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Sample records for cyanide plant foundations

  1. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-53 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-40 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. )

    1991-05-01

    An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

  5. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. Cyanide

    MedlinePlus

    ... the combustion products of synthetic materials such as plastics. Combustion products are substances given off when things ... cyanide is used to make paper, textiles, and plastics. It is present in the chemicals used to ...

  7. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  8. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

    1995-12-31

    Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide.

  9. Effects of Cyanide and Ethylene on the Respiration of Cyanide-sensitive and Cyanide-resistant Plant Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Solomos, Theophanes; Laties, George G.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of cyanide and ethylene, respectively, were studied on the respiration of a fully cyanide-sensitive tissue-the fresh pea, a slightly cyanide-sensitive tissue-the germinating pea seedling, and a cyanide-insensitive tissue-the cherimoya fruit. Cyanide inhibition of both fresh pea and pea seedling respiration was attended by a conventional Pasteur effect where fermentation was enhanced with an accumulation of lactate and ethanol and a change in the level of glycolytic intermediates indicative of the activation of phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase accompanied by a sharp decline in ATP level. In these tissues, ethylene had little or no effect on the respiration rate, or on the level of glycolytic intermediates or ATP. By contrast, ethylene as well as cyanide enhanced both respiration and aerobic glycolysis in cherimoya fruits with no buildup of lactate and ethanol and with an increase in the level of ATP. The data support the proposition that for ethylene to stimulate respiration the capacity for cyanide-resistant respiration must be present. PMID:16659618

  10. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  11. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  12. Subsurface fate and transport of cyanide species at a manufactured-gas plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Nakles, D.V.

    1999-10-01

    Cyanide is present at manufactured-gas plant (MGP) sites in oxide-box residuals, which were often managed on-site as fill during active operations. Cyanide can leach from these materials, causing groundwater contamination. Speciation, fate, and transport of cyanide in a sand-gravel aquifer underlying an MGP site in the upper Midwest region of the US were studied through characterization, monitoring, and modeling of a plume of cyanide-contaminated groundwater emanating from the site. Results indicate that cyanide in the groundwater is primarily in the form of iron-cyanide complexes (>98%), that these complexes are stable under the conditions of the aquifer, and that they are transported as nonreactive solutes in the sand-gravel aquifer material. Weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, which represents a minute fraction of total cyanide in the site groundwater, may undergo chemical-biological degradation in the sand-gravel aquifer. It seems that dilution may be the only natural attenuation mechanism for iron-cyanide complexes in sand-gravel aquifers at MGP sites.

  13. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  14. Cyanide in MGP (manufactured gas plant) wastes: Investigation of analytical methods. Topical report, January 1988-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, J.E.; Theis, T.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1989-06-01

    Wastes associated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are known to contain various cyanide complexes. Problems exist relative to evaluating the true cyanide content of these solid wastes. These problems are, in general, related to lack of standard laboratory methods for extracting and analyzing leachate or distillates from solid samples. Samples of MGP purifier wastes were analyzed by two university laboratories under carefully controlled conditions to establish absolute levels of total cyanide in the samples. Duplicate samples were submitted to several commercial laboratories for analysis of total cyanide. Results from the university studies and commercial laboratories were compared. Based on the study, an extraction method can be defined that will provide more accurate and reproducible results for total cyanide contained in solid samples. A high alkaline extraction is recommended when analyzing MGP samples for cyanide. When disposing of cyanide-containing wastes, maintaining the natural acidic pH will control leaching of cyanide.

  15. Retardation of iron-cyanide complexes in the soil of a former manufactured gas plant site.

    PubMed

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The soil in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is commonly contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes (ferric ferrocyanide). The phenomenon of cyanide mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (<1 mg L(-1)) under acidic conditions. In this paper, retention properties of the sandy loam soil and the potential vertical movement of the solid iron-cyanide complexes, co-existing with the dissolution, sorption and precipitation reactions were investigated. Preliminary research conducted on a former MGP site implied colloidal transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). A series of batch and column experiments were applied in order to investigate the retardation of iron-cyanide complexes by the sandy loam soil. Batch experiments revealed that in circumneutral pH conditions sandy loam material decreases the potassium ferro- and ferricyanide concentration. In column experiments a minor reduction in CN concentration was observed prior to addition of iron sulfide (FeS) layer, which induced the formation of the Prussian blue colloids in circumneutral pH conditions. Precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes were mechanically filtered by the coherent structure of the investigated soil. Additionally, the reduction of the CN concentration of the percolation solutions by the sandy loam soil was presumably induced due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  16. Vertical movement of iron-cyanide complexes in soils of a former Manufactured Gas Plant site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Germany, soil and groundwater at more than a thousand sites are contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations originate from the gas purification process that was conducted in Manufactured Gas Plants (MGP). The phenomenon of iron-cyanide complexes mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (< 1 mg L-1) under acidic conditions. This study suggests vertical transport of a colloidal ferric ferrocyanide, in the excess of iron and circum-neutral pH conditions, as an alternative process that influences the retardation of the pollutant movement through the soil profile. Preliminary in situ investigations of the two boreholes implied transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). The acidic character of the wastes and the accumulation of the blue patches suggested the potential filter function of a sandy loam material due to colloidal transport of the ferric ferricyanide. Series of batch and column experiments, using sandy loam soil, revealed reduction of CN concentration due to mechanical filtration of precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes and due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  17. Decontamination of industrial cyanide-containing water in a solar CPC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, A.; Monteagudo, J.M.; San Martin, I.; Aguirre, M.

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this work was to improve the quality of wastewater effluent coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study examined a homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process using concentrated solar UV energy (UV/Fe(II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in a Solar Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was evaluated by analysis of the oxidation of cyanides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). A factorial experimental design allowed the determination of the influences of operating variables (initial concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, oxalic acid and Fe(II) and pH) on the degradation kinetics. Temperature and UV-A solar power were also included in the Neural Network fittings. The pH was maintained at a value >9.5 during cyanide oxidation to avoid the formation of gaseous HCN and later lowered to enhance mineralization. Under the optimum conditions ([H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] = 2000 ppm, [Fe(II)] = 8 ppm, pH = 3.3 after cyanide oxidation, and [(COOH){sub 2}] = 60 ppm), it was possible to degrade 100% of the cyanides and up to 92% of Total Organic Carbon. (author)

  18. Deciphering Cyanide-Degrading Potential of Bacterial Community Associated with the Coking Wastewater Treatment Plant with a Novel Draft Genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Lili; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Biotreatment processes fed with coking wastewater often encounter insufficient removal of pollutants, such as ammonia, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially for cyanides. However, only a limited number of bacterial species in pure cultures have been confirmed to metabolize cyanides, which hinders the improvement of these processes. In this study, a microbial community of activated sludge enriched in a coking wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing to characterize the potential cyanide-degrading bacteria. According to the classification of these pyro-tags, targeting V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene, half of them were assigned to the family Xanthomonadaceae, implying that Xanthomonadaceae bacteria are well-adapted to coking wastewater. A nearly complete draft genome of the dominant bacterium was reconstructed from metagenome of this community to explore cyanide metabolism based on analysis of the genome. The assembled 16S rRNA gene from this draft genome showed that this bacterium was a novel species of Thermomonas within Xanthomonadaceae, which was further verified by comparative genomics. The annotation using KEGG and Pfam identified genes related to cyanide metabolism, including genes responsible for the iron-harvesting system, cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase, cyanide hydrolase/nitrilase, and thiosulfate:cyanide transferase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes had homologs in previously identified genomes of bacteria within Xanthomonadaceae and even presented similar gene cassettes, thus implying an inherent cyanide-decomposing potential. The findings of this study expand our knowledge about the bacterial degradation of cyanide compounds and will be helpful in the remediation of cyanides contamination. PMID:25910603

  19. Deciphering Cyanide-Degrading Potential of Bacterial Community Associated with the Coking Wastewater Treatment Plant with a Novel Draft Genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Lili; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Biotreatment processes fed with coking wastewater often encounter insufficient removal of pollutants, such as ammonia, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially for cyanides. However, only a limited number of bacterial species in pure cultures have been confirmed to metabolize cyanides, which hinders the improvement of these processes. In this study, a microbial community of activated sludge enriched in a coking wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing to characterize the potential cyanide-degrading bacteria. According to the classification of these pyro-tags, targeting V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene, half of them were assigned to the family Xanthomonadaceae, implying that Xanthomonadaceae bacteria are well-adapted to coking wastewater. A nearly complete draft genome of the dominant bacterium was reconstructed from metagenome of this community to explore cyanide metabolism based on analysis of the genome. The assembled 16S rRNA gene from this draft genome showed that this bacterium was a novel species of Thermomonas within Xanthomonadaceae, which was further verified by comparative genomics. The annotation using KEGG and Pfam identified genes related to cyanide metabolism, including genes responsible for the iron-harvesting system, cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase, cyanide hydrolase/nitrilase, and thiosulfate:cyanide transferase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes had homologs in previously identified genomes of bacteria within Xanthomonadaceae and even presented similar gene cassettes, thus implying an inherent cyanide-decomposing potential. The findings of this study expand our knowledge about the bacterial degradation of cyanide compounds and will be helpful in the remediation of cyanides contamination.

  20. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbić, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both β-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

  1. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbić, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-04-24

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both β-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001.

  2. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

    PubMed

    Goudey, J S; Tittle, F L; Spencer, M S

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to beta-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form beta-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  3. A Role for Ethylene in the Metabolism of Cyanide by Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Goudey, J. Stephen; Tittle, Forrest L.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to β-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form β-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

  4. Cyanide-resistant respiration in photosynthetic organs of freshwater aquatic plants. [Myriophyllum spicatum

    SciTech Connect

    Azcon-Bieto, J.; Murillo, J.; Penuelas, J.

    1987-07-01

    The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid(SHAM)) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weigh basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O/sub 2/ uptake was also increased by the uncoupler.

  5. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. )

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  6. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar

    2004-07-01

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  7. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  9. Cyanide analyses for risk and treatability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, I.D.; Elseroad, H.J.; Pergrin, D.E.; Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-31

    Cyanide, an EPA priority pollutant and target analyte, is typically measured as total. However, cyanide complexation, information which is not acquired through total cyanide analysis, is often a driver of cyanide toxicity and treatability. A case study of a former manufacture gas plant (MGP) is used to demonstrate the usability of various cyanide analytical methods for risk and treatability assessments. Several analytical methods, including cyanide amenable to chlorination and weak acid dissociable cyanide help test the degree of cyanide complexation. Generally, free or uncomplexed cyanide is more biologically available, toxic, and reactive than complexed cyanide. Extensive site testing has shown that free and weakly dissociable cyanide composes only a small fraction of total cyanide as would be expected from the literature, and that risk assessment will be more realistic considering cyanide form. Likewise, aqueous treatment for cyanide can be properly tested if cyanide form is accounted for. Weak acid dissociable cyanide analyses proved to be the most reliable (and potentially acceptable) cyanide method, as well as represent the most toxic and reactive cyanide forms.

  10. Structure of soybean [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-09-07

    Plants produce cyanide (CN{sup -}) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN{sup -} detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the {beta}-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form {alpha}-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants.

  11. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Stegink, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with /sup 14/C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. /sup 14/C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little /sup 14/C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much /sup 14/C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I/sub 5//sup 0/ for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria.

  12. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald; Wiemeyer, Stanley N

    2004-01-01

    Cyanide extraction of gold through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores requires cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN), free cyanide, and metal-cyanide complexes. Some milling operations result in tailings ponds of 150 ha and larger. Heap leach operations that spray or drip cyanide onto the flattened top of the ore heap require solution processing ponds of about 1 ha in surface area. Puddles of various sizes may occur on the top of heaps, where the highest concentrations of NaCN are found. Solution recovery channels are usually constructed at the base of leach heaps, some of which may be exposed. All these cyanide-containing water bodies are hazardous to wildlife, especially migratory waterfowl and bats, if not properly managed. Accidental spills of cyanide solutions into rivers and streams have produced massive kills of fish and other aquatic biota. Freshwater fish are the most cyanide-sensitive group of aquatic organisms tested, with high mortality documented at free cyanide concentrations >20 microg/L and adverse effects on swimming and reproduction at >5 microg/L. Exclusion from cyanide solutions or reductions of cyanide concentrations to nontoxic levels are the only certain methods of protecting terrestrial vertebrate wildlife from cyanide poisoning; a variety of exclusion/cyanide reduction techniques are presented and discussed. Additional research is recommended on (1) effects of low-level, long-term, cyanide intoxication in birds and mammals by oral and inhalation routes in the vicinity of high cyanide concentrations; (2) long-term effects of low concentrations of cyanide on aquatic biota; (3) adaptive resistance to cyanide; and (4) usefulness of various biochemical indicators of cyanide poisoning. To prevent flooding in mine open pits, and to enable earth moving on a large scale, it is often necessary to withdraw groundwater and use it for

  13. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald; Wiemeyer, Stanley N

    2004-01-01

    Cyanide extraction of gold through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores requires cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN), free cyanide, and metal-cyanide complexes. Some milling operations result in tailings ponds of 150 ha and larger. Heap leach operations that spray or drip cyanide onto the flattened top of the ore heap require solution processing ponds of about 1 ha in surface area. Puddles of various sizes may occur on the top of heaps, where the highest concentrations of NaCN are found. Solution recovery channels are usually constructed at the base of leach heaps, some of which may be exposed. All these cyanide-containing water bodies are hazardous to wildlife, especially migratory waterfowl and bats, if not properly managed. Accidental spills of cyanide solutions into rivers and streams have produced massive kills of fish and other aquatic biota. Freshwater fish are the most cyanide-sensitive group of aquatic organisms tested, with high mortality documented at free cyanide concentrations >20 microg/L and adverse effects on swimming and reproduction at >5 microg/L. Exclusion from cyanide solutions or reductions of cyanide concentrations to nontoxic levels are the only certain methods of protecting terrestrial vertebrate wildlife from cyanide poisoning; a variety of exclusion/cyanide reduction techniques are presented and discussed. Additional research is recommended on (1) effects of low-level, long-term, cyanide intoxication in birds and mammals by oral and inhalation routes in the vicinity of high cyanide concentrations; (2) long-term effects of low concentrations of cyanide on aquatic biota; (3) adaptive resistance to cyanide; and (4) usefulness of various biochemical indicators of cyanide poisoning. To prevent flooding in mine open pits, and to enable earth moving on a large scale, it is often necessary to withdraw groundwater and use it for

  14. 95. View of foundation plant looking east showing one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. View of foundation plant looking east showing one of the four cylinders completed in the midstream tower known as Pier 3. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Elimination of phenols, ammonia and cyanide in wash water from biomass gasification, and nitrogen recycling using planted trickling filters.

    PubMed

    Graber, Andreas; Skvarc, Robert; Junge-Berberović, Ranka

    2009-01-01

    Trickling filters were used to treat wash water from a wood gasifier. This wash water contained toxic substances such as ammonium, cyanide, phenols, and PAH. The goal was to develop a system that degraded toxic substances, and achieved full nitrification of ammonia. A 1 kW model wood gasifier plant delivered wash water for the experiments, which was standardised to a conductivity of 3 mS/cm by dilution. Toxicity was assessed by bacterial luminescence detection, germination test with cress (Lepidium sativum), and pot plants cultivated in a hydroponic setup irrigated continuously with the wastewater. Treatment experiments were done in both planted and unplanted trickling filters. Plant yield was similar to conventional hydroponic production systems. The trickling filters achieved complete detoxification of phenol, PAH and cyanide as well as full nitrification. The specific elimination rates were 100 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for phenols and 90 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for ammonium in planted systems. In unplanted trickling filters circulated for 63 h, phenol concentration decreased from 83.5 mg/L to 2.5 mg/L and cyanide concentration from 0.32 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L. PAH concentrations were reduced from 3,050 microg/L to 0.89 microg/L within 68 days. The assays demonstrated the feasibility of using the technique to construct a treatment system in a partially closed circulation for gasifier wash water. The principal advantage is to convert toxic effluents from biomass gasifiers into a non-toxic, nitrogen-rich fertiliser water, enabling subsequent use in plant production and thus income generation. However, the questions of long-term performance and possible accumulation of phenols and heavy metals in the produce still have to be studied. PMID:19955650

  16. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 016 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE AND CYANIDE SALTS ( CAS No . various ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  17. OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT IN FOREGROUND, CORNER OF CARPENTER SHOP TO THE RIGHT, CORNER OF BAGASSE STORAGE BUILDING TO THE LEFT. MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN MIDDLE GROUND, 1948 STACK AND BOILING HOUSE TO REAR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  18. Transient Transcriptional Regulation of the CYS-C1 Gene and Cyanide Accumulation upon Pathogen Infection in the Plant Immune Response1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    García, Irene; Rosas, Tábata; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

  19. Transient transcriptional regulation of the CYS-C1 gene and cyanide accumulation upon pathogen infection in the plant immune response.

    PubMed

    García, Irene; Rosas, Tábata; Bejarano, Eduardo R; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2013-08-01

    Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

  20. Possible roles of plant sulfurtransferases in detoxification of cyanide, reactive oxygen species, selected heavy metals and arsenate.

    PubMed

    Most, Parvin; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2015-01-14

    Plants and animals have evolved various potential mechanisms to surmount the adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity. Plants possess low molecular weight compounds containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH) that actively react with toxic metals. For instance, glutathione (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly) is a sulfur-containing tripeptide thiol and a substrate of cysteine-rich phytochelatins (γ-Glu-Cys)2-11-Gly (PCs). Phytochelatins react with heavy metal ions by glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and afterwards they are sequestered into the vacuole for degradation. Furthermore, heavy metals induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which directly or indirectly influence metabolic processes. Reduced glutathione (GSH) attributes as an antioxidant and participates to control ROS during stress. Maintenance of the GSH/GSSG ratio is important for cellular redox balance, which is crucial for the survival of the plants. In this context, sulfurtransferases (Str), also called rhodaneses, comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in all phyla, paving the way for the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors, at least in vitro. The best characterized in vitro reaction is the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of sulfite and thiocyanate. Plants as well as other organisms have multi-protein families (MPF) of Str. Despite the presence of Str activities in many living organisms, their physiological role has not been clarified unambiguously. In mammals, these proteins are involved in the elimination of cyanide released from cyanogenic compounds. However, their ubiquity suggests additional physiological functions. Furthermore, it is speculated that a member of the Str family acts as arsenate reductase (AR) and is involved in arsenate detoxification. In summary, the role of Str in detoxification processes is still not well understood but seems to be a major function in the organism.

  1. Possible roles of plant sulfurtransferases in detoxification of cyanide, reactive oxygen species, selected heavy metals and arsenate.

    PubMed

    Most, Parvin; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Plants and animals have evolved various potential mechanisms to surmount the adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity. Plants possess low molecular weight compounds containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH) that actively react with toxic metals. For instance, glutathione (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly) is a sulfur-containing tripeptide thiol and a substrate of cysteine-rich phytochelatins (γ-Glu-Cys)2-11-Gly (PCs). Phytochelatins react with heavy metal ions by glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and afterwards they are sequestered into the vacuole for degradation. Furthermore, heavy metals induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which directly or indirectly influence metabolic processes. Reduced glutathione (GSH) attributes as an antioxidant and participates to control ROS during stress. Maintenance of the GSH/GSSG ratio is important for cellular redox balance, which is crucial for the survival of the plants. In this context, sulfurtransferases (Str), also called rhodaneses, comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in all phyla, paving the way for the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors, at least in vitro. The best characterized in vitro reaction is the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of sulfite and thiocyanate. Plants as well as other organisms have multi-protein families (MPF) of Str. Despite the presence of Str activities in many living organisms, their physiological role has not been clarified unambiguously. In mammals, these proteins are involved in the elimination of cyanide released from cyanogenic compounds. However, their ubiquity suggests additional physiological functions. Furthermore, it is speculated that a member of the Str family acts as arsenate reductase (AR) and is involved in arsenate detoxification. In summary, the role of Str in detoxification processes is still not well understood but seems to be a major function in the organism. PMID:25594348

  2. Chlorine cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 77 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  3. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  4. Silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Silver cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. Barium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium cyanide ; CASRN 542 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  6. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  8. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  9. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  10. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  11. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients. PMID:26796410

  12. Beyond toxicity: a regulatory role for mitochondrial cyanide.

    PubMed

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide's role in signaling.

