birds use to select breeding habitat. This may lead birds to mistakenly select dangerous habitat a phenomenon known as an ecological trap. We experimentally demonstrated how habitat shape, and thus amount of edge, canmore » adversely affect nest site selection and reproductive success of a disturbance-dependent bird species, the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). We did so within a landscape-scale experiment composed of equal-area habitat patches that differed in their amount of edge. Indigo Buntings preferentially selected edgy patches, which contained 50% more edge than more compact rectangular patches. Further, buntings fledged significantly fewer young per pair in edgy patches than in rectangular patches. These results provide the first experimental evidence that edges can function as ecological traps.« less

  20. Patterns of cowbird parasitism in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont.

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Kilgo; C.E. Moorman

    2003-09-01

    Until recently, little information was available on patterns of brood parasitism by Brownheaded Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in the southeastern United States, a region into which cowbirds expanded their range only during the last half of the Twentieth Century and where their abundance is relatively low. We compiled parasitism data from several published and unpublished studies conducted in Georgia and South Carolina from 1993-2000 to examine levels of brood parasitism and determine frequent host species. The combined dataset included 1,372 nests of 24 species reported in the literature to have been parasitized by cowbirds. The parasitism rate on all species combinedmore » was 8.2%. Considering only those species that served as hosts in these studies (n = I2), the parasitism rate was 9.3%. Seven species were parasitized at rates 2 10%. Based on the extent of parasitism (among studies and locations), their relative abundance, and the sample size of nests, Prairie Warblers (Dendroicta discolor), Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina), Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), all shrub nesters, appear to be the most important cowbird hosts in the region. Parasitism on some species reported as frequent hosts elsewhere was extremely low or not documented. We conclude that the impact of brood parasitism on the seasonal fecundity of hosts in the region probably is minimal, but additional work is warranted on species of concern, such as the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris).« less

  1. A Gibbs sampler for Bayesian analysis of site-occupancy data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Rodriguez, Daniel Taylor

    2012-01-01

    1. A Bayesian analysis of site-occupancy data containing covariates of species occurrence and species detection probabilities is usually completed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in conjunction with software programs that can implement those methods for any statistical model, not just site-occupancy models. Although these software programs are quite flexible, considerable experience is often required to specify a model and to initialize the Markov chain so that summaries of the posterior distribution can be estimated efficiently and accurately. 2. As an alternative to these programs, we develop a Gibbs sampler for Bayesian analysis of site-occupancy data that include covariates of species occurrence and species detection probabilities. This Gibbs sampler is based on a class of site-occupancy models in which probabilities of species occurrence and detection are specified as probit-regression functions of site- and survey-specific covariate measurements. 3. To illustrate the Gibbs sampler, we analyse site-occupancy data of the blue hawker, Aeshna cyanea (Odonata, Aeshnidae), a common dragonfly species in Switzerland. Our analysis includes a comparison of results based on Bayesian and classical (non-Bayesian) methods of inference. We also provide code (based on the R software program) for conducting Bayesian and classical analyses of site-occupancy data.

  2. Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.E.; Peterson, J.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

  3. [Molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.) based on partial sequencing of mitochondrial 16S rDNA and COI].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Zhen, Yu; Wang, Guo-shan; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2013-03-01

    Taking the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. commonly found in our coastal sea areas as test object, its genome DNA was extracted, the partial sequences of mt-16S rDNA (650 bp) and mt-COI (709 bp) were PCR-amplified, and, after purification, cloning, and sequencing, the sequences obtained were BLASTn-analyzed. The sequences of greater difference with those of the other jellyfish were chosen, and eight specific primers for the mt-16S rDNA and mt-COI of Aurelia sp. were designed, respectively. The specificity test indicated that the primer AS3 for the mt-16S rDNA and the primer AC3 for the mt-COI were excellent in rapidly detecting the target jellyfish from Rhopilema esculentum, Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii, Acromitus sp., and Aurelia sp., and thus, the techniques for the molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish were preliminarily established, which could get rid of the limitations in classical morphological identification of Aurelia sp. , being able to find the Aurelia sp. in the samples more quickly and accurately.

  4. Impact of forest type and management strategy on avian densities in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Avian territory densities were determined from 20 Breeding Bird Censuses in mature (>30 years) bottomland hardwood stand: and 18 Breeding Bird Censuses in young (6-9 years old) cottonwood (Populas deltoides) plantations in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Avian species richness, diversity, and territory density were greater (p 0.05). Even so, detrended correspondence analysis based on avian territory densities readily segregated forest types and silvicultural treatments. Timber harvest within bottomland hardwood stands resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in cottonwood stands by increasing the densities of early-successional species such as Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens), and Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). Conversely, regenerating cottonwood stands from root sprouts, rather than planting stem cuttings, resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in bottomland hardwood stands by increasing densities of species such as White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) and Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). Tree species diversity, angular canopy cover, and midstory density were positively associated with bird species assemblages in bottomland hardwood stands, whereas vegetation density at ground level was positively associated with bird communities in cottonwood plantations. Conversion of agricultural fields to short-rotation cottonwood plantations results in increased breeding bird populations by adding up to 140 additional territories 40 ha-1. Even so, relative conservation values, derive, from indicator species analysis and Partners in Flight concern scores, suggest that mature bottomland hardwood forests are twice as 'valuable' for bird conservation as are cottonwood plantations.

  5. Molecular Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Neotropical Swarm-Founding Social Wasp Genus Synoeca (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Rodolpho Santos Telles; Brady, Seán Gary; Carvalho, Antônio Freire; Del Lama, Marco Antonio; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical Region harbors high biodiversity and many studies on mammals, reptiles, amphibians and avifauna have investigated the causes for this pattern. However, there is a paucity of such studies that focus on Neotropical insect groups. Synoeca de Saussure, 1852 is a Neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus with five described species that is broadly and conspicuously distributed throughout the Neotropics. Here, we infer the phylogenetic relationships, diversification times, and historical biogeography of Synoeca species. We also investigate samples of the disjoint populations of S. septentrionalis that occur in both northwestern parts of South America through Central American and the Brazilian Atlantic rainforests. Our results showed that the interspecific relationships for Synoeca could be described as follows: (S. chalibea + S. virginea) + (S. cyanea + (S. septentrionalis/S. surinama)). Notably, samples of S. septentrionalis and S. surinama collected in the Atlantic Forest were interrelated and may be the result of incomplete lineage sorting and/or mitochondrial introgression among them. Our Bayesian divergence dating analysis revealed recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification in Synoeca. Moreover, our biogeographical analysis suggested an Amazonian origin of Synoeca, with three main dispersal events subsequently occurring during the Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:25738705

  6. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  7. Spatial heterogeneity and scale-dependent habitat selection for two sympatric raptors in mixed-grass prairie.

    PubMed

    Atuo, Fidelis Akunke; O'Connell, Timothy John

    2017-08-01

    Sympatric predators are predicted to partition resources, especially under conditions of food limitation. Spatial heterogeneity that influences prey availability might play an important role in the scales at which potential competitors select habitat. We assessed potential mechanisms for coexistence by examining the role of heterogeneity in resource partitioning between sympatric raptors overwintering in the southern Great Plains. We conducted surveys for wintering Red-tailed hawk ( Buteo jamaicensis ) and Northern Harrier ( Circus cyanea ) at two state wildlife management areas in Oklahoma, USA. We used information from repeated distance sampling to project use locations in a GIS. We applied resource selection functions to model habitat selection at three scales and analyzed for niche partitioning using the outlying mean index. Habitat selection of the two predators was mediated by spatial heterogeneity. The two predators demonstrated significant fine-scale discrimination in habitat selection in homogeneous landscapes, but were more sympatric in heterogeneous landscapes. Red-tailed hawk used a variety of cover types in heterogeneous landscapes but specialized on riparian forest in homogeneous landscapes. Northern Harrier specialized on upland grasslands in homogeneous landscapes but selected more cover types in heterogeneous landscapes. Our study supports the growing body of evidence that landscapes can affect animal behaviors. In the system we studied, larger patches of primary land cover types were associated with greater allopatry in habitat selection between two potentially competing predators. Heterogeneity within the scale of raptor home ranges was associated with greater sympatry in use and less specialization in land cover types selected.

  8. Reef Fish Community Biomass and Trophic Structure Changes across Shallow to Upper-Mesophotic Reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Gress, Erika; Wright, Georgina; Exton, Dan A.; Rogers, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; reefs 30-150m depth) are of increased research interest because of their potential role as depth refuges from many shallow reef threats. Yet few studies have identified patterns in fish species composition and trophic group structure between MCEs and their shallow counterparts. Here we explore reef fish species and biomass distributions across shallow to upper-MCE Caribbean reef gradients (5-40m) around Utila, Honduras, using a diver-operated stereo-video system. Broadly, we found reef fish species richness, abundance and biomass declining with depth. At the trophic group level we identified declines in herbivores (both total and relative community biomass) with depth, mostly driven by declines in parrotfish (Scaridae). Piscivores increased as a proportion of the community with increased depth while, in contrast to previous studies, we found no change in relative planktivorous reef fish biomass across the depth gradient. In addition, we also found evidence of ontogenetic migrations in the blue tang (Acanthurus coeruleus), striped parrotfish (Scarus iserti), blue chromis (Chromis cyanea), creole wrasse (Clepticus parrae), bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) and yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus), with a higher proportion of larger individuals at mesophotic and near-mesophotic depths than on shallow reefs. Our results highlight the importance of using biomass measures when considering fish community changes across depth gradients, with biomass generating different results to simple abundance counts. PMID:27332811

  9. Seasonal changes in infection with trematode species utilizing jellyfish as hosts: evidence of transmission to definitive host fish via medusivory.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Okada, Shoma; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Shimazu, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In the Seto Inland Sea of western Japan, metacercariae of three species of trematodes, Lepotrema clavatum Ozaki, 1932, Cephalolepidapedon saba Yamaguti, 1970, and Opechona olssoni (Yamaguti, 1934), were found in the mesoglea of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l., Chrysaora pacifica, and Cyanea nozakii. Moreover, these jellyfish frequently harbored juveniles of the fish species Psenopsis anomala, Thamnaconus modestus, and Trachurus japonicus. The former two fish species are well-known medusivores. We investigated seasonal changes in the prevalence and intensity of these metacercariae in their host jellyfish from March 2010 to September 2012 and presumed that infection by the trematodes of the definitive host fish occurs through these associations. The mean intensity of metacercariae in A. aurita s.l. clearly showed seasonality, being consistently high in June of each year. The intensity of metacercariae in C. nozakii was highest among all jellyfish hosts and appeared to be enhanced by medusivory of this second intermediate, and/or paratenic host. Trophic interactions between jellyfish and associated fish were verified using both gut content and stable isotope analyses. The detection of trematodes and nematocysts in the guts of P. anomala and T. modestus juveniles, in addition to stable isotope analysis, suggests that transmission of the parasites occurs via prey-predator relationships. In addition, the stable isotope analysis also suggested that P. anomala is more nutritionally dependent on jellyfish than Th. modestus and Tr. japonicus. © Y. Kondo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  10. Automated recognition of bird song elements from continuous recordings using dynamic time warping and hidden Markov models: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kogan, J A; Margoliash, D

    1998-04-01

    The performance of two techniques is compared for automated recognition of bird song units from continuous recordings. The advantages and limitations of dynamic time warping (DTW) and hidden Markov models (HMMs) are evaluated on a large database of male songs of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), which have different types of vocalizations and have been recorded under different laboratory conditions. Depending on the quality of recordings and complexity of song, the DTW-based technique gives excellent to satisfactory performance. Under challenging conditions such as noisy recordings or presence of confusing short-duration calls, good performance of the DTW-based technique requires careful selection of templates that may demand expert knowledge. Because HMMs are trained, equivalent or even better performance of HMMs can be achieved based only on segmentation and labeling of constituent vocalizations, albeit with many more training examples than DTW templates. One weakness in HMM performance is the misclassification of short-duration vocalizations or song units with more variable structure (e.g., some calls, and syllables of plastic songs). To address these and other limitations, new approaches for analyzing bird vocalizations are discussed.

  11. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  12. Effects of Weightlessness of Aurelia Ephyra Differentiation and Statolith Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Aurelia polyps are especially suited for space flight experiments because they are very small (2 to 4 mm), form ephyrae with gravity sensing structures in 6 to 7 days, and can be reared easily and inexpensively in the laboratory. During iodine-induced metamorphosis ephyrae develop in sequential order from the oral to the aboral end of the polyps. Eight sites of gravity receptors (rhopalia) form per ephyra. These structures have sacs of statoliths at their distal end, which are composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. Only one statolith forms per cell (statocyte) and the cells collect at the distal end of the rhopalia forming statocysts. Rhopalia with statocysts are necessary for the righting reflex of swimming medusae. Using the Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System (Spangenberg, 1984) for the past eight months, the effects of clinostat rotation in the horizontal and verticall planes on the development of ephyrae and the synthesis of their statoliths were investigated.

  13. An orientation-independent DIC microscope allows high resolution imaging of epithelial cell migration and wound healing in a Cnidarian model

    PubMed Central

    Malamy, Jocelyn; Shribak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast (OI-DIC) microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. OI-DIC provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, non-transgenic animal model. In particular, the OI-DIC microscope equipped with a 40×/0.75NA objective lens and using the illumination light with wavelength 546 nm demonstrated a resolution of 460 nm. The repair of individual cells, the adhesion of cells to close a gap, and the concomitant contraction of these cells during closure is clearly visualized. PMID:29345317

  14. An orientation-independent DIC microscope allows high resolution imaging of epithelial cell migration and wound healing in a cnidarian model.

    PubMed

    Malamy, J E; Shribak, M

    2018-06-01

    Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. Orientation-independent differential interference contrast provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, nontransgenic animal model. In particular, the orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope equipped with a 40x/0.75NA objective lens and using the illumination light with wavelength 546 nm demonstrated a resolution of 460 nm. The repair of individual cells, the adhesion of cells to close a gap, and the concomitant contraction of these cells during closure is clearly visualized. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. [Research advances in the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of Aurelia spp].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Aurelia spp. is a cosmopolitan coastal species, and also, one dominant species of large jellyfish in the coastal waters of China. In recent years, Aurelia spp. bloom events occur frequently in the world, causing severe damage to marine ecosystems, coastal economy, and society development. Aurelia spp. has a complicated life history comprising a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp generation and a sexually-reproducing medusa generation, and various vegetative reproduction (budding, strobilation, and podocyst production) and sexual reproduction. Surrounding physical and biological factors affect each growth stage of Aurelia spp., especially the juvenile stage of planktonic-benthic life cycle, which has major effect on the population dynamics of Aurelia spp. This paper reviewed the research advances in the effects of environmental factors on Aurelia spp. at its different growth and development stages, and discussed some problems worthy of further study, aimed to provide useful reference for the research of the key factors controlling the jellyfish blooms in coastal waters of China.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: He abundances in M30 and NGC 6397 (Mucciarelli+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we analyzed a set of high-resolution spectra acquired with the multi-object spectrograph FLAMES in the MEDUSA/GIRAFFE mode at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The spectra are part of a data set secured within a project aimed at studying the general properties of blue straggler stars (Ferraro et al. 2006ApJ...647L..53F, 2009Natur.462.1028F, 2012Natur.492..393F; Lovisi et al. 2012, J/ApJ/754/91; 2013, J/ApJ/772/148). The employed GIRAFFE grating is HR5A (4340-4587 Å, with a spectral resolution of ~18000), suitable to sample the He I line at 4471.5 Å. Spectra have been reduced with the standard ESO FLAMES pipeline. Six exposures of 45 minutes each have been secured in each cluster. (1 data file).

  17. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Lentigo Maligna.

    PubMed

    Gamo, R; Pampín, A; Floristán, U

    2016-12-01

    Lentigo maligna is the most common type of facial melanoma. Diagnosis is complicated, however, as it shares clinical and dermoscopic characteristics with other cutaneous lesions of the face. Reflectance confocal microscopy is an imaging technique that permits the visualization of characteristic features of lentigo maligna. These include a disrupted honeycomb pattern and pagetoid cells with a tendency to show folliculotropism. These cells typically have a dendritic morphology, although they may also appear as round cells measuring over 20μm with atypical nuclei. Poorly defined dermal papillae and atypical cells may be seen at the dermal-epidermal junction and can form bridges resembling mitochondrial structures. Other characteristic findings include junctional swelling with atypical cells located around the follicles, resembling caput medusae. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a very useful tool for diagnosing lentigo maligna. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Mars Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Mars South Pole CO2 Paleoatmosphere; 2) Do SNC Noble Gas and Deuterium Data Provide Evidence for Large Cometary Impact Between 1300-300 Ma on Mars? 3) Medusae Fossae Formation: Ice-rich Airborne Dust Deposited During Periods of High Obliquity? 4) Ascraeus Mons, Mars: Characterisation and Interpretation of the Fan-shaped Deposit on Its Western Flank; 5) Evidence of Recent Glaciation in Elysium Planitia, Mars; 6) Craters and Other Circular Features in the Northern Circumpolar Area, Mars; 7) Intra-Annual Variations of the Martian Swiss-Cheese Terrain; 8) Drastic Climate Change of Mars Induced by H2O Ice Caps; 9) Modelling the Mass Balance of the North Polar Ice Cap on Mars.

  19. Turning Mechanics During Swimming by Oblate Hydromedusae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, J.; Colin, S.; Sutherland, K.; Gemmell, B. J.

    2016-02-01

    Maneuverability is critical to the success of many species. Selective forces acting over millions of years have resulted in a range of capabilities currently unmatched by machines. Thus, understanding animal control of fluids for maneuvering has both biological and engineering applications. Medusae are radially symmetrical swimmers that must use asymmetric body motions to change direction during turning maneuvers. But what types of asymmetric motions are useful and how do they interact with surrounding fluids to generate rotational forces? We used high speed digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to investigate comparative swimming patterns of three hydromedusan species (Aequorea victoria, Clytia gregaria and Mitrocoma cellularia). We provide evidence for consistent animal-fluid interactions that underlie turning mechanics of oblate hydromedusae and provide new insights into the modulation and control of vorticity for low-speed animal maneuvering.

  20. Visual observations of the vertical distribution of plankton throughout the water column above Broken Spur vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchaka, A. L.; Vinogradov, G. M.

    1999-09-01

    Visual observations were made in September 1997 during the 39 cruise of R/V "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" with 2 deep-sea manned submersibles "Mir" aboard. During 4 dives the following plankton countings were made: 3 vertical throughout the water column during the day, 2 vertical in the upper 1000 m at night, and 1 oblique in the plume area during the day. Biomass profiles are represented for each dive for all abundant animal groups: copepods, euphausiids+decapods+mysids, chaetognaths, medusae, ctenophores, siphonophores, cyclothones, myctophides, radiolarians, and the total zooplankton. Plankton distribution shows 2 aggregations, one within the main pycnocline and the other near the plume; Gelatinous animals and radiolarians dominate in both aggregations by biomass and make a significant contribution to the plankton biomass throughout the water column. Oblique counting indicates the presence of aggregations of animals near the upper and lower borders of the plume and biomass depletion within the plume core.

  1. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    to fuel cellular functions. "We think this chemical process did not exist when life first formed on Earth," he says, "because it is based on oxygen being available, and there was little oxygen available on the early Earth." It is possible that there are anaerobic regions beneath the sea floor in which life forms like those early non-Krebs Cycle microbes may yet exist. To detect and potentially collect samples of life emerging from hydrothermal vents, Flynn and his colleagues created Medusa, a multi-sensor instrument designed for long-term observation of diked vents on the ocean floor. When the vents erupt, Medusa assesses indicators of life within the expelled water. If the results are positive, the observatory collects samples and detaches from the ocean floor, making the long journey to the surface for retrieval by scientists. One of the indicators Medusa measures is the ratio of carbon isotopes in the water, namely carbon-12 and carbon-13. Living organisms preferentially take up carbon-12, Flynn says, so examining the ratio of these isotopes can help to determine the source of carbon in an environment as either biological or non-biological. "On Mars, there is evidence of localized methane in the atmosphere, and that methane could come from biological sources or from geochemical ones," Flynn says. "Determining the background planetary carbon isotope ratios and then evaluating the specific carbon ratios in this methane would help to determine how it was formed." A long-duration observatory similar to Medusa could one day provide essential evidence for or against the presence of life on the Red Planet or beneath the ice-crusted oceans of Europa.

  2. First record and five new species of Xylographellini (Coleoptera: Ciidae) from China, with online DNA barcode library of the family.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Grebennikov, Vasily V

    2015-08-25

    We report the first record of the beetle tribe Xylographellini (Ciidae) from the continental Palaearctic Region, represented by five new species discovered in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, China: Scolytocis danae sp. nov., Syncosmetus euryale sp. nov., Sync. medusa sp. nov., Sync. perseus sp. nov. and Sync. stheno sp. nov. Illustrations and identification keys are provided for these new species, and in order to facilitate further research of Ciidae we present an open-access DNA barcode library (dx.doi.org/10.5883/DS-SYNCOSM) containing 114 records (of 44 species in 14 genera), 15 of which belong to the newly described species. A phylogenetic analysis based on the barcode fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene did not recover much tree structure within Ciidae, however both Xylographus Mellié and Syncosmetus Sharp were recovered as clades, with a single Scolytocis Blair being the sister to the latter.

  3. [Brent goose colonies near snowy owls: internest distances in relation to breeding Arctic fox densities].

    PubMed

    Kharitonov, S P; Ebbinge, B S; De Fou, J

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in 2005 near Medusa Bay (73 degrees 21' N, 80 degrees 32' E) and the delta of the Pyasina River (74 degrees 10' N, 86 degrees 45' E), northwest of the Taimyr Peninsula. It was shown that in the years when the numbers of the Arctic foxes are high, even though the lemming numbers are high as well, Brent geese nest considerably closer to owls' nests than in the years with low Arctic fox numbers. At values of the Arctic fox densities greater than one breeding pair per 20 km2, the factor of lemming numbers ceases to affect the distance between owl and geese nests. This distance becomes dependent on the Arctic fox density (numbers). When the Arctic fox density is greater than the pronounced threshold, the owl-Brent internest distance is inversely and linearly related to the Arctic fox density.

  4. [Tourism, imported parasitic diseases, and their prevention].

    PubMed

    Tumol'skaia, N I; Zavoĭkin, V D; Mazmanian, M V; Plakhotnaia, G A; Kurbatova, I V; Zelia, O P; Gutova, V P

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives the results of observations of 1558 patients before and after tourist travels to tropical countries and 368 individuals visiting the north areas of the Russian Federation. Different conditions (malaria, amebiasis, leishmaniasis, intestinal and tissue helminthiasis, insect bites, venomous fish pricks, medusa burn, tick bites, etc.) were found in 402 persons. Prophylactic immunization included vaccination against hepatitis A and B viruses, meningitis, typhus, yellow fever, tick-borne encephalitis in more than 2500 patients (not including influenza vaccination in the epidemic season). The performed observations reinforce the statement that imported pathology is urgent to Russia and suggest that it is necessary to develop this section of medicine and to set up a network of health care facilities with a necessary therapeutic and diagnostic base to render skilled care to tourists. It is essential to improve medical staff training in travel medicine.

  5. Rhopalium development in Aurelia aurita ephyrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Rhopalia of developing ephyrae were examined using the SEM and TEM at 24 h intervals following strobilation induction. Kinocilia are shorter in the ephyra stage than in polyps. A few ephyra-type kinocilia are found in rhopalia as early as 24 h after induction, before a distinct rhopalium is seen. By 72 h, the shorter kinocilia predominate and are almost as numerous as in ephyrae (120 h). Many of the kinocilia are associated with mechanoreceptor cells (MR) found in the rhopalia. These MR cells are compared to those reported for medusae. Although newly released ephyrae lack a touch plate, the MR cells in their rhopalia along with the statocyst and neuromuscular system apparently enable these organisms to detect and respond to gravity.

  6. Energetics of jellyfish locomotion determined from field measurements using a Self- Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katija, K.; Dabiri, J. O.

    2007-12-01

    We conduct laboratory measurements of the flow fields induced by Aurelia labiata over a range of sizes using the method of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The flow field measurements are used to directly quantify the kinetic energy induced by the swimming motions of individual medusae. This method provides details regarding the temporal evolution of the energetics during a swimming cycle and its scaling with bell diameter. These types of measurements also allow for the determination of propulsive efficiency, which can be used to compare various methods of propulsion, both biological and artificial. We then describe the development and application of a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA), a device that enables a single SCUBA diver to make DPIV measurements of animal-fluid interactions in the field. Improvements and adjustments made to the original system will be presented, and a comparison between the animal-induced flow fields in the laboratory and in the field will be made.

  7. Dynamic Model for Life History of Scyphozoa

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Congbo; Fan, Meng; Wang, Xin; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    A two-state life history model governed by ODEs is formulated to elucidate the population dynamics of jellyfish and to illuminate the triggering mechanism of its blooms. The polyp-medusa model admits trichotomous global dynamic scenarios: extinction, polyps survival only, and both survival. The population dynamics sensitively depend on several biotic and abiotic limiting factors such as substrate, temperature, and predation. The combination of temperature increase, substrate expansion, and predator diminishment acts synergistically to create a habitat that is more favorable for jellyfishes. Reducing artificial marine constructions, aiding predator populations, and directly controlling the jellyfish population would help to manage the jellyfish blooms. The theoretical analyses and numerical experiments yield several insights into the nature underlying the model and shed some new light on the general control strategy for jellyfish. PMID:26114642

  8. Dynamic Model for Life History of Scyphozoa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Congbo; Fan, Meng; Wang, Xin; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    A two-state life history model governed by ODEs is formulated to elucidate the population dynamics of jellyfish and to illuminate the triggering mechanism of its blooms. The polyp-medusa model admits trichotomous global dynamic scenarios: extinction, polyps survival only, and both survival. The population dynamics sensitively depend on several biotic and abiotic limiting factors such as substrate, temperature, and predation. The combination of temperature increase, substrate expansion, and predator diminishment acts synergistically to create a habitat that is more favorable for jellyfishes. Reducing artificial marine constructions, aiding predator populations, and directly controlling the jellyfish population would help to manage the jellyfish blooms. The theoretical analyses and numerical experiments yield several insights into the nature underlying the model and shed some new light on the general control strategy for jellyfish.

  9. Preliminary Study on Nematocyst Types and Venom Isolation of Cassiopea andromeda Forskål, 1775 (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülşahin, Nurçin

    2016-01-01

    Nematocyst types of Cassiopea andromeda were investigated. Medusae samples were taken from Güllük Bay, Muğla, Turkey. Nematocyst samples from oral arms of C. andromeda were observed on light microscope and photographed. Birhopaloid and a-isorhiza nematocyst types were found in C. andromeda. Moreover, it was seen that nematocyst sizes increased with increasing the bell diameters of the individuals. Also, the venom of the species was isolated and injected intramuscularly to Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Signs of partial paralysis, raking, and immobilized fins were observed in the juveniles consequently. Death was observed for the fishes which were 3-4 g in the range of weight. This study is a preliminary work on nematocysts and venom of C. andromeda. Further studies on neurotoxic effects of nematocyst venoms of this species should follow.

  10. Fine-Scale Layering of Mars Polar Deposits and Signatures of Ice Content in Nonpolar Material From Multiband SHARAD Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Morgan, Gareth A.

    2018-02-01

    The variation of Shallow Radar (SHARAD) echo strength with frequency reveals material dielectric losses and polar layer properties. Loss tangents for Elysium and Amazonis Planitiae deposits are consistent with volcanic flows and sediments, while the Medusae Fossae Formation, lineated valley fill, and lobate debris aprons have low losses consistent with a major component of water ice. Mantling materials in Arcadia and Utopia Planitiae have higher losses, suggesting they are not dominated by ice over large fractions of their thickness. In Gemina Lingula, there are frequent deviations from a simple dependence of loss on depth. Within reflector packets, the brightest reflectors are often different among the frequency subbands, and there are cases of reflectors that occur in only the high- or low-frequency echoes. Many polar radar reflections must arise from multiple thin interfaces, or single deposits of appropriate thickness, that display resonant scattering behaviors. Reflector properties may be linked to climate-controlled polar dust deposition.

  11. A data reduction package for multiple object spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. M.; Eisenhamer, J. D.; Silva, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with fiber-optic spectrometers has demonstrated improvements in observing efficiency for clusters of 30 or more objects that must in turn be matched by data reduction capability increases. The Medusa Automatic Reduction System reduces data generated by multiobject spectrometers in the form of two-dimensional images containing 44 to 66 individual spectra, using both software and hardware improvements to efficiently extract the one-dimensional spectra. Attention is given to the ridge-finding algorithm for automatic location of the spectra in the CCD frame. A simultaneous extraction of calibration frames allows an automatic wavelength calibration routine to determine dispersion curves, and both line measurements and cross-correlation techniques are used to determine galaxy redshifts.

  12. SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.

    We performed measurements and analyses of the prompt radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of polyurethane foam and glass microballoon foam at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. The RIC coefficient was non-linear with dose rate for polyurethane foam; however, typical values at 1E11 rad(si)/s dose rate was measured as 0.8E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 5 lb./cu ft. foam and 0.3E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 10 lb./cu ft. density polyurethane foam. For encapsulated glass microballoons (GMB) the RIC coefficient was approximately 1E-15 mho/m/rad/s and was not a strong function of dose rate.

  13. Feasibility of an XUV FEL Oscillator Driven by a SCRF Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Freund, H. P.; Reinsch, M.

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility is currently under construction at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Using a1-ms-long macropulse composed of up to 3000 micropulses, and with beam energies projected from 45 to 800 MeV, the possibility for an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) free-electron laser oscillator (FELO) with the higher energy is evaluated. We have used both GINGER with an oscillator module and the MEDUSA/OPC code to assess FELO saturation prospects at 120 nm, 40 nm, and 13.4 nm. The results support saturation at all of these wavelengths which are also shorter than the demonstrated shortest wavelength record of 176 nmmore » from a storage-ring-based FELO. This indicates linac-driven FELOs can be extended into this XUV wavelength regime previously only reached with single-pass FEL configurations.« less

  14. A safer, urea-based in situ hybridization method improves detection of gene expression in diverse animal species.

    PubMed

    Sinigaglia, Chiara; Thiel, Daniel; Hejnol, Andreas; Houliston, Evelyn; Leclère, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical. When applied to the soft-bodied hydrozoan medusa Clytia hemisphaerica, we found that this traditional hybridization approach was not fully satisfactory, causing extensive deterioration of morphology and tissue texture which compromised our observation and interpretation of results. We thus tested alternative solutions for in situ detection of gene expression and, inspired by optimized protocols for Northern and Southern blot analysis, we substituted the 50% formamide with an equal volume of 8M urea solution in the hybridization buffer. Our new protocol not only yielded better morphologies and tissue consistency, but also notably improved the resolution of the signal, allowing more precise localization of gene expression and reducing aspecific staining associated with problematic areas. Given the improved results and reduced manipulation risks, we tested the urea protocol on other metazoans, two brachiopod species (Novocrania anomala and Terebratalia transversa) and the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus, obtaining a similar reduction of aspecific probe binding. Overall, substitution of formamide by urea during in situ hybridization offers a safer alternative, potentially of widespread use in research, medical and teaching contexts. We encourage other workers to test this approach on their study organisms, and hope that they will also

  15. An experimental study of Aurelia aurita feeding behaviour: Inference of the potential predation impact on a temperate estuarine nursery area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Rita; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Garrido, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Temperate estuaries are nursery areas for economically important fisheries resources. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a resident species in many of these areas, where it can reach high abundances. This work aimed to determine the potential for predation of A. aurita on zooplanktonic organisms and early life stages of fishes, measuring feeding rates at concentrations that mimic those occurring for zooplankton, fish eggs and larvae in an estuarine nursery area. A set of experiments was aimed at determining the feeding selectivity of jellyfish when offered a mixture of fish eggs and larvae and wild plankton. Clearance rates varied markedly with prey availability and concentrations. When given mixtures of different prey types, jellyfish preferentially elected some taxa (copepods and fish eggs). Data obtained in the laboratory experiments were used to infer the potential impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Guadiana estuary (Southern Iberia). Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish eggs and medusae was undertaken during the summer season of 2011. Abundance determinations were combined with experimentally estimated clearance rates of individual medusa to infer the potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in the area. In June and early August jellyfish-induced mortality rates were very high, and half-life times (t1/2) were consequently short for the zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. Although the potentially overestimation of our feeding rates typical of confined laboratory experiments, the results show high ingestion and clearance rates at high temperatures, typical from summer condition, and results also suggest that either by predation on early life stages of fish, or by competition for food resources, jellyfish may have a significant impact on estuarine communities and its nursery function.