  13. Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an “optimum” needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.

  14. Cyanide in the chemical arsenal of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Gruner, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide production has been reported from over 2500 plant species, including some members of the Brassicaceae. We report that the important invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, produces levels of cyanide in its tissues that can reach 100 ppm fresh weight (FW), a level considered toxic to many vertebrates. In a comparative study, levels of cyanide in leaves of young first-year plants were 25 times higher than in leaves of young Arabidopsis thaliana plants and over 150 times higher than in leaves of young Brassica kaber, B. rapa, and B. napus. In first-year plants, cyanide levels were highest in young leaves of seedlings and declined with leaf age on individual plants. Leaves of young plants infested with green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) produced just over half as much cyanide as leaves of healthy plants, suggesting that aphid feeding led to loss of cyanide from intact tissues before analysis, or that aphid feeding inhibited cyanide precursor production. In a developmental study, levels of cyanide in the youngest and oldest leaf of young garlic mustard plants were four times lower than in the youngest and oldest leaf of young Sorghum sudanense (cv. Cadan 97) plants, but cyanide levels did not decline in these leaves with plant age as in S. sudanense. Different populations of garlic mustard varied moderately in the constitutive and inducible expression of cyanide in leaves, but no populations studied were acyanogenic. Although cyanide production could result from breakdown products of glucosinolates, no cyanide was detected in vitro from decomposition of sinigrin, the major glucosinolate of garlic mustard. These studies indicate that cyanide produced from an as yet unidentified cyanogenic compound is a part of the battery of chemical defenses expressed by garlic mustard.

  15. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture: the most flexible foundations for plant metabolic engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in plant cell, tissue and organ culture (PCTOC) have been made in the last five decades. PCTOC is now thought to be the underlying technique for understanding general or specific biological functions of the plant kingdom, and it is one of the most flexible foundations for morphological, physiological and molecular biological applications of plants. Furthermore, the recent advances in the field of information technology (IT) have enabled access to a large amount of information regarding all aspects of plant biology. For example, sequencing information is stored in mega repositories such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which can be easily accessed by researchers worldwide. To date, the PCTOC and IT combination strategy for regulation of target plant metabolism and the utilization of bioactive plant metabolites for commercial purposes is essential. In this review, the advantages and the limitations of these methodologies, especially regarding the production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites and metabolic engineering in target plants are discussed mainly from the phenotypic view point.

  16. Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work "Pensieri sulla biologia vegetale" (Thoughts on plant biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist it is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science.

  17. Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work Pensieri sulla Biologia Vegetale (Thoughts on Plant Biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science. PMID:21490417

  18. Two-Photon Sensing and Imaging of Endogenous Biological Cyanide in Plant Tissues Using Graphene Quantum Dot/Gold Nanoparticle Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zheng, Jing; Yang, Sheng; Wu, Cuichen; Liu, Changhui; Xiao, Yue; Li, Yinhui; Qing, Zhihe; Yang, Ronghua

    2015-09-01

    One main source of cyanide (CN(-)) exposure for mammals is through the plant consumption, and thus, sensitive and selective CN(-) detection in plants tissue is a significant and urgent work. Although various fluorescence probes have been reported for CN(-) in water and mammalian cells, the detection of endogenous biological CN(-) in plant tissue remains to be explored due to the high background signal and large thickness of plant tissue that hamper the effective application of traditional one-photo excitation. To address these issues, we developed a new two-photo excitation (TPE) nanosensor using graphene quantum dots (GQDs)/gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) conjugate for sensing and imaging endogenous biological CN(-). With the benefit of the high quenching efficiency of AuNPs and excellent two-photon properties of GQDs, our sensing system can achieve a low detection limit of 0.52 μM and deeper penetration depth (about 400 μm) without interference from background signals of a complex biological environment, thus realizing sensing and imaging of CN(-) in different types of plant tissues and even monitoring CN(-) removal in food processing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time for fluorescent sensing and imaging of CN(-) in plant tissues. Moreover, our design also provides a new model scheme for the development of two-photon fluorescent nanomaterial, which is expected to hold great potential for food processing and safety testing. PMID:26264405

  19. Two-Photon Sensing and Imaging of Endogenous Biological Cyanide in Plant Tissues Using Graphene Quantum Dot/Gold Nanoparticle Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zheng, Jing; Yang, Sheng; Wu, Cuichen; Liu, Changhui; Xiao, Yue; Li, Yinhui; Qing, Zhihe; Yang, Ronghua

    2015-09-01

    One main source of cyanide (CN(-)) exposure for mammals is through the plant consumption, and thus, sensitive and selective CN(-) detection in plants tissue is a significant and urgent work. Although various fluorescence probes have been reported for CN(-) in water and mammalian cells, the detection of endogenous biological CN(-) in plant tissue remains to be explored due to the high background signal and large thickness of plant tissue that hamper the effective application of traditional one-photo excitation. To address these issues, we developed a new two-photo excitation (TPE) nanosensor using graphene quantum dots (GQDs)/gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) conjugate for sensing and imaging endogenous biological CN(-). With the benefit of the high quenching efficiency of AuNPs and excellent two-photon properties of GQDs, our sensing system can achieve a low detection limit of 0.52 μM and deeper penetration depth (about 400 μm) without interference from background signals of a complex biological environment, thus realizing sensing and imaging of CN(-) in different types of plant tissues and even monitoring CN(-) removal in food processing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time for fluorescent sensing and imaging of CN(-) in plant tissues. Moreover, our design also provides a new model scheme for the development of two-photon fluorescent nanomaterial, which is expected to hold great potential for food processing and safety testing.

  20. Chronic cyanide poisoning: unifying concept for alcoholic and tropical pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pitchumoni, C S; Jain, N K; Lowenfels, A B; DiMagno, E P

    1988-01-01

    We hypothesize that chronic cyanide toxicity may explain the occurrence of calcific pancreatitis in chronic alcoholic individuals in affluent Western nations and malnourished children and young adults in developing tropical regions. In alcoholic persons the source of cyanide is cigarette smoke, and in tropical countries the source could be cassava or other plants. The cyanide hypothesis is consistent with the known epidemiologic and metabolic characteristics of these two contrasting forms of pancreatitis. We believe that continued chronic cyanide poisoning could reinforce any independent effect of alcohol or malnutrition on the pancreas, resulting in an exaggerated and perhaps irreversible form of the disease.

  1. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  2. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-11-21

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

  3. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  4. Removal of cyanides by complexation with ferrous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Varuntanya, C.P.; Zabban, W.

    1995-12-31

    Alkaline chlorination, an oxidation process with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) or hypochlorite (ClO{sup {minus}}), is the most widely accepted method of cyanide treatment. However, removal of cyanide from wastewater to the extent required by the effluent limits imposed by Federal and State regulatory authorities is practically impossible, especially when the majority of the cyanide is present as an iron-cyanide complex. One potential treatment method being further investigated uses ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds to react with free and complex cyanide ions and produce insoluble iron-cyanide complexes. However, sludges generated by this treatment method contain cyanide wastes which may be considered a hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The studies reported in this paper demonstrate that ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) precipitation can remove cyanide ions (both free and complex) to a concentration within the range of 1 to 2 mg/L. The wastewaters utilized in these tests were collected from a coke plant facility. Synthetic cyanide solutions were used in the studied as well. Ferrous compounds used in the studies included commercial-grade ferrous sulfate, commercial-grade ferrous chloride, and spent pickle liquor (containing ferrous ion). The desired effluent quality was successfully attained in the treatment of the above-mentioned wastewaters by using ferrous compounds as well as spent pickle liquor.

  5. Covalent and Noncovalent Dimers of the Cyanide-Resistant Alternative Oxidase Protein in Higher Plant Mitochondria and Their Relationship to Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed Central

    Umbach, A. L.; Siedow, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence for a mixed population of covalently and noncovalently associated dimers of the cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase protein in plant mitochondria is presented. High molecular mass (oxidized) species of the alternative oxidase protein, having masses predicted for homodimers, appeared on immunoblots when the sulfhydryl reductant, dithiothreitol (DTT), was omitted from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel sample buffer. These oxidized species were observed in mitochondria from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom), Sauromatum guttatum Schott, and mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] R. Wilcz). Reduced species of the alternative oxidase were also present in the same mitochondrial samples. The reduced and oxidized species in isolated soybean cotyledon mitochondria could be interconverted by incubation with the sulfhydryl reagents DTT and azodicarboxylic acid bis(dimethylamide) (diamide). Treatment with chemical cross-linkers resulted in cross-linking of the reduced species, indicating a noncovalent dimeric association among the reduced alternative oxidase molecules. Alternative pathway activity of soybean mitochondria increased following reduction of the alternative oxidase protein with DTT and decreased following oxidation with diamide, indicating that electron flow through the alternative pathway is sensitive to the sulfhydryl/disulfide redox poise. In mitochondria from S. guttatum floral appendix tissue, the proportion of the reduced species increased as development progressed through thermogenesis. PMID:12231983

  6. Aspects Regarding Soil Investigation and Foundation Design for Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farcas, Vasile; Ilies, Nicoleta

    Between all sources of green energy, the photovoltaic power plants are among the best solutions encountered nowadays. Despite all the advantages given by this solution, the major problem remains the large surface of terrain required to build the entire project. As a result, instead of consuming good agricultural soils for the use of photovoltaic power plants, other categories of soils can be exploited. In order to protect good agricultural terrains the photovoltaic power plants are mostly displaced in areas with difficult soil conditions such as soft soils or height slopes. The paper presents the particularities of photovoltaic panels power plants, designed on difficult soil condition. Moreover, the paper describes special aspects regarding solar power plants foundations and geotechnical investigations on slopes and soft terrain.

  7. Copper recovery and cyanide oxidation by electrowinning from a spent copper-cyanide electroplating electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Dutra, A J B; Rocha, G P; Pombo, F R

    2008-04-01

    Copper-cyanide bleed streams arise from contaminated baths from industrial electroplating processes due to the buildup of impurities during continuous operation. These streams present an elevated concentration of carbonate, cyanide and copper, constituting a heavy hazard, which has to be treated for cyanide destruction and heavy metals removal, according to the local environmental laws. In the Brazilian Mint, bleed streams are treated with sodium hypochlorite, to destroy cyanide and precipitate copper hydroxide, a solid hazardous waste that has to be disposed properly in a landfill or treated for metal recovery. In this paper, a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell was developed to remove the copper from the bleed stream of the electroplating unit of the Brazilian Mint, permitting its reutilization in the plant and decreasing the amount of sludge to waste. Under favorable conditions copper recoveries around 99.9% were achieved, with an energy consumption of about 11 kWh/kg, after a 5-h electrolysis of a bath containing copper and total cyanide concentrations of 26 and 27 g/L, respectively. Additionally, a substantial reduction of the cyanide concentration was also achieved, decreasing the pollution load and final treatment costs. PMID:17728063

  8. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  9. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Cyanide Formation by Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Ruth; Corpe, W. A.

    1965-01-01

    Michaels, Ruth (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), and W. A. Corpe. Cyanide formation by Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Bacteriol. 89:106–112. 1965.—The formation of cyanide by a Chromobacterium violaceum strain was studied with growing cultures and with nonproliferating cells grown in complex and chemically defined media. Most of the cyanide was produced during the log-phase growth of the organism, and accumulated in the culture supernatant fluid. A synergistic effect of glycine and methionine on cyanide formation in a chemically defined medium was observed, and the amount of cyanide formed was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the two substances. Cyanide formation by nonproliferating cells was stimulated by preincubation with glycine and methionine. Cyanide formation by adapted cells in the presence of glycine and methionine was stimulated by succinate, malate, or fumarate, and depressed by azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Methionine could be replaced by betaine, dimethylglycine, and choline. PMID:14255648

  11. Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

  12. 36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-50 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. 50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S. THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-36 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Improving the cyanide toxicity tolerance of anaerobic reactor: Microbial interactions and toxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pragya; Ahammad, S Z; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic biological treatment of high organics containing wastewater is amongst the preferred treatment options but poor tolerance to toxins makes its use prohibitive. In this study, efforts have been made to understand the key parameters for developing anaerobic reactor, resilient to cyanide toxicity. A laboratory scale anaerobic batch reactor was set up to treat cyanide containing wastewater. The reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment plant and fresh cow dung in the ratio of 3:1. The focus was on acclimatization and development of cyanide-degrading biomass and to understand the toxic effects of cyanide on the dynamic equilibrium between various microbial groups. The sludge exposed to cyanide was found to have higher bacterial diversity than the control. It was observed that certain hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacterial groups were able to grow and produce methane in the presence of cyanide. Also, it was found that hydrogen utilizing methanogens were more cyanide tolerant than acetate utilizing methanogens. So, effluents from various industries like electroplating, coke oven plant, petroleum refining, explosive manufacturing, and pesticides industries which are having high concentrations of cyanide can be treated by favoring the growth of the tolerant microbes in the reactors. It will provide much better treatment efficiency by overcoming the inhibitory effects of cyanide to certain extent. PMID:27179200

  16. Cholinergic aspects of cyanide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Von Bredow, J.D.; Vick, J.A.

    1993-05-13

    The acute exposure of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs to cyanide leads to a rapid increase and sudden halt in respiration accompanied by cardiovascular irregularities and extreme bradycardia which ultimately lead to cardiac arrest and death. Cardiac irregularities and cardiac arrest in the presence of cyanide induced respiratory arrest are assumed to be due to anoxia and therefore unresponsive to cardiotonic agents. Pretreatment or treatment with atropine sulfate or methyl atropine nitrate provides a marked reduction in the cardiovascular irregularities, bradycardia and hypotension. The cyanide induced cardiovascular effect can also be prevented by bilateral vagotomy. An intramuscularly injected combination of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 1 mg/kg of atropine sulfate ensured recovery of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs exposed to lethal concentrations (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) of sodium cyanide.

  17. Determination of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the genes expression involved in phyto-degradation of cyanide and ferri-cyanide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with different species of plants (rice, maize, soybean and willow) exposed to ferri-cyanide to investigate the half-saturation constant (K M ) and the maximal metabolic capacity (v max ) involved in phyto-assimilation. Three varieties for each testing species were collected from different origins. Measured concentrations show that the uptake rates responded biphasically to ferri-cyanide treatments by showing increases linearly at low and almost constant at high concentrations from all treatments, indicating that phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using non-linear regression, the highest v max was by rice, followed by willows. The lowest v max was found for soybean. All plants, except maize (DY26) and rice (XJ12), had a similar K M value, suggesting the same enzyme was active in phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide. Transcript level, by real-time quantitative PCR, of enzymes involved in degradation of cyanides showed that the analyzed genes were differently expressed during different cyanides exposure. The expression of CAS and ST genes responded positively to KCN exposure, suggesting that β-CAS and ST pathways were two possible pathways for cyanide detoxification in rice. The transcript level of NIT and ASPNASE genes also showed a remarkable up-regulation to KCN, implying the contribution to the pool of amino acid aspartate, which is an end product of CN metabolism. Up-regulation of GS genes suggests that acquisition of ammonium released from cyanide degradation may be an additional nitrogen source for plant nutrition. Results also revealed that the expressions of these genes, except for GS, were relatively constant during iron cyanide exposure, suggesting that they are likely metabolized by plants through a non-defined pathway rather than the β-CAS pathway. PMID:26992391

  18. Determination of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the genes expression involved in phyto-degradation of cyanide and ferri-cyanide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with different species of plants (rice, maize, soybean and willow) exposed to ferri-cyanide to investigate the half-saturation constant (K M ) and the maximal metabolic capacity (v max ) involved in phyto-assimilation. Three varieties for each testing species were collected from different origins. Measured concentrations show that the uptake rates responded biphasically to ferri-cyanide treatments by showing increases linearly at low and almost constant at high concentrations from all treatments, indicating that phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using non-linear regression, the highest v max was by rice, followed by willows. The lowest v max was found for soybean. All plants, except maize (DY26) and rice (XJ12), had a similar K M value, suggesting the same enzyme was active in phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide. Transcript level, by real-time quantitative PCR, of enzymes involved in degradation of cyanides showed that the analyzed genes were differently expressed during different cyanides exposure. The expression of CAS and ST genes responded positively to KCN exposure, suggesting that β-CAS and ST pathways were two possible pathways for cyanide detoxification in rice. The transcript level of NIT and ASPNASE genes also showed a remarkable up-regulation to KCN, implying the contribution to the pool of amino acid aspartate, which is an end product of CN metabolism. Up-regulation of GS genes suggests that acquisition of ammonium released from cyanide degradation may be an additional nitrogen source for plant nutrition. Results also revealed that the expressions of these genes, except for GS, were relatively constant during iron cyanide exposure, suggesting that they are likely metabolized by plants through a non-defined pathway rather than the β-CAS pathway.

  19. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides

    SciTech Connect

    Ria A. Yngard; Virender K. Sharma; Jan Filip; Radek Zboril

    2008-04-15

    Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate, were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45{sup o}C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d(Fe(VI))/dt = k (Fe(VI))(M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}){sup n} where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO{sub 4}{sup -} + M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} + 6H{sub 2}O {yields} 4Fe(OH){sub 3} + M{sup 2+} + 4NCO{sup -} + O{sub 2} + 4OH{sup -}. Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Cyanide hydratases and cyanide dihydratases: emerging tools in the biodegradation and biodetection of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Ludmila; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Rinágelová, Anna; Chmátal, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize the current knowledge of the enzymes which are involved in the hydrolysis of cyanide, i.e., cyanide hydratases (CHTs; EC 4.2.1.66) and cyanide dihydratases (CynD; EC 3.5.5.1). CHTs are probably exclusively produced by filamentous fungi and widely occur in these organisms; in contrast, CynDs were only found in a few bacterial genera. CHTs differ from CynDs in their reaction products (formamide vs. formic acid and ammonia, respectively). Several CHTs were also found to transform nitriles but with lower relative activities compared to HCN. Mutants of CynDs and CHTs were constructed to study the structure-activity relationships in these enzymes or to improve their catalytic properties. The effect of the C-terminal part of the protein on the enzyme activity was determined by constructing the corresponding deletion mutants. CynDs are less active at alkaline pH than CHTs. To improve its bioremediation potential, CynD from Bacillus pumilus was engineered by directed evolution combined with site-directed mutagenesis, and its operation at pH 10 was thus enabled. Some of the enzymes have been tested for their potential to eliminate cyanide from cyanide-containing wastewaters. CynDs were also used to construct cyanide biosensors.

  1. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  2. Flotation purification of industrial wastewater by removing cyanide ions

    SciTech Connect

    Evtyugina, N.M.; Derbysheva, E.K.; Kopktova, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the oldest and most common methods of purifying sewage by removing cyanide ions is binding them to nontoxic compounds of ferrous salts, principally divalent ferrous salts. Research in this direction has also been realized for the sewage of coking plants. One of the reasons why the method has not been introduced is tied to the difficulty of separating the finely-dispersed slime of the divalent ferrous cyanide K/sub 4/(Fe(CN)/sub 6/). This study investigates methods of producing complex compounds of cyanide ions with ferrous salts which have low solubility and, as far as possible, are easily extracted from water. To achieve this, it is suggested that one of the promising methods of water purification - flotation - be used and that the sludge extracted be utilized in accordance with wellknown plans.

  3. Bioavailability of cyanide and metal-cyanide mixtures to aquatic life.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron; Santore, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide can be toxic to aquatic organisms, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed ambient water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life. Recent work suggests that considering free, rather than total, cyanide provides a more accurate measure of the biological effects of cyanides and provides a basis for water-quality criteria. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to free cyanide, although certain metals can form stable complexes and reduce the amount of free cyanide. As a result, total cyanide is less toxic when complexing metals are present. Cyanide is often present in complex effluents, which requires understanding how other components within these complex effluents can affect cyanide speciation and bioavailability. The authors have developed a model to predict the aqueous speciation of cyanide and have shown that this model can predict the toxicity of metal-cyanide complexes in terms of free cyanide in solutions with varying water chemistry. Toxicity endpoints based on total cyanide ranged over several orders of magnitude for various metal-cyanide mixtures. However, predicted free cyanide concentrations among these same tests described the observed toxicity data to within a factor of 2. Aquatic toxicity can be well-described using free cyanide, and under certain conditions the toxicity was jointly described by free cyanide and elevated levels of bioavailable metals.

  4. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  5. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  6. Solar-Assisted Oxidation of Toxic Cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Miles, A.

    1985-01-01

    In solar-assisted oxidation technique, oxygen-bearing air bubbled through cyanide solution in which platinized powdered TiO2 is suspended. Light from either artifical source or natural Sunlight irradiates. Experiments demonstrated this technique effective in reducing concentration of cyanide to levels well below those achieved by other methods. Results suggest effective and inexpensive method for oxidizing cyanide in industrial wastewaters.

  7. Biodegradation of cyanide by a new isolated strain under alkaline conditions and optimization by response surface methodology (RSM)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodegradation of free cyanide from industrial wastewaters has been proven as a viable and robust method for treatment of wastewaters containing cyanide. Results Cyanide degrading bacteria were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant for coke-oven-gas condensate by enrichment culture technique. Five strains were able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions and among them; one strain (C2) was selected for further studies on the basis of the higher efficiency of cyanide degradation. The bacterium was able to tolerate free cyanide at concentrations of up to 500 ppm which makes it a good potentially candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide contaminated residues. Cyanide degradation corresponded with growth and reached a maximum level 96% during the exponential phase. The highest growth rate (1.23 × 108) was obtained on day 4 of the incubation time. Both glucose and fructose were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth. No growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. Four control factors including, pH, temperature, agitation speed and glucose concentration were optimized according to central composite design in response surface method. Cyanide degradation was optimum at 34.2°C, pH 10.3 and glucose concentration 0.44 (g/l). Conclusions Bacterial species degrade cyanide into less toxic products as they are able to use the cyanide as a nitrogen source, forming ammonia and carbon dioxide as end products. Alkaliphilic bacterial strains screened in this study evidentially showed the potential to possess degradative activities that can be harnessed to remediate cyanide wastes. PMID:24921051

  8. Cyanide-insensitive Respiration in Pea Cotyledons.

    PubMed

    James, T W; Spencer, M S

    1979-09-01

    Mitochondria isolated by a zonal procedure from the cotyledons of germinating peas possessed a cyanide-resistant respiration. This respiration was virtually absent in mitochondria isolated during the first 24 hours of germination but thereafter increased gradually until the 6th or 7th day of seedling development. At this time between 15 and 20% of the succinate oxidation was not inhibited by cyanide. The activity of the cyanide-resistant respiration was also determined in the absence of cyanide. Relationships among mitochondrial structure, cyanide-resistant respiration, and seedling development are discussed.

  9. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  10. A disposable blood cyanide sensor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Mahon, Sari B; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R

    2013-03-20

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160 s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20 μL, 50 μL). RSDs were<10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in <4 min.

  11. The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhou, Pu-Hua; Yang, Yong-Miao

    2006-07-01

    Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.), weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were exposed to potassium ferrocyanide to determine the potential of these plants to extract, transport and metabolize this iron cyanide complex. Young rooted cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution at 24.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 144 h. Ferrocyanide in solution, air, and aerial tissues of plants was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Uptake of ferrocyanide from the aqueous solution by plants was evident for all treatments and varied with plant species, ranging from 8.64 to 15.67% of initial mass. The uptake processes observed from hydroponic solution showed exponential disappearance kinetics. Very little amounts of the applied ferrocyanide were detected in all parts of plant materials, confirming passage of ferrocyanide through the plants. No ferrocyanide in air was found due to plant transpiration. Mass balance analysis showed that a large fraction of the reduction of initial mass in hydroponic solution was metabolized during transport within the plant materials. The difference in the metabolic rate of ferrocyanide between the three plant species was comparably small, indicating transport of ferrocyanide from hydroponic solution to plant materials and further transport within plant materials was a limiting step for assimilating this iron cyanide complex. In conclusion, phytoremediation of ferrocyanide by the plants tested in this study has potential field application.

  12. Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii

    SciTech Connect

    Seefeldt, L.C.; Arp, D.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state.

  13. In situ treatment of cyanide-contaminated groundwater by iron cyanide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Smith, J.R.

    1999-10-01

    Groundwater contamination with cyanide is common at many former or active industrial sites. Metal-cyanide complexes typically dominate aqueous speciation of cyanide in groundwater systems, with iron-cyanide complexes often most abundant. Typically, metal-cyanide complexes behave as nonadsorbing solutes in sand-gravel aquifer systems in the neutral pH range, rendering cyanide relatively mobile in groundwater systems. Groundwater pump-and-treat systems have often been used to manage cyanide contamination in groundwater. This study examined the feasibility of using in situ precipitation of iron cyanide in a reactive barrier to attenuate the movement of cyanide in groundwater. Laboratory column experiments were performed in which cyanide solutions were passed through mixtures of sand and elemental iron filings. Removal of dissolved cyanide was evaluated in a variety of cyanide-containing influents under various flow rates and sand-to-iron weight ratios. Long-term column tests performed with various cyanide-containing influents under both oxic and anoxic conditions, at neutral pH and at flow rates typical of sand-gravel porous media, yielded effluent concentrations of total cyanide as low as 0.5 mg/L. Effluent cyanide concentrations achieved were close to the solubilities of Turnbull's blue-hydrous ferric oxide solid solutions, indicating co-precipitation of the two solids. Maximum cyanide removal efficiency was achieved with approximately 10% by weight of iron in the sand-iron mixtures; higher iron contents did not increase removal efficiency significantly. Results obtained indicate that in situ precipitation is a promising passive treatment approach for cyanide in groundwater.

  14. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis. PMID:18810551

  15. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis.

  16. Foundation improvement techniques for heavy power plant structures at the Gilberton Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.W. ); Lewis, M.R. ); Whitcraft, J.S. ); Pernisi, R.E. )

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, a number of small cogeneration projects have been developed in various parts of the country to make use of the economic advantages afforded by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. The viability of these projects depends upon the ability of the developer, engineer and constructor to assemble a cost effective program that has the capability to produce electricity profitably. To assure success, the projects are, in many cases, constructed under lump sum contracts with relatively short schedules. For many of these projects, the site conditions are not ideal. It is usually necessary to construct the facilities n parcels of land not readily suitable for other purposes. Because of cost and schedule constraints, as well as potentially adverse soil conditions, there is a continuing need for development of innovative solutions to difficult foundation situations. This paper discusses an approach to one such problem.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide compounds are used in a number of industrial processes including mining, electroplating, metallurgy, chemical manufacturing, and photography because these compounds can form stable complexes with a range of metals. Hydrogen cyanide is also a component of tobacco smoke, v...

  18. Dinosaurs victims of cyanide poisoning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    The Eos article, Comets and Life (March 28, 1989), reports on the work of Paul Thomas, Christophere Chyba, Carl Sagan and Leigh Brookshaw on cometary impact production of cyanides and other organics that may have been precursors of life. The article was based on material presented at the 20th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference [Thomas et al, 1989].As pointed out in the article, comets may contain 20% organic matter in the form of a complex interbonded mass. This kerogen-like material contains CN bonds as well as CC and CO bonds. Evidence for cyanide protection from light-element “CHON” solids was observed in the recent Halley's comet encounter in the form of CN plumes [Eberhardt et al., 1986; Schlosser et al., 1986]. An additional, and possibly more important source of cyanide, is HCN, which was observed [Schloerb et al., 1986] to be emitted from Halley's comet as part of the normal neutral gas emission with an abundance equal to 10-3 that of H2O. H2O is the dominant volatile species in comets and appears to constitute 80% or more of the total molecular release [Mendis, 1986].

  19. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  20. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  1. Epilepsy Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastaut Syndrome Infantile Spasms and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Facebook < > Epilepsy Foundation of America Watch the next George ... consider the Epilepsy Foundation your #UnwaveringAlly on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram! Epilepsy Foundation of America Star Trek ...

  2. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  3. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

  4. Fiber optic sensing of cyanides in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.S.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Li, C.Y.; Guerreiro, P.; Peyghambarian, N.

    1996-12-31

    A novel sol-gel technique was used to immobilize malachite green ions (MG{sup +}) in stable, optically transparent, porous silica gel films. A simple and sensitive method was developed for the detection of cyanides in solutions using spectrophotometry to measure changes caused by cyanide ions (CN{sup {minus}}) in the absorption spectra of the green-colored silica gel films. After reaction with cyanide ions, the absorption spectra of the films changed with a typical decrease in absorbance at 620 nm. On the basis of the absorption spectra of the films, a portable and easy to use fiber optic cyanide film sensor was fabricated. Decolorization undergone by the green-colored gel films, as they were exposed to cyanide ions, was detected through a fiber. Preliminary results indicate concentrations on the order of a few ppm are detected using the fiber optic sensor.

  5. Determination of cyanide using a microbial sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Keijiro; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Karube, Isao

    1996-08-01

    A microbial cyanide sensor was prepared, consisting of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an oxygen electrode. When the electrode was inserted into a solution containing glucose, the respiration activity of the microorganisms increased. The change in the respiration activity is monitored with the oxygen electrode. When cyanide is added to the sample solution, the electron transport chain reaction of the respiration system in the mitochondria is inhibited, resulting in a decrease in respiration. The inhibition is caused by cyanide binding with respiration enzymes such as the cytochrome oxidase complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Therefore, the cyanide concentration can be measured from the change in the respiration rate. When the sensor was applied to a batch system at pH 8.0 and 30{degrees}C, the cyanide calibration curve showed linearity in the concentration range between 0.3 pM and 150 {mu}m CN{sup -}. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Evaluation of computer-aided foundation design techniques for fossil fuel power plants. Final report. [Includes list of firms involved, equipment, software, etc

    SciTech Connect

    Kulhawy, F.H.; Dill, J.C.; Trautmann, C.H.

    1984-11-01

    The use of an integrated computer-aided drafting and design system for fossil fuel power plant foundations would offer utilities considerable savings in engineering costs and design time. The technology is available, but research is needed to develop software, a common data base, and data management procedures. An integrated CADD system suitable for designing power plant foundations should include the ability to input, display, and evaluate geologic, geophysical, geotechnical, and survey field data; methods for designing piles, mats, footings, drilled shafts, and other foundation types; and the capability of evaluating various load configurations, soil-structure interactions, and other construction factors that influence design. Although no such integrated system exists, the survey of CADD techniques showed that the technology is available to computerize the whole foundation design process, from single-foundation analysis under single loads to three-dimensional analysis under earthquake loads. The practices of design firms using CADD technology in nonutility applications vary widely. Although all the firms surveyed used computer-aided drafting, only two used computer graphics in routine design procedures, and none had an integrated approach to using CADD for geotechnical engineering. All the firms had developed corporate policies related to system security, supervision, overhead allocation, training, and personnel compensation. A related EPRI project RP2514, is developing guidelines for applying CADD systems to entire generating-plant construction projects. 4 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  7. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  8. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  9. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  10. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  11. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  12. Photochemical destruction of cyanide in landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Podsiadlik, D.H.; Hartlund, J.L.; Gaines, W.A.; Kalis, E.M.

    1998-11-01

    The Allen Park Clay Mine Landfill, owned by Ford, produces a leachate that occasionally contains cyanide at levels marginally below the discharge limit. The form of the cyanide in the leachate was found to be iron-cyanide complexes that resist oxidation by a conventional treatment method, alkaline oxidation. Furthermore, the leachate also was found to contain a relatively large amount of organics which would exert additional demand for oxidizing agents (e.g., chlorine). A study was performed to determine what treatment technology could be employed in the event treatment becomes necessary because of potential changes in the leachate characteristics and/or discharge limits. In this study, among several chemical oxidation methods, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with or without ozone was investigated as a treatment option. The following are the primary findings: (1) UV irradiation alone was effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex in both the leachate and the clean water; (2) the demand for UV or ozone by chemical oxygen demand was relatively low for this leachate; (3) ozone alone was not effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex; and (4) UV irradiation alone and UV irradiation with ozone resulted in the same removal for total cyanide in clean-water experiments, but the UV irradiation alone left some free cyanide whereas the UV irradiation with ozone did not.

  13. Alkaline cyanide biodegradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, V M; Blasco, R; Huertas, M J; Martínez-Luque, M; Moreno-Vivián, C; Castillo, F; Roldán, M D

    2005-02-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 uses cyanide, cyanate, beta-cyanoalanine, and other cyanoderivatives as nitrogen sources under alkaline conditions, which prevents volatile HCN (pK(a) 9.2) formation. The cyanide consumed by this strain is stoichiometrically converted into ammonium. In addition, this bacterium grows with the heavy metal, cyanide-containing waste water generated by the jewellery industry, and is also a cyanide-resistant strain which induces an alternative oxidase and a siderophore-based mechanism for iron acquisition in the presence of cyanide. The detection of cyanase and beta-cyanoalanine nitrilase activities in cyanide-induced cells suggests their implication in the cyanide degradation pathway.

  14. Growth and cyanide degradation of Azotobacter vinelandii in cyanide-containing wastewater system.

    PubMed

    Koksunan, Sarawut; Vichitphan, Sukanda; Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Vichitphan, Kanit; Han, Jaehong

    2013-04-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, has been extensively studied with regard to the ability of N2-fixation due to its high expression of nitrogenase and fast growth. Because nitrogenase can also reduce cyanide to ammonia and methane, cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii has been studied for the application in the bioremediation of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. Cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii in NFS (nitrogen-free sucrose) medium was examined in terms of cell growth and cyanide reduction, and the results were applied for cyanide-contaminated cassava mill wastewater. From the NFS medium study in the 300 ml flask, it was found that A. vinelandii in the early stationary growth phase could reduce cyanide more rapidly than the cells in the exponential growth phase, and 84.4% of cyanide was degraded in 66 h incubation upon addition of 3.0 mM of NaCN. The resting cells of A. vinelandii could also reduce cyanide concentration by 90.4% with 3.0 mM of NaCN in the large-scale (3 L) fermentation with the same incubation time. Finally, the optimized conditions were applied to the cassava mill wastewater bioremediation, and A. vinelandii was able to reduce the cyanide concentration by 69.7% after 66 h in the cassava mill wastewater containing 4.0 mM of NaCN in the 3 L fermenter. Related to cyanide degradation in the cassava mill wastewater, nitrogenase was the responsible enzyme, which was confirmed by methane production. These findings would be helpful to design a practical bioremediation system for the treatment of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. PMID:23568214

  15. Removal of Zn or Cd and cyanide from cyanide electroplating wastes

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Fletcher L.

    1977-05-31

    A method is described for the efficient stripping of stable complexes of a selected quaternary amine and a cyanide of Zn or Cd. An alkali metal hydroxide solution such as NaOH or KOH will quantitatively strip a pregnant extract of the quaternary ammonium complex of its metal and cyanide content and regenerate a quaternary ammonium hydroxide salt which can be used for extracting further metal cyanide values.

  16. Growth and cyanide degradation of Azotobacter vinelandii in cyanide-containing wastewater system.

    PubMed

    Koksunan, Sarawut; Vichitphan, Sukanda; Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Vichitphan, Kanit; Han, Jaehong

    2013-04-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, has been extensively studied with regard to the ability of N2-fixation due to its high expression of nitrogenase and fast growth. Because nitrogenase can also reduce cyanide to ammonia and methane, cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii has been studied for the application in the bioremediation of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. Cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii in NFS (nitrogen-free sucrose) medium was examined in terms of cell growth and cyanide reduction, and the results were applied for cyanide-contaminated cassava mill wastewater. From the NFS medium study in the 300 ml flask, it was found that A. vinelandii in the early stationary growth phase could reduce cyanide more rapidly than the cells in the exponential growth phase, and 84.4% of cyanide was degraded in 66 h incubation upon addition of 3.0 mM of NaCN. The resting cells of A. vinelandii could also reduce cyanide concentration by 90.4% with 3.0 mM of NaCN in the large-scale (3 L) fermentation with the same incubation time. Finally, the optimized conditions were applied to the cassava mill wastewater bioremediation, and A. vinelandii was able to reduce the cyanide concentration by 69.7% after 66 h in the cassava mill wastewater containing 4.0 mM of NaCN in the 3 L fermenter. Related to cyanide degradation in the cassava mill wastewater, nitrogenase was the responsible enzyme, which was confirmed by methane production. These findings would be helpful to design a practical bioremediation system for the treatment of cyanide-contaminated wastewater.

  17. Toxicokinetic profiles of α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Bhandari, Raj K; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Boss, Gerry R; Logue, Brian A

    2013-09-12

    Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product, α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin (α-KgCN), which is produced from the reaction of cyanide and endogenous α-ketoglutarate. Although α-KgCN can potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide-poisoned animals are available. We, therefore, studied the toxicokinetics of α-KgCN and compared its behavior to other cyanide metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), in the plasma of 31 Yorkshire pigs that received KCN (4mg/mL) intravenously (IV) (0.17 mg/kg/min). α-KgCN concentrations rose rapidly during KCN administration until the onset of apnea, and then decreased over time in all groups with a half-life of 15 min. The maximum concentrations of α-KgCN and cyanide were 2.35 and 30.18 μM, respectively, suggesting that only a small fraction of the administered cyanide is converted to α-KgCN. Although this is the case, the α-KgCN concentration increased >100-fold over endogenous concentrations compared to only a three-fold increase for cyanide and ATCA. The plasma profile of α-KgCN was similar to that of cyanide, ATCA, and thiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that the use of α-KgCN as a biomarker for cyanide exposure is best suited immediately following exposure for instances of acute, high-dose cyanide poisoning.

  18. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  19. Cyanide toxicosis in goats after ingestion of California Holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia).

    PubMed

    Tegzes, John H; Puschner, Birgit; Melton, Larry A

    2003-09-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are found in many native and naturalized plants throughout North America. The glycosides themselves are not toxic, but they yield hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic or prussic acid) when they are hydrolyzed by beta-glycosidases, either as a result of injury to the plant cells or by microbial action in the rumen. Hydrogen cyanide is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cyanide ion binds with iron in cytochrome oxidase, interfering with cellular respiration. The clinical effects are peracute, often resulting in death less than 1 hour after ingestion. This study describes a case that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in a herd of goats after exposure to California holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia). PMID:14535552

  20. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (< 0.1). Studies were carried out with industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater.

  1. Modeling hydrogen-cyanide absorption in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Islas, A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for predicting blood concentrations of cyanide as functions of exposure time to constant levels of cyanide in the atmosphere. A toxic gas (which may form as a result of decomposition of combustion materials used in transportation vehicles) is breathed into the alveolar space and transferred from the alveolar space to the blood by a first-order process, dependent on the concentration of the toxicant in the alveolar space. The model predicts that blood cyanide levels are more sensitive to the breathing cycle than to blood circulation. A model estimate of the relative effects of CO and HCN atmospheres, generated in an experimental chamber with an epoxy polymer, shows that toxic effects of cyanide occur long before those of carbon monoxide.

  2. Cyanide and arsenic poisoning by intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, J; Hall, A H; Drake, R; Rumack, B H

    1989-03-01

    A 29-year-old man was found unresponsive a few minutes after self-injecting undetermined amounts of potassium cyanide and sodium arsenite intravenously in a suicide attempt. Treatment with the Lilly Cyanide Antidote kit rapidly resolved the initial coma, despite a whole blood cyanide level of 4.4 micrograms/mL. A 12-hour urine arsenic collection begun on admission showed 10,065 micrograms arsenic/12 hr. The patient received intramuscular BAL initially, which was followed by two ten-day courses of oral D-penicillamine. Complications included upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding requiring transfusion, transient elevations of liver function tests, self-limited complaints of decreased vision with conjunctival hyperemia and photophobia, and an abscess at the injection site. Although specific antidote therapy completely resolved the cyanide toxicity, early and prolonged arsenic chelation did not prevent a mild sensory peripheral neuropathy from developing with onset about 17 days after self-injection.