  16. Dust and Ice Deposition in the Martian Geologic Record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    The polar layered deposits of Mars demonstrate that thick accumulations of dust and ice deposits can develop on the planet if environmental conditions are favorable. These deposits appear to be hundreds of millions of years old, and other deposits of similar size but of greater age in nonpolar regions may have formed by similar processes. Possible relict dust deposits include, from oldest to youngest: Noachian intercrater materials, including Arabia mantle deposits, Noachian to Early Hesperian south polar pitted deposits, Early Hesperian Hellas and Argyre basin deposits, Late Hesperian Electris deposits, and the Amazonian Medusae Fossae Formation. These deposits typically are hundreds of meters to a couple kilometers thick and cover upward of a million or more square kilometers. The apparent persistence of dust sedimentation at the south pole back to the Early Hesperian or earlier and the early growth of Tharsis during the Late Noachian and perhaps earlier indicates that extensive polar wandering is unlikely following the Middle Noachian. A scenario for the overall history of dust and perhaps ice deposition on Mars includes widespread, voluminous accumulations perhaps planetwide during the Noachian as impacts, volcanism, and surface processes generated large amounts of dust; the Arabia deposits may have formed as ice availability and dust accumulation waned. During the Early Hesperian, thick dust sedimentation became restricted to the south pole and the deep Hellas and Argyre basins; the north polar sedimentary record prior to the Amazonian is largely obscured. Deposits at Electris and Medusae Fossae may have resulted from local sources of fine-grained material - perhaps volcanic eruptions.

  17. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  18. Use of an Inverse Method for Time Series to Estimate the Dynamics of and Management Strategies for the Box Jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Bordehore, Cesar; Fuentes, Verónica L; Segarra, Jose G; Acevedo, Melisa; Canepa, Antonio; Raventós, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, population ecology of marine organisms uses a descriptive approach in which their sizes and densities are plotted over time. This approach has limited usefulness for design strategies in management or modelling different scenarios. Population projection matrix models are among the most widely used tools in ecology. Unfortunately, for the majority of pelagic marine organisms, it is difficult to mark individuals and follow them over time to determine their vital rates and built a population projection matrix model. Nevertheless, it is possible to get time-series data to calculate size structure and densities of each size, in order to determine the matrix parameters. This approach is known as a "demographic inverse problem" and it is based on quadratic programming methods, but it has rarely been used on aquatic organisms. We used unpublished field data of a population of cubomedusae Carybdea marsupialis to construct a population projection matrix model and compare two different management strategies to lower population to values before year 2008 when there was no significant interaction with bathers. Those strategies were by direct removal of medusae and by reducing prey. Our results showed that removal of jellyfish from all size classes was more effective than removing only juveniles or adults. When reducing prey, the highest efficiency to lower the C. marsupialis population occurred when prey depletion affected prey of all medusae sizes. Our model fit well with the field data and may serve to design an efficient management strategy or build hypothetical scenarios such as removal of individuals or reducing prey. TThis This sdfsdshis method is applicable to other marine or terrestrial species, for which density and population structure over time are available.

  19. Cellular respiration, oxygen consumption, and trade-offs of the jellyfish Cassiopea sp. in response to temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljbour, Samir M.; Zimmer, Martin; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Pelagic jellyfish blooms are increasing worldwide as a potential response to climate-change. However, virtually nothing is known about physiological responses of jellyfish to e.g. sudden changes in water temperature due to extreme weather events. When confronted with a sudden decrease or increase in water temperature by 6 °C, medusae of Cassiopea sp. exhibited a strong response in locomotor activity (i.e., bell pulsation increased and decreased by ca. 37 and 46% in hot and cold acute (2 h) treatments, respectively) relative to control. Although medusae significantly gained in body mass (wet weight) upon chronic (2 weeks) heat treatment, their body size (e.g., bell diameter) did not change over this time interval. In contrast, chronic cold treatment resulted in both significant shrinking (reduced diameter) and mass loss. Measurements of mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) activities and rate of respiratory oxygen uptake (MO2) are good estimates of energy consumption and the potential aerobic metabolic rates of an organism. While both acute treatments significantly increased ETS-activities, acclimation over two weeks resulted in a drop in activities to the control levels. Whereas acute heat treatment significantly increased MO2, chronic exposure resulted in significant MO2 decrease compared to control; however no changes in MO2 could be observed in both acute and chronic cold treatments. Overall these results suggest an enhanced growth in response to global warming, whereas low temperatures may set the limits for successful invasion of Cassiopea into colder water bodies. Our results provide a framework for understanding the physiological tolerance of Cassiopea under possible future climate changes.

  20. Establishing and applying of a coupled individual based model of edible jellyfish(Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye) releasing in the Liaodong Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liping; Qiao, Fangli

    2017-04-01

    A three-dimensional circulation-surface wave coupled hydrodynamic model coupled with an individual-based jellyfish model was established to investigate the influence of physical process on edible jellyfish releasing stock enhancement in Liaodong Bay. Sensitivity experiments show that the wind intensity and direction have both direct and indirect impacts on the distribution of the jellyfish. When the wind is strong, the surface current in Liaodong Bay has the same direction of the wind. Under the co-effect of the ocean current transport and the surface wind transport, the jellyfish inhabits in the northeast of Liaodong bay, which is consistent with the observation. In the circumstance of weak wind, the circulation is clockwise and the jellyfish will spread around the 5m isobaths following the circulation. Research of the jellyfish distribution shows that the releasing jellyfish will stay in Liaodong bay in its whole life history, hence Liaodong Bay is a quite suitable area for enhancement releasing. The influence of the temperature on releasing region and date is also investigated. The threshold date during 2008 to 2016 is calculated, which is the date when the temperature of water within 10m isobaths in Liaodong Bay rises up to 15oC. In 2010, the threshold date came about one week later while the medusa releasing date remains the same in 2009. As a result, higher fatality rate of medusa caused by the cold water resulted in lower recapture rate in 2010. Therefore, the releasing date and location should be varied according to environmental conditions. The threshold date tends to appear earlier during 2008 to 2016, which suggests an earlier releasing date. In summer, due to the cold water mass intrusion from the south, the releasing date in the north area should be earlier than in the south.

  1. Are Hox genes ancestrally involved in axial patterning? Evidence from the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Chiori, Roxane; Jager, Muriel; Denker, Elsa; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël; Quéinnec, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The early evolution and diversification of Hox-related genes in eumetazoans has been the subject of conflicting hypotheses concerning the evolutionary conservation of their role in axial patterning and the pre-bilaterian origin of the Hox and ParaHox clusters. The diversification of Hox/ParaHox genes clearly predates the origin of bilaterians. However, the existence of a "Hox code" predating the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor and supporting the deep homology of axes is more controversial. This assumption was mainly based on the interpretation of Hox expression data from the sea anemone, but growing evidence from other cnidarian taxa puts into question this hypothesis. Hox, ParaHox and Hox-related genes have been investigated here by phylogenetic analysis and in situ hybridisation in Clytia hemisphaerica, an hydrozoan species with medusa and polyp stages alternating in the life cycle. Our phylogenetic analyses do not support an origin of ParaHox and Hox genes by duplication of an ancestral ProtoHox cluster, and reveal a diversification of the cnidarian HOX9-14 genes into three groups called A, B, C. Among the 7 examined genes, only those belonging to the HOX9-14 and the CDX groups exhibit a restricted expression along the oral-aboral axis during development and in the planula larva, while the others are expressed in very specialised areas at the medusa stage. Cross species comparison reveals a strong variability of gene expression along the oral-aboral axis and during the life cycle among cnidarian lineages. The most parsimonious interpretation is that the Hox code, collinearity and conservative role along the antero-posterior axis are bilaterian innovations.

  2. Are Hox Genes Ancestrally Involved in Axial Patterning? Evidence from the Hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Chiori, Roxane; Jager, Muriel; Denker, Elsa; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël; Quéinnec, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background The early evolution and diversification of Hox-related genes in eumetazoans has been the subject of conflicting hypotheses concerning the evolutionary conservation of their role in axial patterning and the pre-bilaterian origin of the Hox and ParaHox clusters. The diversification of Hox/ParaHox genes clearly predates the origin of bilaterians. However, the existence of a “Hox code” predating the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor and supporting the deep homology of axes is more controversial. This assumption was mainly based on the interpretation of Hox expression data from the sea anemone, but growing evidence from other cnidarian taxa puts into question this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Hox, ParaHox and Hox-related genes have been investigated here by phylogenetic analysis and in situ hybridisation in Clytia hemisphaerica, an hydrozoan species with medusa and polyp stages alternating in the life cycle. Our phylogenetic analyses do not support an origin of ParaHox and Hox genes by duplication of an ancestral ProtoHox cluster, and reveal a diversification of the cnidarian HOX9-14 genes into three groups called A, B, C. Among the 7 examined genes, only those belonging to the HOX9-14 and the CDX groups exhibit a restricted expression along the oral-aboral axis during development and in the planula larva, while the others are expressed in very specialised areas at the medusa stage. Conclusions/Significance Cross species comparison reveals a strong variability of gene expression along the oral-aboral axis and during the life cycle among cnidarian lineages. The most parsimonious interpretation is that the Hox code, collinearity and conservative role along the antero-posterior axis are bilaterian innovations. PMID:19156208

  3. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia

    PubMed Central

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  4. Saccharomonospora piscinae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium from fishpond sediment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Min; Chiang, Wan-Ping; Liao, Hsuen-Chun; Hsieh, Sung-Yuan; Yuan, Gao-Fung

    2018-05-01

    Strain 06168H-1 T was isolated from a fishpond sediment sample collected from the southern area of Taiwan, and a polyphasic approach was used to determine its taxonomic position. The isolate grew between 20-40 °C and 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl. It produced branched and unfragmented substrate mycelia. Short spore chains (3-10 spores per chain) formed on branched aerial mycelia. The spore chains contained non-motile, smooth-surfaced, oval spores. Galactose, arabinose and ribose were the whole-cell sugars and meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in its peptidoglycan. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, hydroxyphosphati dylethanolamine and a ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) and minor components were MK-8(H4) and MK-9(H6). Mycolic acids were not detected. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and C17 : 1ω6c and C17 : 0ω8c. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 70.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed this strain clustered with the members of the genus Saccharomonospora and was closely related to Saccharomonospora xinjiangensis, Saccharomonospora azurea and Saccharomonosporacyanea. The levels of similarity between this strain and the closely related species were: Sxinjiangensis BCRC16887 T , 98.34 %; S. azurea BCRC 16220 T , 98.27 %; and S. cyanea BCRC 16886 T , 97.99 %. Based on phylogenetic characteristics, strain 06168H-1 T represents a novel species of the genus Saccharomonospora. We thus propose the name Saccharomonospora piscinae sp. nov. for this novel strain, with strain 06168H-1 T (=BCRC 16893 T =KCTC 19743 T ) as the type strain.

  5. Temperature-dependent settlement of planula larvae of two scyphozoan jellyfish from the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambill, Maria; McNaughton, Sadie L.; Kreus, Markus; Peck, Myron A.

    2018-02-01

    Exploring the settlement dynamics of the planula larvae is critical to understanding the establishment of polyp populations that can give rise to blooms of scyphozoan jellyfish. We conducted experiments to examine the effects of temperature on settlement of planulae of the scyphozoans Cyanea lamarckii and Chrysaora hysoscella, two jellyfish commonly encountered within the North Sea. When provided immediate access to substrate, larvae of C. lamarckii were able to settle at each of 12 temperatures between 9 and 27 °C. Most settlement occurred within the first five days and warmer temperatures were not only associated with decreased time to settlement but also increased settlement success. When not allowed access to substrate and maintained in the water column, planula larvae remained competent to settle for 21, 21 and 14 days at 11.3, 13.4 and 19.4 °C, respectively. Based on these maximum times of competency, hydrodynamic model simulations suggested that the planula larvae of C. lamarckii released in May could be transported up to 100 km before settlement. A substrate choice experiment indicated that larvae of C. hysoscella settled in similar numbers onto PET, wood and concrete. Settlement was highest at 20 °C and a 12/12 light/dark regime and lower at 10 °C and 15 °C in total darkness. The results of all three experiments suggest that projected warming of the North Sea will not impede the settlement of planula larvae of resident C. lamarckii and C. hysoscella populations. Species- and/or population-specific differences may exist in the ecophysiology of planula larvae and additional experiments are needed to understand the mechanisms promoting the establishment of new benthic populations of polyps. That information, combined with process knowledge on the productivity of benthic polyps, will be needed to better understand and predict climate-dependent changes in the production of scyphozoans and other gelatinous plankton.

  6. Breeding birds in managed forests on public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy

    2017-01-01

    Managers of public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley have implemented forest management strategies to improve bottomland hardwood habitat for target wildlife species. Through implementation of various silvicultural practices, forest managers have sought to attain forest structural conditions (e.g., canopy cover, basal area, etc.) within values postulated to benefit wildlife. We evaluated data from point count surveys of breeding birds on 180 silviculturally treated stands (1049 counts) that ranged from 1 to 20 years post-treatment and 134 control stands (676 counts) that had not been harvested for >20 years. Birds detected during 10-min counts were recorded within four distance classes and three time intervals. Avian diversity was greater on treated stands than on unharvested stands. Of 42 commonly detected species, six species including Prothonotary Warbler (Prothonotaria citrea) and Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) were indicative of control stands. Similarly, six species including Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) and Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) were indicative of treated stands. Using a removal model to assess probability of detection, we evaluated occupancy of bottomland forests at two spatial scales (stands and points within occupied stands). Wildlife-forestry treatment improved predictive models of species occupancy for 18 species. We found years post treatment (range = 1–20), total basal area, and overstory canopy were important species-specific predictors of occupancy, whereas variability in basal area was not. In addition, we used a removal model to estimate species-specific probability of availability for detection, and a distance model to estimate effective detection radius. We used these two estimated parameters to derive species densities and 95% confidence intervals for treated and unharvested stands. Avian densities differed between treated and control stands for 16 species, but only Common Yellowthroat

  7. Context-Dependent Plastic Response during Egg-Laying in a Widespread Newt Species

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on predator-induced phenotypic plasticity mostly focused on responses in morphology, developmental time and/or behaviour during early life stages, but the potential significance of anticipatory parental responses has been investigated less often. In this study I examined behavioural and maternal responses of gravid female smooth newts, Lissotriton vulgaris, in the presence of chemical cues originating from invertebrate predators, Acilius sulcatus water beetles and Aeshna cyanea dragonfly larvae. More specifically, I tested the extent of oviposition preference, plasticity in egg-wrapping behaviour and plasticity in egg size when females had the possibility to lay eggs at oviposition sites with and without predator cues during overnight trials. I found that individuals did not avoid laying eggs in the environment with predator cues; however, individuals that deposited eggs into both environments adjusted the size of the laid eggs to the perceived environment. Females deposited larger eggs earlier in the season but egg size decreased with time in the absence of predator cues, whereas individuals laid eggs of average size throughout the investigated reproductive period when such cues were present. Also, egg size was found to be positively related to hatching success. Individuals did not adjust their wrapping behaviour to the presence of predator cues, but females differed in the extent of egg-wrapping between ponds. Females’ body mass and tail depth were also different between ponds, whereas their body size was positively associated with egg size. According to these results, female smooth newts have the potential to exhibit activational plasticity and invest differently into eggs depending on temporal and environmental factors. Such an anticipatory response may contribute to the success of this caudate species under a wide range of predator regimes at its natural breeding habitats. PMID:26291328

  8. Spatial, temporal, molecular, and intraspecific differences of haemoparasite infection and relevant selected physiological parameters of wild birds in Georgia, USA☆

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, Viviana González; Hernández, Sonia M.; Kistler, Whitney M.; Boone, Shaun L.; Lipp, Erin K.; Shrestha, Sudip; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of five avian haemoparasite groups was examined for effects on health and associations with extrinsic factors. Overall, 786 samples were examined from six sites in two Georgia (USA) watersheds, during breeding and non-breeding periods in 2010 and 2011. Among the four most commonly infected species, Haemoproteus prevalence was significantly higher in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) compared to Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea) and Tufted Titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) while prevalence in White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) was significantly higher than in Indigo Buntings. Higher prevalence of Plasmodium was noted in Tufted Titmice and Northern Cardinals. While Leucocytozoon prevalence was highest in White-throated Sparrows, Trypanosoma prevalence was highest in Tufted Titmice. Interesting differences in infection probabilities were noted between foraging guilds with Haemoproteus associated with low-middle level strata and birds in the middle-upper strata were more likely to be infected with Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. In contrast, ground-foraging birds were more likely to be infected with Leucocytozoon. Breeding season was correlated with higher polychromasia counts and higher prevalence of Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. In addition, prevalence of infection with certain haemoparasite genera and packed cell volume (PCV) were different among host species. Body mass index was inversely correlated with prevalence of microfilaria infection but positively related to Haemoproteus infection. However, we found no relationship between PCV or polychromasia levels with haemoparasite infection. Molecular characterization of 61 samples revealed 19 unique Haemoproteus (n = 7) and Plasmodium (n = 12) haplotypes with numerous new host records. No differences were noted in haplotype diversity among birds with different migratory behaviors or foraging heights, thus additional studies are needed that incorporate molecular analysis

  9. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  10. Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the Alticini genera from the Afrotropical region is reported. The paper includes the following for the flea beetle fauna occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: a key to their identification; habitus photos of all the genera; microscope and scanning electron micrographs of many diagnostic morphological characters; and an updated annotated catalogue with biogeographical notes that include new distributional data. The following new synonymies are proposed: Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836 = Ethiopia Scherer, 1972 syn. n.; Sanckia Duvivier, 1891 = Eugonotes Jacoby, 1897 syn. n.; Eurylegna Weise, 1910a = Eurylegniella Scherer, 1972 syn. n.; Kimongona Bechyné, 1959a = Mesocrepis Scherer, 1963 syn. n.; Diphaulacosoma Jacoby, 1892a = Neoderina Bechyné, 1952 syn. n.; Sesquiphaera Bechyné, 1958a = Paropsiderma Bechyné, 1958a syn. n.; Podagrica Chevrolat, 1836 = Podagricina Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940 syn. n.; Amphimela Chapuis, 1875 = Sphaerophysa Baly, 1876a syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Blepharida insignis Brancsik, 1897 = Xanthophysca insignis (Brancsik, 1897) comb. n.; Blepharida multiguttata Duvivier, 1891 = Xanthophysca multiguttata (Duvivier, 1891) comb. n.; Hemipyxis balyana (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki 1940) = Pseudadorium balyanum (Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki, 1940) comb. n.; Hemipyxis brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) = Pseudadorium brevicornis (Jacoby, 1892a) comb. n.; Hemipyxis cyanea (Weise, 1910b) = Pseudadorium cyaneum (Weise, 1910b) comb. n.; Hemipyxis gynandromorpha Bechyné, 1958c = Pseudadorium gynandromorphum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis latiuscula Bechyné, 1958c = Pseudadorium latiusculum (Bechyné, 1958c) comb. n.; Hemipyxis soror (Weise, 1910b) = Pseudadorium soror (Weise, 1910b) comb. n. The genera Buphonella Jacoby, 1903aand Halticopsis Fairmaire, 1883a are transferred to the tribe Galerucini; the genus Biodontocnema Biondi, 2000 stat. prom. is considered to be valid and

  11. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic and structural characteristics of a corrugated wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hord, Kyle

    Previous experimental studies on static, bio-inspired corrugated wings have shown that they produce favorable aerodynamic properties such as delayed stall compared to streamlined wings and flat plates at high Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 4x104). The majority of studies have been carried out with scaled models of dragonfly forewings from the Aeshna Cyanea in either wind tunnels or water channels. In this thesis, the aerodynamics of a corrugated airfoil was studied using computational fluid dynamics methods at a low Reynolds number of 1000. Structural analysis was also performed using the commercial software SolidWorks 2009. The flow field is described by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on an overlapping grid using the pressure-Poisson method. The equations are discretized in space with second-order accurate central differences. Time integration is achieved through the second-order Crank-Nicolson implicit method. The complex vortex structures that form in the corrugated airfoil valleys and around the corrugated airfoil are studied in detail. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements from corrugated wings and also with simulations of a flat plate. Contrary to the studies at high Reynolds numbers, our study shows that at low Reynolds numbers the wing corrugation does not provide any aerodynamic benefit compared to a smoothed flat plate. Instead, the corrugated profile generates more pressure drag which is only partially offset by the reduction of friction drag, leading to more total drag than the flat plate. Structural analysis shows that the wing corrugation can increase the resistance to bending moments on the wing structure. A smoothed structure has to be three times thicker to provide the same stiffness. It was concluded the corrugated wing has the structural benefit to provide the same resistance to bending moments with a much reduced weight.

  12. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and predation threat on the behaviour of agile frog tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2017-06-01

    The widespread application of pesticides emphasises the importance of understanding the impacts of these chemicals on natural communities. The most commonly applied broad-spectrum herbicides in the world are glyphosate-based herbicides, which have been suggested to induce significant behavioural changes in non-target organisms even at low environmental concentrations. To scrutinize the behavioural effects of herbicide-exposure we exposed agile frog (Rana dalmatina) tadpoles in an outdoor mesocosm experiment to three concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5mg acid equivalent (a.e.) / L). To assess whether anti-predator behaviour is affected by the pesticide, we combined all levels of herbicide-exposure with three predator treatments (no predator, caged Aeshna cyanea dragonfly larvae or Lissotriton vulgaris newt adults) in a full factorial design. We observed hiding, activity, proximity to the predator cage and vertical position of tadpoles. We found that at the higher herbicide concentration tadpoles decreased their activity and more tadpoles were hiding, and at least at the lower concentration their vertical position was closer to the water surface than in tadpoles of the control treatment. Tadpoles also decreased their activity in the presence of dragonfly larvae, but did not hide more in response to either predator, nor did tadpoles avoid predators spatially. Further, exposure to the herbicide did not significantly influence behavioural responses to predation threat. Our study documents a definite influence of glyphosate-based herbicides on the behaviour of agile frog tadpoles and indicates that some of these changes are similar to those induced by dangerous predators. This may suggest that the underlying physiological mechanisms or the adaptive value of behavioural changes may similar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity

    PubMed Central

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-01-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  14. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

    PubMed

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  15. Existence of a photoinducible phase for ovarian development and photoperiod-related alteration of clock gene expression in a damselfish.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Hada, Noriko; Imamura, Satoshi; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Bouchekioua, Selma; Takemura, Akihiro

    2015-10-01

    The sapphire devil, Chrysiptera cyanea, is a reef-associated damselfish and their ovarian development can be induced by a long photoperiod. In this study, we demonstrated the existence of a photoinducible phase for the photoperiodic ovarian development in the sapphire devil. Induction of ovarian development under night-interruption light schedules and Nanda-Hamner cycles revealed that the photoinducible phase appeared in a circadian manner between ZT12 and ZT13. To characterize the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression in the brain of this species, we determined the expression levels of the sdPer1, sdPer2, sdCry1, and sdCry2 clock genes under constant light and dark conditions (LL and DD) and photoperiodic (short and long photoperiods). The expression of sdPer1 exhibited clear circadian oscillation under both LL and DD conditions, while sdPer2 and sdCry1 expression levels were lower under DD than under LL conditions and sdCry2 expression was lower under LL than under DD conditions. These results suggest a key role for sdPer1 in circadian clock cycling and that sdPer2, sdCry1, and sdCry2 are light-responsive clock genes in the sapphire devil. After 1 week under a long photoperiod, we observed photoperiod-related changes in sdPer1, sdPer2, and sdCry2 expression, but not in sdCry1 expression. These results suggest that the expression patterns of some clock genes exhibit seasonal variation according to seasonal changes in day length and that such seasonal alteration of clock gene expression may contribute to seasonal recognition by the sapphire devil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Multi-Stage History of Mt. Sharp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C.; Dapremont, A.

    2013-01-01

    -SW. Upper mound units resemble the planet-wide Medusae Fossae formation, dated as Hesperian and argued to be composed of ignimbrites. Medusae Fossae layers are easily eroded by wind, and our mapping demonstrates their resemblance to upper mound fine-scale yardangs. The history of Mt. Sharp started with deposition and lithification of sediments shortly after crater formation. Some lower mound layers were partially altered to clays and sulfates, and water formed streams and canyons. Wind erosion of the lower mound produced large-scale yardangs, particularly in clay-rich layers, oriented generally N-S. Upper mound units were emplaced following a considerable period of wind erosion. The absence of water flow on the upper mound suggests that these units were emplaced after atmospheric loss rendered water unstable at the surface. The shift in dominant wind direction, as indicated by yardang orientations, also argues for a time gap between erosion of the lower and upper mound. These observations are consistent with upper mound units being related to the Hesperian Medusae Fossae formation. During 2014 Curiosity is expected to reach the foot of Mt. Sharp and ascend through the clay-rich layers, into the sulfate-rich layers, and possibly past the interface with the upper mound. This will be a unique opportunity to field check geologic models on the surface of Mars.

  17. Bioinformatics approach to evaluate differential gene expression of M1/M2 macrophage phenotypes and antioxidant genes in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; De Bastiani, Marco Antônio; Klamt, Fábio

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a pro-inflammatory process intrinsically related to systemic redox impairments. Macrophages play a major role on disease development. The specific involvement of classically activated, M1 (pro-inflammatory), or the alternatively activated, M2 (anti-inflammatory), on plaque formation and disease progression are still not established. Thus, based on meta-data analysis of public micro-array datasets, we compared differential gene expression levels of the human antioxidant genes (HAG) and M1/M2 genes between early and advanced human atherosclerotic plaques, and among peripheric macrophages (with or without foam cells induction by oxidized low density lipoprotein, oxLDL) from healthy and atherosclerotic subjects. Two independent datasets, GSE28829 and GSE9874, were selected from gene expression omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) repository. Functional interactions were obtained with STRING (http://string-db.org/) and Medusa (http://coot.embl.de/medusa/). Statistical analysis was performed with ViaComplex(®) (http://lief.if.ufrgs.br/pub/biosoftwares/viacomplex/) and gene score enrichment analysis (http://www.broadinstitute.org/gsea/index.jsp). Bootstrap analysis demonstrated that the activity (expression) of HAG and M1 gene sets were significantly increased in advance compared to early atherosclerotic plaque. Increased expressions of HAG, M1, and M2 gene sets were found in peripheric macrophages from atherosclerotic subjects compared to peripheric macrophages from healthy subjects, while only M1 gene set was increased in foam cells from atherosclerotic subjects compared to foam cells from healthy subjects. However, M1 gene set was decreased in foam cells from healthy subjects compared to peripheric macrophages from healthy subjects, while no differences were found in foam cells from atherosclerotic subjects compared to peripheric macrophages from atherosclerotic subjects. Our data suggest that, different to cancer, in atherosclerosis there is

  18. Geologic history of the Cerberus Plains, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanagan, Peter Denham

    This work examines the relative chronology of geologic units within the Cerberus Plains of Mars with an emphasis on lava flows emplaced after the last Marte Valles fluvial episode. High resolution images show the bulk of the Cerberus Plains is covered by platy-ridged and inflated lavas, which are interpreted as insulated sheet flows. Eastern Cerberus Plains lavas originate at Cerberus Fossae fissures and shields. Some flows extend for >2000 km through Marte Valles into Amazonis Planitia. Athabasca Valles are both incised into pristine lavas and embayed by pristine lavas, indicating that Athabascan fluvial events were contemporaneous with volcanic eruptions. Deposits of the Medusae Fossae Formation lie both over and under lavas, suggesting the deposition of the Medusae Fossae Formation was contemporaneous with volcanism. Statistics of small craters indicate lavas in the Western Cerberus Plains may be less than a million years old, but the model isochrons may be unreliable if the small crater population is dominated by secondary craters. Images showing no large craters with diameters >500 m superimposed on Western Cerberus Plains lavas indicate the same surface is younger than 49 Ma. High resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have revealed the existence of small cones in the Cerberus Plains, Marte Valles, and Amazonis Planitia. These cones are similar in both morphology and planar dimensions to the larger Icelandic rootless cones, which form due to explosive interactions between surficial lavas and near-surface groundwater. If martian cones form in the same manner as terrestrial rootless cones, then equatorial ground-ice or ground water must have been present near the surface in geologically recent times. Evidence for a shallow lake in the Western Cerberus Plains during the Late Amazonian is also presented. High-resolution images show features interpreted as flood-eroded scarps and fluvial spillways exiting the lake. Based on present-day topography, a lake

  19. Vertical distribution and relative abundance of gelatinous zooplankton, in situ observations near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngbluth, M.; Sørnes, T.; Hosia, A.; Stemmann, L.

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen dives were conducted with the ROVs Aglantha and Bathysaurus to depths of 2335 m along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (42∘52'- 53∘17'N). The most frequently observed gelatinous fauna in order of overall abundance included medusae, ctenophores, siphonophores, appendicularians, and tunicates. All of these animals, except the tunicates, occurred throughout the water column. Their relative abundances differed with depth and location. Identification to species was limited to easily recognized fauna because relatively few gelatinous animals were collected. Each group of gelatinous zooplankton tended to be most numerous in a region just south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Medusae (mainly Aeginura grimaldii) were the most frequently encountered animals (up to 25 individuals per 100m3). On a vertical scale their abundance peaked from 550 to 800 m and these maxima were consistently within the SAIW and NACWe. In the NACW their densities were notably lower (up 2 individuals per 100m3) and the majority of the population was deeper, ranging from 800 to 1050 m. Ctenophores (mainly Bathocyroe fosteri) were most prominent (as many as 27 individuals per 100m3) in a zone from 300 to 600 m in the NACWe. Appendicularians (primarily oikopleurids) had a broader vertical distribution in all water masses, mainly from 450 to 1000 m. Up to 12 houses per 100m3 were noted in the NACWe, and these estimates are considered to be very conservative. Sorties near the sea floor (as deep as 2100 m) indicated these detritivores were a prominent component (up to 5 houses per 100m3) of the epibenthic macrozooplankton. Siphonophores (mostly calycophorans) reached densities of about 14 colonies per 100m3 in the NACWe and occurred mainly from 300 to 600 m, at most locations. Tunicates (salps and doliolids) were patchy in their distribution and infrequently observed. Salps were numerous (up to 3 solitary individuals per 100m3) at only one location (sta. 50) near the surface. Deep-living doliolids

  20. Changes in movements of Chinook Salmon between lakes Huron and Michigan after Alewife population collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Richard D.; Bence, James R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Clevenger, John A.; Kornis, Matthew S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Roseman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus are the preferred food of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Alewife populations collapsed in Lake Huron in 2003 but remained comparatively abundant in Lake Michigan. We analyzed capture locations of coded-wire-tagged Chinook Salmon before, during, and after Alewife collapse (1993–2014). We contrasted the pattern of tag recoveries for Chinook Salmon released at the Swan River in northern Lake Huron and Medusa Creek in northern Lake Michigan. We examined patterns during April–July, when Chinook Salmon were primarily occupied by feeding, and August–October, when the salmon were primarily occupied by spawning. We found evidence that Swan River fish shifted their feeding location from Lake Huron to Lake Michigan after the collapse. Over years, proportions of Swan River Chinook Salmon captured in Lake Michigan increased in correspondence with the Alewife decline in Lake Huron. Mean proportions of Swan River fish captured in Lake Michigan were 0.13 (SD = 0.14) before collapse (1993–1997) and 0.82 (SD = 0.22) after collapse (2008–2014) and were significantly different. In contrast, proportions of Medusa Creek fish captured in Lake Michigan did not change; means were 0.98 (SD = 0.05) before collapse and 0.99 (SD = 0.01) after collapse. The mean distance to the center of the coastal distribution of Swan River fish during April–July shifted 357 km (SD = 169) from central Lake Huron before collapse to central Lake Michigan after collapse. The coastal distributions during August–October were centered on the respective sites of origin, suggesting that Chinook Salmon returned to release sites to spawn regardless of their feeding locations. Regarding the impact on Alewife populations, this shift in interlake movement would be equivalent to increasing the Chinook Salmon stocking rate within Lake Michigan by 30%. The primary management implication is that interlake coordination of Chinook Salmon

  1. New SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) at the pmol/mol level using static and dynamic preparation methods and comparison to existing scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, Simon A.; Guillevic, Myriam; Vicar, Martin; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Vollmer, Martin K.; Pascale, Céline; Reimann, Stefan; Niederhauser, Bernhard; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    We developed two SI-traceable methods, using both static and dynamic preparation steps, to produce reference gas mixtures for sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in gas cylinders at pmol/mol level. This research activity is conducted under the framework of the European EMRP HIGHGAS project, in support of the high quality measurements of this important greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere. In the method used by the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) a parent mixture of SF6 in synthetic air was produced in an aluminium cylinder at VSL as a first step. This mixture was produced gravimetrically according to ISO 6142 at an amount fraction of 1 μmol/mol. In the second step this primary standard was further diluted to near-ambient amount fraction, with the use of a three-step dilution system and directly pressurised into aluminium cylinders to a pressure of 10 bars. The second method used by the Federal Institute of Metrology (METAS) has already been applied to other fluorinated gases such as HFC-125 and HFC-1234yf. In this method a highly concentrated mixture is produced by spiking a purified synthetic air (matrix gas) with SF6 from a permeation device. The mass loss of SF6 in the permeation device is observed by a magnetic suspension balance. In a second step this mixture is diluted with matrix gas to the desired concentrations. All flows are controlled with mass flow controllers. The diluted gas was transferred into Silconert2000-coated stainless steel cylinders by cryo-filling. The final gas mixtures at near-ambient amount fraction were measured on a Medusa gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system (Medusa-GC/MS) against working standards calibrated on existing scales of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and compared to other scales [1]. The agreement of the assigned values by the CMI and METAS, with the measured values referenced on the SIO scale was excellent. This results show that with this methods we are able to produce accurate SI-traceable gas mixtures at

  2. Polygonal Ridge Networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Laura; Dickson, James; Grosfils, Eric; Head, James W.