  3. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  4. Spectroscopic detection of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of features have been identified as absorption lines of hydrogen cyanide in infrared spectra of stratospheric absorption obtained from a high-altitude aircraft. Column amounts of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide have been derived from spectra recorded on eight flights. The average vertical column amount above 12 kilometers is 7.1 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the 14th molecules per square centimeter, corresponding to an average mixing ratio of 170 parts per trillion by volume.

  5. ABIM Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON TWITTER ABIM Foundation ABIM Foundation is using Facebook to share helpful information. We welcome comments, ideas, ... the conventions of civil discourse and comply with Facebook Terms of Use. While we encourage fans to ...

  6. Dysautonomia Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... More about FD .) Research funded by the Dysautonomia Foundation has led to a number of breakthroughs in ... our FD screening awareness video here .) The Dysautonomia Foundation is a 501c3 nonprofit organization that has established ...

  7. Marfan Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation Brings its 32nd Annual Conference to Rochester, MN, August 4-7, 2016 The Marfan Foundation will hold its 32nd Annual Conference in Rochester, MN, on August 4-7. The conference, organized in ...

  8. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote. PMID:27308865

  9. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of aqueous cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.K.; Rivera, W.; Smith, J.O.; O`Brien, B.

    1998-09-01

    The rates of oxidation of cyanide with Fe(VI) were measured as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction was found to be first order for each reactant. The rates decrease with increasing pH. The energy of activation was found to be 38.9 {+-} 1.0 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} at pH 9.0. The removal of cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was studied at pH 7.5, 9.0, and 12.0. Fe(VI) removal efficiency was greater at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.5 and 12.0. At pH 9.0, Fe(VI) molar consumption was nearly equal to that of oxidized cyanide. Cyanate and nitrite ions were identified as the products of the reaction at pH 7.5. The experiments indicated 1:1 stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to nitrite ion at pH 9.0 and 12.0. Experiments were conducted to test the Fe(VI) removal efficiency of cyanide in electroplating rinsewater. The results indicate that Fe(VI) has the potential to serve as a reliable and safe oxidative treatment for removing cyanide in wastewater effluent.

  10. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote.

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

  12. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mak, Karen K W; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-15

    Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed.

  13. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mak, Karen K W; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-15

    Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed. PMID:15854827

  14. C-11 cyanide production system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-01-13

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2 is provided, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sup.4 , the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900 .degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60%H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  15. D-Erythroascorbic acid activates cyanide-resistant respiration in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Huh, Won-Ki; Song, Yong Bhum; Lee, Young-Seok; Ha, Cheol Woong; Kim, Seong-Tae; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2008-05-01

    Higher plants, protists and fungi possess cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway, which is mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX). The activity of AOX has been found to be dependent on several regulatory mechanisms including gene expression and posttranslational regulation. In the present study, we report that the presence of cyanide in culture medium remarkably retarded the growth of alo1/alo1 mutant of Candida albicans, which lacks d-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) that catalyzes the final step of d-erythroascorbic acid (EASC) biosynthesis. Measurement of respiratory activity and Western blot analysis revealed that increase in the intracellular EASC level induces the expression of AOX in C. albicans. AOX could still be induced by antimycin A, a respiratory inhibitor, in the absence of EASC, suggesting that several factors may act in parallel pathways to induce the expression of AOX. Taken together, our results suggest that EASC plays important roles in activation of cyanide-resistant respiration in C. albicans.

  16. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  18. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  19. Delayed presentation of nitroprusside-induced cyanide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Udeh, Chiedozie I; Ting, Michael; Arango, Matthew; Mick, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    Cyanide toxicity is a rare complication of sodium nitroprusside that can be difficult to diagnose in critically ill patients. We describe a case of cyanide toxicity after cardiac surgery that presented as lactic acidosis after discontinuation of nitroprusside.

  20. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air. PMID:22704552

  1. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air.

  2. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is a worldwide known environmental issue. The pollutants, in form of iron-cyanide complexes, originating from the gas purification process, create a risk for human health due to potential release of toxic free cyanide, CN(aq) and HCN(g), (aq).The management and remediation of cyanide contaminated soil can be very challenging due to the complex chemistry and toxicity of CN compounds. The employment of phytoremediation to remove or stabilize contaminants at a former MGP site is an inexpensive process, but can be limited through shallow rotting, decreased biomass, poor growing and the risk of secondary accumulation. However, this adaptation may be enhanced via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) activity, which may cooperate on the degradation, transformation or uptake of the contaminants. We would like to present our preliminary results from the ongoing project concerning toxic substrate-AMF-plant relation, based on studying the site of a former MGP site. In situ experiments contributed to identifying those fungi that are likely to persist in extremely acidic and toxic conditions. Subsequently, commercially available Rhizophagus irregularis was grown in sterilized, un-spiked soil with the roots of the host plant Calamagrostis epigejos. Extracted roots and AMF hyphae were used in the batch experiment, were the potential of this association on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes, in form of potassium ferrocyanide solution, was assessed.

  3. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Bteich, S.B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Context More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152 - 308 GHz and analyzed using Watson’s A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. PMID:27738349

  4. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Craig A.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Rye, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most-persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)63- or Fe(CN)64-, but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)63- or its dissociation products (Co(CN)6-x(H2O)x(3-x)-). Supporting evidence for cobalt-cyanide complexation was found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification at four separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

  5. Validation of a general method for activity estimation of cyanide evolving oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Gasteazoro, Francisco; Simaan, Ariane Jalila; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Valderrama, Brenda

    2015-02-15

    Ethylene is a key molecule in organic synthesis currently produced by steam cracking of fossil hydrocarbons. In nature, ethylene is produced in higher plants by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO). Biocatalytic alternatives for ethylene production are still far from being competitive with traditional production plants. Furthermore, data dispersion shown in the literature adds uncertainty to the introduction of ACCO as a biocatalyst, especially when larger numbers of isoforms or mutants are to be compared. Here we propose a new method for measuring ACCO activity based on cyanide detection. Data provided here indicate that cyanide detection is more precise, more responsive, and much more stable than any other method tested for ACCO activity estimation so far. Briefly, enzymatically produced cyanide can be detected by its derivatization with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxyaldehide (NDA) to generate 1-cyanobenz[f]isoindole (CBI), which is further detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a fluorescence detector. Cyanide can be detected in the range between 0.99 and 60.17pmol, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the currently used ethylene estimation method.

  6. Cyanide-insensitive Respiration in Pea Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    James, Terrance W.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1979-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated by a zonal procedure from the cotyledons of germinating peas possessed a cyanide-resistant respiration. This respiration was virtually absent in mitochondria isolated during the first 24 hours of germination but thereafter increased gradually until the 6th or 7th day of seedling development. At this time between 15 and 20% of the succinate oxidation was not inhibited by cyanide. The activity of the cyanide-resistant respiration was also determined in the absence of cyanide. Relationships among mitochondrial structure, cyanide-resistant respiration, and seedling development are discussed. PMID:16660982

  7. Several hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Muhan; Wang, Kangnan; Guan, Ruifang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Wu, Qianqian; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao

    2016-05-01

    Four hemicyanine dyes as chemosensors for cyanide anions were synthesized easily. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions were investigated. The results indicate that all the dyes can recognize cyanide anions with obvious color, absorption and fluorescence change. The recognition mechanism analysis basing on in situ 1H NMR and Job plot data indicates that to the compounds with hydroxyl group, the recognition mechanism is intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. However, to the compounds without hydroxyl group, cyanide anion is bonded to carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated bridge and induces N+ CH3 to neutral NCH3. Fluorescence of the compounds is almost quenched upon the addition of cyanide anions.

  8. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide

  9. Review article: management of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Reade, Michael C; Davies, Suzanne R; Morley, Peter T; Dennett, Jennifer; Jacobs, Ian C

    2012-06-01

    Cyanide poisoning is uncommon, but generates interest because of the presumed utility of an antidote immediately available in those areas with a high risk of cyanide exposure. As part of its regular review of guidelines, the Australian Resuscitation Council conducted a systematic review of the human evidence for the use of various proposed cyanide antidotes, and a narrative review of the relevant pharmacological and animal studies. There have been no relevant comparative or placebo-controlled human trials. Nine case series were identified. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin was reported in a total of 361 cases. No serious adverse effects of hydroxocobalamin were reported, and many patients with otherwise presumably fatal poisoning survived. Sodium thiosulphate use was reported in two case series, similarly with no adverse effects. Treatment with a combination of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate was reported in 74 patients, with results indistinguishable from those of hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate. No case series using dicobalt edetate or 4-dimethylaminophenol were identified, but successful use in single cases has been reported. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate differ from alternatives in having negligible adverse effects, and on the basis of current evidence are the antidotes of choice. The indications for the use of an antidote, the requirements for supportive care and a recommended approach for workplaces where there is a risk of cyanide poisoning are presented.

  10. Rapid sodium cyanide depletion in cell culture media: outgassing of hydrogen cyanide at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Arun, Peethambaran; Moffett, John R; Ives, John A; Todorov, Todor I; Centeno, Jose A; Namboodiri, M A Aryan; Jonas, Wayne B

    2005-04-15

    During the course of in vitro studies on cyanide exposure with SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, we found that sodium cyanide (NaCN) up to a concentration of 10 mM had no significant toxic effect under our culture conditions. Further investigation of this apparent cyanide resistance revealed that the sodium cyanide was being rapidly depleted from the cell culture medium. Cyanide was interacting with constituents of the cell culture medium and was somehow being detoxified or removed from solution. The reaction of cyanide with cell culture media in 96-well culture plates reduced cyanide concentrations rapidly (80-90% in 2 h at 37 degrees C). Running the same reaction in capped tubes significantly reduced cyanide loss from solution. Incubation of cyanide with individual constituents of the cell culture medium in solution showed that glucose, phenol red, and amino acids all acted to detoxify or remove cyanide from solution. When amino acids or buffers were incubated with sodium cyanide in aqueous solution at pH 7.4, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was found to degas from the solutions. We compared HCN outgassing over a range of pH values. As expected, HCN remained very soluble at high pH, but as the pH was reduced to 7.0, the rate of HCN formation and outgassing increased dramatically. Acid-base reactions involving cyanide and proton donors, such as amino acids and other cell culture media constituents, at physiological pH result in rapid HCN outgassing from solution at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that previous in vitro cyanide toxicity studies done in standard culture media with prolonged incubation times using gas-exchanging culture containers might have to be reevaluated in light of the fact that the effective cyanide concentrations in the culture media were significantly lower than reported.

  11. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims: The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods: The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152-308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results: The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of

  12. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  13. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  14. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  15. Degradation of cyanide in agroindustrial or industrial wastewater in an acidification reactor or in a single-step methane reactor by bacteria enriched from soil and peels of cassava.

    PubMed

    Siller, H; Winter, J

    1998-09-01

    During cassava starch production, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released and hydrolysed by plant-borne enzymes, leading to cyanide concentrations in the wastewater as high as 200 mg/l. For anaerobic degradation of the cyanide during pre-acidification or single-step methane fermentation, anaerobic cultures were enriched from soil residues of cassava roots and sewage sludge. In a pre-acidification reactor this culture was able to remove up to 4 g potassium cyanide/l of wastewater at a hydraulic retention time (tHR) of 4 days, equivalent to a maximal cyanide space loading of 400 mg CN- 1(-1) day-1. The residual cyanide concentration was 0.2-0.5 mg/l. Concentrated cell suspensions of the mixed culture formed ammonia and formate in almost equimolar amounts from cyanide. Little formamide was generated by chemical decay. A concentration of up to 100 mmol ammonia/l had no inhibitory effect on cyanide degradation. The optimal pH for cyanide degradation was 6-7.5, the optimal temperature 25-37 degrees C. At a pH of 5 or lower, cyanide accumulated in the reactor and pre-acidification failed. The minimal tHR for continuous cyanide removal was 1.5 days. The enriched mixed culture was also able to degrade cyanide in purely mineralic wastewater from metal deburring, either in a pre-acidification reactor with a two-step process or in a one-step methanogenic reactor. It was necessary to supplement the wastewater with a carbon source (e.g. starch) to keep the population active enough to cope with any possible inhibiting effect of cyanide.

  16. Kodak: MotorMaster+ is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

  17. Kodak: MotorMaster+ Is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

  18. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup.

    PubMed

    Chaouali, Nadia; Gana, Ines; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants.

  19. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup.

    PubMed

    Chaouali, Nadia; Gana, Ines; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

  20. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Chaouali, Nadia; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

  1. Ultratrace determination of total and available cyanides in industrial wastewaters through a rapid headspace-based sample preparation and gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Marton, Daniele; Tapparo, Andrea; Di Marco, Valerio B; Repice, Carla; Giorio, Chiara; Bogialli, Sara

    2013-07-26

    A new analytical method for the determination of both available (free and weak acid dissociable, WAD) and total cyanides in industrial wastewaters has been developed. It is based on the static headspace (HS) sampling procedure followed by a GC separation and the selective nitrogen-phosphorous detection (NPD), in which different thermal treatment allows the speciation of total and available cyanides. Detection limits (0.5μg/L), recovery (84.7-114.6% for free and 76.8-121.5% for total cyanides) and precision (5% at 5μg/L), evaluated on both real and synthetic samples, were fit-for-purpose for the legal requirement (5μg/L) enforced in the Venice lagoon, without significant interfering species. In addition, analytical results of the HS-GC-NPD method have been compared with those obtained using the 4500 CN and EN ISO 14403 official methods for the determination of total and free cyanides, respectively. The new method has been successfully applied for the determination of cyanide concentrations in main influent and final effluent to the Venice lagoon to verify the efficiency of the industrial wastewater treatment plant of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy). The capability of the proposed method to detect the WAD cyanides has been tested by studying the acid dissociation of K2[Ni(CN)4]. An unexpected speciation picture was obtained for this complex, which suggests that the present definition and analytical strategy of this cyanide class should be reconsidered.

  2. Hydrogen cyanide polymerization: a preferred cosmochemical pathway.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C N

    1992-01-01

    Current research in cosmochemistry shows that crude organic solids of high molecular weight are readily formed in planetary, interplanetary and interstellar environments. Underlying much of this ubiquitous chemistry is a low energy route leading directly to the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide and its polymers. Evidence from laboratory and extraterrestrial investigations suggests that these polymers plus water yield heteropolypeptides, a truly universal process that accounts not only for the past synthesis of protein ancestors on Earth but also for reactions proceeding elsewhere today within our solar system, on planetary bodies and satellites around other stars and in the dusty molecular clouds of spiral galaxies. The existence of this preferred pathway - hydrogen cyanide polymerization - surely increases greatly the probability that carbon-based life is widespread in the universe.

  3. Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  4. Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent.

  5. [Acute cyanide poisoning in an infant].

    PubMed

    Haasnoot, K; van Vught, A J; Meulenbelt, J; Bergman, L R

    1989-09-01

    An infant of 9 months was admitted to hospital in comatose condition; cyanide poisoning was suspected. This poisoning was caused by the desorption of hydrocyanic acid from building materials after the house had been fumigated with hydrocyanic acid under strict supervision and observed safety measures. Administration of 4-dimethyl-aminophenol, a methaemoglobin inducer, and sodium thiosulphate together with supportive measures, led to complete recovery of the infant, although the general hypotony persisted for a few weeks. PMID:2797290

  6. High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis after a Suicide Attempt with Cyanide: The Rebirth of Cyanide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chang, Che-Fu; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Chiang, Wen-Fang; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department in a state of unconsciousness after attempting suicide with unknown substances. Severe metabolic acidosis (pH: 6.81), with a high anion gap (36.2) and high lactate level (20.2 mmol/L), was observed. After four hours of intensive medical treatment, the patient regained consciousness, with a return of the arterial pH to 7.42. Finally, cyanide intoxication was diagnosed based on the detection of a serum cyanide level of 3.5 mg/L. The presence of a high anion gap associated with severe lactic acidosis is a clue for making a rapid differential diagnosis of acute cyanide intoxication. Providing intensive and immediate supportive management is also crucial, even in cases without obtainable specific antidotes.

  7. Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

  8. An integrated biological approach for treatment of cyanidation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, S K O; Akcil, Ata

    2016-11-15

    The cyanidation process has been, and still remains, a profitable and highly efficient process for the recovery of precious metals from ores. However, this process has contributed to environmental deterioration and potable water reserve contamination due to the discharge of poorly treated, or untreated, cyanide containing wastewater. The process produces numerous cyanide complexes in addition to the gold cyanocomplex. Additionally, the discharge constituents also include hydrogen cyanide (HCN) - metallic complexes with iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt and other metals; thiocyanate (SCN); and cyanate (CNO). The fate of these complexes in the environment dictates the degree to which these species pose a threat to living organisms. This paper reviews the impact that the cyanidation process has on the environment, the ecotoxicology of the cyanidation wastewater and the treatment methods that are currently utilised to treat cyanidation wastewater. Furthermore, this review proposes an integrated biological approach for the treatment of the cyanidation process wastewater using microbial consortia that is insensitive and able to degrade cyanide species, in all stages of the proposed process. PMID:27424119

  9. Continuous real-time measurement of aqueous cyanide

    DOEpatents

    Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2007-03-06

    This invention provides a method and system capable of the continuous, real-time measurement of low concentrations of aqueous free cyanide (CN) using an on-line, flow through system. The system is based on the selective reactivity of cyanide anions and the characteristically nonreactive nature of metallic gold films, wherein this selective reactivity is exploited as an indirect measurement for aqueous cyanide. In the present invention the dissolution of gold, due to the solubilization reaction with the analyte cyanide anion, is monitored using a piezoelectric microbalance contained within a flow cell.

  10. Increased β-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity improves cyanide tolerance and assimilation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Preston, Gail M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2014-01-01

    Plants naturally produce cyanide (CN) which is maintained at low levels in their cells by a process of rapid assimilation. However, high concentrations of environmental CN associated with activities such as industrial pollution are toxic to plants. There is thus an interest in increasing the CN detoxification capacity of plants as a potential route to phytoremediation. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens β-cyanoalanine nitrilase pinA were compared with wild-type and a β-cyanoalanine nitrilase knockout line (ΔAtnit4) for growth in the presence of exogenous CN. After incubation with CN, +PfpinA seedlings had increased root length, increased fresh weight, and decreased leaf bleaching compared with wild-type, indicating increased CN tolerance. The increased tolerance was achieved without an increase in β-cyanoalanine synthase activity, the other enzyme in the cyanide assimilation pathway, suggesting that nitrilase activity is the limiting factor for cyanide detoxification. Labeling experiments with [¹³C]KCN demonstrated that the altered CN tolerance could be explained by differences in flux from CN to Asn caused by altered β-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity. Metabolite profiling after CN treatment provided new insight into downstream metabolism, revealing onward metabolism of Asn by the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle and accumulation of aromatic amino acids.

  11. Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-05-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant.

  12. Long-range effect of cyanide on mercury methylation in a gold mining area in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davée; Betancourt, Oscar; Miranda, Marcio Rodrigues; Barriga, Ramiro; Cueva, Edwin; Betancourt, Sebastián

    2011-11-01

    Small-scale gold mining in Portovelo-Zaruma, Southern Equador, performed by mercury amalgamation and cyanidation, yields 9-10 t of gold/annum, resulting in annual releases of around 0.65 t of inorganic mercury and 6000 t of sodium cyanide in the local river system. The release of sediments, cyanide, mercury, and other metals present in the ore such as lead, manganese and arsenic significantly reduces biodiversity downstream the processing plants and enriches metals in bottom sediments and biota. However, methylmercury concentrations in sediments downstream the mining area were recently found to be one order of magnitude lower than upstream or in small tributaries. In this study we investigated cyanide, bacterial activity in water and sediment and mercury methylation potentials in sediments along the Puyango river watershed, measured respectively by in-situ spectrophotometry and incubation with (3)H-leucine and (203)Hg(2+). Free cyanide was undetectable (<1 μg·L(-1)) upstream mining activities, reached 280 μg·L(-1) a few km downstream the processing plants area and was still detectable about 100 km downstream. At stations with detectable free cyanide in unfiltered water, 50% of it was dissolved and 50% associated to suspended particles. Bacterial activity and mercury methylation in sediment showed a similar spatial pattern, inverse to the one found for free cyanide in water, i.e. with significant values in pristine upstream sampling points (respectively 6.4 to 22 μgC·mg wet weight(-1)·h(-1) and 1.2 to 19% of total (203) Hg·gdry weight(-1)·day(-1)) and undetectable downstream the processing plants, returning to upstream values only in the most distant downstream stations. The data suggest that free cyanide oxidation was slower than would be expected from the high water turbulence, resulting in a long-range inhibition of bacterial activity and hence mercury methylation. The important mercury fluxes resultant from mining activities raise concerns about its

  13. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  14. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Ingvorsen, K; Højer-Pedersen, B; Godtfredsen, S E

    1991-01-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H2O----HCOOH + NH3) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN-) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The soluble enzyme was purified approximately 160-fold, and the first 25 NH2-terminal amino acids were determined by automated Edman degradation. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, greater than 97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be greater than 300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles. Images PMID:1872607

  15. Evidence of hydrolytic route for anaerobic cyanide degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R D

    1992-01-01

    Products observed during anaerobic cyanide transformation are consistent with a hydrolytic pathway (HCN + H2O <--> HCONH2 + H2O <--> HCOOH + NH3). Formate, the most frequently observed product, was generally converted to bicarbonate. Formamide was rapidly hydrolyzed to formate upon exposure to the anaerobic consortium but was not detected as an intermediate of cyanide transformation. PMID:1444430

  16. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Cyanide toxicity in hepatocytes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aw, T Y; Jones, D P

    1989-09-01

    The effect of cyanide on cell viability and mitochondrial function was studied in hepatocytes exposed to air or argon. Cells were more susceptible to cyanide toxicity under air than under argon. Analysis of the disposition of cyanide showed that the difference in susceptibility to KCN was not due to O2-dependent differences in cyanide metabolism or elimination. Studies of mitochondrial function revealed that cyanide under aerobic conditions resulted in substantial swelling of the mitochondria, which corresponded to a matrix loading of phosphate. In addition, cyanide caused a loss of the mitochondrial protonmotive force. This was in contrast to the results for cells exposed to 30 min of anoxia alone in which there was no loss of mitochondrial delta pH, no detectable change in mitochondrial volume, and little matrix loading of phosphate. These results show that at least some of the protective mechanisms elicited by anoxia (B. S. Andersson, T. Y. Aw, and D. P. Jones. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Cell Physiol. 21): C349-C355, 1987) are not elicited by cyanide alone. Thus cyanide under aerobic conditions does not provide a completely valid model for simple anoxia. Moreover, the results suggest that the molecular sensor necessary to signal suppression of metabolic and transport functions during neahypoxia is dependent on O2 and is neither stimulated nor antagonized by KCN. PMID:2782387

  18. Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Hill, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife ( gt 9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

  19. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (< 0.1). Studies were carried out with industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater. PMID:25306785

  20. Hydrogen cyanide poisoning in a prison environment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jean-Luc; Judic-Peureux, Virginie; Desmettre, Thibault; Manzon, Cyril; Grimon, Daniel; Hostalek, Ulrike; Fétro, Christine; Capellier, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning is an important source of morbidity and mortality from smoke exposure in structural fires. This case involved administration of a cyanide antidote to a prisoner (male, 23 years) in France, discovered in cardiorespiratory arrest after about 30 minutes exposure to smoke from a burning mattress during an apparent suicide attempt. Smoke exposure, circulatory failure during initial resuscitation, and elevated blood cyanide and lactate led to the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning. Hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit®), 5 g intravenous) was given immediately and on arrival at the hospital. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation restored cardiovascular function after 33 minutes. There were no neurological or other sequelae. Timely hydroxocobalamin administration contributed to full recovery from cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to cyanide poisoning from smoke inhalation. Hydroxocobalamin should be available to emergency medical teams attending fire scenes. PMID:21278317

  1. Biodegradation of cyanide wastes from mining and jewellery industries.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, María Dolores

    2016-04-01

    Cyanide, one of the known most toxic chemicals, is widely used in mining and jewellery industries for gold extraction and recovery from crushed ores or electroplating residues. Cyanide toxicity occurs because this compound strongly binds to metals, inactivating metalloenzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase. Despite the toxicity of cyanide, cyanotrophic microorganisms such as the alkaliphilic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 may use cyanide and its derivatives as a nitrogen source for growth, making biodegradation of cyanurated industrial waste possible. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques applied to cyanide biodegradation ('cyan-omics') provide a holistic view that increases the global insights into the genetic background of cyanotrophic microorganisms that could be used for biodegradation of industrial cyanurated wastes and other biotechnological applications. PMID:26745356

  2. Biodegradation of cyanide wastes from mining and jewellery industries.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, María Dolores

    2016-04-01

    Cyanide, one of the known most toxic chemicals, is widely used in mining and jewellery industries for gold extraction and recovery from crushed ores or electroplating residues. Cyanide toxicity occurs because this compound strongly binds to metals, inactivating metalloenzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase. Despite the toxicity of cyanide, cyanotrophic microorganisms such as the alkaliphilic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 may use cyanide and its derivatives as a nitrogen source for growth, making biodegradation of cyanurated industrial waste possible. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques applied to cyanide biodegradation ('cyan-omics') provide a holistic view that increases the global insights into the genetic background of cyanotrophic microorganisms that could be used for biodegradation of industrial cyanurated wastes and other biotechnological applications.

  3. A review of acute cyanide poisoning with a treatment update.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Jillian

    2011-02-01

    Cyanide causes intracellular hypoxia by reversibly binding to mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase a(3). Signs and symptoms of cyanide poisoning usually occur less than 1 minute after inhalation and within a few minutes after ingestion. Early manifestations include anxiety, headache, giddiness, inability to focus the eyes, and mydriasis. As hypoxia progresses, progressively lower levels of consciousness, seizures, and coma can occur. Skin may look normal or slightly ashen, and arterial oxygen saturation may be normal. Early respiratory signs include transient rapid and deep respirations. As poisoning progresses, hemodynamic status may become unstable. The key treatment is early administration of 1 of the 2 antidotes currently available in the United States: the well-known cyanide antidote kit and hydroxocobalamin. Hydroxocobalamin detoxifies cyanide by binding with it to form the renally excreted, non-toxic cyanocobalamin. Because it binds with cyanide without forming methemoglobin, hydroxocobalamin can be used to treat patients without compromising the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin.

  4. Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Delvau, Nicolas; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; De Iaco, Fabio; Geldner, Götz; Holmström, Peter; Lambert, Yves; Sabbe, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Smoke inhalation is a common cause of cyanide poisoning during fires, resulting in injury and even death. In many cases of smoke inhalation, cyanide has increasingly been recognized as a significant toxicant. The diagnosis of cyanide poisoning remains very difficult, and failure to recognize it may result in inadequate or inappropriate treatment. Findings suggesting cyanide toxicity include the following: (a) a history of enclosed-space fire; (b) any alteration in the level of consciousness; (c) any cardiovascular changes (particularly inexplicable hypotension); and (d) elevated plasma lactate. The feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for fire smoke victims have been reported in the literature. On the basis of a literature review and a panel discussion, a group of European experts has proposed emergency management protocols for cyanide toxicity in fire smoke victims.

  5. Design of a Prototype of Water Purification by Plasma Technology as the Foundation for an Industrial Wastewater Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillas, L.

    2015-03-01

    In order to mitigate the contamination of water sources due to the spill of sewage without any kind of treatment, mainly generated by the industrial sector; a prototype of water purification by plasma technology has been designed. The prototype will transform liquid water into plasma to eliminate the pathogens from the water, due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation, electric fields and shock waves, which aid in the destruction of pollutants. The sewage will be accelerated at high speed to convert it into a liquid-gas mixture in order to transform it into plasma, which is achieved when the electrical discharge (of the type dielectric barrier discharge or DBD) is applied to the water by means of high voltage electrodes, from a source of alternating current (AC). Subsequently, the mixture slows down to be return into liquid phase and obtain clean water, all of these without a significantly rise of temperature. The device also has an automatic power control system. Finally, a short feasibility study was conducted in order to use this type of water cleaner in the future as a basis for a treatment plant of industrial waste water, so it comes to replace the current secondary and tertiary treatments used among the industry. It is intended that this new system will be more efficient and cheaper than the current waste water treatments.

  6. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

  8. Isotopic Fingerprints of Iron-Cyanide Complexes in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Mansfeldt, Tim; Höhener, Patrick

    2016-07-19

    Tracing the origin of iron-cyanide complexes in the environment is important because these compounds are potentially toxic. We determined the stable isotopic compositions of cyanide-carbon (CCN) and cyanide-nitrogen (NCN) in 127 contaminated solids and 11 samples of contaminated groundwater from coal carbonization sites, blast furnace operations, and commercial cyanide applications. Coal-carbonization-related cyanides had unique high mean δ(13)CCN values of -10.5 ± 3.5‰ for the solids and -16.1 ± 1.2‰ for the groundwater samples, while the values for blast furnace sludge (-26.9 ± 1.5‰), commercial cyanides (-26.0 ± 3.0‰), and their corresponding groundwaters were significantly lower. Determination of δ(13)CCN is a promising tool for identifying the source of cyanide contamination. However, for coal carbonization sites, historical research into the manufacturing process is necessary because a nonconventional gas works site exhibited exceptionally low δ(13)CCN values of -22.7 ± 1.7‰. The δ(15)NCN values for samples related to coal carbonization and blast furnaces overlapped within a range of +0.1 to +10.3‰, but very high δ(15)NCN values seemed to be indicative for a cyanide source in the blast furnace. In contrast, commercial cyanides tend to have lower δ(15)NCN values of -5.6 to +1.9‰ in solids and -0.5 to +3.0‰ in the groundwater.

  9. Isotopic Fingerprints of Iron-Cyanide Complexes in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Mansfeldt, Tim; Höhener, Patrick

    2016-07-19

    Tracing the origin of iron-cyanide complexes in the environment is important because these compounds are potentially toxic. We determined the stable isotopic compositions of cyanide-carbon (CCN) and cyanide-nitrogen (NCN) in 127 contaminated solids and 11 samples of contaminated groundwater from coal carbonization sites, blast furnace operations, and commercial cyanide applications. Coal-carbonization-related cyanides had unique high mean δ(13)CCN values of -10.5 ± 3.5‰ for the solids and -16.1 ± 1.2‰ for the groundwater samples, while the values for blast furnace sludge (-26.9 ± 1.5‰), commercial cyanides (-26.0 ± 3.0‰), and their corresponding groundwaters were significantly lower. Determination of δ(13)CCN is a promising tool for identifying the source of cyanide contamination. However, for coal carbonization sites, historical research into the manufacturing process is necessary because a nonconventional gas works site exhibited exceptionally low δ(13)CCN values of -22.7 ± 1.7‰. The δ(15)NCN values for samples related to coal carbonization and blast furnaces overlapped within a range of +0.1 to +10.3‰, but very high δ(15)NCN values seemed to be indicative for a cyanide source in the blast furnace. In contrast, commercial cyanides tend to have lower δ(15)NCN values of -5.6 to +1.9‰ in solids and -0.5 to +3.0‰ in the groundwater. PMID:27345699

  10. An Improved Process for Precipitating Cyanide Ions from the Barren Solution at Different pHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Gabriela V.; Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesus L.; Vázquez, Victor; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, the use of metal sulfides instead of hydroxide precipitation in hydrometallurgical processes has gained prominence. Some arguments for its preferential use are as follows: a high degree of metal removal at relatively low pH values, the sparingly soluble nature of sulfide precipitates, favorable dewatering characteristics, and the stability of the formed metal sulfides. The Merrill-Crowe zinc-precipitation process has been applied worldwide in a large number of operations for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. However, in some larger plants, the quality of this precious precipitate is low because copper, zinc and especially lead are precipitated along with gold and silver. This results in higher consumption of zinc dust and flux during the smelting of the precipitate, the formation of the matte, and a shorter crucible life. The results show that pH has a significant effect on the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions. The optimal pH range was determined to be 3-4, and the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions was up to 99%.

  11. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  12. Radiation synthesis of polymers in aqueous cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niketić, Vesna

    Structures and properties of polymers isolated from the reaction mixtures obtained upon irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide and HCN with gamma rays of 60Co were studied. On the basis of spectroscopic and chemical data it was concluded that two principal classes of polymers occur each of them having molecular weights that range from about 5000 to over 20000. In both types of polymers peptidic, urea-formaldehyde, and complex heterocyclic fragments are identified. In one type aliphatic fragments are more pronounced, while in the other heterocyclic structures predominate. The polymers interact with nucleic acid bases and some of them show catalytic properties as demonstrated by the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate

  13. Cyanide Soap? Dissolved material in Titan's Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Neish, C. D.

    2011-10-01

    Although it is evident that Titan's lakes and seas are dominated by ethane, methane, nitrogen, and (in some models) propane, there is divergence on the predicted relative abundance of minor constituents such as nitriles and C-4 alkanes. Nitriles such as hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile, which have a significant dipole moment, may have a disproportionate influence on the dielectric properties of Titan seas and may act to solvate polar molecules such as water ice. The hypothesis is offered that such salvation may act to enhance the otherwise negligible solubility of water ice bedrock in liquid hydrocarbons. Such enhanced solubility may permit solution erosion as a formation mechanism for the widespread pits and apparently karstic lakes on Titan. Prospects for testing this hypothesis in the laboratory, and with measurements on Titan, will be discussed.

  14. EVLA Imaging of Methanimine and Hydrogen Cyanide in Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickert, Matthew; Momjian, E.; Sarma, A.; AO Arp 220 Team

    2011-01-01

    We used the EVLA in A configuration to image the C-band transitions of the pre-biotic molecule methanimine (H2CNH) and the J=5 direct l-type transition of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the nearest and the prototypical ultra-luminous IR galaxy, Arp 220. The observations were carried out as a result of the first definitive extragalactic detection of these transitions with Arecibo (Salter et al. 2008). These EVLA A-configuration observations spatially resolve the two nuclei of Arp 220, which are separated by about 1 arcsec. The results show that the emission line of the H2CNH and the absorption line of the HCN (J=5) are solely detected toward the western nucleus of Arp 220. The H2CNH emission is very likely due to a maser, because its brightness temperature is several times the decomposition temperature of the molecule. This is similar to the formaldehyde (H2CO) transition, which also shows a weak maser emission in Arp 220 and mostly toward the western nucleus. The confinement of the HCN (J=5) absorption line to the western nucleus is in contrast to previous detections of rotationally excited HCN transitions, which have been observed in emission from both nuclei. These EVLA observations, along with Arecibo's original detections, demonstrate that a new range of molecular transitions can now be detected and imaged at cm wavelengths, thus opening up new opportunities for the study of the physical and chemical characteristics of luminous IR galaxies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  15. Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

  16. Severe keloids caused by hydrogen cyanide injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jian, Xiangdong; Guo, Guangran; Ruan, Yanjun; Lin, Dawei; Zhao, Bo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report severe keloids caused by hydrogen cyanide injury. Hydrogen cyanide poisoning is still a problem as an occupational disease in China. We report a 37-year-old man with severe hydrogen cyanide poisoning. The patient fell on the floor after inhalation of hydrogen cyanide and was burned on his back by hydrocyanic acid. Sequential treatment included amyl nitrite by inhalation, intravenous sodium nitrite 3%, and intravenous sodium thiosulfate 25%. Other treatment consisted of incision of the trachea, mannitol and furosemide, antibiotics, and nutrient support measures. The patient also received hyperbaric oxygen therapy; during the first treatment, he became apneic and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was supplied in the hyperbaric oxygen chamber. He eventually recovered, but a large amount of keloids developed on his back and buttocks. PMID:18568895

  17. Cyanide Suicide After Deep Web Shopping: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Le Garff, Erwan; Delannoy, Yann; Mesli, Vadim; Allorge, Delphine; Hédouin, Valéry; Tournel, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Cyanide is a product that is known for its use in industrial or laboratory processes, as well as for intentional intoxication. The toxicity of cyanide is well described in humans with rapid inhibition of cellular aerobic metabolism after ingestion or inhalation, leading to severe clinical effects that are frequently lethal. We report the case of a young white man found dead in a hotel room after self-poisoning with cyanide ordered in the deep Web. This case shows a probable complex suicide kit use including cyanide, as a lethal tool, and dextromethorphan, as a sedative and anxiolytic substance. This case is an original example of the emerging deep Web shopping in illegal drug procurement.

  18. Cyanide Suicide After Deep Web Shopping: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Le Garff, Erwan; Delannoy, Yann; Mesli, Vadim; Allorge, Delphine; Hédouin, Valéry; Tournel, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Cyanide is a product that is known for its use in industrial or laboratory processes, as well as for intentional intoxication. The toxicity of cyanide is well described in humans with rapid inhibition of cellular aerobic metabolism after ingestion or inhalation, leading to severe clinical effects that are frequently lethal. We report the case of a young white man found dead in a hotel room after self-poisoning with cyanide ordered in the deep Web. This case shows a probable complex suicide kit use including cyanide, as a lethal tool, and dextromethorphan, as a sedative and anxiolytic substance. This case is an original example of the emerging deep Web shopping in illegal drug procurement. PMID:27367575

  19. Management of cyanide toxicity in patients with burns.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Louise; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-02-01

    The importance of cyanide toxicity as a component of inhalational injury in patients with burns is increasingly being recognised, and its prompt recognition and management is vital for optimising burns survival. The evidence base for the use of cyanide antidotes is limited by a lack of randomised controlled trials in humans, and in addition consideration must be given to the concomitant pathophysiological processes in patients with burns when interpreting the literature. We present a literature review of the evidence base for cyanide antidotes with interpretation in the context of patients with burns. We conclude that hydroxycobalamin should be utilised as the first-line antidote of choice in patients with burns with inhalational injury where features consistent with cyanide toxicity are present.

  20. Possible evidence for contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in phytoremediation of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are integral functioning parts of plant root systems and are widely recognized for enhancing contaminants uptake and metabolism on severely disturbed sites. However, the patterns of their influence on the phytoremediation of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes are unknown. Fe-CN complexes are of great common interest, as iron is one of the most abundant element in soil and water. Effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) roots inoculation, using mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and a mixture of R. irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus aggregatus, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum), on iron-cyanide sorption was studied. Results indicated significantly higher colonization of R. irregularis than the mixture of AMF species on ryegrass roots. Series of batch experiments using potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) solutions, in varying concentrations revealed significantly higher reduction of total CN and free CN content in the mycorrhizal roots, indicating greater cyanide decrease in the treatment inoculated with R. irregularis. Our study is a first indication of the possible positive contribution of AM fungi on the phytoremediation of iron-cyanide complexes. PMID:27256319

  1. Possible evidence for contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in phytoremediation of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are integral functioning parts of plant root systems and are widely recognized for enhancing contaminants uptake and metabolism on severely disturbed sites. However, the patterns of their influence on the phytoremediation of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes are unknown. Fe-CN complexes are of great common interest, as iron is one of the most abundant element in soil and water. Effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) roots inoculation, using mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and a mixture of R. irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus aggregatus, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum), on iron-cyanide sorption was studied. Results indicated significantly higher colonization of R. irregularis than the mixture of AMF species on ryegrass roots. Series of batch experiments using potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) solutions, in varying concentrations revealed significantly higher reduction of total CN and free CN content in the mycorrhizal roots, indicating greater cyanide decrease in the treatment inoculated with R. irregularis. Our study is a first indication of the possible positive contribution of AM fungi on the phytoremediation of iron-cyanide complexes.