    2016-10-01

    Polygonal ridge networks, also known as boxwork or reticulate ridges, are found in numerous locations and geological contexts across Mars. While networks formed from mineralized fractures hint at hot, possibly life-sustaining circulating ground waters, networks formed by impact-driven clasting diking, magmatic dikes, gas escape, or lava flows do not have the same astrobiological implications. Distinguishing the morphologies and geological context of the ridge networks sheds light on their potential as astrobiological and mineral resource sites of interest. The most widespread type of ridge morphology is characteristic of the Nili Fossae and Nilosyrtis region and consists of thin, criss-crossing ridges with a variety of heights, widths, and intersection angles. They are found in ancient Noachian terrains at a variety of altitudes and geographic locations and may be a mixture of clastic dikes, brecciated dikes, and mineral veins. They occur in the same general areas as valley networks and ancient lake basins, but they are not more numerous where these features are concentrated, and can appear in places where they morphologies are absent. Similarly, some of the ridge networks are associated with hydrated mineral detections, but some occur in locations without detections. Smaller, light-toned ridges of variable widths have been found in Gale Crater and other rover sites and are interpreted to be smaller version of the Nili-like ridges, in this case formed by the mineralization of fractures. This type of ridge is likely to be found in many other places on Mars as more high-resolution data becomes available. Hellas Basin is host to a third type of ridge morphology consisting of large, thick, light-toned ridges forming regular polygons at several superimposed scales. While still enigmatic, these are most likely to be the result of sediment-filled fractures. The Eastern Medusae Fossae Formation contains large swaths of a fourth, previously undocumented, ridge network type

  3. Multispectral Imaging Broadens Cellular Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Amnis Corporation, a Seattle-based biotechnology company, developed ImageStream to produce sensitive fluorescence images of cells in flow. The company responded to an SBIR solicitation from Ames Research Center, and proposed to evaluate several methods of extending the depth of field for its ImageStream system and implement the best as an upgrade to its commercial products. This would allow users to view whole cells at the same time, rather than just one section of each cell. Through Phase I and II SBIR contracts, Ames provided Amnis the funding the company needed to develop this extended functionality. For NASA, the resulting high-speed image flow cytometry process made its way into Medusa, a life-detection instrument built to collect, store, and analyze sample organisms from erupting hydrothermal vents, and has the potential to benefit space flight health monitoring. On the commercial end, Amnis has implemented the process in ImageStream, combining high-resolution microscopy and flow cytometry in a single instrument, giving researchers the power to conduct quantitative analyses of individual cells and cell populations at the same time, in the same experiment. ImageStream is also built for many other applications, including cell signaling and pathway analysis; classification and characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations; quantitative morphology; apoptosis (cell death) assays; gene expression analysis; analysis of cell conjugates; molecular distribution; and receptor mapping and distribution.

  4. Scientific rationale for selecting northern Eumenides Dorsum (9 deg - 11 deg N latitude, 159 deg - 162 deg longitude) as a potential Mars Pathfinder landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Tim J.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed site is the northernmost occurrence of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), and lies at or below the -2 km contour. The MFF is the famous radar 'stealth' deposit that extends from south of Olympus Mons westward across southern Amazonis Planitia to southern Elysium Planitia. The MFF appears to be composed of some kind of wind-eroded friable material, the origin of which is very problematic. It appears to be a radar-absorbing material, whereas Mars' south polar layered deposits appear bright in the same scenes. Synthetic aperture radar images of young terrestrial ash deposits in the Andes also appear relatively bright. The MFF's radar signature appears to require a uniformly fine-grained material (on the order of dust-sized to fine sand-sized) at least several meters thick, in order not to transmit reflections off underlying terrain or internal reflective horizons. The proposed Pathfinder landing site lies on a relatively smooth, 'unmodified' portion of the MFF, more than 100 km away from its northern and western edges, which exhibit evidence of eolian etching in the form of closely spaced yardings. There are no large craters or steep slopes within a few hundred kilometers of the landing site.

  5. SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S.G.

    We feel that the concept of intercepting a fractionated threat from a tactical ballistic missile is potentially feasible and would have very high payoff for the defense. Many other concepts have been suggested to solve this problem, although they have mostly been more futuristic approaches, e.g. aircrafty based lasers. We also believe that current technologies are not likely to be adequate for the expected types of very small submunition payloads, especially in the presence of relatively simple countermeasures. The MEDUSA concept, or its clones, may very well provide a vehicle for the study of less stressing threats, e.g. separating warheadsmore » and provide a lethality enhancement for non-deployed payloads. An opportunity also exists to investigate alternative technologies, such as the explosively-formed ``disk`` idea. The use of high-precision, limited field-of-view sensor-fuzed munitions is a subject of interest in other Defense Department programs and may have application to the important area of theater missile defense.« less

  6. Spectroscopic evaluation of the environmental impact on black crusted modern mortars in urban-industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Maguregui, M; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olazabal, M A; Arana, G; Madariaga, J M

    2011-03-01

    A multianalytical characterisation of black crusted modern construction materials from buildings located in the Bilbao Metropolitan area (North Spain) was carried out. According to the mineral composition determined by Raman spectroscopy, calcite and hematite were the major compounds found while aragonite, limonite, rutile, quartz and some aluminosilicates such as obsidian or amazonite (KAlSi(3)O(8)) were also present in minor percentages. As deterioration products, gypsum and anhydrite were widely found not only in the surface but also in the inner part of strongly deteriorated samples. Coquimbite (Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·9H(2)O) was identified as well in the most protected facade where high amounts of Fe, having probably an anthropogenic origin, were measured by micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). Zn was found to be in high amounts while Cu, Pb, Ti, Mn, Sr and K were identified as minor elements. Considering the non-expected concentrations found for some anthropogenic elements, a sequential extraction was carried out in order to determine their chemical form by means of ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The orientation of the facades, which had a different influence from rain washing and industrial and traffic impact, was shown to affect the accumulation of different compounds in the black crust. Finally, the MEDUSA software was used to simulate the reactions among the original compounds, deposited pollutants and the atmospheric acid gases in order to explain the presence of the decaying species found.

  7. Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

  8. Wind Carved Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-19

    The distinctively fluted surface and elongated hills in this image in Medusae Fossae are caused by wind erosion of a soft fine-grained rock. Called yardangs, these features are aligned with the prevailing wind direction. This wind direction would have dominated for a very long time to carve these large-scale features into the exposed rock we see today. Yardangs not only reveal the strength and direction of historic winds, but also reveal something of the host rock itself. Close inspection by HiRISE shows an absence of boulders or rubble, especially along steep yardang cliffs and buttresses. The absence of rubble and the scale of the yardangs tells us that the host rock consists only of weakly cemented fine granules in tens of meters or more thick deposits. Such deposits could have come from extended settling of volcanic ash, atmospheric dust, or accumulations of wind deposited fine sands. After a time these deposits became cemented and cohesive, illustrated by the high standing relief and exposed cliffs. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21111

  9. Redescription of Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    LEWIS, CHERYL; BENTLAGE, BASTIAN; YANAGIHARA, ANGEL; GILLAN, WILLIAM; VAN BLERK, JOHAN; KEIL, DANIEL P.; BELY, ALEXANDRA E.; COLLINS, ALLEN G.

    2016-01-01

    Here we establish a neotype for Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) from the Dutch Caribbean island of Bonaire. The species was originally described one hundred and eighty three years ago as Carybdea alata in La Centurie Zoologique—a monograph published by René Primevère Lesson during the age of worldwide scientific exploration. While monitoring monthly reproductive swarms of A. alata medusae in Bonaire, we documented the ecology and sexual reproduction of this cubozoan species. Examination of forty six A. alata specimens and additional archived multimedia material in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC revealed that A. alata is found at depths ranging from surface waters to 675 m. Additional studies have reported it at depths of up to 1607 m in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Herein, we resolve the taxonomic confusion long associated with A. alata due to a lack of detail in the original description and conflicting statements in the scientific literature. A new cubozoan character, the velarial lappet, is described for this taxon. The complete description provided here serves to stabilize the taxonomy of the second oldest box jellyfish species, and provide a thorough redescription of the species. PMID:25112765

  10. Long-Term Fluctuations in Circalunar Beach Aggregations of the Box Jellyfish Alatina moseri in Hawaii, with Links to Environmental Variability

    PubMed Central

    Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Holland, Brenden S.; Crow, Gerald L.; Blair, Landy; Yanagihara, Angel A.

    2013-01-01

    The box jellyfish Alatina moseri forms monthly aggregations at Waikiki Beach 8–12 days after each full moon, posing a recurrent hazard to swimmers due to painful stings. We present an analysis of long-term (14 years: Jan 1998– Dec 2011) changes in box jellyfish abundance at Waikiki Beach. We tested the relationship of beach counts to climate and biogeochemical variables over time in the North Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (NPSG). Generalized Additive Models (GAM), Change-Point Analysis (CPA), and General Regression Models (GRM) were used to characterize patterns in box jellyfish arrival at Waikiki Beach 8–12 days following 173 consecutive full moons. Variation in box jellyfish abundance lacked seasonality, but exhibited dramatic differences among months and among years, and followed an oscillating pattern with significant periods of increase (1998–2001; 2006–2011) and decrease (2001–2006). Of three climatic and 12 biogeochemical variables examined, box jellyfish showed a strong, positive relationship with primary production, >2 mm zooplankton biomass, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) index. It is clear that that the moon cycle plays a key role in synchronizing timing of the arrival of Alatina moseri medusae to shore. We propose that bottom-up processes, likely initiated by inter-annual regional climatic fluctuations influence primary production, secondary production, and ultimately regulate food availability, and are therefore important in controlling the inter-annual changes in box jellyfish abundance observed at Waikiki Beach. PMID:24194856

  11. Fixational Eye Movements in the Earliest Stage of Metazoan Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bielecki, Jan; Høeg, Jens T.; Garm, Anders

    2013-01-01

    All known photoreceptor cells adapt to constant light stimuli, fading the retinal image when exposed to an immobile visual scene. Counter strategies are therefore necessary to prevent blindness, and in mammals this is accomplished by fixational eye movements. Cubomedusae occupy a key position for understanding the evolution of complex visual systems and their eyes are assumedly subject to the same adaptive problems as the vertebrate eye, but lack motor control of their visual system. The morphology of the visual system of cubomedusae ensures a constant orientation of the eyes and a clear division of the visual field, but thereby also a constant retinal image when exposed to stationary visual scenes. Here we show that bell contractions used for swimming in the medusae refresh the retinal image in the upper lens eye of Tripedalia cystophora. This strongly suggests that strategies comparable to fixational eye movements have evolved at the earliest metazoan stage to compensate for the intrinsic property of the photoreceptors. Since the timing and amplitude of the rhopalial movements concur with the spatial and temporal resolution of the eye it circumvents the need for post processing in the central nervous system to remove image blur. PMID:23776673

  12. Interannual variability, growth, reproduction and feeding of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the Straits of Messina (Central Mediterranean Sea): Linkages with temperature and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, S.; Pansera, M.; Granata, A.; Guglielmo, L.

    2013-02-01

    To identify some of the possible environmental factors stimulating the increasingly frequent outbreaks of the scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca in the Straits of Messina, we investigated its abundance, growth, reproduction and feeding over a 4-year period, from 2007 to 2011, at two coastal sites. Using either field investigations and manipulative experiments we show that, among the various factors considered, shifts in water temperature (influencing medusae metabolism, growth and reproduction rates) and the size structure of the zooplankton community (their natural preys) can promote the proliferation of P. noctiluca. In particular, we show that increased temperature let jellyfishes to grow more rapidly and reach exceptional sizes. We also report a peculiar opportunistic behavior of P. noctiluca, which makes this species a potentially strong competitor in the pelagic trophic web of the Straits ecosystem. We therefore propose that more frequent P. noctiluca outbreaks stimulated by increasing sea surface temperature and shifts in their prey availability and composition would become, in the near future, a major cause of ecosystem shift.

  13. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  14. Optimization of an oligonucleotide microchip for microbial identification studies: a non-equilibrium dissociation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Stahl, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The utility of a high-density oligonucleotide microarray (microchip) for identifying strains of five closely related bacilli (Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus medusa and Bacillus subtilis) was demonstrated using an approach that compares the non-equilibrium dissociation rates ('melting curves') of all probe-target duplexes simultaneously. For this study, a hierarchical set of 30 oligonucleotide probes targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA of these bacilli at multiple levels of specificity (approximate taxonomic ranks of domain, kingdom, order, genus and species) was designed and immobilized in a high-density matrix of gel pads on a glass slide. Reproducible melting curves for probes with different levels of specificity were obtained using an optimized salt concentration. Clear discrimination between perfect match (PM) and mismatch (MM) duplexes was achieved. By normalizing the signals to an internal standard (a universal probe), a more than twofold discrimination (> 2.4x) was achieved between PM and 1-MM duplexes at the dissociation temperature at which 50% of the probe-target duplexes remained intact. This provided excellent differentiation among representatives of different Bacillus species, both individually and in mixtures of two or three. The overall pattern of hybridization derived from this hierarchical probe set also provided a clear 'chip fingerprint' for each of these closely related Bacillus species.

  15. Equatorial locations of water on Mars: Improved resolution maps based on Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jack T.; Eke, Vincent R.; Massey, Richard J.; Elphic, Richard C.; Feldman, William C.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Teodoro, Luís F. A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a map of the near subsurface hydrogen distribution on Mars, based on epithermal neutron data from the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. The map's spatial resolution is approximately improved two-fold via a new form of the pixon image reconstruction technique. We discover hydrogen-rich mineralogy far from the poles, including ∼10 wt.% water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) on the flanks of the Tharsis Montes and >40 wt.% WEH at the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF). The high WEH abundance at the MFF implies the presence of bulk water ice. This supports the hypothesis of recent periods of high orbital obliquity during which water ice was stable on the surface. We find the young undivided channel system material in southern Elysium Planitia to be distinct from its surroundings and exceptionally dry; there is no evidence of hydration at the location in Elysium Planitia suggested to contain a buried water ice sea. Finally, we find that the sites of recurring slope lineae (RSL) do not correlate with subsurface hydration. This implies that RSL are not fed by large, near-subsurface aquifers, but are instead the result of either small ( < 120 km diameter) aquifers, deliquescence of perchlorate and chlorate salts or dry, granular flows.

  16. Population density shapes patterns of survival and reproduction in Eleutheria dichotoma (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata).

    PubMed

    Dańko, Aleksandra; Schaible, Ralf; Pijanowska, Joanna; Dańko, Maciej J

    2018-01-01

    Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability. Sexual reproduction results in the production of motile larvae that can, in contrast to medusae, seek to escape unfavorable conditions by actively looking for better environments. The successful settlement of a larva results in starting the polyp stage, which is probably more resistant to environmental conditions. This is the first study that has examined the life-history strategies of the budding hydromedusa E. dichotoma by conducting a long-term experiment with a relatively large sample size that allowed for the examination of age-specific mortality and reproductive rates. We found that most sexual and asexual reproduction occurred at the beginning of life following a very rapid process of maturation. The parametric models fitted to the mortality data showed that population density was associated with an increase in the rate of aging, an increase in the level of late-life mortality plateau, and a decrease in the hidden heterogeneity in individual mortality rates. The effects of population density on life-history traits are discussed in the context of resource allocation and the r/K-strategies' continuum concept.

  17. Deep pelagic food web structure as revealed by in situ feeding observations.

    PubMed

    Choy, C Anela; Haddock, Steven H D; Robison, Bruce H

    2017-12-06

    Food web linkages, or the feeding relationships between species inhabiting a shared ecosystem, are an ecological lens through which ecosystem structure and function can be assessed, and thus are fundamental to informing sustainable resource management. Empirical feeding datasets have traditionally been painstakingly generated from stomach content analysis, direct observations and from biochemical trophic markers (stable isotopes, fatty acids, molecular tools). Each approach carries inherent biases and limitations, as well as advantages. Here, using 27 years (1991-2016) of in situ feeding observations collected by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), we quantitatively characterize the deep pelagic food web of central California within the California Current, complementing existing studies of diet and trophic interactions with a unique perspective. Seven hundred and forty-three independent feeding events were observed with ROVs from near-surface waters down to depths approaching 4000 m, involving an assemblage of 84 different predators and 82 different prey types, for a total of 242 unique feeding relationships. The greatest diversity of prey was consumed by narcomedusae, followed by physonect siphonophores, ctenophores and cephalopods. We highlight key interactions within the poorly understood 'jelly web', showing the importance of medusae, ctenophores and siphonophores as key predators, whose ecological significance is comparable to large fish and squid species within the central California deep pelagic food web. Gelatinous predators are often thought to comprise relatively inefficient trophic pathways within marine communities, but we build upon previous findings to document their substantial and integral roles in deep pelagic food webs. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome and evolutionary analysis of Turritopsis dohrnii, the "immortal" jellyfish with a reversible life-cycle.

    PubMed

    Lisenkova, A A; Grigorenko, A P; Tyazhelova, T V; Andreeva, T V; Gusev, F E; Manakhov, A D; Goltsov, A Yu; Piraino, S; Miglietta, M P; Rogaev, E I

    2017-02-01

    Turritopsis dohrnii (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina, Anthoathecata) is the only known metazoan that is capable of reversing its life cycle via morph rejuvenation from the adult medusa stage to the juvenile polyp stage. Here, we present a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of T. dohrnii, which harbors genes for 13 proteins, two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs. The T. dohrnii mt genome is characterized by typical features of species in the Hydroidolina subclass, such as a high A+T content (71.5%), reversed transcriptional orientation for the large rRNA subunit gene, and paucity of CGN codons. An incomplete complementary duplicate of the cox1 gene was found at the 5' end of the T. dohrnii mt chromosome, as were variable repeat regions flanking the chromosome. We identified species-specific variations (nad5, nad6, cob, and cox1 genes) and putative selective constraints (atp8, nad1, nad2, and nad5 genes) in the mt genes of T. dohrnii, and predicted alterations in tertiary structures of respiratory chain proteins (NADH4, NADH5, and COX1 proteins) of T. dohrnii. Based on comparative analyses of available hydrozoan mt genomes, we also determined the taxonomic relationships of T. dohrnii, recovering Filifera IV as a paraphyletic taxon, and assessed intraspecific diversity of various Hydrozoa species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Testing of a Dual Accelerometer Vector Sensor for AUV Acoustic Surveys †

    PubMed Central

    Mantouka, Agni; Felisberto, Paulo; Santos, Paulo; Zabel, Friedrich; Saleiro, Mário; Jesus, Sérgio M.; Sebastião, Luís

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, manufacturing and testing of a Dual Accelerometer Vector Sensor (DAVS). The device was built within the activities of the WiMUST project, supported under the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, which aims to improve the efficiency of the methodologies used to perform geophysical acoustic surveys at sea by the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). The DAVS has the potential to contribute to this aim in various ways, for example, owing to its spatial filtering capability, it may reduce the amount of post processing by discriminating the bottom from the surface reflections. Additionally, its compact size allows easier integration with AUVs and hence facilitates the vehicle manoeuvrability compared to the classical towed arrays. The present paper is focused on results related to acoustic wave azimuth estimation as an example of its spatial filtering capabilities. The DAVS device consists of two tri-axial accelerometers and one hydrophone moulded in one unit. Sensitivity and directionality of these three sensors were measured in a tank, whilst the direction estimation capabilities of the accelerometers paired with the hydrophone, forming a vector sensor, were evaluated on a Medusa Class AUV, which was sailing around a deployed sound source. Results of these measurements are presented in this paper. PMID:28594342

  20. Development and Testing of a Dual Accelerometer Vector Sensor for AUV Acoustic Surveys.

    PubMed

    Mantouka, Agni; Felisberto, Paulo; Santos, Paulo; Zabel, Friedrich; Saleiro, Mário; Jesus, Sérgio M; Sebastião, Luís

    2017-06-08

    This paper presents the design, manufacturing and testing of a Dual Accelerometer Vector Sensor (DAVS). The device was built within the activities of the WiMUST project, supported under the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, which aims to improve the efficiency of the methodologies used to perform geophysical acoustic surveys at sea by the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). The DAVS has the potential to contribute to this aim in various ways, for example, owing to its spatial filtering capability, it may reduce the amount of post processing by discriminating the bottom from the surface reflections. Additionally, its compact size allows easier integration with AUVs and hence facilitates the vehicle manoeuvrability compared to the classical towed arrays. The present paper is focused on results related to acoustic wave azimuth estimation as an example of its spatial filtering capabilities. The DAVS device consists of two tri-axial accelerometers and one hydrophone moulded in one unit. Sensitivity and directionality of these three sensors were measured in a tank, whilst the direction estimation capabilities of the accelerometers paired with the hydrophone, forming a vector sensor, were evaluated on a Medusa Class AUV, which was sailing around a deployed sound source. Results of these measurements are presented in this paper.

  1. The diel migrations and distributions within a Mesopelagic community in the North East Atlantic. 1. Introduction and sampling procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, H. S. J.; Angel, M. V.; Badcock, J.; Domanski, P.; James, P. T.; Pugh, P. R.; Thurston, M. H.

    (i) This paper is an introduction to a series of papers describing the diel migrations and interrelationships of a mesopelagic community in the northeast Atlantic. (ii) The biological and physical background to the sampling area is described. (iii) There was little physical structure in the water column to a depth of 1000 m. (iv) The influence of Mediterranean water was detectable at varying depths between 550 and 800 m during the sampling programme. The possibility of mesoscale activity at these depths is discussed. (v) The sampling programme is described. Using the I.O.S. rectangular midwater trawl, the RMT 1 + 8, one hour samples were taken at 4 depth horizons, 100, 250, 450 and 600 m. Each depth was fished continuously for 48 hr. (vi) Additional non-quantitative surface samples, and surface light measurements were made throughout the RMT 1 + 8 sampling period. (vii) 97 hauls were made and the data for fish, decapod Crustacea, mysids, euphausiids, amphipods, copepods, ostracods, siphonophores, medusae, cteniphores and chaetognaths analysed. (viii) General results in terms of total numbers and numbers of species taken by the RMT 1 and the RMT 8 are described. (ix) The populations at 100 and 250 m showed more diel variation than those at 450 and 600 m, but the proportions of individual species and groups changed continuously at all depths. (x) These changes are due to diel vertical migrations. The migrations of most species only involved a part of their populations.

  2. Composition, abundance and distribution of macrozooplankton in Culebra Bay, Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica and its value as bioindicator of pollution.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Melinda; Morales-Ramírez, Alvaro

    2004-12-01

    The abundance, distribution and composition of the macrozooplankton of Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 38' N - 85 degrees 40' W) were studied at four stations throughout the dry (February-May) and rainy (September-November) seasons of 2000. The samples were collected at two-week intervals using a 500 microm mesh net with a 0.5 m diameter opening. Copepods (23-31%) and ostracods (20-34%) were predominant throughout the year, followed by cladocerans (2.5-14%), zoea (6.6-9.5%), and siphonophores (2.5-7.2%). High densities of zooplankton were obtained in February and March with peak abundance on March 18. The lowest densities were observed on September 3 and November 5. Significant differences in abundances at each station were observed for the groups Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Ctenophora, Medusae, Ostracoda, Zoea, and Amphipoda. Comparison of the dry and rainy seasons revealed significantly higher zooplankton abundance in the dry season and copepod domination of all stations; during the rainy season ostracods dominated the off-shore areas. Zooplankton abundance and distribution are influenced by upwelling, which occurs during the dry season in Culebra Bay.

  3. Vertical distribution and daily migrations of hyperiid amphipods in the northern Benguela in relation to water column stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Carme; Gili, Josep-Maria

    1993-11-01

    The vertical distribution and migratory behaviour of hyperiid amphipods were studied in a series of tows carried out during a 48-h sampling period at an oceanic station at the northern edge of the Benguela System during a major penetration by Angola Current waters. A total of 49 species of hyperiid amphipods were collected; of these, Tetrathyrus forcipatus was the most abundant, with densities greater than two individuals per 10 m 3. Vibilia armata, Lestrigonus latissimus, L. bengalensis and Paratyphis promontorii were also highly abundant. During the sampling period most species were concentrated in the uppermost 40 m of the water column, though in other regions the vertical distribution of these same species has been reported to be broader. Only a few species were able to migrate through the thermocline. We hypothesize that both the non-migratory behaviour and the aggregation of individuals and species were caused by two primary factors: the existence of a strong thermocline, which hindered the transit of species to deeper layers, and abundant concentrations of gelatinous zooplankton above the thermocline. Hyperiids and the gelatinous zooplankton, particularly medusae and siphonophores, exhibited a close association during the sampling period, suggesting that hyperiids are able to partition their habitat by using the different medusan and siphonophoran species as specific substrates, thereby reducing interspecific competition.

  4. The bathypelagic community of Monterey Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robison, Bruce H.; Sherlock, Rob E.; Reisenbichler, Kim R.

    2010-08-01

    We used a quiet, deep-diving remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to conduct oblique, quantitative video transects of the bathypelagic fauna at depths between 1000 and 3500 m at a site over the Monterey Submarine Canyon, in the eastern North Pacific off central California. Fifteen such dives were made over a two-year period. Analyses of the video data revealed a rich and diverse fauna dominated by gelatinous animals. In particular, the holopelagic polychaete Poeobius meseres was an important detritivore in the upper half of this depth range. As Poeobius abundance eventually declined with increasing depth, larvacean abundance increased. In contrast, the relative numbers of crustacean grazers, principally copepods and mysids, remained relatively constant with depth. Medusae were most abundant and most diverse among the gelatinous predators, which also included ctenophores, and siphonophores. Chaetognaths occurred chiefly in the upper half of the depth range. While there is considerable overlap, the bathypelagic fauna can be separated into upper (1000 to 2300 m) and lower (2400 to 3300 m) zones, as well as a distinct and populous benthic boundary layer. Within the overall bathypelagic community is a complex web of trophic links involving gelatinous predators that feed on both gelatinous and hard-bodied particle feeders, as well as on each other. The amount of organic carbon contained in this jelly web is substantial but its ecological fate is uncertain. The assessment of bathypelagic communities will be important for establishing baselines to conserve deep pelagic biodiversity within high-seas protected areas.

  5. Effect of petroleum-related pollutants on Aurelia growth and development. Progress report, September 12, 1977--November 15, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Spangenberg, D.B.

    Strobilation initiation studies revealed that phenol and aniline inhibited strobilation initiation and phenol (at lower dosages) caused a reversal of strobilation initiation whereas benzo(a)pyrene did not affect this process. Ephyra abnormalities were created by phenol (abnormal pulsing and a cup-shaped morphology) naphthalene (abnormal lappet formation) and aniline (impaired nematocyst synthesis). Statolith synthesis was reduced by aniline, naphthalene, phenol, and benzo(a)pyrene. Budding rates were likewise retarded by phenol and aniline as was the metamorphosis of planulae into polyps. Tentacle regeneration of mature polyps was not affected by phenol or aniline. A specific testing procedure for the administration of the water insolublemore » hydrocarbons was developed using sonication. The hydrocarbons were reduced to very fine particles with sonication and the minute particles were taken into the jellyfish. New jellyfish cultures were developed from medusae collected in Norfolk. These organisms responded to iodide, thyroxine, and hydrocarbons in a similar manner as the Texas Aurelia. The hydrocarbon effects on strobilation initiation and ephyra formation suggested that the hydrocarbons affected thyroxine synthesis and/or action in the jellyfish (and other organisms) and call for detailed studies as to their specific mechanisms of action.« less

  6. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

  7. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) Oocytes' Contact Plate Structure and Development

    PubMed Central

    Adonin, Leonid S.; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G.; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the “contact plate”. Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high Mr bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides Mr corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' Mr is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida. PMID:23185235

  8. Exploring a new jellyfish collagen in the production of microparticles for protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Calejo, M Teresa; Almeida, António J; Fernandes, Ana I

    2012-01-01

    A microparticulate protein delivery system was developed using collagen, from the medusa Catostylus tagi, as a polymeric matrix. Collagen microparticles (CMPs) were produced by an emulsification-gelation-solvent extraction method and a high loading efficiency was found for the entrapment of lysozyme and α-lactalbumin. CMPs were cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). The uncross-linked CMPs were spherical, rough-surfaced, presenting an estimated median size of 28 µm by laser diffraction. Upon cross-linking, particle size (9.5 µm) and size distribution were reduced. CMPs showed a moderate hydrophobic behaviour and a positive surface charge. Cross-linking also resulted in greater stability in water, allowing a slow release, as shown by in vitro experiments. The assessment of lysozyme's biological activity showed that the protein remained active throughout the encapsulation and cross-linking processes. In summary, the work herein described shows the potential use of a marine collagen in the production of microparticles for the controlled release of therapeutic proteins.

  9. Isolation and biochemical characterisation of a novel collagen from Catostylus tagi.

    PubMed

    Calejo, M T; Morais, Z B; Fernandes, A I

    2009-01-01

    A preliminary biochemical approach to the study of collagen isolated from the medusa Catostylus tagi is reported and results are discussed in view of its use as a natural matrix for biomedical applications. Collagen from the jellyfish umbrella was isolated by pepsin digestion and purified by dialysis and salt precipitation. As expected, glycine represented almost one-third of the total amino acids. Aromatic amino-acid content was very low and imino acids were fewer than in collagens from fish and mammalian sources. Results from SDS-PAGE, ion-exchange chromatography and N-terminal amino-acid sequencing revealed an alpha1alpha2alpha3 heterotrimer, similar to vertebrate type V/XI. The molecular mass of two of the polypeptide chains was close to 85 kDa and 100 kDa for the third. However, the two chains presenting similar molecular mass, showed differences in charge and primary structure. Further characterisation showed a glycosylated protein with the carbohydrate moiety comprising almost 7% of the total mass, a denaturation temperature of 29.9 degrees C and multiple isoelectric points. Incubation with glutamyl endopeptidase resulted in significant digestion, in agreement with the protein's high content of Asp and Glu.