  2. Cyanide intoxication in the rat: physiological and neuropathological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, J B; Brown, A W; Calverley, J

    1976-01-01

    Sodium cyanide was given to rats by intravenous infusion at a rate that would avert apnoea (the first sign of overdosage) in the majority. There was full physiological monitoring in a group under anaesthesia and more limited monitoring in an unanaesthetized group. White matter was damaged in six animals and grey matter additionally in only one. It was concluded that cyanide can damage neurones only through the medium of secondary effects on circulation and respiration. Images PMID:4588

  3. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  4. Cyanide: an unreported cause of neurological complications following smoke inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Frédéric; Boukobza, Monique; Borron, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    Although the combustion of natural and synthetic products can yield cyanide, its toxic role in residential fires is unclear. This case concerns a woman aged over 50 years who presented comatose, pulseless and apnoeic after a domestic fire. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and on-site administration of 2.5 g hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to cyanide resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. On admission to the intensive care unit, the patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen for suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. In a blood specimen collected at the scene before hydroxocobalamin administration, blood cyanide and carbon monoxide levels were 68 µmol/l and 10.9%. On admission to hospital, plasma lactate was at 4.6 mmol/l. Brain scans revealed lesions which were confirmed 2 months later, consistent with the haemorrhagic necrosis often seen after poisoning by cyanide. These data suggest that smoke inhalation in a residential fire may cause cyanide poisoning. This case provides clinical, biological, analytical and brain imaging data supporting the hypothesis of the toxic role of smoke-induced cyanide poisoning which may result in neurological sequelae. PMID:22675114

  5. Adsorption of copper cyanide on chemically active adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Deorkar, N.V.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1998-07-01

    An inorganic chemically active adsorbent (ICAA), SG(1)-TEPA (tetraethylenepentaamine)-propyl, is developed for removal, recovery, and recycling of copper cyanide from industrial waste streams. Equilibrium studies are executed to determine and model adsorption of the copper cyanide complex from aqueous solutions in a batch and packed column. It appears that adsorption is dependent on anionic copper cyanide species and the basicity of the ligand. Aqueous-phase equilibrium modeling shows that monovalent (Cu(CN){sub 2}{sup {minus}}), divalent (Cu(CN){sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), and trivalent (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) species of copper cyanide exist in the solution, depending on the pH and the concentration of total cyanide ions. Batch adsorption data are modeled using a modified multicomponent Langmuir isotherm which includes aqueous-phase speciation and basicity of the SG(1)-TEPA-propyl. This developed model is applied with a mass balance equation to describe the adsorption of copper cyanide complexes in a packed column.

  6. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luís; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of cyanide poisoning by ingestion. A retrospective chart review of all admissions for acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion for the years 1988 to 2008 was conducted in a tertiary university hospital serving the largest population in the country working in jewelry and textile facilities. Of the 9 patients admitted to the hospital during the study period, 8 (7 males, 1 female; age 36 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) attempted suicide by ingestion of potassium cyanide used in their profession as goldsmiths or textile industry workers. Five patients had severe neurologic impairment and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02 ± 0.08, mean ± SD) with high anion gap (23 ± 4 mmol/L, mean ± SD). Of the 5 severely intoxicated patients, 3 received antidote therapy (sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin) and resumed full consciousness in less than 8 hours. All patients survived without major sequelae. Cyanide intoxication by ingestion in our patients was mainly suicidal and occurred in specific jobs where potassium cyanide is used. Metabolic acidosis with high anion is a good surrogated marker of severe cyanide poisoning. Sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin are both safe and effective antidotes.

  7. Cyanide: an unreported cause of neurological complications following smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Baud, Frédéric; Boukobza, Monique; Borron, Stephen W

    2011-10-28

    Although the combustion of natural and synthetic products can yield cyanide, its toxic role in residential fires is unclear. This case concerns a woman aged over 50 years who presented comatose, pulseless and apnoeic after a domestic fire. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and on-site administration of 2.5 g hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to cyanide resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. On admission to the intensive care unit, the patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen for suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. In a blood specimen collected at the scene before hydroxocobalamin administration, blood cyanide and carbon monoxide levels were 68 µmol/l and 10.9%. On admission to hospital, plasma lactate was at 4.6 mmol/l. Brain scans revealed lesions which were confirmed 2 months later, consistent with the haemorrhagic necrosis often seen after poisoning by cyanide. These data suggest that smoke inhalation in a residential fire may cause cyanide poisoning. This case provides clinical, biological, analytical and brain imaging data supporting the hypothesis of the toxic role of smoke-induced cyanide poisoning which may result in neurological sequelae.

  8. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Nath, Anjali K; Roberts, Lee D; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L; Boss, Gerry R; Rockwood, Gary A; MacRae, Calum A; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.

  9. Heterologous expression of mitochondria-targeted microbial nitrilase enzymes increases cyanide tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Molojwane, E; Adams, N; Sweetlove, L J; Ingle, R A

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in cyanide (CN) contamination of both soil and water in many areas of the globe. While plants possess a detoxification pathway that serves to degrade endogenously generated CN, this system is readily overwhelmed, limiting the use of plants in bioremediation. Genetic engineering of additional CN degradation pathways in plants is one potential strategy to increase their tolerance to CN. Here we show that heterologous expression of microbial nitrilase enzymes targeted to the mitochondria increases CN tolerance in Arabidopsis. Root length in seedlings expressing either a CN dihydratase from Bacillus pumilis or a CN hydratase from Neurospora crassa was increased by 45% relative in wild-type plants in the presence of 50 μm KCN. We also demonstrate that in contrast to its strong inhibitory effects on seedling establishment, seed germination of the Col-0 ecotype of Arabidopsis is unaffected by CN.

  10. BrightFocus Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s Disease Research Program Macular Degeneration Research Program National Glaucoma Research Program Molecular Neurodegeneration ... Foundation BrightFocus Foundation 22512 Gateway Center Drive Clarksburg, MD ...

  11. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Criteria & FAQs Medical Research Glossary Donate Cash Donation Life Insurance Gift Matching Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a ...

  12. Bacterial degradation of cyanide and its metal complexes under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Huertas, María-J; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M Dolores; García-Gil, L Jesús; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-02-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Coleccion Espanola de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) the bacterium stoichiometrically converted cyanide into ammonium in the presence of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. The bacterium was able to grow in alkaline media, up to an initial pH of 11.5, and tolerated free cyanide in concentrations of up to 30 mM, which makes it a good candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated residues. Both acetate and d,l-malate were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth, but no growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. In addition to cyanide, P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 used other nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, cyanate, cyanoacetamide, nitroferricyanide (nitroprusside), and a variety of cyanide-metal complexes. Cyanide and ammonium were assimilated simultaneously, whereas cyanide strongly inhibited nitrate and nitrite assimilation. Cyanase activity was induced during growth with cyanide or cyanate, but not with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. This result suggests that cyanate could be an intermediate in the cyanide degradation pathway, but alternative routes cannot be excluded.

  13. Precious metal recovery from waste printed circuit boards using cyanide and non-cyanide lixiviants--A review.

    PubMed

    Akcil, Ata; Erust, Ceren; Gahan, Chandra Sekhar; Ozgun, Mehmet; Sahin, Merve; Tuncuk, Aysenur

    2015-11-01

    Waste generated by the electrical and electronic devices is huge concern worldwide. With decreasing life cycle of most electronic devices and unavailability of the suitable recycling technologies it is expected to have huge electronic and electrical wastes to be generated in the coming years. The environmental threats caused by the disposal and incineration of electronic waste starting from the atmosphere to the aquatic and terrestrial living system have raised high alerts and concerns on the gases produced (dioxins, furans, polybrominated organic pollutants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) by thermal treatments and can cause serious health problems if the flue gas cleaning systems are not developed and implemented. Apart from that there can be also dissolution of heavy metals released to the ground water from the landfill sites. As all these electronic and electrical waste do posses richness in the metal values it would be worth recovering the metal content and protect the environmental from the pollution. Cyanide leaching has been a successful technology worldwide for the recovery of precious metals (especially Au and Ag) from ores/concentrates/waste materials. Nevertheless, cyanide is always preferred over others because of its potential to deliver high recovery with a cheaper cost. Cyanidation process also increases the additional work of effluent treatment prior to disposal. Several non-cyanide leaching processes have been developed considering toxic nature and handling problems of cyanide with non-toxic lixiviants such as thiourea, thiosulphate, aqua regia and iodine. Therefore, several recycling technologies have been developed using cyanide or non-cyanide leaching methods to recover precious and valuable metals.

  14. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555

  15. Sources and geochemical evolution of cyanide and formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of cyanide has, in current paleoatmospheric models, been assumed to be the reaction of photodissociated thermospheric nitrogen with a limiting supply of stratospheric methane. Formaldehyde may be produced with more ease from an atmosphere of carbon dioxide as the dominant carbon species, and from carbonate in solution or sorbed in double layer hydroxide minerals. Potentially more important sources for cyanide and other carbon containing molecules are the partially photoprotected northern and southern auroral ovals where continuous currents reaching several mega-amperes induce ion-molecule reactions, extending into the lower stratosphere. In simulated environments of this kind, the cyanide ion is known to be produced from oxidized carbon species potentially more abundant than methane. Rainout of cyanide and formaldehyde place them in two different geochemical reaction reservoirs. In the anoxic Archean hydrosphere, about 1mM in Fe2(+), the cyanide ion would have been efficiently converted to the stable ferrocyanide complex Fe(CN) sub 6(4-), protecting it from the commonly considered fate of decomposition by hydrolysis, and eventually incorporating it in pyroaurite type minerals, most efficiently in green rust where it converts to insoluble ferriferrocyanide, prussian blue.

  16. Leaching of petroleum catalysts with cyanide for palladium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has tested cyanide leaching for recovery of palladium (Pd) from spent petroleum processing catalysts. Three different catalyst samples were supplied by a spent-catalyst processor. These catalysts consisted of a zeolite base and contained 0.4 to 0.7 pct Pd. During alkaline cyanide leaching, the catalysts exhibited ion-exchange properties due to their zeolite matrices. Hydrogen ions were released from the zeolite in exchange for sodium ions in solution, resulting in a significant decrease in solution pH. This could present a safety hazard because of the potential for release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. A pretreatment step where the catalysts were contacted with a 1.OM sodium hydroxide solution was found to prevent the pH shift from occurring. Following the sodium hydroxide pretreatment, two stages of leaching at 160 C with solution containing 1 pct sodium cyanide and 0.1M sodium hydroxide gave at least 75 and up to 95 pct Pd recovery. The Pd was quantitatively recovered from the leach solution by thermal decomposition in an autoclave at 250 C for 1 h. The Pd content of the precipitate was over 50 pct. Thermal decomposition also decreased the total cyanide content of the barren solution to less than 0.2 mg/L. The catalyst leach residues passed the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the California Waste Extraction Test, indicating that landfill disposal of the leach residues would be acceptable.

  17. Leaching of petroleum catalysts with cyanide for palladium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B.

    1995-06-01

    The US Bureau of Mines has tested cyanide leaching for recovery of palladium (Pd) from spent petroleum processing catalysts. Three different catalyst samples were supplied by a spent-catalyst processor. These catalysts consisted of a zeolite base and contained 0.4 to 0.7% Pd. During alkaline cyanide leaching, the catalysts exhibited ion-exchange properties due to their zeolite matrices. Hydrogen ions were released from the zeolite in exchange for sodium ions in solution, resulting in a significant decrease in solution pH. This could present a safety hazard because of the potential for release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. A pretreatment step where the catalysts were contacted with a 1.0 M sodium hydroxide was found to prevent the pH shift from occurring. Following the sodium hydroxide pretreatment, two stages of leaching at 160 C with solution containing 1% sodium cyanide and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide gave at least 75 and up to 95% Pd recovery. The Pd was quantitatively recovered from the leach solution by thermal decomposition in an autoclave at 250 C for 1 h. The Pd content of the precipitate was over 50%. Thermal decomposition also decreased the total cyanide content of the barren solution to less than 0.2 mg/L. The catalyst leach residues passed the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the California Waste Extraction Test, indicating that landfill disposal of the leach residues would be acceptable.

  18. Unusual reaction of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with cyanide.

    PubMed

    Hexter, Suzannah V; Chung, Min-Wen; Vincent, Kylie A; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2014-07-23

    Cyanide reacts rapidly with [NiFe]-hydrogenases (hydrogenase-1 and hydrogenase-2 from Escherichia coli) under mild oxidizing conditions, inhibiting the electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen as recorded by protein film electrochemistry. Electrochemical, EPR, and FTIR measurements show that the final enzyme product, formed within a second (even under 100% H2), is the resting state known as Ni-B, which contains a hydroxido-bridged species, Ni(III)-μ(OH)-Fe(II), at the active site. "Cyanide inhibition" is easily reversed because it is simply the reductive activation of Ni-B. This paper brings back into focus an observation originally made in the 1940s that cyanide inhibits microbial H2 oxidation and addresses the interesting mechanism by which cyanide promotes the formation of Ni-B. As a much stronger nucleophile than hydroxide, cyanide binds more rapidly and promotes oxidation of Ni(II) to Ni(III); however, it is quickly replaced by hydroxide which is a far superior bridging ligand.

  19. Spectroscopic study of acetylene and hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozario, Hoimonti Immaculata

    High-resolution molecular spectroscopy has been used to study acetylene line parameters and emission spectra of hydrogen cyanide. All acetylene spectra were recorded in our laboratory at the University of Lethbridge using a 3-channel tuneable diode laser spectrometer. N2-broadened line widths and N2-pressure induced line shifts have been measured for transitions in the v1+v3 band of acetylene at seven temperatures in the range 213-333K to obtain the temperature dependences of broadening and shift coefficients. The Voigt and hard-collision line profile models were used to retrieve the line parameters. The line-broadening and line-shift coefficients as well as their temperature-dependent parameters have been also evaluated theoretically, in the frame work of a semi-classical approach based on an exponential representation of the scattering operator, an intermolecular potential composed of electrostatic quadrupole--quadrupole and pairwise atom--atom interactions as well as on exact trajectories driven by an effective isotropic potential. The experimental results for both N2-broadening and shifting show good agreement with the theoretical results. We have studied the line intensities of the 1vl 20←0v120 band system from the HCN emission spectrum. The infrared emission spectrum of H12C 14N was measured at the Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany. The emission spectrum was analyzed with the spectrum analysis software Symath running using Mathematica as a platform. This approach allowed us to retrieve information on band intensity parameters.

  20. Oxidative removal of cyanide from aqueous streams abetted by ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, R.R.; Kalnes, T.N.; Moser, M.D.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described of reducing the concentration of complexed cyanide in an aqueous stream containing at least one complexed cyanide which dissociates to afford less than 10% of the total cyanide present in the complexed cyanide as free cyanide ions. The method comprises the following: irradiating the aqueous stream with light of a wavelength effective to dissociate the complexed cyanide and afford free cyanide ions, and oxidizing the cyanide to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and isocyanate with an oxidizing agent selected from the group consisting of oxygen ozone, and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a metal chelate at oxidation conditions. The metal chelate is selected from the group consisting of metal compounds of tetrapyridinoporphyrazine, porphyrin, corrinoid materials, and the phthalocyanines.

  1. 14. FLOODED POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION EXCAVATION BEING PUMPED OUT. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FLOODED POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION EXCAVATION BEING PUMPED OUT. NOTE KEYS IN FOREBAY ABUTMENT TO INTERLOCK WITH POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION, March 1918. - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  2. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra. PMID:21303323

  3. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution.

  4. Red-shifted cyanide stretching frequencies in cyanide-bridged transition metal donor-acceptor complexes. Support for vibronic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Watzky, M.A.; Endicott, J.F.; Song, X.

    1996-06-05

    Patterns in the cyanide stretching frequencies have been examined in several series of monometal- and CN{sup {minus}} bridged transition metal complexes. Metal-to-cyanide back-bonding can be identified as a major factor contributing to red shifts of v{sub CN} in monometal complexes. This effect is complicated in cyanide-bridged complexes in two ways: (a) when both metals can back-bond to cyanide, the net interaction is repulsive and results in a blue shift of v{sub CN}: and (b) when a donor and acceptor are bridged, V{sub CN} undergoes a substantial red shift (sometimes more than 60 cm{sup {minus}1} lower in energy than the parent monometal complex). These effects can be described by simple perturbational models for the electronic interactions. Monometal cyanide complexes and CN{sup {minus}}-bridged backbonding metals can be treated in terms of their perturbations of the CN{sup {minus}} {pi} and {pi}* orbitals by using a simple, Hueckel-like, three-center perturbational treatment of electronic interactions. However, bridged donor-acceptor pairs are best described by a vibronic model in which it is assumed that the extent of electronic delocalization is in equilibrium with variations of some nuclear coordinates. Consistent with this approach, it is found that (a) the oscillator strength of the donor-acceptor charge transfer (DACT) absorption is roughly proportional to the red shift of v{sub CN} and (b) there are strong symmetry constraints on the coupling.

  5. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution. PMID:27328365

  6. Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Acute Cyanide Poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin and Sodium Thiosulfate Treatments with Two Outcomes following One Exposure Event.

    PubMed

    Meillier, Andrew; Heller, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is rapidly reacting and causes arrest of aerobic metabolism. The symptoms are diffuse and lethal and require high clinical suspicion. Remediation of symptoms and mortality is highly dependent on quick treatment with a cyanide antidote. Presently, there are two widely accepted antidotes: sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin. These treatments act on different components of cyanide's metabolism. Here, we present two cases resulting from the same source of cyanide poisoning and the use of both antidotes separately used with differing outcomes.

  8. Encapsulation of thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase by mouse erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, P.; Ray, L.E.; Sander, C.; Way, J.L.; Sylvester, D.M.; Way, J.L.

    1986-03-30

    Murine carrier erythrocytes, prepared by hypotonic dialysis, were employed in the encapsulation of several compounds including (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and bovine thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese), a mitochondrial enzyme which converts cyanide to thiocyanate. Approximately 30% of the added (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and rhodanese was encapsulated by predialyzed erythrocytes, and a decrease in the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin was observed. In the encapsulation of rhodanese a recovery of 95% of the erythrocytes was achieved and an 85% equilibrium was established. The addition of potassium cyanide (50 mM) to intact, rhodanese-loaded erythrocytes containing sodium thiosulfate resulted in its metabolism to thiocyanate. These results establish the potential use of erythrocytes as biodegradable drug carrier in drug antagonism.

  9. Cardiorespiratory response to cyanide of arterial chemoreceptors in fetal lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Itskovitz, J.; Rudolph, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Cardiorespiratory response to the stimulation of the carotid and aortic receptors by sodium cyanide was examined in fetal lambs in utero at 0.8 (120 days) gestation. Injections of 50-400 ..mu..g cyanide into the inferior vena cava or the carotid artery of intact fetuses elicited bradycardia and respiratory responses that varied from a single gasp to rhythmic respiratory movements but no significant change in arterial blood pressure. Carotid sinus denervation eliminated the cardiorespiratory response to intracarotid injection of cyanide and sinoaortic denervation abolished the response to inferior vena caval injection. It is concluded that in fetal lamb in utero the aortic and carotid bodies are active, and hypoxic stimulation of these chemoreceptors results in cardiorespiratory response characterized by slowing of fetal heart rate, respiratory effort, and no consistent change in arterial blood pressure.

  10. NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan

    2009-09-01

    The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.

  11. Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels.

    PubMed

    Cigolini, Davide; Ricci, Giogio; Zannoni, Massimo; Codogni, Rosalia; De Luca, Manuela; Perfetti, Paola; Rocca, Giampaolo

    2011-05-24

    Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning via ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels. Published literature suggests each kernel would have contained cyanide concentrations ranging from 0.122 to 4.09 mg/g (average 2.92 mg/g). On arrival, the woman appeared asymptomatic with a raised pulse rate and slight metabolic acidosis. Forty minutes after admission (approximately 70 min postingestion), the patient experienced headache, nausea and dyspnoea, and was hypotensive, hypoxic and tachypnoeic. Following treatment with amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate, her methaemoglobin level was 10%. This prompted the administration of oxygen, which evoked a slight improvement in her vital signs. Hydroxocobalamin was then administered. After 24 h, she was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters. This case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion.