  10. Motile behaviour of the free-living planktonic ciliate Zoothamnium pelagicum (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Zoothamnium pelagicum is the only free-floating species among ∼1000 peritrich ciliates that develops its complete life cycle in the open ocean. In the NW Mediterranean Sea, Z. pelagicum was usually associated with ectobiotic bacteria, while in the South Atlantic Ocean was sometimes fouled by the diatom Licmophora. Each colony constituted a radial branch that joined at its base with other colonies to form a lens-shaped pseudocolony of up to 400 zooids. The cilia beat slowly, propelling the expanded pseudocolony in the direction of the concave face. Contraction was triggered by external stimuli (threat) or occurred spontaneously. Frame-by-frame analyses of high-speed camera sequences revealed that during contraction the pseudocolony reduced its diameter 70-75% in 3-3.2ms with peak velocity up to 350mms -1 . The contraction induced a forward jump of 1-2mm that attained a peak speed of 110mms -1 (∼250pseudocolony lengthss -1 ) in 5ms after onset. This medusa-like locomotion at low Reynolds numbers allowed the pseudocolony to exploit new patches of food resources, as well as to escape from predators. Zoothamnium pelagicum has been able to proliferate in the oligotrophic open ocean, while its sessile counterparts are restricted to eutrophic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative internal anatomy of Staurozoa (Cnidaria), with functional and evolutionary inferences

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Allen G.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Mills, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa. We document rarely-studied structures, such as ostia between radial pockets, intertentacular lobules, gametoducts, pad-like adhesive structures, and white spots of nematocysts (the last four newly proposed putative synapomorphies for Staurozoa). Two different regions of nematogenesis are documented. This work falsifies the view that the peduncle region of stauromedusae only retains polypoid characters; metamorphosis from stauropolyp to stauromedusa occurs both at the apical region (calyx) and basal region (peduncle). Intertentacular lobules, observed previously in only a small number of species, are shown to be widespread. Similarly, gametoducts were documented in all analyzed genera, both in males and females, thereby elucidating gamete release. Finally, ostia connecting adjacent gastric radial pockets appear to be universal for Staurozoa. Detailed histological studies of medusozoan polyps and medusae are necessary to further understand the relationships between staurozoan features and those of other medusozoan cnidarians. PMID:27812408

  12. Application of ray theory to propagation of low frequency noise from wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Ray theory is used to explain data from two experiments (1985 and 1985) on the propagation of low frequency sound generated by the WTS-4 wind turbine. Emphasis is on downwind data, but some upwind measurements taken during the 1985 experiment are also considered. General ray theory for a moving medium is reviewed and ray equations obtained. Restrictions are introduced simplifying the equations and permitting the use of a ray theory program MEDUSA, the computed propagation loss curve of which is compared to the measurements. Good qualitative agreement is obtained with 1984 downwind data. The results indicate that the downwind sound field is that of a near-ground sound channel. Although more scatter is seen in the 1985 data, agreement between theory and data is also good. In particular, the position and magnitude of the jump in the sound levels associated with the beginning of the sound channel is correctly predicted. The theoretical explanation of the upwind data is less successful. Ray theory calculations indicate the formation of a shadow zone that, in fact, does not occur. While no sharp shadow zone is apparent in the data, the general expectation (based on ray theory) that sound levels should be much reduced upwind is confirmed by the data.

  13. Artificial substrates preference for proliferation and immigration in Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Song; Lin, Jianing; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The increasing amounts of artificial marine substrates, in many parts of the world have been proposed as a potential driver of Aurelia spp. blooms, on account of providing extra habitats for the settlement and the proliferation of the benthic stage (polyps). Previous experiments have mainly focused on the substrate choices of Aurelia spp. planulae. However, substrate preferences for the proliferation and immigration of polyps have not been reported. We monitored the propagation and immigration of Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps on two natural and nine artificial substrates at constant temperature (20±0.5°C) and salinity (30±0.5) in beakers and a glass aquarium in the laboratory, respectively. The results showed that, among artificial substrates, the highest number for polyp proliferation and immigration was found on nets, rigid polyvinyl chloride plates (RPVC), and wood. The lowest density of polyps was present on iron plates. Among natural substrates, the asexual reproduction rate of polyps on Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) shells was significantly higher than Azumapecten farreri (Jones & Preston, 1904). On the account of the distinction in the roughness, chemical properties and biofilms of these material surfaces, bare artificial or natural substrates discriminatively affect the proliferation and the immigration of Aurelia spp. polyps at laboratory. These observations suggest that, even in the natural environment, different materials and texture may influence the composition and the abundance of the fouling communities and the assemblages of polyps and, indirectly, have effects on the amounts of released medusae.

  14. Defect detection and control in an analog CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taucher, Franz; Evans, Ivor R.

    1996-09-01

    Over the last 12 months, Austria Mikro Systeme has installed an even more rigorous system of defect density measurement, monitoring and control in its facility at Unterpremstatten. To accomplish this, 2 test devices (Medusa 1 and 2) were designed which allow possible defects in all layers of the process to be located. These devices are 8 by 9 mm2 in area and contain various structures to quantify the density of defects causing continuity, bridging and inter-layer isolation failure. The devices move through the waferfab receiving all process steps with the usual handling and operator procedures, from which it is clear, that the density of defects measured is representative of that of normal production material. The wafers are tested electrically using a Keithley S450, and data analysis is done with RS1 and EXCEL. By using yield models available from the literature, the correspondence in yield estimates made in this way and actual production yields were generally within 3%. Applying this technique allows the yield loss mechanisms to be isolated and then prioritized. The chipset identified several areas within the process which required special attention. These included implant optimization to reduce gate oxide damage, defect reduction in the metal-etch process, increased leakage currents caused by implant channeling and second poly etch-control to avoid 'bridging' around poly 1 periphery. Successful actions at these points have led to a significant improvement in wafer probe yields at Austria Mikro Systeme.

  15. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp.) for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy.

    PubMed

    Brighigna, Luigi; Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; Cornia, Andrea; Bocchini, Paola; Galletti, Guido

    2002-06-01

    The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa) for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes) are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain) and environmental ones (PM10), indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA) where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to survive.

  16. Automatic detection of key innovations, rate shifts, and diversity-dependence on phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed to infer differential rates of species diversification through time and among clades using time-calibrated phylogenetic trees. However, we lack a general framework that can delineate and quantify heterogeneous mixtures of dynamic processes within single phylogenies. I developed a method that can identify arbitrary numbers of time-varying diversification processes on phylogenies without specifying their locations in advance. The method uses reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo to move between model subspaces that vary in the number of distinct diversification regimes. The model assumes that changes in evolutionary regimes occur across the branches of phylogenetic trees under a compound Poisson process and explicitly accounts for rate variation through time and among lineages. Using simulated datasets, I demonstrate that the method can be used to quantify complex mixtures of time-dependent, diversity-dependent, and constant-rate diversification processes. I compared the performance of the method to the MEDUSA model of rate variation among lineages. As an empirical example, I analyzed the history of speciation and extinction during the radiation of modern whales. The method described here will greatly facilitate the exploration of macroevolutionary dynamics across large phylogenetic trees, which may have been shaped by heterogeneous mixtures of distinct evolutionary processes.

  17. Automatic Detection of Key Innovations, Rate Shifts, and Diversity-Dependence on Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Rabosky, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed to infer differential rates of species diversification through time and among clades using time-calibrated phylogenetic trees. However, we lack a general framework that can delineate and quantify heterogeneous mixtures of dynamic processes within single phylogenies. I developed a method that can identify arbitrary numbers of time-varying diversification processes on phylogenies without specifying their locations in advance. The method uses reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo to move between model subspaces that vary in the number of distinct diversification regimes. The model assumes that changes in evolutionary regimes occur across the branches of phylogenetic trees under a compound Poisson process and explicitly accounts for rate variation through time and among lineages. Using simulated datasets, I demonstrate that the method can be used to quantify complex mixtures of time-dependent, diversity-dependent, and constant-rate diversification processes. I compared the performance of the method to the MEDUSA model of rate variation among lineages. As an empirical example, I analyzed the history of speciation and extinction during the radiation of modern whales. The method described here will greatly facilitate the exploration of macroevolutionary dynamics across large phylogenetic trees, which may have been shaped by heterogeneous mixtures of distinct evolutionary processes. PMID:24586858

  18. GAAP: Genome-organization-framework-Assisted Assembly Pipeline for prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lina; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Yanmin; Li, Yulai; Li, Changqing; Li, Rujiao; Ma, Qin; Siu, Gilman Kit-Hang; Yu, Jun; Jiang, Taijiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Kang, Yu

    2017-01-25

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have greatly promoted the genomic study of prokaryotes. However, highly fragmented assemblies due to short reads from NGS are still a limiting factor in gaining insights into the genome biology. Reference-assisted tools are promising in genome assembly, but tend to result in false assembly when the assigned reference has extensive rearrangements. Herein, we present GAAP, a genome assembly pipeline for scaffolding based on core-gene-defined Genome Organizational Framework (cGOF) described in our previous study. Instead of assigning references, we use the multiple-reference-derived cGOFs as indexes to assist in order and orientation of the scaffolds and build a skeleton structure, and then use read pairs to extend scaffolds, called local scaffolding, and distinguish between true and chimeric adjacencies in the scaffolds. In our performance tests using both empirical and simulated data of 15 genomes in six species with diverse genome size, complexity, and all three categories of cGOFs, GAAP outcompetes or achieves comparable results when compared to three other reference-assisted programs, AlignGraph, Ragout and MeDuSa. GAAP uses both cGOF and pair-end reads to create assemblies in genomic scale, and performs better than the currently available reference-assisted assembly tools as it recovers more assemblies and makes fewer false locations, especially for species with extensive rearranged genomes. Our method is a promising solution for reconstruction of genome sequence from short reads of NGS.

  19. Long-term fluctuations in circalunar Beach aggregations of the box jellyfish Alatina moseri in Hawaii, with links to environmental variability.

    PubMed

    Chiaverano, Luciano M; Holland, Brenden S; Crow, Gerald L; Blair, Landy; Yanagihara, Angel A

    2013-01-01

    The box jellyfish Alatina moseri forms monthly aggregations at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days after each full moon, posing a recurrent hazard to swimmers due to painful stings. We present an analysis of long-term (14 years: Jan 1998- Dec 2011) changes in box jellyfish abundance at Waikiki Beach. We tested the relationship of beach counts to climate and biogeochemical variables over time in the North Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (NPSG). Generalized Additive Models (GAM), Change-Point Analysis (CPA), and General Regression Models (GRM) were used to characterize patterns in box jellyfish arrival at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days following 173 consecutive full moons. Variation in box jellyfish abundance lacked seasonality, but exhibited dramatic differences among months and among years, and followed an oscillating pattern with significant periods of increase (1998-2001; 2006-2011) and decrease (2001-2006). Of three climatic and 12 biogeochemical variables examined, box jellyfish showed a strong, positive relationship with primary production, >2 mm zooplankton biomass, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) index. It is clear that that the moon cycle plays a key role in synchronizing timing of the arrival of Alatina moseri medusae to shore. We propose that bottom-up processes, likely initiated by inter-annual regional climatic fluctuations influence primary production, secondary production, and ultimately regulate food availability, and are therefore important in controlling the inter-annual changes in box jellyfish abundance observed at Waikiki Beach.

  20. Box Jellyfish Alatina alata Has a Circumtropical Distribution.

    PubMed

    Lawley, Jonathan W; Ames, Cheryl Lewis; Bentlage, Bastian; Yanagihara, Angel; Goodwill, Roger; Kayal, Ehsan; Hurwitz, Kikiana; Collins, Allen G

    2016-10-01

    Species of the box jellyfish (Cubozoa) genus Alatina are notorious for their sting along the beaches of several localities of the Atlantic and Pacific. These species include Alatina alata on the Caribbean Island of Bonaire (the Netherlands), A. moseri in Hawaii, and A. mordens in Australia. Most cubozoans inhabit coastal waters, but Alatina is unusual in that specimens have also been collected in the open ocean at great depths. Alatina is notable in that populations form monthly aggregations for spermcast mating in conjunction with the lunar cycle. Nominal species are difficult to differentiate morphologically, and it has been unclear whether they are distinct or a single species with worldwide distribution. Here we report the results of a population genetic study, using nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from four geographical localities. Our analyses revealed a general lack of geographic structure among Alatina populations, and slight though significant isolation by distance. These data corroborate morphological and behavioral similarities observed in the geographically disparate localities, and indicate the presence of a single, pantropically distributed species, Alatina alata. While repeated, human-mediated introductions of A. alata could explain the patterns we have observed, it seems more likely that genetic metapopulation cohesion is maintained via dispersal through the swimming medusa stage, and perhaps via dispersal of encysted planulae, which are described here for the first time in Alatina.

  1. Practical use of a framework for network science experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Andrew; Bergamaschi, Flavio

    2014-06-01

    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA)1 In Network and Information Sciences, to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences that will enhance decision making for coalition operations and enable rapid, secure formation of ad hoc teams in coalition environments and enhance US and UK capabilities to conduct coalition warfare. Research conducted under the ITA was extended through collaboration between ARL and IBM UK to characterize and dene a software stack and tooling that has become the reference framework for network science experimentation in support for validation of theoretical research. This paper discusses the composition of the reference framework for experimentation resulting from the ARL/IBM UK collaboration and its use, by the Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance (NS CTA)2 , in a recent network science experiment conducted at ARL. It also discusses how the experiment was modeled using the reference framework, the integration of two new components, the Apollo Fact-Finder3 tool and the Medusa Crowd Sensing4 application, the limitations identified and how they shall be addressed in future work.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of Atractus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with emphasis on Ecuadorian species and the description of three new taxa.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Alejandro; Mebert, Konrad; Valencia, Jorge H; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Reyes-Puig, Carolina; Vieira-Fernandes, José L; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    We present a molecular phylogeny of snake genus Atractus , with an improved taxon sampling that includes 30 of the 140 species currently recognized. The phylogenetic tree supports the existence of at least three new species in the Pacific lowlands and adjacent Andean slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, which we describe here. A unique combination of molecular, meristic and color pattern characters support the validity of the new species. With the newly acquired data, we propose and define the Atractus iridescens species group, as well as redefine the Atractus roulei species group. The species Atractus iridescens is reported for the first time in Ecuador, whereas Atractus bocourti and Atractus medusa are removed from the herpetofauna of this country. We provide the first photographic vouchers of live specimens for Atractus multicinctus , Atractus paucidens and Atractus touzeti , along with photographs of 19 other Ecuadorian Atractus species. The current status of Atractus occidentalis and Atractus paucidens is maintained based on the discovery of new material referable to these species. With these changes, the species number reported in Ecuador increases to 27, a number that is likely to increase as material not examined in this work becomes available and included in systematic studies.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Atractus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with emphasis on Ecuadorian species and the description of three new taxa

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Alejandro; Mebert, Konrad; Valencia, Jorge H.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Reyes-Puig, Carolina; Vieira-Fernandes, José L.; Guayasamin, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present a molecular phylogeny of snake genus Atractus, with an improved taxon sampling that includes 30 of the 140 species currently recognized. The phylogenetic tree supports the existence of at least three new species in the Pacific lowlands and adjacent Andean slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, which we describe here. A unique combination of molecular, meristic and color pattern characters support the validity of the new species. With the newly acquired data, we propose and define the Atractus iridescens species group, as well as redefine the Atractus roulei species group. The species Atractus iridescens is reported for the first time in Ecuador, whereas Atractus bocourti and Atractus medusa are removed from the herpetofauna of this country. We provide the first photographic vouchers of live specimens for Atractus multicinctus, Atractus paucidens and Atractus touzeti, along with photographs of 19 other Ecuadorian Atractus species. The current status of Atractus occidentalis and Atractus paucidens is maintained based on the discovery of new material referable to these species. With these changes, the species number reported in Ecuador increases to 27, a number that is likely to increase as material not examined in this work becomes available and included in systematic studies. PMID:28769604

  4. First Description of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacterial Symbiosis in a Cnidarian (Medusozoa) Living in Sulphidic Shallow-Water Environments.

    PubMed

    Abouna, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Grimonprez, Adrien; Gros, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of thioautotrophic bacterial symbiosis in the giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, there has been great impetus to investigate such partnerships in other invertebrates. In this study, we present the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a metazoan belonging to the phylum Cnidaria in which this event has never been described previously. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observations and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXs) analysis, were employed to unveil the presence of prokaryotes population bearing elemental sulphur granules, growing on the body surface of the metazoan. Phylogenetic assessments were also undertaken to identify this invertebrate and microorganisms in thiotrophic symbiosis. Our results showed the occurrence of a thiotrophic symbiosis in a cnidarian identified as Cladonema sp. This is the first report describing the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a cnidarian. Furthermore, of the two adult morphologies, the polyp and medusa, this mutualistic association was found restricted to the polyp form of Cladonema sp.

  5. [The worlds of gods in medicine].

    PubMed

    Karenberg, A

    2017-09-01

    A number of designations for diseases, medicines and human body structures derive from classical mythology. To date, these eponyms have not been systematically investigated. This paper provides an overview of this fringe component of medical vocabulary, looks at the history of several terms and formulates hypotheses as to why such creative etymologies have come into being. In addition to relevant texts on ancient mythology, a variety of medical textbooks from the early modern period were analyzed. Between the 16th and the 20th centuries some 30 figures from Greek and Roman literature made their way into the terminology of medical sciences. A few of these expressions can be encountered in clinical use (e. g., Caput Medusae, Proteus, Oedipus complex) and remain official anatomical (atlas, Achilles tendon) or pharmaceutical nomenclature (atropine, morphine). The choice of these designations has often been similarity of form or analogies in function. Classical eponyms have gained acceptance on account of their succinctness, conciseness and scholarly veneer. Finally, this vocabulary shares its origin with other relevant terminology. In clinical classes, mythological designations can serve as a point of departure for digressions into literary, art and medical history in order to provide an understanding of cultural traditions and enhance education.

  6. Macrozooplankton biomass in a warm-core Gulf Stream ring: Time series changes in size structure, taxonomic composition, and vertical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Cabell S.; Wiebe, Peter H.

    1985-01-01

    Macrozooplankton size structure and taxonomic composition in warm-core ring 82B was examined from a time series (March, April, June) of ring center MOCNESS (1 m) samples. Size distributions of 15 major taxonomic groups were determined from length measurements digitized from silhouette photographs of the samples. Silhouette digitization allows rapid quantification of Zooplankton size structure and taxonomic composition. Length/weight regressions, determined for each taxon, were used to partition the biomass (displacement volumes) of each sample among the major taxonomic groups. Zooplankton taxonomic composition and size structure varied with depth and appeared to coincide with the hydrographic structure of the ring. In March and April, within the thermostad region of the ring, smaller herbivorous/omnivorous Zooplankton, including copepods, crustacean larvae, and euphausiids, were dominant, whereas below this region, larger carnivores, such as medusae, ctenophores, fish, and decapods, dominated. Copepods were generally dominant in most samples above 500 m. Total macrozooplankton abundance and biomass increased between March and April, primarily because of increases in herbivorous taxa, including copepods, crustacean larvae, and larvaceans. A marked increase in total macrozooplankton abundance and biomass between April and June was characterized by an equally dramatic shift from smaller herbivores (1.0-3.0 mm) in April to large herbivores (5.0-6.0 mm) and carnivores (>15 mm) in June. Species identifications made directly from the samples suggest that changes in trophic structure resulted from seeding type immigration and subsequent in situ population growth of Slope Water zooplankton species.

  7. In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J Y; Zhong, L; Wang, C M

    2010-12-09

    We report the creation of a nanoscale electrochemical device inside a transmission electron microscope—consisting of a single tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanowire anode, an ionic liquid electrolyte, and a bulk lithium cobalt dioxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathode—and the in situ observation of the lithiation of the SnO{sub 2} nanowire during electrochemical charging. Upon charging, a reaction front propagated progressively along the nanowire, causing the nanowire to swell, elongate, and spiral. The reaction front is a “Medusa zone” containing a high density of mobile dislocations, which are continuously nucleated and absorbed at the moving front. This dislocation cloud indicates large in-plane misfitmore » stresses and is a structural precursor to electrochemically driven solid-state amorphization. Because lithiation-induced volume expansion, plasticity, and pulverization of electrode materials are the major mechanical effects that plague the performance and lifetime of high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries, our observations provide important mechanistic insight for the design of advanced batteries.« less

  8. Cross-standard user description in mobile, medical oriented virtual collaborative environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, Rama Rao; Mitrea, Mihai; Joveski, Bojan; Chammem, Afef

    2015-03-01

    By combining four different open standards belonging to the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11 (a.k.a. MPEG) and W3C, this paper advances an architecture for mobile, medical oriented virtual collaborative environments. The various users are represented according to MPEG-UD (MPEG User Description) while the security issues are dealt with by deploying the WebID principles. On the server side, irrespective of their elementary types (text, image, video, 3D, …), the medical data are aggregated into hierarchical, interactive multimedia scenes which are alternatively represented into MPEG-4 BiFS or HTML5 standards. This way, each type of content can be optimally encoded according to its particular constraints (semantic, medical practice, network conditions, etc.). The mobile device should ensure only the displaying of the content (inside an MPEG player or an HTML5 browser) and the capturing of the user interaction. The overall architecture is implemented and tested under the framework of the MEDUSA European project, in partnership with medical institutions. The testbed considers a server emulated by a PC and heterogeneous user devices (tablets, smartphones, laptops) running under iOS, Android and Windows operating systems. The connection between the users and the server is alternatively ensured by WiFi and 3G/4G networks.

  9. Deep pelagic food web structure as revealed by in situ feeding observations

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Steven H. D.; Robison, Bruce H.

    2017-01-01

    Food web linkages, or the feeding relationships between species inhabiting a shared ecosystem, are an ecological lens through which ecosystem structure and function can be assessed, and thus are fundamental to informing sustainable resource management. Empirical feeding datasets have traditionally been painstakingly generated from stomach content analysis, direct observations and from biochemical trophic markers (stable isotopes, fatty acids, molecular tools). Each approach carries inherent biases and limitations, as well as advantages. Here, using 27 years (1991–2016) of in situ feeding observations collected by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), we quantitatively characterize the deep pelagic food web of central California within the California Current, complementing existing studies of diet and trophic interactions with a unique perspective. Seven hundred and forty-three independent feeding events were observed with ROVs from near-surface waters down to depths approaching 4000 m, involving an assemblage of 84 different predators and 82 different prey types, for a total of 242 unique feeding relationships. The greatest diversity of prey was consumed by narcomedusae, followed by physonect siphonophores, ctenophores and cephalopods. We highlight key interactions within the poorly understood ‘jelly web’, showing the importance of medusae, ctenophores and siphonophores as key predators, whose ecological significance is comparable to large fish and squid species within the central California deep pelagic food web. Gelatinous predators are often thought to comprise relatively inefficient trophic pathways within marine communities, but we build upon previous findings to document their substantial and integral roles in deep pelagic food webs. PMID:29212727

  10. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  11. Complex neural architecture in the diploblastic larva of Clava multicornis (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Piraino, Stefano; Zega, Giuliana; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Leone, Antonella; Dell'Anna, Alessandro; Pennati, Roberta; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Schmid, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-07-01

    The organization of the cnidarian nervous system has been widely documented in polyps and medusae, but little is known about the nervous system of planula larvae, which give rise to adult forms after settling and metamorphosis. We describe histological and cytological features of the nervous system in planulae of the hydrozoan Clava multicornis. These planulae do not swim freely in the water column but rather crawl on the substrate by means of directional, coordinated ciliary movement coupled to lateral muscular bending movements associated with positive phototaxis. Histological analysis shows pronounced anteroposterior regionalization of the planula's nervous system, with different neural cell types highly concentrated at the anterior pole. Transmission electron microscopy of planulae shows the nervous system to be unusually complex, with a large, orderly array of sensory cells at the anterior pole. In the anterior half of the planula, the basiectodermal plexus of neurites forms an extensive orthogonal network, whereas more posteriorly neurites extend longitudinally along the body axis. Additional levels of nervous system complexity are uncovered by neuropeptide-specific immunocytochemistry, which reveals distinct neural subsets having specific molecular phenotypes. Together these observations imply that the nervous system of the planula of Clava multicornis manifests a remarkable level of histological, cytological, and functional organization, the features of which may be reminiscent of those present in early bilaterian animals. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Trends in the Diversity, Distribution and Life History Strategy of Arctic Hydrozoa (Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Mapstone, Gillian M.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first attempt to compile a comprehensive and updated species list for Hydrozoa in the Arctic, encompassing both hydroid and medusa stages and including Siphonophorae. We address the hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic by Hydrozoa after the Last Glacial Maximum. Presence-absence data of Hydrozoa in the Arctic were prepared on the basis of historical and present-day literature. The Arctic was divided into ecoregions. Species were grouped into distributional categories according to their worldwide occurrences. Each species was classified according to life history strategy. The similarity of species composition among regions was calculated with the Bray-Curtis index. Average and variation in taxonomic distinctness were used to measure diversity at the taxonomic level. A total of 268 species were recorded. Arctic-boreal species were the most common and dominated each studied region. Nineteen percent of species were restricted to the Arctic. There was a predominance of benthic species over holo- and meroplanktonic species. Arctic, Arctic-Boreal and Boreal species were mostly benthic, while widely distributed species more frequently possessed a pelagic stage. Our results support hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic. The predominance of benthic Hydrozoa suggests that the Arctic could have been colonised after the Last Glacial Maximum by hydroids rafting on floating substrata or recolonising from glacial refugia. PMID:25793294

  13. Trends in the diversity, distribution and life history strategy of Arctic Hydrozoa (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Mapstone, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    This is the first attempt to compile a comprehensive and updated species list for Hydrozoa in the Arctic, encompassing both hydroid and medusa stages and including Siphonophorae. We address the hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic by Hydrozoa after the Last Glacial Maximum. Presence-absence data of Hydrozoa in the Arctic were prepared on the basis of historical and present-day literature. The Arctic was divided into ecoregions. Species were grouped into distributional categories according to their worldwide occurrences. Each species was classified according to life history strategy. The similarity of species composition among regions was calculated with the Bray-Curtis index. Average and variation in taxonomic distinctness were used to measure diversity at the taxonomic level. A total of 268 species were recorded. Arctic-boreal species were the most common and dominated each studied region. Nineteen percent of species were restricted to the Arctic. There was a predominance of benthic species over holo- and meroplanktonic species. Arctic, Arctic-Boreal and Boreal species were mostly benthic, while widely distributed species more frequently possessed a pelagic stage. Our results support hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic. The predominance of benthic Hydrozoa suggests that the Arctic could have been colonised after the Last Glacial Maximum by hydroids rafting on floating substrata or recolonising from glacial refugia.

  14. Lack of genetic structure in the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) across European seas.

    PubMed

    Stopar, Katja; Ramsak, Andreja; Trontelj, Peter; Malej, Alenka

    2010-10-01

    The genetic structure of the holopelagic scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca was inferred based on the study of 144 adult medusae. The areas of study were five geographic regions in two European seas (Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea). A 655-bp sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and a 645-bp sequence of two nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were analyzed. The protein coding COI gene showed a higher level of divergence than the combined nuclear ITS fragment (haplotype diversity 0.962 vs. 0.723, nucleotide diversity 1.16% vs. 0.31%). Phylogeographic analysis on COI gene revealed two clades, the larger consisting of specimens from all sampling sites, and the smaller mostly formed of specimens from the Mediterranean Sea. Haplotype diversity was very high throughout the sampled area, and within sample diversity was higher than diversity among geographical regions. No strongly supported genetically or geographically distinct groups of P. noctiluca were found. The results - long distance dispersal, insignificant F(ST) values, lack of isolation by distance - pointed toward an admixture among Mediterranean and East Atlantic populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Internal anatomy of Haliclystus antarcticus (Cnidaria, Staurozoa) with a discussion on histological features used in Staurozoan taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lucília S; Collins, Allen G; Marques, Antonio C

    2013-12-01

    Stauromedusae have relatively few macromorphological characters, making both their taxonomy and identification difficult. For this reason, histological characters are also employed in the taxonomy of the group. This study presents a detailed description of the histomorphology of Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Cnidaria, Staurozoa). We make new observations for the species and for the class, and address functional, taxonomical, and evolutionary aspects of staurozoan histo-anatomy. A complete reconstruction of H. antarcticus body plan is used to guide a more detailed observation, based on light microscopy, of structures rarely cited in the literature, such as the intertentacular lobules, the ostia between adjacent perradial pockets, and the male and female gonadal vesicles. Two possible regions of nematocyst formation are hypothesized and discussed. We also provide a review of the current use of histological characters in the taxonomy of the group. Understanding the body plan of stauromedusae is a challenge, because each single individual presents characters found in medusae and in polyps of other medusozoans. Comprehensive histological descriptions are important to establish relations of homology within Staurozoa and Cnidaria, providing crucial data on their evolution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. First Description of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacterial Symbiosis in a Cnidarian (Medusozoa) Living in Sulphidic Shallow-Water Environments

    PubMed Central

    Abouna, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Grimonprez, Adrien; Gros, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the discovery of thioautotrophic bacterial symbiosis in the giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, there has been great impetus to investigate such partnerships in other invertebrates. In this study, we present the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a metazoan belonging to the phylum Cnidaria in which this event has never been described previously. Methodology/Principal Findings Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observations and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXs) analysis, were employed to unveil the presence of prokaryotes population bearing elemental sulphur granules, growing on the body surface of the metazoan. Phylogenetic assessments were also undertaken to identify this invertebrate and microorganisms in thiotrophic symbiosis. Our results showed the occurrence of a thiotrophic symbiosis in a cnidarian identified as Cladonema sp. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report describing the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a cnidarian. Furthermore, of the two adult morphologies, the polyp and medusa, this mutualistic association was found restricted to the polyp form of Cladonema sp. PMID:26011278

  17. Structural and Developmental Disparity in the Tentacles of the Moon Jellyfish Aurelia sp.1

    PubMed Central

    Gold, David A.; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Hensley, Nicholai M.; Cozzolino, Kira; Tabatabaee, Mariam; Martin, Michelle; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Tentacles armed with stinging cells (cnidocytes) are a defining trait of the cnidarians, a phylum that includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydras. While cnidarian tentacles are generally characterized as structures evolved for feeding and defense, significant variation exists between the tentacles of different species, and within the same species across different life stages and/or body regions. Such diversity suggests cryptic distinctions exist in tentacle function. In this paper, we use confocal and transmission electron microscopy to contrast the structure and development of tentacles in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia species 1. We show that polyp oral tentacles and medusa marginal tentacles display markedly different cellular and muscular architecture, as well as distinct patterns of cellular proliferation during growth. Many structural differences between these tentacle types may reflect biomechanical solutions to different feeding strategies, although further work would be required for a precise mechanistic understanding. However, differences in cell proliferation dynamics suggests that the two tentacle forms lack a conserved mechanism of development, challenging the textbook-notion that cnidarian tentacles can be homologized into a conserved bauplan. PMID:26241309

  18. Structural and Developmental Disparity in the Tentacles of the Moon Jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    PubMed

    Gold, David A; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Hensley, Nicholai M; Cozzolino, Kira; Tabatabaee, Mariam; Martin, Michelle; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    Tentacles armed with stinging cells (cnidocytes) are a defining trait of the cnidarians, a phylum that includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydras. While cnidarian tentacles are generally characterized as structures evolved for feeding and defense, significant variation exists between the tentacles of different species, and within the same species across different life stages and/or body regions. Such diversity suggests cryptic distinctions exist in tentacle function. In this paper, we use confocal and transmission electron microscopy to contrast the structure and development of tentacles in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia species 1. We show that polyp oral tentacles and medusa marginal tentacles display markedly different cellular and muscular architecture, as well as distinct patterns of cellular proliferation during growth. Many structural differences between these tentacle types may reflect biomechanical solutions to different feeding strategies, although further work would be required for a precise mechanistic understanding. However, differences in cell proliferation dynamics suggests that the two tentacle forms lack a conserved mechanism of development, challenging the textbook-notion that cnidarian tentacles can be homologized into a conserved bauplan.

  19. Jellyfish: Special Tools for Biological Research on Earth and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, Dorothy B.

    1991-01-01

    The most intriguing nature of the jellyfish polyps is their ability to metamorphose, giving rise to tiny immature medusae called ephyrae which have a different form or shape from the polyps. The Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System was used to determine the subtle effects of hydrocarbons found in oil spills and the effects of X-irradiation on developing ephyrae. Currently, this test system is used to determine the effects of the gravity-less environment of outer space on the development and behavior of ephyrae. For this purpose, the effects of clinostat rotation on development of the ephyrae and their gravity receptor are being studied. The behavior of the ephyrae during 0 gravity achieved for short intervals of 30 seconds in parabolic flight is examined. The developing ephyrae and the mature ephyrae are exposed to gravity-less environment of outer space via a six or seven day shuttle experiment. If gravity receptors do form in outer space, they will be studied in detail using various types of microscopes, including the electron microscope, to determin whether they developed normally in space as compared with control on Earth.

  20. Fine structure, histochemistry, and morphogenesis during excystment of the podocysts of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hideki; Ohtsu, Kohzoh; Uye, Shin-Ichi

    2011-12-01

    Production of podocysts is the exclusive form of asexual reproduction by polyps of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai, which has been recurrently blooming in the East Asian seas in the last decade. Podocycts consist of a dome-shaped chitinous capsule with laminated structure that encapsulates a mass of cyst cells filled with granules containing nutrient reserves such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complexes are scarce in the cytoplasm of these cells, and the staining reaction for RNA is weak, indicating very low metabolic activity. Podocysts are capable of dormancy for at least 5 years without significant change of internal structure or nutrient reserves. Integrated information about spontaneous and artificially induced metamorphosis suggests that the following processes occur during excystment: (1) nematocyst formation in the internal cell mass, (2) stratification of the cell mass into endoderm and ectoderm, (3) extrusion of the cell mass through a gradual opening of the capsule, (4) formation of primordial polyp mouth and tentacles, and (5) metamorphosis to a polyp. We morphologically confirmed that N. nomurai podocysts have the capacity for long-term dormancy, an ability that should contribute to the periodic nature of the massive blooms of medusae of this species.

  1. Extract from the zooxanthellate jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata modulates gap junction intercellular communication in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-05-22

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean "fried egg jellyfish" Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7 and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed.

  2. Are diversification rates and chromosome evolution in the temperate grasses (Pooideae) associated with major environmental changes in the Oligocene-Miocene?

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Manuel; Escudero, Marcial; Sahuquillo, Elvira; Minaya, Miguel Ángel; Catalán, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The Pooideae are a highly diverse C3 grass subfamily that includes some of the most economically important crops, nested within the highly speciose core-pooid clade. Here, we build and explore the phylogeny of the Pooideae within a temporal framework, assessing its patterns of diversification and its chromosomal evolutionary changes in the light of past environmental transformations. We sequenced five plastid DNA loci, two coding ( ndhF , matk ) and three non-coding ( trnH-psbA , trnT-L and trnL-F ), in 163 Poaceae taxa, including representatives for all subfamilies of the grasses and all but four ingroup Pooideae tribes. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted and divergence times were inferred in BEAST using a relaxed molecular clock. Diversification rates were assessed using the MEDUSA approach, and chromosome evolution was analyzed using the chromEvol software. Diversification of the Pooideae started in the Late-Eocene and was especially intense during the Oligocene-Miocene. The background diversification rate increased significantly at the time of the origin of the Poodae + Triticodae clade. This shift in diversification occurred in a context of falling temperatures that potentially increased ecological opportunities for grasses adapted to open areas around the world. The base haploid chromosome number n  = 7 has remained stable throughout the phylogenetic history of the core pooids and we found no link between chromosome transitions and major diversification events in the Pooideae.

  3. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Are diversification rates and chromosome evolution in the temperate grasses (Pooideae) associated with major environmental changes in the Oligocene-Miocene?

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Marcial; Sahuquillo, Elvira; Minaya, Miguel Ángel; Catalán, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The Pooideae are a highly diverse C3 grass subfamily that includes some of the most economically important crops, nested within the highly speciose core-pooid clade. Here, we build and explore the phylogeny of the Pooideae within a temporal framework, assessing its patterns of diversification and its chromosomal evolutionary changes in the light of past environmental transformations. We sequenced five plastid DNA loci, two coding (ndhF, matk) and three non-coding (trnH-psbA, trnT-L and trnL-F), in 163 Poaceae taxa, including representatives for all subfamilies of the grasses and all but four ingroup Pooideae tribes. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted and divergence times were inferred in BEAST using a relaxed molecular clock. Diversification rates were assessed using the MEDUSA approach, and chromosome evolution was analyzed using the chromEvol software. Diversification of the Pooideae started in the Late-Eocene and was especially intense during the Oligocene-Miocene. The background diversification rate increased significantly at the time of the origin of the Poodae + Triticodae clade. This shift in diversification occurred in a context of falling temperatures that potentially increased ecological opportunities for grasses adapted to open areas around the world. The base haploid chromosome number n = 7 has remained stable throughout the phylogenetic history of the core pooids and we found no link between chromosome transitions and major diversification events in the Pooideae. PMID:28951814

  5. An algorithm to estimate unsteady and quasi-steady pressure fields from velocity field measurements.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, John O; Bose, Sanjeeb; Gemmell, Brad J; Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H

    2014-02-01

    We describe and characterize a method for estimating the pressure field corresponding to velocity field measurements such as those obtained by using particle image velocimetry. The pressure gradient is estimated from a time series of velocity fields for unsteady calculations or from a single velocity field for quasi-steady calculations. The corresponding pressure field is determined based on median polling of several integration paths through the pressure gradient field in order to reduce the effect of measurement errors that accumulate along individual integration paths. Integration paths are restricted to the nodes of the measured velocity field, thereby eliminating the need for measurement interpolation during this step and significantly reducing the computational cost of the algorithm relative to previous approaches. The method is validated by using numerically simulated flow past a stationary, two-dimensional bluff body and a computational model of a three-dimensional, self-propelled anguilliform swimmer to study the effects of spatial and temporal resolution, domain size, signal-to-noise ratio and out-of-plane effects. Particle image velocimetry measurements of a freely swimming jellyfish medusa and a freely swimming lamprey are analyzed using the method to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach when applied to empirical data.

  6. Fixational eye movements in the earliest stage of metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Jan; Høeg, Jens T; Garm, Anders

    2013-01-01

    All known photoreceptor cells adapt to constant light stimuli, fading the retinal image when exposed to an immobile visual scene. Counter strategies are therefore necessary to prevent blindness, and in mammals this is accomplished by fixational eye movements. Cubomedusae occupy a key position for understanding the evolution of complex visual systems and their eyes are assumedly subject to the same adaptive problems as the vertebrate eye, but lack motor control of their visual system. The morphology of the visual system of cubomedusae ensures a constant orientation of the eyes and a clear division of the visual field, but thereby also a constant retinal image when exposed to stationary visual scenes. Here we show that bell contractions used for swimming in the medusae refresh the retinal image in the upper lens eye of Tripedalia cystophora. This strongly suggests that strategies comparable to fixational eye movements have evolved at the earliest metazoan stage to compensate for the intrinsic property of the photoreceptors. Since the timing and amplitude of the rhopalial movements concur with the spatial and temporal resolution of the eye it circumvents the need for post processing in the central nervous system to remove image blur.

  7. Environmental Control of Phase Transition and Polyp Survival of a Massive-Outbreaker Jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Laura; Astorga, Diana; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier

    2010-01-01

    A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore) blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp) and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa). Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records. PMID:21072185

  8. Fungal pathogen (mis-) identifications: a case study with DNA barcodes on Melampsora rusts of aspen and white poplar.

    PubMed

    Feau, Nicolas; Vialle, Agathe; Allaire, Mathieu; Tanguay, Philippe; Joly, David L; Frey, Pascal; Callan, Brenda E; Hamelin, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    Wide variation and overlap in morphological characters have led to confusion in species identification within the fungal rust genus Melampsora. The Melampsora species with uredinial-telial stages on white poplar and aspens are especially prone to misidentification. This group includes the Melampsora populnea species complex and the highly destructive pine twisting rust, Melampsora pinitorqua, which alternates between hosts in Populus section Populus and Pinus. Our objective was to compare morphologically based identification to genetic material extracted from Melampsora species pathogenic to aspen and white poplar. We compared morphometric traits and DNA barcodes obtained from internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large ribosomal RNA subunit (28S), and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) sequences to delimit within this taxonomically difficult group. Eight different Melampsora species were initially defined based on host specificity and morphometric data. DNA barcodes were then overlaid on these initial species definitions. The DNA barcodes, specifically those defined on ITS and 28S sequences, provided a highly accurate means of identifying and resolving Melampsora taxa. We highlighted species misidentification in specimens from Canadian herbaria related to either Melampsora medusae f. sp. tremuloidae or Melampsora aecidioides. Finally, we evidenced that the north-American species found on Populus alba, M. aecidioides is closely related but distinct from the four species of the M. populnea complex (Melampsora larici-tremulae, Melampsora magnusiana, Melampsora pinitorqua, and Melampsora rostrupii) found in Eurasia.

  9. Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub

  10. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  11. The effects of patch shape and connectivity on nest site selection and reproductive success of the Indigo Bunting.

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Aimee Jean

    2004-07-01

    Description – Ph.D Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 135 pp. Abatract - Habitat fragmentation and its associated effects have been blamed for the recent population declines of many Neotropical migratory bird species. Increased predation and parasitism resulting from edge-related effects have been implicated for poor nesting success in many studies, mostly of forest interior species. However, little attention has been devoted to disturbance-dependent birds. In this study, I examine how patch shape and connectivity in fragmented landscapes affects the reproductive success of disturbance-dependent bird species, specifically the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). I conducted my study in amore » landscape-scale experimental system of similar-area habitat patches that differed in connectivity and in shape. Shapes differed between edgy and rectangular forms, where edgy patches contained 50% more edge than rectangular patches. I tested whether edgy patches function as ecological traps for species with strong edge preferences, by leading them to select dangerous habitats. Indigo Buntings preferentially selected edgy patches over rectangular patches, but experienced significantly lower reproductive success in edgy patches early in the season. Although predation pressure intensified in rectangular patches late in the season, seasonal fecundity was still significantly lower in edgy patches, providing the first empirical evidence that edges can function as ecological traps for Indigo Buntings. A second objective of my study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservation corridors for disturbance-dependent bird species. Conservation corridors have become a popular strategy to preserve biodiversity and promote gene flow in fragmented landscapes, but corridors may also have negative consequences. I tested the hypothesis that corridors can increase nest predation risk in connected patches relative to unconnected patches. Nest predation rates

  12. Predicting species distributions from checklist data using site-occupancy models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Gardner, B.; Monnerat, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: (1) To increase awareness of the challenges induced by imperfect detection, which is a fundamental issue in species distribution modelling; (2) to emphasize the value of replicate observations for species distribution modelling; and (3) to show how 'cheap' checklist data in faunal/floral databases may be used for the rigorous modelling of distributions by site-occupancy models. Location: Switzerland. Methods: We used checklist data collected by volunteers during 1999 and 2000 to analyse the distribution of the blue hawker, Aeshna cyanea (Odonata, Aeshnidae), a common dragonfly in Switzerland. We used data from repeated visits to 1-ha pixels to derive 'detection histories' and apply site-occupancy models to estimate the 'true' species distribution, i.e. corrected for imperfect detection. We modelled blue hawker distribution as a function of elevation and year and its detection probability of elevation, year and season. Results: The best model contained cubic polynomial elevation effects for distribution and quadratic effects of elevation and season for detectability. We compared the site-occupancy model with a conventional distribution model based on a generalized linear model, which assumes perfect detectability (p = 1). The conventional distribution map looked very different from the distribution map obtained using site-occupancy models that accounted for the imperfect detection. The conventional model underestimated the species distribution by 60%, and the slope parameters of the occurrence-elevation relationship were also underestimated when assuming p = 1. Elevation was not only an important predictor of blue hawker occurrence, but also of the detection probability, with a bell-shaped relationship. Furthermore, detectability increased over the season. The average detection probability was estimated at only 0.19 per survey. Main conclusions: Conventional species distribution models do not model species distributions per se but rather the apparent

  13. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.

    2013-01-01

    Caullery, 1944 from abyssal depths around Indonesia, Sternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817) from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882 from Indonesia, and Sternaspis thorsoni sp. n. from the Iranian Gulf. Two genera are newly proposed to incorporate the remaining species: Caulleryaspis and Petersenaspis. Caulleryaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of falcate introvert hooks, seven abdominal segments, and soft shields with sediment particles firmly adhered on them; it includes two species: Caulleryaspis gudmundssoni sp. n. from Iceland and Caulleryaspis laevis (Caullery, 1944) comb. n. from Indonesia. Petersenaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of spatulate introvert hooks, eight abdominal segments, and stiff shields with poorly defined ribs but no concentric line; it includes Petersenaspis capillata (Nonato, 1966) from Brazil and Petersenaspis palpallatoci sp. n. from the Philippines. Neotypes are proposed for eight species: Sternaspis thalassemoides, Sternaspis affinis, Sternaspis africana, Sternaspis costata, Sternaspis fossor, Sternaspis maior, Sternaspis scutata and Sternaspis spinosa, to stabilize these species-group names, and a lectotype is designated for Sternaspis laevis which is transferred to Caulleryaspis gen. n. The geographic range of most species appears to be much smaller than previously indicated, and for some species additional material in good condition is needed to clarify their distributions. Keys to genera and to all species are also included. PMID:23794844

  14. Revision of sternaspis otto, 1821 (polychaeta, sternaspidae).

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2013-01-01

    , 1944 from abyssal depths around Indonesia, Sternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817) from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882 from Indonesia, and Sternaspis thorsoni sp. n. from the Iranian Gulf. Two genera are newly proposed to incorporate the remaining species: Caulleryaspis and Petersenaspis. Caulleryaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of falcate introvert hooks, seven abdominal segments, and soft shields with sediment particles firmly adhered on them; it includes two species: Caulleryaspis gudmundssoni sp. n. from Iceland and Caulleryaspis laevis (Caullery, 1944) comb. n. from Indonesia. Petersenaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of spatulate introvert hooks, eight abdominal segments, and stiff shields with poorly defined ribs but no concentric line; it includes Petersenaspis capillata (Nonato, 1966) from Brazil and Petersenaspis palpallatoci sp. n. from the Philippines. Neotypes are proposed for eight species: Sternaspis thalassemoides, Sternaspis affinis, Sternaspis africana, Sternaspis costata, Sternaspis fossor, Sternaspis maior, Sternaspis scutata and Sternaspis spinosa, to stabilize these species-group names, and a lectotype is designated for Sternaspis laevis which is transferred to Caulleryaspis gen. n. The geographic range of most species appears to be much smaller than previously indicated, and for some species additional material in good condition is needed to clarify their distributions. Keys to genera and to all species are also included.

  15. Battling the un-dead: the status of the Diptera genus-group names originally proposed in Johann Wilhelm Meigen's 1800 pamphlet.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas

    2017-06-08

    The work of Meigen 1800 was suppressed by the ICZN Commission in 1963 for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. The work as such is still to be treated as having been published and it remains available as a source of published descriptions and illustrations. Therefore, while the names in Meigen (1800) are deemed unavailable, a subsequent usage of any of the names may be considered a novel proposal. We review the first post-Meigen 1800 occurrence of each name, its first date of availability and authorship, and determine status and synonymy.        Designations of type species are given for the following genus-group names: Coryneta Hendel, 1908 [Hybotidae]; Cyanea Hendel, 1908 [Hippoboscidae].        Acting as First Reviser, we select the following as the correct original spelling from multiple original spellings: Calirrhoe Hendel, 1908.        New synonymies are proposed for the following: Ablabesmyia Johannsen, 1905 under Pelopia Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Amasia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Penthetria Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Bibionidae]; Amphinome Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Limonia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Antiopa Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Apivora Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Volucella Geoffroy, 1762, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Atalanta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Clinocera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Empididae]; Calirrhoe Meigen & Hendel in Hendel, 1908 under Prosena Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville, 1828, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chrysozona Hendel, 1903 under Haematopota Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tabanidae]; Cinxia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Sericomyia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Cleona Meigen in Hendel 1908 under Callomyia Meigen, 1804, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Clythia Hendel, 1903 under Platypeza Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Coryneta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Tachydromia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Hybotidae]; Crocuta Bezzi, 1907 under Siphona Meigen, 1803, n. syn

  16. Composition and structure of macrozooplankton and micronekton communities in the vicinity of free-drifting Antarctic icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ronald S.; Robison, Bruce H.; Sherlock, Rob E.; Reisenbichler, Kim R.; Osborn, Karen J.

    2011-06-01

    Recent warming in the Antarctic has led to increased production of icebergs; however, the ecological effects of icebergs on pelagic communities within the Southern Ocean have not been well-studied. We used a 10 m 2 MOCNESS to collect macrozooplankton and micronekton in the upper 300 m of the water column near free-drifting icebergs in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during three seasons: December 2005 (late spring), June 2008 (late fall) and March-April 2009 (late summer). Communities were dominated in all three seasons by Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and salps ( Salpa thompsoni), which collectively comprised 60-95% of the community wet biomass in most cases. During our spring and summer cruises, mean biomass was elevated by 3.1-4.3x at a distance of 0.37 km from large icebergs vs. 9.26 km away. These differences were not statistically significant, and no trend in biomass with distance was apparent in samples from fall 2008, when total biomass was an order of magnitude lower. Biomass levels near icebergs during Dec 2005 and Mar-Apr 2009 were comparable to values reported from marginal ice zones, suggesting that waters around icebergs support macrozooplankton and micronekton communities comparable in magnitude to those in some of the most productive areas of the Southern Ocean. Sample variance also was significantly higher within 1.85 km of icebergs during Dec 2005 and Mar-Apr 2009, reflecting increased patchiness on scales sampled by the MOCNESS (20-40×10 3 m 3 filtered per sample). This pattern was not significant during Jun 2008. Large predatory medusae were observed within 1.85 km of icebergs and in Iceberg Alley, an area through which icebergs pass frequently, but were virtually absent in areas remote from icebergs. Small euphausiids showed an inverse distribution, with low densities in areas populated by large medusae. A shift in community composition from a near-iceberg assemblage dominated by herbivores to a carnivore-dominated community

  17. Biology and ecology of the hydrocoral millepora on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John B

    2006-01-01

    Millepores are colonial polypoidal hydrozoans secreting an internal calcareous skeleton of an encrusting or upright form, often of considerable size. Defensive polyps protruding from the skeleton are numerous and highly toxic and for this reason millepores are popularly known as "stinging corals" or "fire corals." In shallow tropical seas millepore colonies are conspicuous on coral reefs and may be locally abundant and important reef-framework builders. The history of systematic research on the Milleporidae and the sister family Stylasteridae is rich and full with the works of early naturalists beginning with Linnaeus. Seventeen living millepore species are recognised. Marked phenotypic variation in form and structure of colonies is characteristic of the genus Millepora. The first published descriptions of the anatomy and histology of millepores were by H. N. Moseley in one of the Challenger Expedition reports. These original, detailed accounts by Moseley remain valid and, except for recent descriptions of the ultrastructure of the skeleton and skeletogenic tissues, have not needed much modification. Millepores occur worldwide on coral reefs at depths of between 1 and 40 m and their distribution on reefs is generally zoned in response to physical factors. Colonies may be abundant locally on coral reefs but usually comprise <10% of the overall surface cover. Growth rates of colonies are similar to the measured rates of branching and platelike scleractinian corals. Millepores are voracious zooplankton feeders and they obtain part of their nutrition from autotrophic sources, photosynthetic production by symbiotic zooxanthellae. Reproduction in millepores is characterised by alternation of generations with a well-developed polypoid stage that buds off planktonic medusae. Sexual reproduction is seasonal for known species and the medusae have a brief planktonic life. Asexual production is achieved by sympodial growth, the production of new skeleton and soft tissue along

  18. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Tucson, AZ 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Tracy K.P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen; Bleamaster, Leslie F.

    2007-01-01

    presented some new element maps, which may be useful for geologic mapping. Dave Williams of Arizona State University reported on the progress of his global Io map and James Dohm (University of Arizona) discussed results of terrestrial remote mapping studies. Thursday afternoon, the mappers were given a tour of the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) operations facility and were given some basic information about how the images are obtained, processed, and publicly released. With official GEMS transition completed at lunch on Thursday, incoming GEMS chair Leslie Bleamaster took the reigns of Friday's meeting. Science presentations began with Ken Tanaka discussing 1:20M-scale global and 1:2M-scale polar mapping of Mars. Jim Zimbelman (Smithsonian Institution) described his 1:1M Medusae Fossae map (MC-8 SE), which is nearing completion, and new mapping (MC-16 NW and MC-23 NW) to further evaluate the Medusae Fossae. Brent Garry, also of the Smithsonian Institution, presented work on Ascraeus Mons. Peter Mouginis-Mark (University of Hawai`i) reported progress on his 1:200K and larger maps of Tooting crater and of the Olympus Mons summit caldera. Laszlo Keszthelyi (USGS) presented mapping of Athabasca Valles, with much of the credit going to Windy Jaeger. Jim Skinner (USGS) introduced a new mapping project including nine MTM quadrangles in the Utopia Planitia region. Tracy Gregg finished off the day's science presentations with discussion of Hesperia Planum. After discussion was complete, the group once again traveled to the University of Arizona - this time for a tour of the Mars Phoenix operations center. Principal Investigator Peter Smith beamed as he led mappers through the multi-million dollar facility. A main topic of discussion throughout the entire meeting was that of nomenclature, specifically how to classify the individual depressions at the tops of volcanoes. Paterae, as has been used for Mars, Venus, and Io, was suggested, but i

  19. Linking global-change induced shifts in soil nitrogen cycling with the abundance of key microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, C.; Eviner, V.; Beman, M.; Hart, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Since western colonization, the ecology of California has seen marked transformations. In particular, invasion of terrestrial ecosystems by exotic plants has altered plant community composition, disturbances, soil hydrologic regimes, and nutrient cycling. In addition, as a result of fertilization and combustion of fossil fuels, California experiences some of the highest nitrogen (N) deposition rates in the country. Land use has also changed with the introduction of domestic livestock grazing about 250 years ago. Currently, approximately 32% of land in California experiences grazing pressure. These ecological changes likely affect the ecosystems of California simultaneously. However, with multifactor global change experiments in their infancy, little is known about potential interactive effects on ecosystem structure and function. Our study measured the response of soil N dynamics to a unique combination of treatments: invasion by exotic plants (Aegilops triuncialis and Taeniatherum caput-medusae), elevated N additions, and simulated cattle grazing (aboveground vegetation removal). In addition, we quantified the abundance of key functional genes involved in nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirS/nirK) in order to gain a mechanistic insight into changes in ecosystem functioning. We found that, while responses of soil N pools and processes to global change factors tend to be dominated by main effects, interactions among factors can substantially alter the overall response of the ecosystem. For instance, N additions increased potential nitrification and pools of total inorganic N (TIN; NH4+ and NO3-); when N additions and grazing were combined, however, nitrification potentials and TIN decreased to those of ambient N (control) levels. Additionally, neither N additions nor simulated grazing independently affected soil microbial biomass of invaded plots; yet, when combined, the microbial biomass increased significantly. Our results help to provide a better

  20. A Parallel Processing Algorithm for Remote Sensing Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, J. Anthony

    2005-01-01

    A current thread in parallel computation is the use of cluster computers created by networking a few to thousands of commodity general-purpose workstation-level commuters using the Linux operating system. For example on the Medusa cluster at NASA/GSFC, this provides for super computing performance, 130 G(sub flops) (Linpack Benchmark) at moderate cost, $370K. However, to be useful for scientific computing in the area of Earth science, issues of ease of programming, access to existing scientific libraries, and portability of existing code need to be considered. In this paper, I address these issues in the context of tools for rendering earth science remote sensing data into useful products. In particular, I focus on a problem that can be decomposed into a set of independent tasks, which on a serial computer would be performed sequentially, but with a cluster computer can be performed in parallel, giving an obvious speedup. To make the ideas concrete, I consider the problem of classifying hyperspectral imagery where some ground truth is available to train the classifier. In particular I will use the Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach as applied to hyperspectral imagery. The approach will be to introduce notions about parallel computation and then to restrict the development to the SVM problem. Pseudocode (an outline of the computation) will be described and then details specific to the implementation will be given. Then timing results will be reported to show what speedups are possible using parallel computation. The paper will close with a discussion of the results.

  1. Effect of a multifaceted educational intervention for anti-infectious measures on sepsis mortality: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bloos, Frank; Rüddel, Hendrik; Thomas-Rüddel, Daniel; Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Pausch, Christine; Harbarth, Stephan; Schreiber, Torsten; Gründling, Matthias; Marshall, John; Simon, Philipp; Levy, Mitchell M; Weiss, Manfred; Weyland, Andreas; Gerlach, Herwig; Schürholz, Tobias; Engel, Christoph; Matthäus-Krämer, Claudia; Scheer, Christian; Bach, Friedhelm; Riessen, Reimer; Poidinger, Bernhard; Dey, Karin; Weiler, Norbert; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Häberle, Helene H; Wöbker, Gabriele; Kaisers, Udo X; Reinhart, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    Guidelines recommend administering antibiotics within 1 h of sepsis recognition but this recommendation remains untested by randomized trials. This trial was set up to investigate whether survival is improved by reducing the time before initiation of antimicrobial therapy by means of a multifaceted intervention in compliance with guideline recommendations. The MEDUSA study, a prospective multicenter cluster-randomized trial, was conducted from July 2011 to July 2013 in 40 German hospitals. Hospitals were randomly allocated to receive conventional continuous medical education (CME) measures (control group) or multifaceted interventions including local quality improvement teams, educational outreach, audit, feedback, and reminders. We included 4183 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in an intention-to-treat analysis comparing the multifaceted intervention (n = 2596) with conventional CME (n = 1587). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. The 28-day mortality was 35.1% (883 of 2596 patients) in the intervention group and 26.7% (403 of 1587 patients; p = 0.01) in the control group. The intervention was not a risk factor for mortality, since this difference was present from the beginning of the study and remained unaffected by the intervention. Median time to antimicrobial therapy was 1.5 h (interquartile range 0.1-4.9 h) in the intervention group and 2.0 h (0.4-5.9 h; p = 0.41) in the control group. The risk of death increased by 2% per hour delay of antimicrobial therapy and 1% per hour delay of source control, independent of group assignment. Delay in antimicrobial therapy and source control was associated with increased mortality but the multifaceted approach was unable to change time to antimicrobial therapy in this setting and did not affect survival.

  2. Lack of Host Specialization on Winter Annual Grasses in the Fungal Seed Bank Pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda

    PubMed Central

    Beckstead, Julie; Meyer, Susan E.; Ishizuka, Toby S.; McEvoy, Kelsey M.; Coleman, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Generalist plant pathogens may have wide host ranges, but many exhibit varying degrees of host specialization, with multiple pathogen races that have narrower host ranges. These races are often genetically distinct, with each race causing highest disease incidence on its host of origin. We examined host specialization in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda by reciprocally inoculating pathogen strains from Bromus tectorum and from four other winter annual grass weeds (Bromus diandrus, Bromus rubens, Bromus arvensis and Taeniatherum caput-medusae) onto dormant seeds of B. tectorum and each alternate host. We found that host species varied in resistance and pathogen strains varied in aggressiveness, but there was no evidence for host specialization. Most variation in aggressiveness was among strains within populations and was expressed similarly on both hosts, resulting in a positive correlation between strain-level disease incidence on B. tectorum and on the alternate host. In spite of this lack of host specialization, we detected weak but significant population genetic structure as a function of host species using two neutral marker systems that yielded similar results. This genetic structure is most likely due to founder effects, as the pathogen is known to be dispersed with host seeds. All host species were highly susceptible to their own pathogen races. Tolerance to infection (i.e., the ability to germinate even when infected and thereby avoid seed mortality) increased as a function of seed germination rate, which in turn increased as dormancy was lost. Pyrenophora semeniperda apparently does not require host specialization to fully exploit these winter annual grass species, which share many life history features that make them ideal hosts for this pathogen. PMID:26950931

  3. Cytotoxic effects of some animal and vegetable extracts and some chemicals on liver and colon carcinoma and myosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bayazit, Vahdettin

    2004-02-01

    To study, the cytotoxic effects of some biological and chemical agents on G1, S, G2, M and G0 phases of liver and colon carcinomas and myosarcoma cells obtained with chemical carcinogens dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and cadmium chloride. Eight rabbit livers, colon carcinoma and myosarcoma cell lines were obtained by injection of DMBA in the Biology Laboratory, of the University of Dumlupinar, Kutahya, Turkey between January 2001 and June 2003. All lines were grown at 37 degrees celsius and 5% carbon dioxide in sterile RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum after addition of glutamate, penicillin (50 units/ml) and streptomycin (50 ug/ml) (complete medium). Cells were grown on standard tissue culture plastic flasks to 80% confluence and passed by trypsinization. Tortoise (Testudo graeca) shell, sponge (Geodia cydonium), medusa (Aurelia aurita), meat flies (Calliphora erythrocephala) larva, frog (Rana ridibunda) larva and juniper (Juniperus communis) berry extracts killed a large amount of the liver and colon carcinomas and the myosarcoma cells in G2, M and G0 phases (p<0.01). The mistletoe (Viscum album) extract had more effect in only the G0 phase (p<0.05). Genistein, genistin, glycitein, glycitin, daitzein and daitzin have significantly decreased in the cancer cells tests, particularly, genistein and daitzein caused the apoptotic effect in G2, M and G0 phases (p<0.01). Cesium chloride, a mixture of cesium chloride with magnesium chloride had the most effect on tumor cells (p<0.01). AzhexSi, Azhex-AzhepSi, Et-Azhex-AzhepSi, AzhepSi, Hexamine and DL 54 have been inhibited in various levels of the cancer cells (p<0.05, p<0.01). This data suggest that some biological extracts and chemicals tested may be useful chemotherapeutic agents to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This study sheds some light for new anti cancerogenic experiments preventing various cancers on humans.

  4. Decoding a Geological Message

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    A close-up image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of a recent 150-meter diameter impact crater near Amazonis Mensa and Medusae Fossae is another great example of geologic complexity of Mars. The spider web-like texture of this crater is intriguing. But what does it mean? On Earth, we have many geologic mechanisms that embrace the surface of the planet in an almost constant state of metamorphosis. Although Mars is not nearly as geologically active as Earth, it is still a host to many processes that shape its surface even today (e.g., aeolian modification, periglacial processes, recent impacts, etc.). The appearance of the ejecta of this crater is likely a combination of both the characteristics of the target material it was deposited on, and processes that modified and degraded it over time. When we look to other images in this region we find a similar texture. This texture is referred to as “yardangs” by scientists who study wind erosion. Yardangs are streamlined ridge-and-trough patterns formed by the erosion of wind dominating from a specific direction; in this particular case, from the southeast to the northwest. The specific direction of the winds is supported by regional context images that show many craters in the region have wind streak "tails" that points to the northwest. Craters of this size have been observed to form recently on Mars, so the fact that this crater is modified speaks volumes, and gives us a chance to decode some geological messages from Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21759

  5. Analysis Sharpens Mars Hydrogen Map, Hinting Equatorial Water Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Re-analysis of 2002-2009 data from a hydrogen-finding instrument on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter increased the resolution of maps of hydrogen abundance. The reprocessed data (lower map) shows more "water-equivalent hydrogen" (darker blue) in some parts of this equatorial region of Mars. Puzzingly, this suggests the possible presence of water ice just beneath the surface near the equator, though it would not be thermodynamically stable there. The upper map uses raw data from Odyssey's neutron spectrometer instrument, which senses the energy state of neutrons coming from Mars, providing an indication of how much hydrogen is present in the top 3 feet (1 meter) of the surface. Hydrogen detected by Odyssey at high latitudes of Mars in 2002 was confirmed to be in the form of water ice by the follow-up NASA Phoenix Mars Lander mission in 2008. A 2017 reprocessing of the older data applied image-reconstruction techniques often used to reduce blurring from medical imaging data. The results are shown here for an area straddling the equator for about one-fourth the circumference of the planet, centered at 175 degrees west longitude. The white contours outline lobes of a formation called Medusae Fossae, coinciding with some areas of higher hydrogen abundance in the enhanced-resolution analysis. The black line indicates the limit of a relatively young lava plain, coinciding with areas of lower hydrogen abundance in the enhanced-resolution analysis. The color-coding key for hydrogen abundance in both maps is indicated by the horizontal bar, in units expressed as how much water would be present in the ground if the hydrogen is all in the form of water. Units of the equivalent water weight, as a percentage of the material in the ground, are correlated with counts recorded by the spectrometer, ranging from less than 1 weight-percent water equivalent (red) to more than 30 percent (dark blue). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21848

  6. Volatile-rich Crater Interior Deposits on Mars: An Energy Balance Model of Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Head, James W.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Several craters on Mars are partially filled by material emplaced by post-impact processes. Populations of such craters include those in the circumsouth polar cap region, in Arabia Terra, associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation, and in the northern lowlands proximal to the north polar cap. In this study, crater fill material refers to an interior mound, generally separated from the interior walls of the crater by a trough that may be continuous along the crater s circumference (i.e. a ring-shaped trough), or may only partially contact the crater walls (i.e. a crescent-shaped trough). The fill deposit is frequently off-center from the crater center and may be asymmetric, (i.e. not circular) in plan view shape. Here we test the hypothesis that asymmetries in volatile fill shape, profile, and center-location within a crater result from asymmetries in local energy balance within the crater due mainly to variation of solar insolation and radiative effects of the crater walls over the crater interior. We first focus on Korolev crater in the northern lowlands. We can then apply this model to other craters in different regions. If asymmetry in morphology and location of crater fill are consistent with radiative-dominated asymmetries in energy budget within the crater, then 1) the volatile-rich composition of the fill is supported (this process should not be effective at shaping volcanic or sedimentary deposits), and 2) the dominant factor determining the observed shape of volatile-rich crater fill is the local radiative energy budget within the crater (and erosive processes such as eolian deflation are not necessary).