  12. Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels.

    PubMed

    Cigolini, Davide; Ricci, Giogio; Zannoni, Massimo; Codogni, Rosalia; De Luca, Manuela; Perfetti, Paola; Rocca, Giampaolo

    2011-09-01

    Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning via ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels. Published literature suggests each kernel would have contained cyanide concentrations ranging from 0.122 to 4.09 mg/g (average 2.92 mg/g). On arrival, the woman appeared asymptomatic with a raised pulse rate and slight metabolic acidosis. Forty minutes after admission (approximately 70 min postingestion), the patient experienced headache, nausea and dyspnoea, and was hypotensive, hypoxic and tachypnoeic. Following treatment with amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate, her methaemoglobin level was 10%. This prompted the administration of oxygen, which evoked a slight improvement in her vital signs. Hydroxocobalamin was then administered. After 24 h, she was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters. This case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion.

  13. Cyanide complexes of Ti(IV): a computational study.

    PubMed

    Rayón, Víctor M; Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Density functional theory (B3LYP) and coupled-cluster techniques [CCSD(T)] including solvent effects have been used to study the homoleptic and mixed cyanide/isocyanide complexes of Ti(IV), [Ti(CN)(n)](4-n) (n=1-6). The most stable isomer is found to be the isocyanide form except for n=6 where the cyanide isomer is preferred. Calculations accounting for solvent effects show that, irrespective of the solvent employed, the hexacyanocomplex should be formed. We have additionally analyzed the bonding situation in these complexes in order to shed some light on the reasons for the predicted cyano-/isocyano preference. We have found that the more advantageous sigma-bonding capabilities of the cyanide form become increasingly important for larger n eventually favoring the cyanoisomer for n=6. We finally compare the bonding situation in hexacyanotitanate(IV) with that of hexacyanoferrate(II).

  14. [Degradation of cyanide and maturity in cassava processing wastes composting].

    PubMed

    Lü, Yu-Cai; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Zhu, Wan-Bin; Cheng, Xu; Cui, Zong-Jun

    2009-05-15

    An investigation was carried out to approach the degradation of cyanide and maturity during the cassava processing wastes composting process. Mixtures of cassava hull, cassava residues and pig manure were used in the experiment. Parameters like temperature, pH, cyanide, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and C/N ratio were assessed during the composting process, the effect of composting process on the degradation of cyanide and maturity were evaluated. The results reveal that the content of cyanide decreases sharply and declines to 2.08 mg/kg (30 days of composting), the degradation rate of cyanide is 94.16% and is in accord with food safety standard. After 15 days of the composting process, degradation of composting materials containing carbon (starch, cellulose, hemicellulose) and cyanide are quick and the degradation rates of them are more than 80%, properties tend towards stability basically. During 30 days of the composting process, the composting temperature drops to normal temperature and tends to stability, pH remains stable at 7.2. Parameters like C/N ratio, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) as maturity evaluation index were measured, and the results indicate that physical and chemical properties keep stability after 15 days of cassava processing wastes composting process. At the end of fermentation, C/N ratio is 17.55, the content of nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen reach 2.5g/kg and 10 mg/kg respectively, NO3(-)-N/NH4(+)-N ratio is 250. The changes of these above mentioned parameters meet with maturity evaluation standard. Proving that cassava processing wastes during 30 days of composting treatment can achieve stability and security state.

  15. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  16. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  17. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  18. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  19. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  20. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  1. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  2. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  3. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  4. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  5. INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

  6. Anodic oxidation of coke oven wastewater: Multiparameter optimization for simultaneous removal of cyanide, COD and phenol.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M; Gupta, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Anodic oxidation of industrial wastewater from a coke oven plant having cyanide including thiocyanate (280 mg L(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (COD - 1520 mg L(-1)) and phenol (900 mg L(-1)) was carried out using a novel PbO2 anode. From univariate optimization study, low NaCl concentration, acidic pH, high current density and temperature were found beneficial for the oxidation. Multivariate optimization was performed with cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol removal efficiencies as a function of changes in initial pH, NaCl concentration and current density using Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimization was performed for maximizing the removal efficiencies of these three parameters simultaneously. The optimum condition was obtained as initial pH 3.95, NaCl as 1 g L(-1) and current density of 6.7 mA cm(-2), for which the predicted removal efficiencies were 99.6%, 86.7% and 99.7% for cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol respectively. It was in agreement with the values obtained experimentally as 99.1%, 85.2% and 99.7% respectively for these parameters. The optimum conditions with initial pH constrained to a range of 6-8 was initial pH 6, NaCl as 1.31 g L(-1) and current density as 6.7 mA cm(-2). The predicted removal efficiencies were 99%, 86.7% and 99.6% for the three parameters. The efficiencies obtained experimentally were in agreement at 99%, 87.8% and 99.6% respectively. The cost of operation for degradation at optimum conditions was calculated as 21.4 USD m(-3).

  7. Anodic oxidation of coke oven wastewater: Multiparameter optimization for simultaneous removal of cyanide, COD and phenol.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M; Gupta, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Anodic oxidation of industrial wastewater from a coke oven plant having cyanide including thiocyanate (280 mg L(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (COD - 1520 mg L(-1)) and phenol (900 mg L(-1)) was carried out using a novel PbO2 anode. From univariate optimization study, low NaCl concentration, acidic pH, high current density and temperature were found beneficial for the oxidation. Multivariate optimization was performed with cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol removal efficiencies as a function of changes in initial pH, NaCl concentration and current density using Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimization was performed for maximizing the removal efficiencies of these three parameters simultaneously. The optimum condition was obtained as initial pH 3.95, NaCl as 1 g L(-1) and current density of 6.7 mA cm(-2), for which the predicted removal efficiencies were 99.6%, 86.7% and 99.7% for cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol respectively. It was in agreement with the values obtained experimentally as 99.1%, 85.2% and 99.7% respectively for these parameters. The optimum conditions with initial pH constrained to a range of 6-8 was initial pH 6, NaCl as 1.31 g L(-1) and current density as 6.7 mA cm(-2). The predicted removal efficiencies were 99%, 86.7% and 99.6% for the three parameters. The efficiencies obtained experimentally were in agreement at 99%, 87.8% and 99.6% respectively. The cost of operation for degradation at optimum conditions was calculated as 21.4 USD m(-3). PMID:27039363

  8. Kinetics of Alkaline Decomposition and Cyaniding of Argentian Rubidium Jarosite in NaOH Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Eleazar Salinas; Sáenz, Eduardo Cerecedo; Ramírez, Marius; Cardona, Francisco Patiño; Labra, Miguel Pérez

    2012-10-01

    The alkaline decomposition of Argentian rubidium jarosite in NaOH media is characterized by an induction period and a progressive conversion period in which the sulfate and rubidium ions pass to the solution, leaving an amorphous iron hydroxide residue. The process is chemically controlled and the order of reaction with respect to hydroxide concentration in the range of 1.75 and 20.4 mol OH- m-3 is 0.94, while activation energy in the range of temperatures of 298 K to 328 K (25 °C to 55 °C) is 91.3 kJ mol-1. Cyaniding of Argentian rubidium jarosite in NaOH media presents a reaction order of 0 with respect to NaCN concentration (in the range of 5 to 41 mol m-3) and an order of reaction of 0.62 with respect to hydroxide concentration, in the range of 1.1 and 30 mol [OH-] m-3. In this case, the cyaniding process can be described, as in other jarosites, as the following two-step process: (1) a step (slow) of alkaline decomposition that controls the overall process followed by (2) a fast step of silver complexation. The activation energy during cyaniding in the range of temperatures of 298 K to 333 K (25 °C to 60 °C) is 43.5 kJ mol-1, which is characteristic of a process controlled by chemical reaction. These results are quite similar to that observed for several synthetic jarosites and that precipitated in a zinc hydrometallurgical plant (Industrial Minera México, San Luis Potosi).

  9. On OMC-1 temperatures determined from methyl cyanide observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the J(k) = 12(k)-11(k) and 13(k)-12(k) transitions of methyl cyanide detected by other investigators in the direction of OMC-1. The original interpretation of those observations argues for the presence of two distinct temperature regions or possibly a temperature gradient within the cloud. The analysis presented here demonstrates that the observations of these particular molecular transitions are consistent with a single methyl cyanide emission region with a source kinetic temperature of 121.2 + or - 8.2 K and a molecular rotational temperature of 16.6 + or - 1.8 K.

  10. Quantitative measurement of cyanide species in simulated ferrocyanide Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Matheson, J.D.

    1993-02-01

    Analytical methods for the quantification of cyanide species in Hanford simulated high-level radioactive waste were pursued in this work. Methods studied include infrared spectroscopy (solid state and solution), Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ion chromatography. Of these, infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and ion chromatography techniques show promise in the concentration range of interest. Quantitation limits for these latter four techniques were demonstrated to be approximately 0.1 wt% (as cyanide) using simulated Hanford wastes.

  11. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. Children's Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Children’s Tumor Foundation and Vice President Biden’s National Cancer Moonshot Initiative Oct 26, 2016, Posted in Collaborations , Latest News , Press Release , Science Foundation President Annette Bakker Participates in Key Meetings Dedicated ...

  13. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Cancer Foundation joins the PBTF Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  14. Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome Foundation is a registered 501(c)3 non-profit corporation (Tax ID #56-1784846). Donations are tax- ... Syndrome Foundation is a registered 501(c)3 non-profit corporation (Tax ID #56-1784846). Donations are tax- ...

  15. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  16. Kessler Foundation Research Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mindfulness-based Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Brain Injury Dr. Zanca of Kessler Foundation Receives $600,000 ... to Improve Learning among Children and Adolescents with Brain Injury Kessler Foundation Seeks Children and Adolescents for Brain ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Foundation Newsletter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters These include monthly e-newsletters and quarterly science-specific e-newsletters. Read the latest issue below or browse the archives. National Parkinson Foundation and the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation Complete Merger to ...

  18. Field observations on the use of sodium cyanide in stream surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Sodium cyanide has been an effective method for sampling the stream fish populations in Eastern Tennessee. Its portability makes it a practical stream management tool. Cyanide is an excellent cold weather sampling method. Three ounces of cyanide in trout streams and 6 ounces in warmwater streams per cubic foot a second flow will sample 100 yards. In water colder than 55/sup 0/F mortality of fish is not acute. Rainbow trout and various warmwater fish collected with cyanide and held in aquaria showed no deleterious effects from exposure to the chemical. Reduction in stream invertebrate populations after cyanide application is evident. 3 references, 1 table.

  19. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  20. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-02-06

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  1. The oxidative disposition of potassium cyanide in mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J D; Isom, G E

    1985-12-01

    The role of oxidative metabolism in the disposition of potassium cyanide (KCN), was investigated in mice administered KCN, (4.6 mg/kg, s.c.) containing 4.5 microCi [14C]KCN. The expired pulmonary metabolites, [14C]hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and 14CO2, were collected and analyzed. Approximately 1% and 2% of the KCN dose was expired as [14C]HCN and 14CO2, respectively. Expiration of the pulmonary metabolites was decreased following pretreatment with sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, oxygen, or a combination of cyanide antidotes. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide lowered the amount of [14C]HCN expired and did not alter the expiration of 14CO2. Treatment with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (catalase inhibitor), superoxide dismutase, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (superoxide dismutase inhibitor) did not change the amount of [14C]HCN expired. However, superoxide dismutase significantly increased the amount of 14CO2 expired, whereas diethyldithiocarbamic acid decreased 14CO2 expiration. The results from these studies suggest that in vivo cyanide can be oxidized to CO2 and treatment with agents that alter the availability of endogenous superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide can alter the rate of cyanide oxidation. PMID:3000027

  2. 169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. 90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, André T.; Hueza, Isis M.; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M.; Maiorka, Paulo C.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis. PMID:26101526

  5. Thermodeformational Behavior of Cubic Crystals of Sodium Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesleva, E. P.; Gil, L. B.; Solovyan, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper the authors provide results of the study of anisotropic and isotropic acoustic (elastic waves propagation velocities), dimensional (elastic moduli) and nondimensional (Poisson's ratios) elastic characteristics of mono- and polycrystals of sodium cyanide within the temperature range 283.7÷473 K.

  6. Interlaboratory study of free cyanide methods compared to total cyanide measurements and the effect of preservation with sodium hydroxide for secondary- and tertiary-treated waste water samples.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Brett J; Antonio, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Several methods exist for the measurement of cyanide levels in treated wastewater,typically requiring preservation of the sample with sodium hydroxide to minimize loss of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN). Recent reports have shown that cyanide levels may increase with chlorination or preservation. In this study, three flow injection analysis methods involving colorimetric and amperometric detection were compared within one laboratory, as well as across separate laboratories and equipment. Split wastewater samples from eight facilities and three different sampling periods were tested. An interlaboratory confidence interval of 3.5 ppb was calculated compared with the intralaboratory reporting limit of 2 ppb. The results show that free cyanide measurements are not statistically different than total cyanide levels. An artificial increase in cyanide level is observed with all methods for preserved samples relative to nonpreserved samples, with an average increase of 2.3 ppb. The possible loss of cyanide without preservation is shown to be statistically insignificant if properly stored up to 48 hours. The cyanide increase with preservation is further substantiated with the method of standard additions and is not a matrix interference. The increase appears to be correlated with the amount of cyanide observed without preservation, which appears to be greater in those facilities that disinfect their wastewater with chlorine, followed by dechlorination with sodium bisulfite.

  7. Cyanide degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 involves a malate:quinone oxidoreductase and an associated cyanide-insensitive electron transfer chain.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Victor M; Merchán, Faustino; Blasco, Rafael; Igeño, M Isabel; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Castillo, Francisco; Roldán, M Dolores

    2011-03-01

    The alkaliphilic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is able to grow with cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. Membrane fractions from cells grown under cyanotrophic conditions catalysed the production of oxaloacetate from L-malate. Several enzymic activities of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles in association with the cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway seem to be responsible for the oxaloacetate formation in vivo. Thus, in cyanide-grown cells, citrate synthase and isocitrate lyase activities were significantly higher than those observed with other nitrogen sources. Malate dehydrogenase activity was undetectable, but a malate:quinone oxidoreductase activity coupled to the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase was found in membrane fractions from cyanide-grown cells. Therefore, oxaloacetate production was linked to the cyanide-insensitive respiration in P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344. Cyanide and oxaloacetate reacted chemically inside the cells to produce a cyanohydrin (2-hydroxynitrile), which was further converted to ammonium. In addition to cyanide, strain CECT5344 was able to grow with several cyano derivatives, such as 2- and 3-hydroxynitriles. The specific system required for uptake and metabolization of cyanohydrins was induced by cyanide and by 2-hydroxynitriles, such as the cyanohydrins of oxaloacetate and 2-oxoglutarate.

  8. Turning the 'mustard oil bomb' into a 'cyanide bomb': aromatic glucosinolate metabolism in a specialist insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Einar J; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as 'coevolutionary armsrace'. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by β-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification.

  9. Turning the 'mustard oil bomb' into a 'cyanide bomb': aromatic glucosinolate metabolism in a specialist insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Einar J; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as 'coevolutionary armsrace'. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by β-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification. PMID:22536404

  10. A Direct and Rapid Method to Determine Cyanide in Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-01-01

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4 minutes, and the separation was observed in 25 s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0 nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. PMID:26342870

  11. Development of a Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Rapid Diagnosis of Cyanide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The “heavy” use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture “apparatus”, consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13–200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

  12. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13-200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  13. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-01

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification.

  14. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol.

    PubMed

    Parga, J R; Shukla, S S; Carrillo-Pedroza, F R

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O(3)) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

  15. An enzymatic method for determination of azide and cyanide in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nan-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Feng; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-11-20

    A halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH-PL) from Parvibaculum lavamentivorans DS-1 was characterized and applied to determine azide and cyanide in the water. In this methodology, HHDH-PL catalysed azide and cyanide to react with butylene oxide and form corresponding β-substituted alcohols 1-azidobutan-2-ol (ABO) and 3-hydroxypentanenitrile (HPN) that could be quantitatively detected by gas chromatograph. The detection calibration curves for azide (R(2)=0.997) and cyanide (R(2)=0.995) were linear and the lower limits of detection for azide and cyanide were 0.1 and 0.3mM, respectively. Several other nucleophiles were identified having no effect on the analysis of azide and cyanide, excepting nitrite which influenced the detection of cyanide. This was the first report of a biological method to determine the inorganic azide and cyanide by converting them to the measurable organics.

  16. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol

    SciTech Connect

    Parga, J.R.; Shukla, S.S.; Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R

    2003-07-01

    Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O{sub 3}) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

  17. Regioselective Acylation of Diols and Triols: The Cyanide Effect.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Linseis, Michael; Winter, Rainer F; Schmidt, Richard R

    2016-05-11

    Central topics of carbohydrate chemistry embrace structural modifications of carbohydrates and oligosaccharide synthesis. Both require regioselectively protected building blocks that are mainly available via indirect multistep procedures. Hence, direct protection methods targeting a specific hydroxy group are demanded. Dual hydrogen bonding will eventually differentiate between differently positioned hydroxy groups. As cyanide is capable of various kinds of hydrogen bonding and as it is a quite strong sterically nondemanding base, regioselective O-acylations should be possible at low temperatures even at sterically congested positions, thus permitting formation and also isolation of the kinetic product. Indeed, 1,2-cis-diols, having an equatorial and an axial hydroxy group, benzoyl cyanide or acetyl cyanide as an acylating agent, and DMAP as a catalyst yield at -78 °C the thermodynamically unfavorable axial O-acylation product; acyl migration is not observed under these conditions. This phenomenon was substantiated with 3,4-O-unproteced galacto- and fucopyranosides and 2,3-O-unprotected mannopyranosides. Even for 3,4,6-O-unprotected galactopyranosides as triols, axial 4-O-acylation is appreciably faster than O-acylation of the primary 6-hydroxy group. The importance of hydrogen bonding for this unusual regioselectivity could be confirmed by NMR studies and DFT calculations, which indicate favorable hydrogen bonding of cyanide to the most acidic axial hydroxy group supported by hydrogen bonding of the equatorial hydroxy group to the axial oxygen. Thus, the "cyanide effect" is due to dual hydrogen bonding of the axial hydroxy group which enhances the nucleophilicity of the respective oxygen atom, permitting an even faster reaction for diols than for mono-ols. In contrast, fluoride as a counterion favors dual hydrogen bonding to both hydroxy groups leading to equatorial O-acylation. PMID:27104625

  18. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k). PMID:24314056

  19. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  20. The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

  1. Terrorism involving cyanide: the prospect of improving preparedness in the prehospital setting.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2006-01-01

    The potential for domestic or international terrorism involving cyanide has not diminished and in fact may have increased in recent years. This paper discusses cyanide as a terrorist weapon and the current state of readiness for a cyanide attack in the United States. Many of the factors that render cyanide appealing to terrorists are difficult to modify sufficiently to decrease the probability of a cyanide attack. For example, the relative ease with which cyanide can be used as a weapon without special training, its versatile means of delivery to intended victims, and to a large degree, its ready availability cannot be significantly modified through preparedness efforts. On the other hand, the impact of an attack can be mitigated through preparedness measures designed to minimize the physical, psychological, and social consequences of cyanide exposure. Although the nation remains ill-equipped to manage a cyanide disaster, significant progress is being realized in some aspects of preparedness. Hydroxocobalamin-a cyanide antidote that may be appropriate for use in the prehospital setting for presumptive cases of cyanide poisoning-currently is under development for potential introduction in the US. If it becomes available in the US, hydroxocobalamin could enhance the role of the prehospital emergency responder in providing care to victims of a cyanide disaster. Additional progress is required in the areas of ensuring local and regional availability of antidotal treatment and supportive interventions, educating emergency healthcare providers about cyanide poisoning and its management, and raising public awareness of the potential for a cyanide attack and how to respond.