  7. Novel fine-scale aerial mapping approach quantifies grassland weed cover dynamics and response to management.

    PubMed

    Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Butterfield, H Scott; Planck, Laura; Long, Christopher W; Eviner, Valerie T

    2017-01-01

    Invasive weeds threaten the biodiversity and forage productivity of grasslands worldwide. However, management of these weeds is constrained by the practical difficulty of detecting small-scale infestations across large landscapes and by limits in understanding of landscape-scale invasion dynamics, including mechanisms that enable patches to expand, contract, or remain stable. While high-end hyperspectral remote sensing systems can effectively map vegetation cover, these systems are currently too costly and limited in availability for most land managers. We demonstrate application of a more accessible and cost-effective remote sensing approach, based on simple aerial imagery, for quantifying weed cover dynamics over time. In California annual grasslands, the target communities of interest include invasive weedy grasses (Aegilops triuncialis and Elymus caput-medusae) and desirable forage grass species (primarily Avena spp. and Bromus spp.). Detecting invasion of annual grasses into an annual-dominated community is particularly challenging, but we were able to consistently characterize these two communities based on their phenological differences in peak growth and senescence using maximum likelihood supervised classification of imagery acquired twice per year (in mid- and end-of season). This approach permitted us to map weed-dominated cover at a 1-m scale (correctly detecting 93% of weed patches across the landscape) and to evaluate weed cover change over time. We found that weed cover was more pervasive and persistent in management units that had no significant grazing for several years than in those that were grazed, whereas forage cover was more abundant and stable in the grazed units. This application demonstrates the power of this method for assessing fine-scale vegetation transitions across heterogeneous landscapes. It thus provides means for small-scale early detection of invasive species and for testing fundamental questions about landscape dynamics.

  8. The evolution of dwarf shrubs in alpine environments: a case study of Alchemilla in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Berit; Kandziora, Martha; Pirie, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Alpine and arctic environments worldwide, including high mountains, are dominated by short-stature woody plants (dwarf shrubs). This conspicuous life form asserts considerable influence on local environmental conditions above the treeline, creating its own microhabitat. This study reconstructs the evolution of dwarf shrubs in Alchemilla in the African tropical alpine environment, where they represent one of the largest clades and are among the most common and abundant plants. Different phylogenetic inference methods were used with plastid and nuclear DNA sequence markers, molecular dating (BEAST and RelTime), analyses of diversification rate shifts (MEDUSA and BAMM) and ancestral character and area reconstructions (Mesquite). It is inferred that African Alchemilla species originated following long-distance dispersal to tropical East Africa, but that the evolution of dwarf shrubs occurred in Ethiopia and in tropical East Africa independently. Establishing a timeframe is challenging given inconsistencies in age estimates, but it seems likely that they originated in the Pleistocene, or at the earliest in the late Miocene. The adaptation to alpine-like environments in the form of dwarf shrubs has apparently not led to enhanced diversification rates. Ancestral reconstructions indicate reversals in Alchemilla from plants with a woody base to entirely herbaceous forms, a transition that is rarely reported in angiosperms. Alchemilla is a clear example of in situ tropical alpine speciation. The dwarf shrub life form typical of African Alchemilla has evolved twice independently, further indicating its selective advantage in these harsh environments. However, it has not influenced diversification, which, although recent, was not rapid. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The evolution of dwarf shrubs in alpine environments: a case study of Alchemilla in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gehrke, Berit; Kandziora, Martha; Pirie, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Alpine and arctic environments worldwide, including high mountains, are dominated by short-stature woody plants (dwarf shrubs). This conspicuous life form asserts considerable influence on local environmental conditions above the treeline, creating its own microhabitat. This study reconstructs the evolution of dwarf shrubs in Alchemilla in the African tropical alpine environment, where they represent one of the largest clades and are among the most common and abundant plants. Methods Different phylogenetic inference methods were used with plastid and nuclear DNA sequence markers, molecular dating (BEAST and RelTime), analyses of diversification rate shifts (MEDUSA and BAMM) and ancestral character and area reconstructions (Mesquite). Key Results It is inferred that African Alchemilla species originated following long-distance dispersal to tropical East Africa, but that the evolution of dwarf shrubs occurred in Ethiopia and in tropical East Africa independently. Establishing a timeframe is challenging given inconsistencies in age estimates, but it seems likely that they originated in the Pleistocene, or at the earliest in the late Miocene. The adaptation to alpine-like environments in the form of dwarf shrubs has apparently not led to enhanced diversification rates. Ancestral reconstructions indicate reversals in Alchemilla from plants with a woody base to entirely herbaceous forms, a transition that is rarely reported in angiosperms. Conclusions Alchemilla is a clear example of in situ tropical alpine speciation. The dwarf shrub life form typical of African Alchemilla has evolved twice independently, further indicating its selective advantage in these harsh environments. However, it has not influenced diversification, which, although recent, was not rapid. PMID:26520565

  10. Ernst Haeckel's ontogenetic recapitulation: irritation and incentive from 1866 to our time.

    PubMed

    Sander, Klaus

    2002-11-01

    Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) must count among the most widely known biologists of his time. His monographs on radiolarian skeletons, sponges and medusae immediately became standard works, owing partly to lavish illustrations that later on culminated in his "Art Forms in Nature", which markedly influenced the "art nouveau" of the early 20th century. Haeckel's main impact, however, came from his numerous popular books that were crucial in transferring Darwin's ideas to continental Europe. Haeckel's main addition was his claim that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. It was partly founded on pre-Darwinian observations by J.F. Meckel and K.E. v. Baer who noticed that vertebrate embryos of different species resemble each other more strongly during early ontogenesis than later on. Wishing to illustrate this clearly, Haeckel clandestinely generalized some figures showing early embryos of animals and Man. This "fraud" provided ammunition for his many adversaries, most of whom felt provoked by his antireligious campaigns. The resulting controversies continued well into the 20th century but then subsided. Quite recently, however, they have flared up again, perhaps in connection with progress in molecular embryology that revealed an amazing evolutionary conservation of genes and their cooperation in signal transduction chains. The scientific publications that triggered this flare, and a selection of "Letters to the Editor" in both international science magazines and the German popular press, serve here to show that Haeckel's idea of recapitulation, while having proven its heuristic value, is still causing considerable irritation. This results from the widespread intuition that the marvels of ontogenesis and other biological phenomena must reflect some "intelligent design" rather than Darwinian evolution.

  11. Effects of shape and stroke parameters on the propulsion performance of an axisymmetric swimmer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jifeng; Alben, Silas

    2012-03-01

    In nature, there exists a special group of aquatic animals which have an axisymmetric body and whose primary swimming mechanism is to use periodic body contractions to generate vortex rings in the surrounding fluid. Using jellyfish medusae as an example, this study develops a mathematical model of body kinematics of an axisymmetric swimmer and uses a computational approach to investigate the induced vortex wakes. Wake characteristics are identified for swimmers using jet propulsion and rowing, two mechanisms identified in previous studies of medusan propulsion. The parameter space of body kinematics is explored through four quantities: a measure of body shape, stroke amplitude, the ratio between body contraction duration and extension duration, and the pulsing frequency. The effects of these parameters on thrust, input power requirement and circulation production are quantified. Two metrics, cruising speed and energy cost of locomotion, are used to evaluate the propulsion performance. The study finds that a more prolate-shaped swimmer with larger stroke amplitudes is able to swim faster, but its cost of locomotion is also higher. In contrast, a more oblate-shaped swimmer with smaller stroke amplitudes uses less energy for its locomotion, but swims more slowly. Compared with symmetric strokes with equal durations of contraction and extension, faster bell contractions increase the swimming speed whereas faster bell extensions decrease it, but both require a larger energy input. This study shows that besides the well-studied correlations between medusan body shape and locomotion, stroke variables also affect the propulsion performance. It provides a framework for comparing the propulsion performance of axisymmetric swimmers based on their body kinematics when it is difficult to measure and analyze their wakes empirically. The knowledge from this study is also useful for the design of robotic swimmers that use axisymmetric body contractions for propulsion.

  12. Fluorescent proteins function as a prey attractant: experimental evidence from the hydromedusa Olindias formosus and other marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although proteins in the green fluorescent protein family (GFPs) have been discovered in a wide array of taxa, their ecological functions in these organisms remain unclear. Many hypothesized roles are related to modifying bioluminescence spectra or modulating the light regime for algal symbionts, but these do not explain the presence of GFPs in animals that are non-luminous and non-symbiotic. Other hypothesized functions are unrelated to the visual signals themselves, including stress responses and antioxidant roles, but these cannot explain the localization of fluorescence in particular structures on the animals. Here we tested the hypothesis that fluorescence might serve to attract prey. In laboratory experiments, the predator was the hydromedusa Olindias formosus (previously known as O. formosa), which has fluorescent and pigmented patches on the tips of its tentacles. The prey, juvenile rockfishes in the genus Sebastes, were significantly more attracted (P<1×10−5) to the medusa's tentacles under lighting conditions where fluorescence was excited and tentacle tips were visible above the background. The fish did not respond significantly when treatments did not include fluorescent structures or took place under yellow or white lights, which did not generate fluorescence visible above the ambient light. Furthermore, underwater observations of the behavior of fishes when presented with a brightly illuminated point showed a strong attraction to this visual stimulus. In situ observations also provided evidence for fluorescent lures as supernormal stimuli in several other marine animals, including the siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti. Our results support the idea that fluorescent structures can serve as prey attractants, thus providing a potential function for GFPs and other fluorescent proteins in a diverse range of organisms. PMID:26231627

  13. Composition of Bacterial Communities Associated with Aurelia aurita Changes with Compartment, Life Stage, and Population

    PubMed Central

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Neulinger, Sven C.; Pinnow, Nicole; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F.

    2015-01-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita is recognized as a key player in marine ecosystems and a driver of ecosystem change. It is thus intensely studied to address ecological questions, although its associations with microorganisms remain so far undescribed. In the present study, the microbiota associated with A. aurita was visualized with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and community structure was analyzed with respect to different life stages, compartments, and populations of A. aurita by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We demonstrate that the composition of the A. aurita microbiota is generally highly distinct from the composition of communities present in ambient water. Comparison of microbial communities from different developmental stages reveals evidence for life stage-specific community patterns. Significant restructuring of the microbiota during strobilation from benthic polyp to planktonic life stages is present, arguing for a restructuring during the course of metamorphosis. Furthermore, the microbiota present in different compartments of the adult medusa (exumbrella mucus and gastric cavity) display significant differences, indicating body part-specific colonization. A novel Mycoplasma strain was identified in both compartment-specific microbiota and is most likely present inside the epithelium as indicated by FISH analysis of polyps, indicating potential endosymbiosis. Finally, comparison of polyps of different populations kept under the same controlled laboratory conditions in the same ambient water showed population-specific community patterns, most likely due the genetic background of the host. In conclusion, the presented data indicate that the associated microbiota of A. aurita may play important functional roles, e.g., during the life cycle. PMID:26116680

  14. Inertial fusion program and national laser users facility program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the 1994 annual report for the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The report is presented as a series of research type reports. The titles emphasize the breadth of work carried out. They are: stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts; characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry; transport and sound waves in plasmas with light and heavy ions; three-halves-harmonic radiation from long-scale-length plasmas revisited; OMEGA upgrade status report; target imaging and backlighting diagnosis; effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; particle-in-cell code simulations of the interaction of gaussian ultrashort laser pulses with targets of varying initial scale lengths; characterization of thick cryogenic fuel layers: compensation for the lens effect using convergent beam interferometry; compact, multijoule-output, Nd:Glass, large-aperture ring amplifier; atomic force microscopy observation of water-induced morphological changes in Y2O3 monolayer coatings; observation of longitudinal acceleration of electrons born in a high-intensity laser focus; spatial intensity nonuniformities of an OMEGA beam due to nonlinear beam propagation; calculated X-ray backlighting images of mixed imploded targets; evaluation of cosmic rays for use in the monitoring of the MEDUSA scintillator-photomultiplier diagnostic array; highly efficient second-harmonic generation of ultra-intense Nd:Glass laser pulses multiple cutoff wave numbers of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ultrafast, all-silicon light modulator; angular dependence of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in homogeneous plasma; and femtosecond excited-state dynamics of a conjugated ladder polymer.

  15. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    PubMed

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  16. Deep-water zooplankton of the Guaymas basin hydrothermal vent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Copley, Nancy; Van Dover, Cindy; Tamse, Armando; Manrique, Fernando

    1988-06-01

    Zooplankton from the Guaymas Basin deep-sea vent field were collected with a 1 m 2 MOCNESS to examine the distribution of total standing stock, taxonomic composition, size-frequency distribution of zooplankton, and the species composition of calanoid copepods. Low altitude (˜ 100 m above the bottom) horizontal tows along and across the axis of the basin's southern trough, and oblique tows from the bottom of the basin (˜ 2000 m) to the surface were made. Total biomass in near-bottom samples (range: 13-46 cc/1000 m 3) was only about a factor of 10 lower than in the upper 100 m. However, there was little or no evidence for enrichment of biomass in the ˜ 100 m zone above the vent site relative to biomass at the same depth horizon over non-vent areas. Total numbers of individuals ranged between 2600 and 4800/1000 m 3. Calanoid copepods consistently ranked first in abundance of counts of the taxa, followed by cyclopoid copepods, ostracods, chaetognaths, and amphipods. Other less abundant taxa, but in some cases important contributors to total biomass, were coelenterates (siphonophores, medusae), decapod shrimp, and polychaetes. Size-frequency analysis of individuals from each taxon indicated that the biomass and abundance spectra do not fit the theoretically expected spectra based on weight-dependent metabolism and growth. The pyramid of biomass was substantially different from the pyramid of numbers in this deep-sea community. Of the 67 species of copepods identified in two samples taken on low altitude tows, only 15 co-occurred in both samples. Many of the species in this relatively diverse community remain to be described. Larval and post-larval forms of benthic clams, gastropods, polychaetes, and crustaceans associated with the vents were collected 100-200 m above the southern trough, indicating the post-larvae may play an active role in dispersal of hydrothermal vent species.

  17. Searching for evidence of hydrothermal activity at Apollinaris Mons, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El Maarry, M. Ramy; Dohm, James M.; Marzo, Giuseppe A.; Fergason, Robin; Goetz, Walter; Heggy, Essam; Pack, Andreas; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving various remote sensing instruments is used to investigate Apollinaris Mons, a prominent volcano on Mars, as well as the surrounding plains for signs of prolonged hydrologic and volcanic, and possibly hydrothermal activity. The main findings include (1) evidence from laser altimetry indicating the large thickness (1.5–2 km at some locations) of the fan deposits draping the southern flank contrary to previous estimates, coupled with possible layering which point to a significant emplacement phase at Apollinaris Mons, (2) corroboration of Robinson et al. (Robinson, M.S., Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Zimbelman, J.R., Wu, S.S.C., Ablin, K.K., Howington-Kraus, A.E. [1993]. Icarus 104, 301–323) hypothesis regarding the formation of incised valleys on the western flanks by density current erosion which would indicate magma–water interaction or, alternatively, volatile-rich magmas early in the volcano’s history, (3) mounds of diverse geometric shapes, many of which display summit depressions and occur among faults and fractures, possibly marking venting, (4) strong indicators on the flanks of the volcano for lahar events, and possibly, a caldera lake, (5) ubiquitous presence of impact craters displaying fluidized ejecta in both shield-forming (flank and caldera) materials and materials that surround the volcano that are indicative of water-rich target materials at the time of impact, (6) long-term complex association in time among shield-forming materials and Medusae Fossae Formation. The findings point to a site of extensive volcanic and hydrologic activity with possibly a period of magma–water interaction and hydrothermal activity. Finally, we propose that the mound structures around Apollinaris should be prime targets for further in situ exploration and search for possible exobiological signatures.

  18. Slab seismicity in the Western Hellenic Subduction Zone: Constraints from tomography and double-difference relocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpaap, Felix; Rondenay, Stéphane; Ottemöller, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The Western Hellenic subduction zone is characterized by a transition from oceanic to continental subduction. In the southern oceanic portion of the system, abundant seismicity reaches intermediate depths of 100-120 km, while the northern continental portion rarely exhibits deep earthquakes. Our study aims to investigate how this oceanic-continental transition affects fluid release and related seismicity along strike, by focusing on the distribution of intermediate depth earthquakes. To obtain a detailed image of the seismicity, we carry out a tomographic inversion for P- and S-velocities and double-difference earthquake relocation using a dataset of unprecedented spatial coverage in this area. Here we present results of these analyses in conjunction with high-resolution profiles from migrated receiver function images obtained from the MEDUSA experiment. We generate tomographic models by inverting data from 237 manually picked, well locatable events recorded at up to 130 stations. Stations from the permanent Greek network and the EGELADOS experiment supplement the 3-D coverage of the modeled domain, which covers a large part of mainland Greece and surrounding offshore areas. Corrections for the sphericity of the Earth and our update to the SIMULR16 package, which now allows S-inversion, help improve our previous models. Flexible gridding focusses the inversion on the domains of highest gradient around the slab, and we evaluate the resolution with checker board tests. We use the resulting velocity model to relocate earthquakes via the Double-Difference method, using a large dataset of differential traveltimes obtained by crosscorrelation of seismograms. Tens of earthquakes align along two planes forming a double seismic zone in the southern, oceanic portion of the subduction zone. With increasing subduction depth, the earthquakes appear closer to the center of the slab, outlining probable deserpentinization of the slab and concomitant eclogitization of dry crustal

  19. Comparative study of Hippo pathway genes in cellular conveyor belts of a ctenophore and a cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Coste, Alicia; Jager, Muriel; Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Manuel, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway regulates growth rate and organ size in fly and mouse, notably through control of cell proliferation. Molecular interactions at the heart of this pathway are known to have originated in the unicellular ancestry of metazoans. They notably involve a cascade of phosphorylations triggered by the kinase Hippo, with subsequent nuclear to cytoplasmic shift of Yorkie localisation, preventing its binding to the transcription factor Scalloped, thereby silencing proliferation genes. There are few comparative expression data of Hippo pathway genes in non-model animal species and notably none in non-bilaterian phyla. All core Hippo pathway genes could be retrieved from the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus and the hydrozoan cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica, with the important exception of Yorkie in ctenophore. Expression study of the Hippo, Salvador and Scalloped genes in tentacle "cellular conveyor belts" of these two organisms revealed striking differences. In P. pileus, their transcripts were detected in areas where undifferentiated progenitors intensely proliferate and where expression of cyclins B and D was also seen. In C. hemisphaerica, these three genes and Yorkie are expressed not only in the proliferating but also in the differentiation zone of the tentacle bulb and in mature tentacle cells. However, using an antibody designed against the C. hemiphaerica Yorkie protein, we show in two distinct cell lineages of the medusa that Yorkie localisation is predominantly nuclear in areas of active cell proliferation and mainly cytoplasmic elsewhere. This is the first evidence of nucleocytoplasmic Yorkie shift in association with the arrest of cell proliferation in a cnidarian, strongly evoking the cell division-promoting role of this protein and its inhibition by the activated Hippo pathway in bilaterian models. Our results furthermore highlight important differences in terms of deployment and regulation of Hippo pathway genes between cnidarians and ctenophores.

  20. Towards a global network of gamma-ray detector calibration facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijs, Marco; Koomans, Ronald; Limburg, Han

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray logging tools are applied worldwide. At various locations, calibration facilities are used to calibrate these gamma-ray logging systems. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate well known calibration pits, but this cross-correlation does not include calibration facilities in Europe or private company calibration facilities. Our aim is to set-up a framework that gives the possibility to interlink all calibration facilities worldwide by using `tools of opportunity' - tools that have been calibrated in different calibration facilities, whether this usage was on a coordinated basis or by coincidence. To compare the measurement of different tools, it is important to understand the behaviour of the tools in the different calibration pits. Borehole properties, such as diameter, fluid, casing and probe diameter strongly influence the outcome of gamma-ray borehole logging. Logs need to be properly calibrated and compensated for these borehole properties in order to obtain in-situ grades or to do cross-hole correlation. Some tool providers provide tool-specific correction curves for this purpose. Others rely on reference measurements against sources of known radionuclide concentration and geometry. In this article, we present an attempt to set-up a framework for transferring `local' calibrations to be applied `globally'. This framework includes corrections for any geometry and detector size to give absolute concentrations of radionuclides from borehole measurements. This model is used to compare measurements in the calibration pits of Grand Junction, located in the USA; Adelaide (previously known as AMDEL), located in Adelaide Australia; and Stonehenge, located at Medusa Explorations BV in the Netherlands.

  1. Searching for evidence of hydrothermal activity at Apollinaris Mons, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El Maarry, M.R.; Dohm, J.M.; Marzo, G.A.; Fergason, R.; Goetz, W.; Heggy, E.; Pack, A.; Markiewicz, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving various remote sensing instruments is used to investigate Apollinaris Mons, a prominent volcano on Mars, as well as the surrounding plains for signs of prolonged hydrologic and volcanic, and possibly hydrothermal activity. The main findings include (1) evidence from laser altimetry indicating the large thickness (1.5-2. km at some locations) of the fan deposits draping the southern flank contrary to previous estimates, coupled with possible layering which point to a significant emplacement phase at Apollinaris Mons, (2) corroboration of Robinson et al. (Robinson, M.S., Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Zimbelman, J.R., Wu, S.S.C., Ablin, K.K., Howington-Kraus, A.E. [1993]. Icarus 104, 301-323) hypothesis regarding the formation of incised valleys on the western flanks by density current erosion which would indicate magma-water interaction or, alternatively, volatile-rich magmas early in the volcano's history, (3) mounds of diverse geometric shapes, many of which display summit depressions and occur among faults and fractures, possibly marking venting, (4) strong indicators on the flanks of the volcano for lahar events, and possibly, a caldera lake, (5) ubiquitous presence of impact craters displaying fluidized ejecta in both shield-forming (flank and caldera) materials and materials that surround the volcano that are indicative of water-rich target materials at the time of impact, (6) long-term complex association in time among shield-forming materials and Medusae Fossae Formation.The findings point to a site of extensive volcanic and hydrologic activity with possibly a period of magma-water interaction and hydrothermal activity. Finally, we propose that the mound structures around Apollinaris should be prime targets for further in situ exploration and search for possible exobiological signatures. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc..

  2. Yield responses of ruderal plants to sucrose in invasive-dominated sagebrush steppe of the northern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunson, Jessi; Pyke, David A.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of sagebrush-steppe plant communities dominated by the invasive ruderals Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) and Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) can be facilitated by adding carbon (C) to the soil, stimulating microbes to immobilize nitrogen (N) and limit inorganic N availability. Our objectives were to determine responses in (1) cheatgrass and medusahead biomass and seed production; (2) soil microbial biomass C and N; and (3) inorganic soil N to a range of C doses and to calculate the lowest dose that yielded a significant response. In November 2005, we applid 12 C doses ranging from 0 to 2,400 kg C/ha as sucrose to plots sown with cheatgrass and medusahead at two sites in the northern Great Basin. Other ruderal plants established in our plots, and this entire ruderal community was negatively affected by C addition. End-of-year biomass of the ruderal community decreased approximately by approximately 6% at each site for an increase in C dose of 100 kg C/ha. For the same increase in C, microbial biomass C increased by 2–4 mg/kg in November 2005 and March 2006, but not in July 2006. There was little, if any, microbial soil N uptake, as microbial biomass N increased by 0.3 mg/kg at only one site at the earliest date, in November 2005. Soil nitrate (NO3−) measured via resin capsules placed in situ for the study duration decreased at both sites with increasing C. Although we found no threshold dose of C, for a significant reduction in ruderal biomass, we calculated lowest significant doses of 240–640 kg C/ha.

  3. Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Christopher S; Eastwood, Ruth J; Miotto, Silvia T S; Hughes, Colin E

    2012-05-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth-death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18-0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48-1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89-3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36-1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for "replicate adaptive radiations" in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these

  4. LLE 1994 annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This is the 1994 annual report for the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The report is presented as a series of research type reports. The titles emphasize the breadth of work carried out. They are: stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts; characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry; transport and sound waves in plasmas with light and heavy ions; three-halves-harmonic radiation from long-scale-length plasmas revisited; OMEGA upgrade status report; target imaging and backlighting diagnosis; effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; particle-in-cell code simulations of the interaction of gaussian ultrashort laser pulsesmore » with targets of varying initial scale lengths; characterization of thick cryogenic fuel layers: compensation for the lens effect using convergent beam interferometry; compact, multijoule-output, Nd:Glass, large-aperture ring amplifier; atomic force microscopy observation of water-induced morphological changes in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} monolayer coatings; observation of longitudinal acceleration of electrons born in a high-intensity laser focus; spatial intensity nonuniformities of an OMEGA beam due to nonlinear beam propagation; calculated X-ray backlighting images of mixed imploded targets; evaluation of cosmic rays for use in the monitoring of the MEDUSA scintillator-photomultiplier diagnostic array; highly efficient second-harmonic generation of ultra-intense Nd:Glass laser pulses multiple cutoff wave numbers of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ultrafast, all-silicon light modulator; angular dependence of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in homogeneous plasma; femtosecond excited-state dynamics of a conjugated ladder polymer.« less

  5. Future change in ocean productivity: Is the Arctic the new Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Coward, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most characteristic features in ocean productivity is the North Atlantic spring bloom. Responding to seasonal increases in irradiance and stratification, surface phytopopulations rise significantly, a pattern that visibly tracks poleward into summer. While blooms also occur in the Arctic Ocean, they are constrained by the sea-ice and strong vertical stratification that characterize this region. However, Arctic sea-ice is currently declining, and forecasts suggest this may lead to completely ice-free summers by the mid-21st century. Such change may open the Arctic up to Atlantic-style spring blooms, and do so at the same time as Atlantic productivity is threatened by climate change-driven ocean stratification. Here we use low and high-resolution instances of a coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model, NEMO-MEDUSA, to investigate productivity. Drivers of present-day patterns are identified, and changes in these across a climate change scenario (IPCC RCP 8.5) are analyzed. We find a globally significant decline in North Atlantic productivity (> -20%) by 2100, and a correspondingly significant rise in the Arctic (> +50%). However, rather than the future Arctic coming to resemble the current Atlantic, both regions are instead transitioning to a common, low nutrient regime. The North Pacific provides a counterexample where nutrients remain high and productivity increases with elevated temperature. These responses to climate change in the Atlantic and Arctic are common between model resolutions, suggesting an independence from resolution for key impacts. However, some responses, such as those in the North Pacific, differ between the simulations, suggesting the reverse and supporting the drive to more fine-scale resolutions. This article was corrected on 5 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  6. Differential gene expression in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) assessed with multiple next-generation sequencing workflows.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Stefan; Robinson, Mark D; Tintori, Sophia C; Goetz, Freya; Helm, Rebecca R; Smith, Stephen A; Shaner, Nathan; Haddock, Steven H D; Dunn, Casey W

    2011-01-01

    We investigated differential gene expression between functionally specialized feeding polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy. We assembled a set of partial gene reference sequences from long-read data (Roche 454), and generated short-read sequences from replicated tissue samples that were mapped to the references to quantify expression. We collected and compared expression data with three short-read expression workflows that differ in sample preparation, sequencing technology, and mapping tools. These workflows were Illumina mRNA-Seq, which generates sequence reads from random locations along each transcript, and two tag-based approaches, SOLiD SAGE and Helicos DGE, which generate reads from particular tag sites. Differences in expression results across workflows were mostly due to the differential impact of missing data in the partial reference sequences. When all 454-derived gene reference sequences were considered, Illumina mRNA-Seq detected more than twice as many differentially expressed (DE) reference sequences as the tag-based workflows. This discrepancy was largely due to missing tag sites in the partial reference that led to false negatives in the tag-based workflows. When only the subset of reference sequences that unambiguously have tag sites was considered, we found broad congruence across workflows, and they all identified a similar set of DE sequences. Our results are promising in several regards for gene expression studies in non-model organisms. First, we demonstrate that a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy is an effective way to collect gene expression data when an annotated genome sequence is not available. Second, our replicated sampling indicates that expression profiles are highly consistent across field-collected animals in this case. Third, the impacts of partial reference sequences on the ability to detect DE can be mitigated through

  7. Differential Gene Expression in the Siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) Assessed with Multiple Next-Generation Sequencing Workflows

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Stefan; Robinson, Mark D.; Tintori, Sophia C.; Goetz, Freya; Helm, Rebecca R.; Smith, Stephen A.; Shaner, Nathan; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated differential gene expression between functionally specialized feeding polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy. We assembled a set of partial gene reference sequences from long-read data (Roche 454), and generated short-read sequences from replicated tissue samples that were mapped to the references to quantify expression. We collected and compared expression data with three short-read expression workflows that differ in sample preparation, sequencing technology, and mapping tools. These workflows were Illumina mRNA-Seq, which generates sequence reads from random locations along each transcript, and two tag-based approaches, SOLiD SAGE and Helicos DGE, which generate reads from particular tag sites. Differences in expression results across workflows were mostly due to the differential impact of missing data in the partial reference sequences. When all 454-derived gene reference sequences were considered, Illumina mRNA-Seq detected more than twice as many differentially expressed (DE) reference sequences as the tag-based workflows. This discrepancy was largely due to missing tag sites in the partial reference that led to false negatives in the tag-based workflows. When only the subset of reference sequences that unambiguously have tag sites was considered, we found broad congruence across workflows, and they all identified a similar set of DE sequences. Our results are promising in several regards for gene expression studies in non-model organisms. First, we demonstrate that a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy is an effective way to collect gene expression data when an annotated genome sequence is not available. Second, our replicated sampling indicates that expression profiles are highly consistent across field-collected animals in this case. Third, the impacts of partial reference sequences on the ability to detect DE can be mitigated through

  8. Origins of neurogenesis, a cnidarian view.

    PubMed

    Galliot, Brigitte; Quiquand, Manon; Ghila, Luiza; de Rosa, Renaud; Miljkovic-Licina, Marijana; Chera, Simona

    2009-08-01

    New perspectives on the origin of neurogenesis emerged with the identification of genes encoding post-synaptic proteins as well as many "neurogenic" regulators as the NK, Six, Pax, bHLH proteins in the Demosponge genome, a species that might differentiate sensory cells but no neurons. However, poriferans seem to miss some key regulators of the neurogenic circuitry as the Hox/paraHox and Otx-like gene families. Moreover as a general feature, many gene families encoding evolutionarily-conserved signaling proteins and transcription factors were submitted to a wave of gene duplication in the last common eumetazoan ancestor, after Porifera divergence. In contrast gene duplications in the last common bilaterian ancestor, Urbilateria, are limited, except for the bHLH Atonal-class. Hence Cnidaria share with Bilateria a large number of genetic tools. The expression and functional analyses currently available suggest a neurogenic function for numerous orthologs in developing or adult cnidarians where neurogenesis takes place continuously. As an example, in the Hydra polyp, the Clytia medusa and the Acropora coral, the Gsx/cnox2/Anthox-2 ParaHox gene likely supports neurogenesis. Also neurons and nematocytes (mechanosensory cells) share in hydrozoans a common stem cell and several regulatory genes indicating that they can be considered as sister cells. Performed in anthozoan and medusozoan species, these studies should tell us more about the way(s) evolution hazards achieved the transition from epithelial to neuronal cell fate, and about the robustness of the genetic circuitry that allowed neuromuscular transmission to arise and be maintained across evolution.

  9. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Milisenda, Giacomo; Rosa, Sara; Fuentes, Veronica L; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops.

  10. Jellyfish as Prey: Frequency of Predation and Selective Foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Veronica L.; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  11. Local versus Generalized Phenotypes in Two Sympatric Aurelia Species: Understanding Jellyfish Ecology Using Genetics and Morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Chiaverano, Luciano M; Bayha, Keith W; Graham, William M

    2016-01-01

    For individuals living in environmentally heterogeneous environments, a key component for adaptation and persistence is the extent of phenotypic differentiation in response to local environmental conditions. In order to determine the extent of environmentally induced morphological variation in a natural population distributed along environmental gradients, it is necessary to account for potential genetic differences contributing to morphological differentiation. In this study, we set out to quantify geographic morphological variation in the moon jellyfish Aurelia exposed at the extremes of a latitudinal environmental gradient in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). We used morphological data based on 28 characters, and genetic data taken from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1). Molecular analyses revealed the presence of two genetically distinct species of Aurelia co-occurring in the GoM: Aurelia sp. 9 and Aurelia c.f. sp. 2, named for its divergence from (for COI) and similarity to (for ITS-1) Aurelia sp. 2 (Brazil). Neither species exhibited significant population genetic structure between the Northern and the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico; however, they differed greatly in the degree of geographic morphological variation. The morphology of Aurelia sp. 9 exhibited ecophenotypic plasticity and varied significantly between locations, while morphology of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 was geographically invariant (i.e., canalized). The plastic, generalist medusae of Aurelia sp. 9 are likely able to produce environmentally-induced, "optimal" phenotypes that confer high relative fitness in different environments. In contrast, the non-plastic generalist individuals of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 likely produce environmentally-independent phenotypes that provide the highest fitness across environments. These findings suggest the two Aurelia lineages co-occurring in the GoM were likely exposed to different past environmental conditions (i

  12. Three routes to crypsis: Stasis, convergence, and parallelism in the Mastigias species complex (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae).

    PubMed

    Swift, H F; Gómez Daglio, L; Dawson, M N

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary inference can be complicated by morphological crypsis, particularly in open marine systems that may rapidly dissipate signals of evolutionary processes. These complications may be alleviated by studying systems with simpler histories and clearer boundaries, such as marine lakes-small bodies of seawater entirely surrounded by land. As an example, we consider the jellyfish Mastigias spp. which occurs in two ecotypes, one in marine lakes and one in coastal oceanic habitats, throughout the Indo-West Pacific (IWP). We tested three evolutionary hypotheses to explain the current distribution of the ecotypes: (H1) the ecotypes originated from an ancient divergence; (H2) the lake ecotype was derived recently from the ocean ecotype during a single divergence event; and (H3) the lake ecotype was derived from multiple, recent, independent, divergences. We collected specimens from 21 locations throughout the IWP, reconstructed multilocus phylogenetic and intraspecific relationships, and measured variation in up to 40 morphological characters. The species tree reveals three reciprocally monophyletic regional clades, two of which contain ocean and lake ecotypes, suggesting repeated, independent evolution of coastal ancestors into marine lake ecotypes, consistent with H3; hypothesis testing and an intraspecific haplotype network analysis of samples from Palau reaffirms this result. Phylogenetic character mapping strongly correlates morphology to environment rather than lineage (r=0.7512, p<0.00001). Considering also the deeper relationships among regional clades, morphological similarity in Mastigias spp. clearly results from three separate patterns of evolution: morphological stasis in ocean medusae, convergence of lake morphology across distinct species and parallelism between lake morphologies within species. That three evolutionary routes each result in crypsis illustrates the challenges of interpreting evolutionary processes from patterns of biogeography and

  13. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, San Antonio, TX, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.

  14. Novel fine-scale aerial mapping approach quantifies grassland weed cover dynamics and response to management

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, H. Scott; Planck, Laura; Long, Christopher W.; Eviner, Valerie T.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive weeds threaten the biodiversity and forage productivity of grasslands worldwide. However, management of these weeds is constrained by the practical difficulty of detecting small-scale infestations across large landscapes and by limits in understanding of landscape-scale invasion dynamics, including mechanisms that enable patches to expand, contract, or remain stable. While high-end hyperspectral remote sensing systems can effectively map vegetation cover, these systems are currently too costly and limited in availability for most land managers. We demonstrate application of a more accessible and cost-effective remote sensing approach, based on simple aerial imagery, for quantifying weed cover dynamics over time. In California annual grasslands, the target communities of interest include invasive weedy grasses (Aegilops triuncialis and Elymus caput-medusae) and desirable forage grass species (primarily Avena spp. and Bromus spp.). Detecting invasion of annual grasses into an annual-dominated community is particularly challenging, but we were able to consistently characterize these two communities based on their phenological differences in peak growth and senescence using maximum likelihood supervised classification of imagery acquired twice per year (in mid- and end-of season). This approach permitted us to map weed-dominated cover at a 1-m scale (correctly detecting 93% of weed patches across the landscape) and to evaluate weed cover change over time. We found that weed cover was more pervasive and persistent in management units that had no significant grazing for several years than in those that were grazed, whereas forage cover was more abundant and stable in the grazed units. This application demonstrates the power of this method for assessing fine-scale vegetation transitions across heterogeneous landscapes. It thus provides means for small-scale early detection of invasive species and for testing fundamental questions about landscape dynamics. PMID

  15. Dynamics of the bathyal Benthic Boundary Layer in the northwestern Mediterranean: depth and temporal variations in macrofaunal megafaunal communities and their possible connections within deep-sea trophic webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution patterns of benthopelagic fauna and the macrofauna-megafauna trophic relationships in the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL) were studied. The study is based on data collected during 6 sampling cruises off the Catalan coast (western Mediterranean) during 1991-1995 at depths ranging from 389-1355 m. Crustaceans were the dominant benthopelagic macrofauna in the BBL level closest to the sea bed (~0-1.5 m above bottom) on the Catalan Sea slope. Copepods and peracarid crustaceans (mysids, amphipods, isopods, and cumaceans) were dominant, whereas euphausiids and natantian decapods, some taxa of gelatinous plankton (siphonophores, medusae, and chaetognaths), and benthopelagic fishes were also well represented groups. Seasonal changes in megafaunal decapod crustaceans abundance seem to be linked to changes in the density and the biological cycle of BBL macrofauna, which constitute an important part of the available food exploited by megafauna. Both the advective and the vertical flow of organic matter in the north-western Mediterranean should simultaneously influence peaks of available food (BBL macrofauna) for bathyal-megafaunal decapods. Recruitment of macrofaunal (suprabenthos and infauna) species at the level of canyons and neighbouring slope zones mainly occurred between late autumn-late winter and would probably be mainly induced by an advective component. However, the macrofaunal sizes consumed by megafaunal decapods are found more abundantly represented in spring and summer populations. In parallel, the vertical fluxes seem to determine maxima in the abundance of planktonic organisms (especially copepods) which also occur in late spring-summer. Size, natatory capability, and energetic value are important factors in the selection of food-resources by megafaunal decapods, which would have a greater availability of food in late spring-summer. This would explain both the seasonal maxima of decapod abundance in summer, and maxima in the catches of some

  16. Energy transport in plasmas produced by a high brightness krypton fluoride laser focused to a line

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hadithi, Y.; Tallents, G.J.; Zhang, J.

    A high brightness krypton fluoride Raman laser (wavelength 0.268 [mu]m) generating 0.3 TW, 12 ps pulses with 20 [mu]rad beam divergence and a prepulse of less than 10[sup [minus]10] has been focused to produce a 10 [mu]m wide line focus (irradiances [similar to]0.8--4[times]10[sup 15] W cm[sup [minus]2]) on plastic targets with a diagnostic sodium fluoride (NaF) layer buried within the target. Axial and lateral transport of energy has been measured by analysis of x-ray images of the line focus and from x-ray spectra emitted by the layer of NaF with varying overlay thicknesses. It is shown that the ratio ofmore » the distance between the critical density surface and the ablation surface to the laser focal width controls lateral transport in a similar manner as for previous spot focus experiments. The measured axial energy transport is compared to MEDUSA [J. P. Christiansen, D. E. T. F. Ashby, and K. V. Roberts, Comput. Phys. Commun. [bold 7], 271 (1974)] one-dimensional hydrodynamic code simulations with an average atom post-processor for predicting spectral line intensities. An energy absorption of [similar to]10% in the code gives agreement with the experimental axial penetration. Various measured line ratios of hydrogen- and helium-like Na and F are investigated as temperature diagnostics in the NaF layer using the RATION [R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Strout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer [bold 32], 91 (1984)] code.« less

  17. Impact of whole-genome duplication events on diversification rates in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Landis, Jacob B; Soltis, Douglas E; Li, Zheng; Marx, Hannah E; Barker, Michael S; Tank, David C; Soltis, Pamela S

    2018-03-01

    Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication (WGD) pervades the evolutionary history of angiosperms. Despite extensive progress in our understanding of WGD, the role of these events in promoting diversification is still not well understood. We seek to clarify the possible association between WGD and diversification rates in flowering plants. Using a previously published phylogeny spanning all land plants (31,749 tips) and WGD events inferred from analyses of the 1000 Plants (1KP) transcriptome data, we analyzed the association of WGDs and diversification rates following numerous WGD events across the angiosperms. We used a stepwise AIC approach (MEDUSA), a Bayesian mixture model approach (BAMM), and state-dependent diversification analyses (MuSSE) to investigate patterns of diversification. Sister-clade comparisons were used to investigate species richness after WGDs. Based on the density of 1KP taxon sampling, 106 WGDs were unambiguously placed on the angiosperm phylogeny. We identified 334-530 shifts in diversification rates. We found that 61 WGD events were tightly linked to changes in diversification rates, and state-dependent diversification analyses indicated higher speciation rates for subsequent rounds of WGD. Additionally, 70 of 99 WGD events showed an increase in species richness compared to the sister clade. Forty-six of the 106 WGDs analyzed appear to be closely associated with upshifts in the rate of diversification in angiosperms. Shifts in diversification do not appear more likely than random within a four-node lag phase following a WGD; however, younger WGD events are more likely to be followed by an upshift in diversification than older WGD events. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  18. MARSIS data and simulation exploited using array databases: PlanetServer/EarthServer for sounding radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantini, Federico; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Orosei, Roberto; Baumann, Peter; Misev, Dimitar; Oosthoek, Jelmer; Beccati, Alan; Campalani, Piero; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    parallel computing has been developed and tested on a Tier 0 class HPC cluster computer located at CINECA, Bologna, Italy, to produce accurate simulations for the entire MARSIS dataset. Although the necessary computational resources have not yet been secured, through the HPC cluster at Jacobs University in Bremen it was possible to simulate a significant subset of orbits covering the area of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF), a seeimingly soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars (e.g. Watters et al., 2007; Carter et al., 2009). Besides the MARSIS data, simulation of MARSIS surface clutter signal are included in the db to further improve its scientific value. Simulations will be available throught the project portal to end users/scientists and they will eventually be provided in the PSA/PDS archives. References: Baumann, P. On the management of multidimensional discrete data. VLDB J. 4 (3), 401-444, Special Issue on Spatial Database Systems, 1994. Carter, L. M., Campbell, B. A., Watters, T. R., Phillips, R. J., Putzig, N. E., Safaeinili, A., Plaut, J., Okubo, C., Egan, A. F., Biccari, D., Orosei, R. (2009). Shallow radar (SHARAD) sounding observations of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars. Icarus, 199(2), 295-302. Nouvel, J.-F., Herique, A., Kofman, W., Safaeinili, A. 2004. Radar signal simulation: Surface modeling with the Facet Method. Radio Science 39, 1013. Oosthoek, J.H.P, Flahaut J., Rossi, A. P., Baumann, P., Misev, D., Campalani, P., Unnithan, V. (2013) PlanetServer: Innovative Approaches for the Online Analysis of Hyperspectral Satellite Data from Mars, Advances in Space Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2013.07.002 Picardi, G., and 33 colleagues 2005. Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars. Science 310, 1925-1928. Rossi, A. P., Baumann, P., Oosthoek, J., Beccati, A., Cantini, F., Misev, D. Orosei, R., Flahaut, J., Campalani, P., Unnithan, V. (2014),Geophys. Res. Abs., Vol. 16, #EGU2014-5149, this meeting. Watters, T. R

  19. Nest survival of forest birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, flood control has led to a drastic reduction in the area of forest habitat and altered the patchwork of forest cover types. Silvicultural management of the remaining fragmented forests has changed to reflect the altered hydrology of the forests, current economic conditions of the area, and demand for forest products. Because forest type and silvicultural management impact forest birds, differences in avian productivity within these forests directly impact bird conservation. To assist in conservation planning, we evaluated daily nest survival, nest predation rates, and brood parasitism rates of forest birds in relation to different forest cover types and silvicultural management strategies within this floodplain. Within bottomland hardwood forests, nest success of blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea, 13%), eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 28%), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea, 18%), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 22%), and yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus, 18%) did not differ from that within intensively managed cottonwood plantations. However, average daily survival of 542 open-cup nests of 19 bird species in bottomland hardwoods (0.9516 + 0.0028, -27% nest success) was greater than that of 543 nests of 18 species in cotlonwood plantations (0.9298 + 0.0035, -15% nest success). Differences in daily nest survival rates likely resulted from a combination of differences in the predator community--particularly fire ants (Solenopsis invicta)--and a marked difference in species composition of birds breeding within these 2 forest types. At least 39% of nests in bottomland hardwood forests and 65% of nests in cottonwood plantations were depredated. Rates of parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were greater in managed cottonwoods (24%) than in bottomland hardwoods (9%). Nest success in planted cottonwood plantations for 18 species combined (-14%), and for yellow-breasted chat (Icteria

  20. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: First Year Results and Second Year Work Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping Progress and Suggested Geographic-Based Hierarchal Systems for Unit Grouping and Naming; Progress in the Scandia Region Geologic Map of Mars; Geomorphic Mapping of MTMS -20022 and -20017; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus; Volcanism on Io: Results from Global Geologic Mapping; Employing Geodatabases for Planetary Mapping Conduct - Requirements, Concepts and Solutions; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010.

  1. Quantifying and predicting fuels and the effects of reduction treatments along successional and invasion gradients in sagebrush habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush shrubland ecosystems in the Great Basin are prime examples of how altered successional trajectories can create dynamic fuel conditions and, thus, increase uncertainty about fire risk and behavior. Although fire is a natural disturbance in sagebrush, post-fire environments are highly susceptible to conversion to an invasive grass-fire regime (often referred to as a “grass-fire cycle”). After fire, native shrub-steppe plants are often slow to regenerate, whereas nonnative annuals, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae), can establish quickly and outcompete native species. Once fire-prone annuals become established, fire occurrences increase, further promoting dominance of nonnative species. The invasive grass-fire regime also alters nutrient and hydrologic cycles, pushing ecosystems beyond ecological thresholds toward steady-state, fire-prone, nonnative communities. These changes affect millions of hectares in the Great Basin and increase fire risk, decrease habitat quality and biodiversity, accelerate soil erosion, and degrade rangeland resources for livestock production. In many sagebrush landscapes, constantly changing plant communities and fuel conditions hinder attempts by land managers to predict and control fire behavior, restore native communities, and provide ecosystem services (e.g., forage production for livestock). We investigated successional and nonnative plant invasion states and associated fuel loads in degraded sagebrush habitat in a focal study area, the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (hereafter the NCA), in the Snake River Plain Ecoregion of southern Idaho. We expanded our inference by comparing our findings to similar data collected throughout seven major land resource areas (MLRAs) across the Great Basin (JFSP Project “Fire Rehabilitation Effectiveness: A Chronosequence Approach for the Great Basin” [09-S-02-1]). 4 We used a combination of field

  2. Cheminformatics meets molecular mechanics: a combined application of knowledge-based pose scoring and physical force field-based hit scoring functions improves the accuracy of structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Yin, Shuangye; Wang, Xiang S; Liu, Shubin; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-01-23

    Poor performance of scoring functions is a well-known bottleneck in structure-based virtual screening (VS), which is most frequently manifested in the scoring functions' inability to discriminate between true ligands vs known nonbinders (therefore designated as binding decoys). This deficiency leads to a large number of false positive hits resulting from VS. We have hypothesized that filtering out or penalizing docking poses recognized as non-native (i.e., pose decoys) should improve the performance of VS in terms of improved identification of true binders. Using several concepts from the field of cheminformatics, we have developed a novel approach to identifying pose decoys from an ensemble of poses generated by computational docking procedures. We demonstrate that the use of target-specific pose (scoring) filter in combination with a physical force field-based scoring function (MedusaScore) leads to significant improvement of hit rates in VS studies for 12 of the 13 benchmark sets from the clustered version of the Database of Useful Decoys (DUD). This new hybrid scoring function outperforms several conventional structure-based scoring functions, including XSCORE::HMSCORE, ChemScore, PLP, and Chemgauss3, in 6 out of 13 data sets at early stage of VS (up 1% decoys of the screening database). We compare our hybrid method with several novel VS methods that were recently reported to have good performances on the same DUD data sets. We find that the retrieved ligands using our method are chemically more diverse in comparison with two ligand-based methods (FieldScreen and FLAP::LBX). We also compare our method with FLAP::RBLB, a high-performance VS method that also utilizes both the receptor and the cognate ligand structures. Interestingly, we find that the top ligands retrieved using our method are highly complementary to those retrieved using FLAP::RBLB, hinting effective directions for best VS applications. We suggest that this integrative VS approach combining

  3. FULVUE: Far Ultraviolet Universal Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, David L.; Cross, Eugene W.

    1997-10-01

    This is a concept study for a proposal to NASA/GSFC for a medium class Explorer Mission. It is designed to replace a prior SBIR Phase I design for NASA/MSFC for a Lunar far-UV survey telescope done in 1994 - 1995 for the Pathfinder Program (by the authors for I.S.E., under M. E. Nein, MSFC). A full investigation by project scientist D. L. White as to the most desirable mission science for a Lunar-based UV telescope, resulted in the decision to do a universal survey of the most interesting lines in the Lyman alpha forest, especially the O VI doublet lines around 103.2/103.8 nm. A telescope was designed by the authors incorporating a multiple instrument pod (MEDUSA), and a unique optical train featuring a selectable element secondary mirror module, with a special high resolution mode debuting a new optical design, all by chief optical engineer E. W. Cross. Special thanks go to chief spacecraft engineer T. L. Kessler for all packaging and integration of the telescope, its attendant systems, and the entire mission, including the launch interface and all presentations. In this incarnation, the basic concept has been converted by D. L. White into a free flyer designed for at least a LEO. In reconfiguring the original concept in the order to accomplish the original mission science goals, it has been necessary to take a fresh approach in order to fit the largest feasible Explorer Class Fairing (10L). In addition, the reconsideration of the mission science and the performance level available from the prior mission's optics, the authors decided to push the limits of the possible in the pursuit of excellence and choose two exceptional optical designs, augment them, and integrate them into the same limited envelope, while not sacrificing performance, communications, power, control, or serviceability. This we have kept close to focus throughout our pursuit of the mission science, which we hold foremost. We see a great need to bring the lessons learned at other portions of the

  4. MicroMED: a dust particle counter for the characterization of airborne dust close to the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzolino, Fabio; Esposito, Francesca; Molfese, Cesare; Cortecchia, Fausto; Saggin, Bortolino; D'amato, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    sampling head, allows the sampling of Martian atmosphere with embedded dust. The captured dust grains are detected by an Optical System and then ejected into the atmosphere. MicroMED is a miniaturization of the instrument MEDUSA, developed for the Humboldt payload of the ExoMars mission. An Elegant Breadboard has been developed and tested and successfully demonstrates the instrument performances. The design and performance test results will be discussed.

  5. Predicting foundation bunchgrass species abundances: Model-assisted decision-making in protected-area sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Sheley, Roger L.; Smith, Brenda S.; Hoh, Shirley; Esposito, Daniel M.; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Foundation species are structurally dominant members of ecological communities that can stabilize ecological processes and influence resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Being common, they are often overlooked for conservation but are increasingly threatened from land use change, biological invasions, and over-exploitation. The pattern of foundation species abundances over space and time may be used to guide decision-making, particularly in protected areas for which they are iconic. We used ordinal logistic regression to identify the important environmental influences on the abundance patterns of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), Thurber's needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum), and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) in protected-area sagebrush steppe. We then predicted bunchgrass abundances along gradients of topography, disturbance, and invasive annual grass abundance. We used model predictions to prioritize the landscape for implementation of a management and restoration decision-support tool. Models were fit to categorical estimates of grass cover obtained from an extensive ground-based monitoring dataset. We found that remnant stands of abundant wheatgrass and bluegrass were associated with steep north-facing slopes in higher and more remote portions of the landscape outside of recently burned areas where invasive annual grasses were less abundant. These areas represented only 25% of the landscape and were prioritized for protection efforts. Needlegrass was associated with south-facing slopes, but in low abundance and in association with invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Abundances of all three species were strongly negatively correlated with occurrence of another invasive annual grass, medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae). The rarity of priority bunchgrass stands underscored the extent of degradation and the need for prioritization. We found no evidence that insularity reduced invasibility; annual grass invasion represents

  6. Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xuanhua; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Junling

    GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weightmore » asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of realworld graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80%) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices in a sparse graph with maximized parallelism, (2) how to process large-scale graphs that cannot fit into GPU memory, and (3) how to reduce the overhead of data transfers on PCIe while processing each partition. We conduct experiments on real-world data (Amazon, DBLP, YouTube, RoadNet-CA, WikiTalk and Twitter) to evaluate our approach and make comparisons with well-known non-preprocessed (such as Totem, Medusa, MapGraph and Gunrock) and preprocessed (Cusha) approaches, by testing four classical algorithms (BFS, PageRank, SSSP and CC). On all the tested applications

  7. Comparative muscle development of scyphozoan jellyfish with simple and complex life cycles.

    PubMed

    Helm, Rebecca R; Tiozzo, Stefano; Lilley, Martin K S; Lombard, Fabien; Dunn, Casey W

    2015-01-01

    Simple life cycles arise from complex life cycles when one or more developmental stages are lost. This raises a fundamental question - how can an intermediate stage, such as a larva, be removed, and development still produce a normal adult? To address this question, we examined the development in several species of pelagiid jellyfish. Most members of Pelagiidae have a complex life cycle with a sessile polyp that gives rise to ephyrae (juvenile medusae); but one species within Pelagiidae, Pelagia noctiluca, spends its whole life in the water column, developing from a larva directly into an ephyra. In many complex life cycles, adult features develop from cell populations that remain quiescent in larvae, and this is known as life cycle compartmentalization and may facilitate the evolution of direct life cycles. A second type of metamorphic processes, known as remodeling, occurs when adult features are formed through modification of already differentiated larval structures. We examined muscle morphology to determine which of these alternatives may be present in Pelagiidae. We first examined the structure and development of polyp and ephyra musculature in Chrysaora quinquecirrha, a close relative of P. noctiluca with a complex life cycle. Using phallotoxin staining and confocal microscopy, we verified that polyps have four to six cord muscles that persist in strobilae and discovered that cord muscles is physically separated from ephyra muscle. When cord muscle is removed from ephyra segments, normal ephyra muscle still develops. This suggests that polyp cord muscle is not necessary for ephyra muscle formation. We also found no evidence of polyp-like muscle in P. noctiluca. In both species, we discovered that ephyra muscle arises de novo in a similar manner, regardless of the life cycle. The separate origins of polyp and ephyra muscle in C. quinquecirrha and the absence of polyp-like muscle in P. noctiluca suggest that polyp muscle is not remodeled to form ephyra muscle

  8. Part I. Development of a concept inventory addressing students' beliefs and reasoning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect, Part II. Distribution of chlorine measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John Michael

    chlorine on Mars measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). The distribution of chlorine is heterogeneous across the surface, with a concentration of high chlorine centered over the Medusa Fossae Formation. The distribution of chlorine correlates positively with hydrogen and negatively with silicon and thermal inertia. Four mechanisms (aeolian, volcanic, aqueous, and hydrothermal) are discussed as possible factors influencing the distribution of chlorine measured within the upper few tens of centimeters of the surface.

  9. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density

  10. Estuarine and marine diets of out-migrating Chinook Salmon smolts in relation to local zooplankton populations, including harmful blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, C. M.; Sweeting, R.; Neville, C. M.; Young, K.; Galbraith, M.; Carmack, E.; Vagle, S.; Dempsey, M.; Eert, J.; Beamish, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in food availability during the early marine phase of wild Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) are being investigated as a cause of their recent declines in the Salish Sea. The marine survival of hatchery smolts, in particular, has been poor. This part of the Salish Sea Marine Survival Project examined the diet of young out-migrating Chinook Salmon for four consecutive years in the Cowichan River estuary and in Cowichan Bay, British Columbia, Canada. Local zooplankton communities were monitored during the final year of the study in the Cowichan River estuary, Cowichan Bay, and eastward to the Salish Sea to better understand the bottom-up processes that may be affecting Chinook Salmon survival. Rearing environment affected body size, diet, and distribution in the study area. Clipped smolts (hatchery-reared) were larger than the unclipped smolts (primarily naturally-reared), ate larger prey, spent very little time in the estuary, and disappeared from the bay earlier, likely due to emigration or mortality. Their larger body size may be a disadvantage for hatchery smolts if it necessitates their leaving the estuary prematurely to meet energy needs; the onset of piscivory began at a forklength of approximately 74 mm, which was less than the average forklength of the clipped fish in this study. The primary zooplankton bloom occurred during the last week of April/first week of May 2013, whereas the main release of hatchery-reared Chinook Salmon smolts occurs each year in mid-May-this timing mismatch may reduce their survival. Gut fullness was correlated with zooplankton biomass; however, both the clipped and unclipped smolts were not observed in the bay until the bloom of harmful Noctiluca was finished-20 days after the maximum recorded zooplankton abundance. Jellyfish medusa flourished in nearshore areas, becoming less prevalent towards the deeper waters of the Salish Sea. The sizable presence of Noctiluca and jellyfish in the zooplankton blooms may be repelling

  11. Opportunities and Constraints in Characterizing Landscape Distribution of an Invasive Grass from Very High Resolution Multi-Spectral Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Dronova, Iryna; Spotswood, Erica N.; Suding, Katharine N.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding spatial distributions of invasive plant species at early infestation stages is critical for assessing the dynamics and underlying factors of invasions. Recent progress in very high resolution remote sensing is facilitating this task by providing high spatial detail over whole-site extents that are prohibitive to comprehensive ground surveys. This study assessed the opportunities and constraints to characterize landscape distribution of the invasive grass medusahead (Elymus caput-medusae) in a ∼36.8 ha grassland in California, United States from 0.15m-resolution visible/near-infrared aerial imagery at the stage of late spring phenological contrast with dominant grasses. We compared several object-based unsupervised, single-run supervised and hierarchical approaches to classify medusahead using spectral, textural, and contextual variables. Fuzzy accuracy assessment indicated that 44–100% of test medusahead samples were matched by its classified extents from different methods, while 63–83% of test samples classified as medusahead had this class as an acceptable candidate. Main sources of error included spectral similarity between medusahead and other green species and mixing of medusahead with other vegetation at variable densities. Adding texture attributes to spectral variables increased the accuracy of most classification methods, corroborating the informative value of local patterns under limited spectral data. The highest accuracy across different metrics was shown by the supervised single-run support vector machine with seven vegetation classes and Bayesian algorithms with three vegetation classes; however, their medusahead allocations showed some “spillover” effects due to misclassifications with other green vegetation. This issue was addressed by more complex hierarchical approaches, though their final accuracy did not exceed the best single-run methods. However, the comparison of classified medusahead extents with field segments of its

  12. Ash Dispersal in Planetary Atmospheres: Continuum vs. Non-continuum Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagents, S. A.; Baloga, S. M.; Glaze, L. S.

    2013-12-01

    fall more slowly than spherical particle shapes commonly adopted in settling models); the formation of particle aggregates, which enhances settling rates; and the lagging of particle motion behind the ambient wind field, which results in less widely dispersed deposits. Above all, any particles experiencing non-continuum effects settle faster and are less widely dispersed than particles falling in an entirely continuum regime. Our model results demonstrate the complex interplay of these factors in the Martian environment, and our approach provides a basis for relating deposits observed in planetary datasets to candidate volcanic sources and eruption conditions. This allows for a critical reassessment of the potential for explosive volcanism to contribute to extremely widespread, fine-grained, layered deposits such as the Medusae Fossae Formation.

  13. Volatile-rich Crater Interior Deposits in the Polar Regions of Mars: Evidence for Ice Cap Advance and Retreat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Head, James W.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Many craters on Mars are partially filled by distinctive material emplaced by post-impact processes. This crater fill material is an interior mound which is generally separated from the walls of the crater by a trough that may be continuous along the crater circumference (i.e. a ring-shaped trough), or which may only partially contact the crater walls (i.e. a crescent-shaped trough). The fill deposit is frequently offset from the crater center and may be asymmetric in plan view. Populations of such craters include those in the circum-south polar cap region, in Arabia Terra, associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation, and in the northern lowlands proximal to the north polar cap. We focus on those craters in circumpolar regions and assess their relationship to polar cap advance and retreat, especially the possibility that fill material represents remnants of a formerly larger contiguous cap. Volatile-rich deposits have the property of being modifiable by the local stability of the solid volatile, which is governed by local energy balance. Here we test the hypothesis that asymmetries in volatile fill shape, profile, and center-location within a crater result from asymmetries in local energy balance within the crater, due mainly to variation of solar insolation and radiative effects of the crater walls over the crater interior. Model profiles of crater fill are compared with MOLA topographic profiles to assess this hypothesis. If asymmetry in morphology and location of crater fill are consistent with radiative-dominated asymmetries in energy budget within the crater, then 1) the volatile-rich composition of the fill is supported (this process should not be effective at shaping volcanic or sedimentary deposits), and 2) the dominant factor determining the observed shape of volatile-rich crater fill is the local radiative energy budget (and erosive processes such as eolian deflation are secondary or unnecessary). We also use a geographic and energy model approach to

  14. Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R. R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

    2014-11-01

    Scientific debate on whether the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks is related to a true rise in their abundance, have outlined the lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different data sets produced within the EU program EUROBASIN, which have been assembled with the aim of presenting an up to date overview of the diversity and standing stocks of jellyfish in the North Atlantic region. Using a net adapted to sample gelatinous zooplankton quantitatively, Cnidaria and Ctenophora were collected in the epipelagic layer during spring-summer 2010-2013, in inshore and offshore waters between 59-68° N Lat and 62° W-5° E Long. Jellyfish were also identified and counted in samples opportunistically collected by other sampling equipment in the same region and at two coastal stations in the Bay of Biscay and in the Gulf of Cadiz. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples collected in 2009-2012 were re-analysed with the aim of identifying the time and location of Cnidarian blooms across the North Atlantic basin. Overall the data show high variability in jellyfish abundance and diversity, mainly in relation with different water masses and with the bathymetry. Higher densities were generally recorded on the shelves, where populations tend to be more diversified due to the presence of meropelagic medusae. Comparisons of net records from the G.O. Sars transatlantic cruise show that information on jellyfish diversity differs significantly depending on the sampling gear utilised. Indeed, the big trawls mostly collect relatively large scyphozoan and hydrozoan species, while small hydrozoans and early stages of ctenophora are only caught by smaller nets. Based on CPR data from 2009-2012, blooms of Cnidarians occurred in all seasons across the whole North Atlantic basin. Molecular analysis revealed that, in contrast with what was previously hypothesized, the CPR is able to detect blooms of meroplanktonic and holoplanktonic hydrozoans and

  15. Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R. R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

    2015-07-01

    Scientific debate on whether or not the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks represents a true rise in their abundance has outlined a lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different jellyfish data sets produced within the EU programme EURO-BASIN. These data were assembled with the aim of creating an improved baseline and providing new data that can be used to evaluate the current diversity and standing stocks of jellyfish in the North Atlantic region. Using a net adapted to sample gelatinous zooplankton quantitatively, cnidarians and ctenophores were collected from the epipelagic layer during spring-summer 2010-2013, in inshore and offshore waters between lat 59 and 68° N and long 62° W and 5° E. Jellyfish were also identified and counted in samples opportunistically collected by other sampling equipment in the same region and at two coastal stations in the Bay of Biscay and in the Gulf of Cadiz. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples collected in 2009-2012 were re-analysed with the aim of identifying the time and location of cnidarian blooms across the North Atlantic Basin. Overall the data show high variability in jellyfish abundance and diversity, mainly in relation to different water masses and bathymetry. Higher densities were generally recorded on the shelves, where the communities tend to be more diverse due to the presence of meropelagic medusae. Comparison of net records from the G.O. Sars transatlantic cruise shows that information on jellyfish diversity differs significantly depending on the sampling gear utilised. Indeed, the big trawls mostly collect relatively large scyphozoan and hydrozoan species, while small hydrozoans and early stages of Ctenophora are only caught by smaller nets. Based on CPR data from 2009 to 2012, blooms of cnidarians occurred in all seasons across the whole North Atlantic Basin. Molecular analysis revealed that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the CPR is able to detect

  16. Local versus Generalized Phenotypes in Two Sympatric Aurelia Species: Understanding Jellyfish Ecology Using Genetics and Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Bayha, Keith W.; Graham, William M.

    2016-01-01

    For individuals living in environmentally heterogeneous environments, a key component for adaptation and persistence is the extent of phenotypic differentiation in response to local environmental conditions. In order to determine the extent of environmentally induced morphological variation in a natural population distributed along environmental gradients, it is necessary to account for potential genetic differences contributing to morphological differentiation. In this study, we set out to quantify geographic morphological variation in the moon jellyfish Aurelia exposed at the extremes of a latitudinal environmental gradient in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). We used morphological data based on 28 characters, and genetic data taken from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1). Molecular analyses revealed the presence of two genetically distinct species of Aurelia co-occurring in the GoM: Aurelia sp. 9 and Aurelia c.f. sp. 2, named for its divergence from (for COI) and similarity to (for ITS-1) Aurelia sp. 2 (Brazil). Neither species exhibited significant population genetic structure between the Northern and the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico; however, they differed greatly in the degree of geographic morphological variation. The morphology of Aurelia sp. 9 exhibited ecophenotypic plasticity and varied significantly between locations, while morphology of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 was geographically invariant (i.e., canalized). The plastic, generalist medusae of Aurelia sp. 9 are likely able to produce environmentally-induced, “optimal” phenotypes that confer high relative fitness in different environments. In contrast, the non-plastic generalist individuals of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 likely produce environmentally-independent phenotypes that provide the highest fitness across environments. These findings suggest the two Aurelia lineages co-occurring in the GoM were likely exposed to different past environmental conditions (i

  17. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    -Ring Impact Basins, Margaritifer Terra, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: First Year Results and Second Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results; Recent Geologic Mapping Results for the Polar Regions of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars (MC-8 SE and MC-23 NW) and the Northern Lowlands of Venus (V-16 and V-15); Geologic Mapping of the Zal, Hi'iaka, and Shamshu Regions of Io; Global Geologic Map of Europa; Material Units, Structures/Landforms, and Stratigraphy for the Global Geologic Map of Ganymede (1:15M); and Global Geologic Mapping of Io: Preliminary Results.

  18. Opportunities and Constraints in Characterizing Landscape Distribution of an Invasive Grass from Very High Resolution Multi-Spectral Imagery.

    PubMed

    Dronova, Iryna; Spotswood, Erica N; Suding, Katharine N

    2017-01-01

    Understanding spatial distributions of invasive plant species at early infestation stages is critical for assessing the dynamics and underlying factors of invasions. Recent progress in very high resolution remote sensing is facilitating this task by providing high spatial detail over whole-site extents that are prohibitive to comprehensive ground surveys. This study assessed the opportunities and constraints to characterize landscape distribution of the invasive grass medusahead ( Elymus caput-medusae ) in a ∼36.8 ha grassland in California, United States from 0.15m-resolution visible/near-infrared aerial imagery at the stage of late spring phenological contrast with dominant grasses. We compared several object-based unsupervised, single-run supervised and hierarchical approaches to classify medusahead using spectral, textural, and contextual variables. Fuzzy accuracy assessment indicated that 44-100% of test medusahead samples were matched by its classified extents from different methods, while 63-83% of test samples classified as medusahead had this class as an acceptable candidate. Main sources of error included spectral similarity between medusahead and other green species and mixing of medusahead with other vegetation at variable densities. Adding texture attributes to spectral variables increased the accuracy of most classification methods, corroborating the informative value of local patterns under limited spectral data. The highest accuracy across different metrics was shown by the supervised single-run support vector machine with seven vegetation classes and Bayesian algorithms with three vegetation classes; however, their medusahead allocations showed some "spillover" effects due to misclassifications with other green vegetation. This issue was addressed by more complex hierarchical approaches, though their final accuracy did not exceed the best single-run methods. However, the comparison of classified medusahead extents with field segments of its

  19. In vivo imaging of epithelial wound healing in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica demonstrates early evolution of purse string and cell crawling closure mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Zach; Zellner, Katie; Kyriazes, Harry; Kraus, Christine M; Reynier, Jean-Baptiste; Malamy, Jocelyn E

    2017-12-19

    All animals have mechanisms for healing damage to the epithelial sheets that cover the body and line internal cavities. Epithelial wounds heal either by cells crawling over the wound gap, by contraction of a super-cellular actin cable ("purse string") that surrounds the wound, or some combination of the two mechanisms. Both cell crawling and purse string closure of epithelial wounds are widely observed across vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting early evolution of these mechanisms. Cnidarians evolved ~600 million years ago and are considered a sister group to the Bilateria. They have been much studied for their tremendous regenerative potential, but epithelial wound healing has not been characterized in detail. Conserved elements of wound healing in bilaterians and cnidarians would suggest an evolutionary origin in a common ancestor. Here we test this idea by characterizing epithelial wound healing in live medusae of Clytia hemisphaerica. We identified cell crawling and purse string-mediated mechanisms of healing in Clytia epithelium that appear highly analogous of those seen in higher animals, suggesting that these mechanisms may have emerged in a common ancestor. Interestingly, we found that epithelial wound healing in Clytia is 75 to >600 times faster than in cultured cells or embryos of other animals previously studied, suggesting that Clytia may provide valuable clues about optimized healing efficiency. Finally, in Clytia, we show that damage to the basement membrane in a wound gap causes a rapid shift between the cell crawling and purse string mechanisms for wound closure. This is consistent with work in other systems showing that cells marginal to a wound choose between a super-cellular actin cable or lamellipodia formation to close wounds, and suggests a mechanism underlying this decision. 1. Cell crawling and purse string mechanisms of epithelial wound healing likely evolved before the divergence of Cnidaria from the bilaterian lineage ~ 600mya 2. In

  20. Episodes of floods in Mangala Valles, Mars, from the analysis of HRSC, MOC and THEMIS images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Neukum, G.; Werner, S.C.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Kneissl, T.; Zuschneid, W.; Rommel, D.; Wendt, L.; Chapman, M.; Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Mangala Valles is a 900-km long outflow channel system in the highlands adjacent to the south-eastern flank of the Tharsis bulge. This work was intended to answer the following two questions unresolved in previous studies: (1) Was there only one source of water (Mangala Fossa at the valley head which is one of the Medusae Fossae troughs or graben) or were other sources also involved in the valley-carving water supply, and (2) Was there only one episode of flooding (maybe with phases) or were there several episodes significantly separated in time. The geologic analysis of HRSC image 0286 and mapping supported by analysis of MOC and THEMIS images show that Mangala Valles was carved by water released from several sources. The major source was Mangala Fossa, which probably formed in response to magmatic dike intrusion. The graben cracked the cryosphere and permitted the release of groundwater held under hydrostatic pressure. This major source was augmented by a few smaller-scale sources at localities in (1) two mapped heads of magmatic dikes, (2) heads of two clusters of sinuous channels, and (3) probably several large knob terrain locals. The analysis of results of crater counts at more than 60 localities showed that the first episode of formation of Mangala Valles occurred ???3.5 Ga ago and was followed by three more episodes, one occurred ???1 Ga ago, another one ???0.5 Ga ago, and the last one ???0.2 Ga ago. East of the mapped area there are extended and thick lava flows whose source may be the eastern continuation of the Mangala source graben. Crater counts in 10 localities on these lava flows correlate with those taken on the Mangala valley elements supporting the idea that the valley head graben was caused by dike intrusions. Our observations suggest that the waning stage of the latest flooding episode (???0.2 Ga ago) led to the formation at the valley head of meander-like features sharing some characteristics with meanders of terrestrial rivers. If this

  1. Possible sea sediments due to glaciofluvial activity in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, J.

    Observations of fluvial morphologies in southern Elysium Planitia strongly supports the hypothesis that water substantially affected this region during the relatively recent geologic past. As of yet, however, the extent of a standing body of water has been speculative. The observation of zig-zag features potentially analogous to those observed near the Wadden Sea on Earth [see 1] may help show in more detail the origin, activity, and fate of water in this region of Mars. These terrestrial analogs could constrain environmental scenarios concerning the formation of these features. We present a geomorphologic map of central Elysium Planitia, that aids in our interpretation of potentially site-specific depositional/erosional morphologies. Positive relief zig-zag features within the Medusae Fossae Formation (Themis Image V05875001) resemble similar structures on Earth observed at shorelines of flat regions. Glaciofluvial activity is indicated by linear features resembling straight glacial flutings, which could form aeolian yardangs subsequently. The flutings are associated with branches of inverted fluvial channels (Images Themis V05588002, MOC e1800307). Their excavated positive relief (height ~40 m) indicates, that the adjacent material was eroded by sublimation or aeolian activity. The channels possibly resemble ice marginal channels. A high resolution Digital Terrain Model of one of the channels suggests, that one channel is possibly running upslope. Fluvial processes could have operated at one location at one time, and glacial processes at another location at another time [2]. A glacial drainage system [see 3] is a possible terrestrial analog for one inverted fluvial channel on Mars (Themis Image V05875001). Flutings occur on the foreland of many glaciers and their length may provide important evidence for rapid advance over substantial distances. Flutings are the product of subglacial erosion and transport processes [4]. By assigning the different environmental

  2. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  3. A comparison of mesopelagic mesozooplankton community structure in the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Cope, Joseph S.; Wilson, Stephanie E.; Kobari, T.

    2008-07-01

    Mesopelagic mesozooplankton communities of an oligotrophic (Hawaii Ocean Time series-HOT station ALOHA) and a mesotrophic (Japanese time-series station K2) environment in the North Pacific Ocean are compared as part of a research program investigating the factors that control the efficiency of particle export to the deep sea (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean—VERTIGO). We analyzed zooplankton (>350 μm) collected from net tows taken between 0 and 1000 m at each site to investigate the biomass size structure and the abundance of the major taxonomic groups in discrete depth intervals throughout the water column. Biomass of zooplankton at K2 over all depths was approximately an order of a magnitude higher than at ALOHA, with a significantly higher proportion of the biomass at K2 in the larger (>2 mm) size classes. This difference was mostly due to the abundance at K2 of the large calanoid copepods Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii, which undergo ontogenetic (seasonal) vertical migration. The overall strength of diel vertical migration was higher at K2, with a mean night:day biomass ratio in the upper 150 m of 2.5, vs. a ratio of 1.7 at ALOHA. However, the amplitude of the diel migration (change in weighted mean depth between day and night) was higher at ALOHA for all biomass size classes, perhaps due to deeper light penetration causing deeper migration to avoid visual predators. A number of taxa known to feed on suspended or sinking detritus showed distinct peaks in the mesopelagic zone, which affects particle transport efficiency at both sites. These taxa include calanoid and poecilostomatoid (e.g., Oncaea spp.) copepods, salps, polychaetes, and phaeodarian radiolaria at K2, harpacticoid copepods at ALOHA, and ostracods at both sites. We found distinct layers of carnivores (mainly gelatinous zooplankton) in the mesopelagic at K2 including chaetognaths, hydrozoan medusae, polychaetes, and gymnosome pteropods, and, in the upper mesopelagic zone, of

  4. Gullies of Gorgonus Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 11 June 2002) The Science This fractured surface belongs to a portion of a region called Gorgonum Chaos located in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Gorgonum Chaos is named after the Gorgons in ancient Greek mythology. The Gorgons were monstrous sisters with snakes for hair, tusks like boars and lolling tongues who lived in caves. As it turns out this is indeed a fitting name for this region of Mars because it contains a high density of gullies that 'snake' their way down the walls of the troughs located in this region of chaos. Upon closer examination one finds that these gullies and alluvial deposits, initially discovered by Mars Global Surveyor, are visible on the trough walls (best seen near the bottom of the image). These gullies appear to emanate from a specific layer in the walls. The gullies have been proposed to have formed by the subsurface release of water. The Story This fractured, almost spooky-looking surface belongs to a region called Gorgonum Chaos in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Chaos is a term used for regions of Mars with distinctive areas of broken terrain like the one seen above. This area of Martian chaos is named after the Gorgons in ancient Greek mythology. The Gorgons were monstrous sisters with snakes for hair, tusks like boars, and lolling tongues, who lived in caves. The Gorgons, including famous sister Medusa, could turn a person to stone, and their writhing, snakelike locks cause revulsion to this day. Given the afflicted nature of this contorted terrain, with all of its twisted, branching channels and hard, stony-looking hills in the top half of the image, this is indeed a fitting name for this region of Mars. The name also has great appeal, because the area contains a high density of gullies that 'snake' their way down the walls of the troughs located in this region of Martian chaos. Gullies are trenches cut into the land as accelerated streams of water (or another liquid) erode the surface. To see these, click on the

  5. Geologic support for the putative Borealis basin (Mega-Impact) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleamaster, L. F.

    2008-12-01

    Tharsis volcanic pile over pre-existing basement structure related to Borealis basin subsidence. The present day Valles Marineris may actually represent the 'missing portion' of the original crustal dichotomy trace underneath Tharsis. 2) The 'great faults' (Connerney et al., 2005) that offset the magnetic field pattern radiate from near the center of the putative basin, again suggesting basement structural control related to basin formation. 3) The mysterious Medusa Fossae Formation is completely enclosed within the basin margin and the units' southern contacts fall within 5 km of the same elliptical trace that bisects central Valles Marineris. 4) Chaos regions at the eastern end of Valles Marineris are wholly contained within the basin margin and suggest some kind of marginal control on their locations. 5) Valley network (channel) densities sharply increase outside the basin and are truncated by the Borealis ellipse. Integrating these and other geologic observations (still ongoing) with the newly formulated geophysical methods suggests that a single mega-impact is reemerging as a viable and perhaps preferred mechanism for dichotomy formation.

  6. Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, Michael C.; Husmann, Diana I.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2012-08-01

    We present Earth-based radar images of Mars obtained with the upgraded Arecibo S-band (λ = 12.6 cm) radar during the 2005-2012 oppositions. The imaging was done using the same long-code delay-Doppler technique as for the earlier (pre-upgrade) imaging but at a much higher resolution (˜3 km) and, for some regions, a more favorable sub-Earth latitude. This has enabled us to make a more detailed and complete mapping of depolarized radar reflectivity (a proxy for small-scale surface roughness) over the major volcanic provinces of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis. We find that vast portions of these regions are covered by radar-bright lava flows exhibiting circular polarization ratios close to unity, a characteristic that is uncommon for terrestrial lavas and that is a likely indicator of multiple scattering from extremely blocky or otherwise highly disrupted flow surfaces. All of the major volcanoes have radar-bright features on their shields, although the brightness distribution on Olympus Mons is very patchy and the summit plateau of Pavonis Mons is entirely radar-dark. The older minor shields (paterae and tholi) are largely or entirely radar-dark, which is consistent with mantling by dust or pyroclastic material. Other prominent radar-dark features include: the "fan-shaped deposits", possibly glacial, associated with the three major Tharsis Montes shields; various units of the Medusae Fossae Formation; a region south and west of Biblis Patera where "Stealth" deposits appear to obscure Tharsis flows; and a number of "dark-halo craters" with radar-absorbing ejecta blankets deposited atop surrounding bright flows. Several major bright features in Tharsis are associated with off-shield lava flows; these include the Olympus Mons basal plains, volcanic fields east and south of Pavonis Mons, the Daedalia Planum flows south of Arsia Mons, and a broad expanse of flows extending east from the Tharsis Montes to Echus Chasma. The radar-bright lava plains in Elysium are

  7. HFC-23 (CHF3) emission trend response to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production and recent HFC-23 emission abatement measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. R.; Rigby, M.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Leist, M.; Fraser, P. J.; McCulloch, A.; Harth, C.; Salameh, P.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; Wang, R. H. J.; O'Doherty, S.; Greally, B. R.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2010-08-01

    HFC-23 (also known as CHF3, fluoroform or trifluoromethane) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), with a global warming potential (GWP) of 14 800 for a 100-year time horizon. It is an unavoidable by-product of HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane) production. HCFC-22, an ozone depleting substance (ODS), is used extensively in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning, in the extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam industries (dispersive applications) and also as a feedstock in fluoropolymer manufacture (a non-dispersive use). Aside from small markets in specialty uses, HFC-23 has historically been considered a waste gas that was, and often still is, simply vented to the atmosphere. Efforts have been made in the past two decades to reduce HFC-23 emissions, including destruction (incineration) in facilities in developing countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and by process optimization and/or voluntary incineration by most producers in developed countries. We present observations of lower-tropospheric mole fractions of HFC-23 measured by "Medusa" GC/MSD instruments from ambient air sampled in situ at the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network of five remote sites (2007-2009) and in Cape Grim air archive (CGAA) samples (1978-2009) from Tasmania, Australia. These observations are used with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and an inverse method to produce model mole fractions and a "top-down" HFC-23 emission history. The model 2009 annual mean global lower-tropospheric background abundance is 22.6 (±0.2) pmol mol-1. The derived HFC-23 emissions show a "plateau" during 1997-2003, followed by a rapid ~50% increase to a peak of 15.0 (+1.3/-1.2) Gg/yr in 2006. Following this peak, emissions of HFC-23 declined rapidly to 8.6 (+0.9/-1.0) Gg/yr in 2009, the lowest annual emission of the past 15 years. We derive a 1990-2008 "bottom-up" HFC-23 emission history using data from

  8. HFC-23 (CHF3) emission trend response to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production and recent HFC-23 emission abatement measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. R.; Rigby, M.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Leist, M.; Fraser, P. J.; McCulloch, A.; Harth, C.; Salameh, P.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; Wang, R. H. J.; O'Doherty, S.; Greally, B. R.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2010-05-01

    HFC-23 (also known as CHF3, fluoroform or trifluoromethane) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), with a global warming potential (GWP) of 14 800 for a 100-year time horizon. It is an unavoidable by-product of HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane) production. HCFC-22, an ozone depleting substance (ODS), is used extensively in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning, in the extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam industries (dispersive applications) and also as a feedstock in fluoropolymer manufacture (a non-dispersive use). Aside from small markets in specialty uses, HFC-23 has historically been considered a waste gas that was, and often still is, simply vented to the atmosphere. Efforts have been made in the past two decades to reduce HFC-23 emissions, including destruction (incineration) in facilities in developing countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and by process optimization and/or voluntary incineration by most producers in developed countries. We present observations of lower-tropospheric mole fractions of HFC-23 measured by "Medusa" GC/MSD instruments from ambient air sampled in situ at the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network of five remote sites and in Cape Grim air archive (CGAA) samples (1978-2009) from Tasmania, Australia. These observations are used with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and an inverse method to produce model mole fractions and a "top-down" HFC-23 emission history. The model 2009 annual mean global lower-tropospheric background abundance is 22.8 (±0.2) pmol mol-1. The derived HFC-23 emissions show a "plateau" during 1997-2003, followed by a rapid ~50% increase to a peak of 15.0 (+1.3/-1.2) Gg/yr in 2006. Following this peak, emissions of HFC-23 declined rapidly to 8.6 (+0.9/-1.0) Gg/yr in 2009, the lowest annual emission of the past 15 years. We derive a 1990-2008 "bottom-up" HFC-23 emission history using data from the United

  9. Impact of the uranium (VI) speciation in mineralised urines on its extraction by calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups used in chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, S; Bouvier-Capely, C; Ritt, A; Peroux, A; Fevrier, L; Rebiere, F; Agarande, M; Cote, G

    2015-11-01

    Actinides determination in urine samples is part of the analyses performed to monitor internal contamination in case of an accident or a terrorist attack involving nuclear matter. Mineralisation is the first step of any of these analyses. It aims at reducing the sample volume and at destroying all organic compounds present. The mineralisation protocol is usually based on a wet ashing step, followed by actinides co-precipitation and a furnace ashing step, before redissolution and the quantification of the actinides by the appropriate techniques. Amongst the existing methods to perform the actinides co-precipitation, alkali-earth (typically calcium) precipitation is widely used. In the present work, the extraction of uranium(VI), plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from the redissolution solutions (called "mineralised urines") on calix[6]arene columns bearing hydroxamic groups was investigated as such an extraction is a necessary step before their determination by ICP-MS or alpha spectrometry. Difficulties were encountered in the transfer of uranium(VI) from raw to mineralised urines, with yield of transfer ranging between 0% and 85%, compared to about 90% for Pu and Am, depending on the starting raw urines. To understand the origin of such a difficulty, the speciation of uranium (VI) in mineralised urines was investigated by computer simulation using the MEDUSA software and the associated HYDRA database, compiled with recently published data. These calculations showed that the presence of phosphates in the "mineralised urines" leads to the formation of strong uranyl-phosphate complexes (such as UO2HPO4) which compete with the uranium (VI) extraction by the calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups. The extraction constant of uranium (VI) by calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups was determined in a 0.04 mol L(-1) sodium nitrate solution (logK=4.86±0.03) and implemented in an extraction model taking into account the speciation in the aqueous phase. This model allowed to

  10. New View of Mars After Two Years of Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera Data Acquisition and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, G.

    2005-12-01

    By December 2005 after two years in orbit the HRSC will have covered ~ 30% of Mars at 10-20 m/pxl resolution in stereo and color. The data are being analyzed by a large international co-investigator team during the proprietary phase (1/2 year after reception on the ground). All data of the first year have been archived in the ESA science data archive and in parallel in the NASA PDS and can be freely accessed and utilized by the science community at large. From the investigations of the HRSC data, we can confirm that Mars experienced long-lasting volcanic activity, starting more than 4 Ga ago and continuing over billions of years. The volcanic activity peaked around 3.5 Ga ago, but went on until very recently in some areas, especially in Tharsis and Elysium. On Olympus Mons we found lava flows as young as 2 Ma. Mars appears to have started out as a wet planet with Earth-like erosional rates, but very early, around 3.5 Ga ago, fell dry rapidly on a global scale. After that point in time, there were no longer-living large open bodies of water on Mars anymore. Erosional levels dropped by eight or nine orders of magnitude on average around or soon after 3.5 Ga ago. Most small channels appear to have fallen dry completely 3.5 Ga ago or soon after, outflow channel activity levels dropped down tremendously at that time, residual activity later was confined to the major parts of the outflow channels, flows turned from fluvial to mainly glacial; no major contributions in terms of drainage to the northern lowlands happened anymore. The northern lowlands also had essentially fallen dry and were covered by lava between 3.5 and 3 Ga ago. Residual fluvial/glacial activity in the investigated outflow channels ended between 1.3 Ga and 1.5 Ga ago (with the exception of some minor local recent activity in Kasei). This is coincident in time with some major volcanic activity coming to an end of most highland volcanoes and with the emplacement of the Medusae Fossae Formation. Over the

  11. CSAR 2014: A Benchmark Exercise Using Unpublished Data from Pharma.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Heather A; Smith, Richard D; Damm-Ganamet, Kelly L; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Ahmed, Aqeel; Convery, Maire A; Somers, Donald O; Kranz, Michael; Elkins, Patricia A; Cui, Guanglei; Peishoff, Catherine E; Lambert, Millard H; Dunbar, James B

    2016-06-27

    The 2014 CSAR Benchmark Exercise was the last community-wide exercise that was conducted by the group at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. For this event, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) donated unpublished crystal structures and affinity data from in-house projects. Three targets were used: tRNA (m1G37) methyltransferase (TrmD), Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK), and Factor Xa (FXa). A particularly strong feature of the GSK data is its large size, which lends greater statistical significance to comparisons between different methods. In Phase 1 of the CSAR 2014 Exercise, participants were given several protein-ligand complexes and asked to identify the one near-native pose from among 200 decoys provided by CSAR. Though decoys were requested by the community, we found that they complicated our analysis. We could not discern whether poor predictions were failures of the chosen method or an incompatibility between the participant's method and the setup protocol we used. This problem is inherent to decoys, and we strongly advise against their use. In Phase 2, participants had to dock and rank/score a set of small molecules given only the SMILES strings of the ligands and a protein structure with a different ligand bound. Overall, docking was a success for most participants, much better in Phase 2 than in Phase 1. However, scoring was a greater challenge. No particular approach to docking and scoring had an edge, and successful methods included empirical, knowledge-based, machine-learning, shape-fitting, and even those with solvation and entropy terms. Several groups were successful in ranking TrmD and/or SYK, but ranking FXa ligands was intractable for all participants. Methods that were able to dock well across all submitted systems include MDock,1 Glide-XP,2 PLANTS,3 Wilma,4 Gold,5 SMINA,6 Glide-XP2/PELE,7 FlexX,8 and MedusaDock.9 In fact, the submission based on Glide-XP2/PELE7 cross-docked all ligands to many crystal structures, and it was particularly impressive to see

  12. Optimal Electromagnetic (EM) Geophysical Techniques to Map the Concentration of Subsurface Ice and Adsorbed Water on Mars and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    dielectric spectroscopy at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) permafrost tunnel in Fox, AK. We were able to detect the ice relaxation in the subsurface despite the considerable amount of subsurface unfrozen water due to the presence of montmorillonite clay and much warmer temperatures than Mars or permanently shadowed regions of the Moon. While dielectric spectroscopy can be used to determine ice and adsorbed water content it does not possess the high resolution mapping capability of a GPR. Moreover, GPR cannot detect subsurface ice content in ice-sediment mixtures as evidenced in the interpretation of the Medusae Fossae Formation. Orbital radar surveys show this unit has a low attenuation and a dielectric permittivity near 4. This allows the formation to be interpreted as ice-rich or a dry high-porosity volcanic tuff unit. Therefore, combining GPR and dielectric spectroscopy will enable high-resolution structural and volatile mapping of the subsurface. Furthermore, the addition of neutron spectroscopy would add total hydrogen abundance in the top meter. This could lead to the determination of how much hydrogen resides in ice, adsorbed water, and minerals.

  13. Discoveries From the Cross-Disciplinary, Multi-Institutional South Seas Expedition from Hawaii to New Zealand and Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malahoff, A.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Smith, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    communities of animals consisting of giant mussels, long-necked barnacles, pogonopheran worms, crabs, vent fish and mats of micro-organisms were mapped on the volcano flanks down to water depths of 2,000 m. Of note was that each active volcano maintained its own characteristic mix and dominance of animals. New species of life forms were detected and 27 new species of extremophile bacteria have been analysed. The active submarine volcano Vailulu'u in the Samoan chain was found to have a new 300-m high volcanic cone growing in its caldera that was not present when the edifice was last depth sounded in 2001. Turbid waters, hydrothermal activity and a ``Medusa'' rock full of eels were additional noteworthy discoveries. Assessment of living marine resources and habitat, collection of precious corals for dating to infer climate change and marine archaeology were the projects on the Samoa-to-Hawaii legs through the Line Islands. These were first exploration of these waters at depths below 200 m. The terrain was primarily sediment-scoured carbonate cliffs and escarpments, incised with box canyons and deeper chasms. The team consortium approach to a systematic study of these diverse submarine volcano and seamount settings ensured the operational and research success of this ambitious expedition.

  14. Short-term monitoring of a gas seep field in the Katakolo bay (Western Greece) using Raman spectra DTS and DAS fibre-optic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.; Finfer, D.; Christodoulou, D.; Kordella, S.; Papatheodorou, G.; Geraga, M.; Ferentinos, G.

    2012-12-01

    A wide submarine seep of thermogenic gas in the Katakolo bay, Western Greece, was monitored passively using the intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS) and Ultima Raman spectra Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS), in order to study the thermal and noise signal of the bubble plumes released from the seafloor. Katakolo is one one of the most prolific thermogenic gas seepage zones in Europe and the biggest methane seep ever reported in Greece. Very detailed repetitive offshore gas surveys, including marine remote sensing (sub-bottom profiling, side scan sonar), underwater exploration by a towed instrumented system (MEDUSA), long-term monitoring benthic station (GMM), compositional and isotopic analyses, and flux measurements of gas, showed that: (a) gas seepage takes place over an extended area in the Katakolo harbour and along two main normal faults off the harbour; (b) at least 823 gas bubble ( 10-20 cm in diameter) plumes escaping over an area of 94,200 m2, at depths ranging from 5.5 to 16 m; (c) the gas consists mainly of methane and has H2S levels of hundreds to thousands ppmv, and shows significant amounts of other light hydrocarbons like ethane, propane, iso-butane and C6 alkanes, (d) offshore and onshore seeps release the same type of thermogenic gas; (e) due to the shallow depth, more than 90 % of CH4 released at the seabed enters the atmosphere, and (f) the gas seeps may produce severe geohazards for people, buildings and construction facilities due to the explosive and toxicological properties of methane and hydrogen sulfide, respectively. For the short-term monitoring, the deployment took place on a site located inside the harbour of Katakolo within a thermogenic gas seepage area where active faults are intersected. The iDAS system makes it possible to observe the acoustical signal along the entire length of an unmodified optical cable without introducing any form of point sensors such as Bragg gratings. When the bubble plumes are released by the

  15. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  16. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Nampa, Idaho 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    were initially assigned but have shown little or no progress in many years. Zimbelman announced that he was not going to be able to complete quadrangle V-27 that he was assigned under VDAP, and was therefore returning that quadrangle to the community; he invited people to propose to PGG to map this quadrangle. Dave Williams of Arizona State University (ASU) reported on the progress of his global Io map. His mapping team recently received the completed, controlled global mosaic (using Voyager and Galileo images) from the USGS; this will be the basemap for their geologic mapping. Furthermore, the three team members (Laszlo Keszthelyi, David Crown and Dave Williams) have calibrated their individual mapping techniques by each mapping the same region for comparison. Thomas Doggett (ASU) showed progress on the global Europa map that was awarded to Ron Greeley. There was some consternation expressed on the methodology for determining relative ages of the lineaments; it was suggested that Vicki Hansen contact Patricio Figueredo (Exxon) directly, because Figueredo is the one who has been developing the lineament mapping techniques. Mars remains the most popular planet to map. Kevin Williams (SI) and Corey Fortezzo (SI) presented progress on their 1:500K maps in the Margaritifer Terra region of Mars. Jim Zimbelman described his 1:1M Medusae Fossae map, which is nearing completion. Peter Mouginis-Mark (University of Hawai'i) reported progress on his 1:200K maps of Tooting crater and of the Olympus Mons summit caldera. Jim Skinner discussed the progress of his and Ken Herkenhoff?s (USGS) map (1:500K) on the Olympia Cavi region of Mars? north pole, and Eric Kolb (USGS) presented work that he and Ken Tanaka (USGS) are completing on the Martian south pole. David Crown of the Planetary Science Institute (PSI) reported on numerous 1:500K and 1:1M maps in the Hellas and Hesperia regions of Mars. Frank Chuang (PSI) discussed progress on mapping the Deuteronilus Mensae reg

  17. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    Amazonian flooded plain and chaotic material, (b) The second region is located on the western flank of Apollinaris Patera. It is surrounded by relics of deep valleys that suggest a former downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis. The geologic setting of this region (Lucus Planum) is interpreted to be an Amazonian formation composed by the middle and lower members of the Medusae Formation., c) The third region corresponds to the convergence of the west and east branches of Ma'adirn Vallis into a deep re-entrant wide gulf that penetrates about 100 km into the highland. This topographic depression is delineated by the 1000 in elevation contour. This gulf has formed an estuarine configuration centered at 3S/190W within the Elysium Basin. This configuration has favored the formation of a estuarine sedimentary delta, because of topographically controlled lateral migration. This estuarine structure is strongly dominated by the incoming supply of Ma'adim Vallis fluvial sediment extracted from Zephiria Mensae and Lucus Planum. The obtuse-angle geometry of the estuary increases the sedimentation rate, which is higher than in the course of the channel. The sediment deposition process is governed by the estuarine water circulation. The inflowing loaded fluvial water enters the estuary as a bottom current, and mixes with the relatively less-loaded water of the receiving basin. When they mixed. the inflowing fluvial material, and the landward basin circulating water generate an accumulation of highly-diversified estuarine deposit stratification. This accumulation of material is mostly centered in the transitional zone of the delta. The sediment trapping efficiency of the estuary is function of the energy balance between the inflowing fluvial water, and the ingoing basin current. The submergence of the delta by the rising of the water-level increases the estuary water-depth, and consequently the sediment entrapment is favored. The locus of sediment accumulation moves landward in the zone of

  18. [Informative predation: Towards a new species concept].

    PubMed

    Lherminier, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news. The information is multiplied by the number of partners and children, since each fertilization gives rise to a new genome following a combinatorial process that continues without exhaustion. The egg does not swallow the sperm to feed, but exchange good food for quality information. With the discovery of sex, that is, 1.5 Ga ago, life added soft predation to hard predation, i.e. information production within each species to matter-energy flow between species. Replicative and informative structures are subject to two competing biological constraints: replicative fidelity promotes proliferation, but limits adaptive evolution. On the contrary, the offspring of a couple obviously cannot be a copy of both partners, they are a new production, a re-production. Sexual recombination allows the exponential enrichment of the genetic diversity, thus promoting indefinite adaptive and evolutionary capacities. Evolutionary history illustrates this: the bacteria proliferate but have remained at the first purely nutritive stage in which most of the sensory functions, mobility, defense, and feeding have experienced almost no significant novelty in three billion years. Another world appeared with the sexual management of information. Sexual reproduction actually combines two functions: multiplicative by "vertical transfer" and informative by "horizontal transfer". This distinction is very common: polypus - medusa alternations, parasite multiplication cycles, the