  2. Bacterial Degradation of Cyanide and Its Metal Complexes under Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M.; Huertas, María-J.; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M. Dolores; García-Gil, L. Jesús; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) the bacterium stoichiometrically converted cyanide into ammonium in the presence of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. The bacterium was able to grow in alkaline media, up to an initial pH of 11.5, and tolerated free cyanide in concentrations of up to 30 mM, which makes it a good candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated residues. Both acetate and d,l-malate were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth, but no growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. In addition to cyanide, P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 used other nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, cyanate, cyanoacetamide, nitroferricyanide (nitroprusside), and a variety of cyanide-metal complexes. Cyanide and ammonium were assimilated simultaneously, whereas cyanide strongly inhibited nitrate and nitrite assimilation. Cyanase activity was induced during growth with cyanide or cyanate, but not with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. This result suggests that cyanate could be an intermediate in the cyanide degradation pathway, but alternative routes cannot be excluded. PMID:15691951

  3. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments. PMID:24449698

  4. An assessment of the release of inorganic cyanide from the fragrance materials benzyl cyanide, geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile applied dermally to the rat.

    PubMed

    Potter, J; Smith, R L; Api, A M

    2001-02-01

    Organonitriles are widely used as components of fragrances that are incorporated into consumer products, many of which are for human topical use. Some organontriles are readily broken down metabolically to potentially toxic inorganic cyanide. Studies were therefore undertaken to assess whether this occurs with three representative fragrance nitriles, namely, benzyl cyanide, geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile when applied dermally to the rat. The nitriles (benzyl cyanide, 150 mg/kg; geranyl and citronellyl nitriles, 400 mg/kg) were applied to the shaved backs of rats and maintained under occlusion for 24 h. Urine samples were collected for 0-24 h, 24-48 h and 48-72 h from the time of first application. These samples were analysed for thiocyanate, a biomarker for cyanide formation in vivo, as described previously (Potter, J., Smith, R.L., Api, A.M., 2000. Urinary thiocyanate levels as a biomarker for the generation of inorganic cyanide from benzyl cyanide in the rat. Food and Chemical Toxicology 39, 141-146). In the case of benzyl cyanide, there was a marked increase in urinary thiocyanate levels attributable to the release of cyanide in vivo. The amount of thiocyanate recovered was equivalent to 37% of the dose for males and 32% for females. For geranyl nitrile there was no significant increase in urinary thiocyanate excretion and there was only a marginal increase in the case of citronellyl nitrile that was equivalent to 0.40% of the applied dose for males and 0.29% for females.

  5. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    PubMed

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 μg L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in June (0.87 μg L(-1)) and May (0.77 μg L(-1)) months of 2012 and 2013, respectively, than the rest of the months. However, free cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ∼3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution.

  6. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments.

  7. American Macular Degeneration Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to content Contact DONATE Search for: Search Saving sight through research and education American Macular Degeneration Foundation Saving Sight Through Research and Education Menu About Macular Degeneration ...

  8. Foundation Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Mosiman, Garrett; Handeen, Daniel; Huelman, Patrick; Christian, Jeffery

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information that will enable designers, builders, and homeowners to understand foundation design problems and solutions. The foundation of a house is a somewhat invisible and sometimes ignored component of the building. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction has significant benefits to the homeowner and the builder, and can avoid some serious future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice means not only insulating to save energy, but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques where appropriate.

  9. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation provides medically verified information to families and healthcare professionals, funds new OI research and promotes public policy that supports people living with osteogenesis imperfecta. Learn ...

  10. Recovery of Copper from Cyanidation Tailing by Flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tingsheng; Huang, Xiong; Yang, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium metabisulfite and copper sulfate as activators were investigated to lessen the depression effect of cyanide for deep-depressing chalcopyrite. The experimental results indicate that the copper recovery exceeded 94%, 84% and 97% at the dosage: sodium hypochlorite 3 mL/L, hydrogen peroxide 2 mL/L, sodium metabisulfite 2 × 10-3 mol/L and copper sulfate 1.67 × 10-4 mol/L, respectively. According to the results of zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum, it is suggested that chalcopyrite was depressed because of the chemical adsorption of cyanide on the chalcopyrite surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and sodium metabisulfite can destroy Cu-C bond on the deep-depressing chalcopyrite surface by chemical reaction. Copper sulfate can activate deep-depressing chalcopyrite by copper ion adsorption.

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of cyanide in the hydrocyclone cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dhamo, N.

    1996-12-31

    A diluted electroplating cyanide rinse water has been used to test the use of the hydrocyclone cell (HCC) in batch recycle mode of operation for the simultaneous oxidation of cyanide during the electrodeposition of silver. The results obtained in this work with regard to the final products, current efficiency and the number of transferred electrons per CN{sup {minus}} helped to establish a probable reaction scheme. According to this, the process occurs mainly with one-electron transfer, through cyanate and cyanogen as intermediate species. Meanwhile, under conditions where the electrolyte circulates in an open bath and flows successively through the cathodic and the anodic compartments, as in the case of the HCC system, the cyanate could be produced by the direct oxidation through air and/or generated peroxide and CN could be lost as HCN (g).

  12. 1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN ASSEMBLY PLANT. VIEW TO WEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Oil House, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  14. Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company`s (WHC`s) Ferrocyanide Safety Program. Currently, there are 18 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site that are on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. In the presence of oxidizing material such as sodium nitrate or nitrite, ferrocyanide can be made to react exothermally by heating it to high temperatures or by applying an electrical spark of sufficient energy (Cady 1993). However, fuel, oxidizers, and temperature are all important parameters. If fuel, oxidizers, or high temperatures (initiators) are not present in sufficient amounts, then a runaway or propagating reaction cannot occur. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate ferrocyanide concentration present within the actual waste. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as cyanide) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as cyanide). In FY 1992, 1993, and 1994, two solution (wet) methods were developed based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ion chromatography (IC); these methods were chosen for further development activities. The results of these activities are described.

  15. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  16. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  17. Bacillus pumilus Cyanide Dihydratase Mutants with Higher Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crum, Mary A.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Benedik, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide degrading nitrilases are noted for their potential to detoxify industrial wastewater contaminated with cyanide. However, such application would benefit from an improvement to characteristics such as their catalytic activity and stability. Following error-prone PCR for random mutagenesis, several cyanide dihydratase mutants from Bacillus pumilus were isolated based on improved catalysis. Four point mutations, K93R, D172N, A202T, and E327K were characterized and their effects on kinetics, thermostability and pH tolerance were studied. K93R and D172N increased the enzyme’s thermostability whereas E327K mutation had a less pronounced effect on stability. The D172N mutation also increased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate at pH 7.7 but lowered its kcat. However, the A202T mutation, located in the dimerization or the A surface, destabilized the protein and abolished its activity. No significant effect on activity at alkaline pH was observed for any of the purified mutants. These mutations help confirm the model of CynD and are discussed in the context of the protein–protein interfaces leading to the protein quaternary structure. PMID:27570524

  18. Bacillus pumilus Cyanide Dihydratase Mutants with Higher Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Crum, Mary A; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide degrading nitrilases are noted for their potential to detoxify industrial wastewater contaminated with cyanide. However, such application would benefit from an improvement to characteristics such as their catalytic activity and stability. Following error-prone PCR for random mutagenesis, several cyanide dihydratase mutants from Bacillus pumilus were isolated based on improved catalysis. Four point mutations, K93R, D172N, A202T, and E327K were characterized and their effects on kinetics, thermostability and pH tolerance were studied. K93R and D172N increased the enzyme's thermostability whereas E327K mutation had a less pronounced effect on stability. The D172N mutation also increased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate at pH 7.7 but lowered its k cat. However, the A202T mutation, located in the dimerization or the A surface, destabilized the protein and abolished its activity. No significant effect on activity at alkaline pH was observed for any of the purified mutants. These mutations help confirm the model of CynD and are discussed in the context of the protein-protein interfaces leading to the protein quaternary structure. PMID:27570524

  19. Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival.

    PubMed

    Jethava, Durga; Gupta, Priyamvada; Kothari, Sandeep; Rijhwani, Puneet; Kumar, Ankit

    2014-05-01

    A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosis, profound shock, and its fatal outcome. The patient dies of cardio-respiratory arrest secondary to dysfunction of the medullary centres. It is rapidly absorbed, symptoms begin few seconds after exposure and death usually occurs in <30 min. The average lethal dose for potassium cyanide is about 250 mg. We used repeated doses of thiopentone sodium till the antidote kit was finally in our hands, hypothesising that it contains thiol group similar to the antidote thiosulphate. Moreover, it is an anticonvulsant. We were successful in our attempts and the patient survived though the specific antidotes could be administered after about an hour. PMID:25024476

  20. Physiology and pathophysiology of respiratory arrest by cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Klimmek, R.

    1993-05-13

    Respiratory arrest, preceded by hyperventilation, is the primary cause of death in acute cyanide poisoning. Hyperventilation followed by apnea is also observed without intoxication. Hyperventilation and apnea in untoxicated subjects and animals are analyzed for the underlying physiological and biochemical changes and compared with those found during cyanide poisoning. The study reveals that the respiratory autoregulation appears to be the same under both conditions. Respiratory arrest is controlled by cerebral PCO2 and can occur without hypoxia or inhibition of cytochrome oxidase. It is postulated that respiratory arrest is a 'desperate act' thrust on the respiratory neurons by a critical exhaustion of their energy store (ATP) due to the rapid firing in the period of hyperventilation. The point of no return may be reached when anoxia and/or partial inhibition of cytochrome oxidase prevent the neurons from replenishing the ATP store. The formation of Fe3+ cyanide complexes. exemplified by the metHb producer DMAP, appears to give the best results with regard to the restoration of spontaneous respiration. The study of respiratory autoregulation may also be helpful in developing and understanding other therapeutic approaches.

  1. Calcium antagonists. A role in the management of cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Maduh, E.U.; Porter, D.W.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-12-31

    The physiological role of calcium was demonstrated by Ringer (1883) when he linked the omission of calcium (Ca++) from the bathing medium to the induction of cardiac arrest in the isolated frog heart. This observation established that Ca++ controlled muscle contraction but it was not until the autumn of 1963 that the specific pharmacological significance of this contribution was realised by Fleckenstein (1964), leading to the development of Ca++ antagonism as a concept in drug action (Fleckenstein 1977). Identifying the precise role of Ca++ ions in toxic cell injury and tissue death attributable to drug and chemical intoxication has lagged behind developments in Ca++ physiology and pharmacology and to date, much remains to be learned, although studies aimed at characterising the role of Ca++ in cytotoxic cell injury are receiving intense attention (Bondy Komulainen 1988; Maduh et al. l988a, l99Oa,b; Orrenius et al. 1989; Trump et al. 1989). On the other hand, the importance of cyanide as a poison has been known from antiquity (for references to earlier literature see Baskin Fricke 1992; Solomonson 1981). In experimental cyanide poisoning, recent studies have examined alterations in cell Ca++ and the influence of Ca++ antagonists in the management of this chemical toxicological emergency. These efforts have principally focused on the cellular Ca++ homeostasis system, its interrelationship with cellular components, and its susceptibility to cyanide action.

  2. Draft whole genome sequence of the cyanide-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Acera, Felipe; Igeño, Ma Isabel; Wibberg, Daniel; Roldán, Ma Dolores; Sáez, Lara P; Hennig, Magdalena; Quesada, Alberto; Huertas, Ma José; Blom, Jochen; Merchán, Faustino; Escribano, Ma Paz; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Estepa, Jessica; Guijo, Ma Isabel; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Macías, Daniel; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Becerra, Gracia; Ramirez, Silvia; Carmona, Ma Isabel; Gutiérrez, Oscar; Manso, Isabel; Pühler, Alfred; Castillo, Francisco; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Schlüter, Andreas; Blasco, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a Gram-negative bacterium able to tolerate cyanide and to use it as the sole nitrogen source. We report here the first draft of the whole genome sequence of a P. pseudoalcaligenes strain that assimilates cyanide. Three aspects are specially emphasized in this manuscript. First, some generalities of the genome are shown and discussed in the context of other Pseudomonadaceae genomes, including genome size, G + C content, core genome and singletons among other features. Second, the genome is analysed in the context of cyanide metabolism, describing genes probably involved in cyanide assimilation, like those encoding nitrilases, and genes related to cyanide resistance, like the cio genes encoding the cyanide insensitive oxidases. Finally, the presence of genes probably involved in other processes with a great biotechnological potential like production of bioplastics and biodegradation of pollutants also is discussed. PMID:22998548

  3. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  4. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

    2012-01-03

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  5. Cyanide toxicity during cardiopulmonary bypass with small dose of nitroprusside: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kum-Hee; Park, Seo Min; Baek, In Chan; Jang, Junheum; Hong, Yong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is an anti-hypertensive drug, commonly used to decrease the systemic vascular resistance and lower the blood pressure. When the amount of cyanide generated by the SNP exceeds the metabolic capacity for detoxification, cyanide toxicity occurs. Under general anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), it may be difficult to detect the development of cyanide toxicity. In cardiac surgical patients, hemolysis, hypothermia and decreased organ perfusion, which emphasize the risk of cyanide toxicity, may develop as a consequence of CPB. In particular, hemolysis during CPB may cause an unexpected overproduction of cyanide due to free hemoglobin release. We experienced a patient who demonstrated SNP tachyphylaxis and cyanide toxicity during CPB, even though the total amount of SNP administered was much lower than the recommended dose. We therefore report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:27064896

  6. Differential mitochondrial electron transport through the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathways in isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile, male fertile, and restored petunia. [Petunia parodii L. S. M

    SciTech Connect

    Connett, M.B.; Hanson, M.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida (Hook) Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydoxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines.

  7. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  8. Foundation Development Abstracts, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James M., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This series of brief two-page essays is published quarterly by the Network of California Community College Foundations to address topics related to development activities typically conducted by educational foundations. Volume 1 includes "Your Message is as Clear as Your Mission Statement," by Pat Rasmussen and James M. Anderson, which suggests…

  9. A triazole-bearing picket fence type nickel porphyrin as a cyanide selective allosteric host.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kyeong-Im; Yoon, Hongsik; Jang, Woo-Dong

    2015-05-01

    A triazole-bearing picket fence type nickel porphyrin (1) has been synthesized as a host compound for anion binding. Among the various anionic species examined, cyanide was the only one that affected a spectral change of 1. Moreover, 1 exhibited strong homotropic positive allosterism against cyanide binding due to an electronic effect as well as multiple hydrogen bonds formed between cyanide and the triazole groups.

  10. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    PubMed

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,α)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.

  11. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    DOE PAGES

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass.more » It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.« less

  12. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.

  13. Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Clifford N; Minard, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types

  14. Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Clifford N; Minard, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types

  15. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: an environmental perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species are subject to attenuation mechanisms that lead to dispersal to the atmosphere, chemical transformation to other carbon and nitrogen species, or sequestration as cyanometallic precipitates or adsorbed species on mineral surfaces. Dispersal to the atmosphere and chemical transformation amount to permanent elimination of cyanide, whereas sequestration amounts to storage of cyanide in locations from which it can potentially be remobilized by infiltrating waters if conditions change. From an environmental perspective, the most significant cyanide releases from gold leach operations involve catastrophic spills of process solutions or leakage of effluent to the unsaturated or saturated zones. These release pathways are unfavorable for two important cyanide attenuation mechanisms that tend to occur naturally: dispersal of free cyanide to the atmosphere and sunlight-catalyzed dissociation of strong cyanometallic complexes, which produces free cyanide that can then disperse to the atmosphere. The widest margins of environmental safety will be achieved where mineral processing operations are designed so that time for offgassing, aeration, and sunlight exposure are maximized in the event that cyanide-bearing solutions are released inadvertently.

  16. Determination of cyanide in blood by reaction head-space gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Felby, Søren

    2009-01-01

    A method describing determination of cyanide in blood by head-space gas chromatography with electron capture detector was reported. The method involves transformation of cyanide into cyanogen chloride by reacting hydrogen cyanide with chloramine-T on a stick of filter paper in the space above the blood in the head-space vial. The recovery was 84-96% and the coefficient of variation was 3.3-7.2%. The limit of quantitation was about 0.01 mg cyanide/l.

  17. Amygdalin Toxicity Studies in Rats Predict Chronic Cyanide Poisoning in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Newton, George W.; Schmidt, Eric S.; Lewis, Jerry P.; Lawrence, Ruth; Conn, Eric

    1981-01-01

    Significant amounts of cyanide are released when amygdalin (Laetrile), a cyanogenic glycoside, is given orally or intravenously to rats. The amount of cyanide liberated following oral administration is dependent in part on the bacterial flora of the gut and can be suppressed by antibiotic pretreatment of the animals. Bacteria from human feces likewise hydrolyze amygdalin with release of cyanide. Humans taking amygdalin orally in the hope of preventing cancer are likely to be exposed to levels of cyanide in excess of that associated with the development of tropical ataxic neuropathy in people of underdeveloped countries where food containing cyanogenic glycosides is a staple part of the diet. PMID:7222669

  18. [Suicidal poisoning with cyanide bought on the internet--case report].

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Karina; Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Górny, Jacek; Tobolski, Jarosław; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Cyanides are relatively rare cause of acute poisonings. The majority of data on toxic effects of cyanide compounds on the human body, come from the experiences gained from accidental poisonings in the workplace, with fire smokes or during chemical incidents. However, from immemorial time, cyanides were also used in suicide attempts. The aim of this paper is to present the case of suicidal cyanide poisoning of 26-year-old woman, who was admitted to the toxicology department one hour after ingestion of unknown cyanogenic compound, probably bought on the Internet. Despite intensive symptomatic treatment and antidote administration (hydroxocobalamine), patient died after 78 hours of treatment.

  19. Builder's foundation handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J. . Underground Space Center); Christian, J. ); Labs, K. )

    1991-05-01

    This handbook contains a worksheet for selecting insulation levels based on specific building construction, climate, HVAC equipment, insulation cost, and other economic considerations. The worksheet permits optimization of foundation insulation levels for new or retrofit applications. Construction details representing good practices for the design and installation of energy efficient basement, crawl space, and slab-n-grade foundations are the focal point of the handbook. The construction details are keyed to lists of critical design information useful for specifying structural integrity; thermal and vapor control; subsurface drainage; waterproofing; and mold, mildew, odor, decay, termite, and radon control strategies. Another useful feature are checklist chapter summaries covering major design considerations for each foundation type--basement, crawl space, and slab-on-grade. These checklist summaries are useful during design and construction inspection. The information in this handbook is drawn heavily from the first foundation handbook from the DOE/ORNL Building Envelope Systems and Materials Program, the Building Foundation Design Handbook (Labs et al., 1988), which is an extensive technical reference manual. This book presents what to do in foundation design'' in an inviting, concise format. This handbook is intended to serve the needs of active home builders; however, the information is pertinent to anyone involved in foundation design and construction decisions including homeowners, architects, and engineers. 17 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Nichols, O; Possingham, H; Moore, M; Ricci, P F; Noller, B N

    2007-10-01

    Wildlife deaths associated with cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions have plagued the gold mining industries for many years, yet there is little published data showing the relationship between wildlife mortality and cyanide toxicity. A gap of knowledge exists in monitoring, understanding the causal relationships and managing risks to wildlife from cyanide-bearing waste solutions and tailings. There is a need for the gold industry to address this issue and to meet the International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC) guidelines. The perceived extent of the issue varies, with one study finding the issue inadequately monitored and wildlife deaths grossly underestimated. In Nevada, USA during 1990 and 1991, 9512 carcasses were reported of over 100 species, although there was underestimation due to reporting being voluntary. Of these, birds comprised 80-91% of vertebrate carcasses reported annually. At Northparkes, Australia in 1995, it was initially estimated that 100 bird carcasses were present by mine staff following a tailings incident; when a thorough count was conducted, 1583 bird carcasses were recorded. Eventually, 2700 bird deaths were documented over a four-month period. It is identified that avian deaths are usually undetected and significantly underestimated, leading to a perception that a risk does not exist. Few guidelines and information are available to manage the risks of cyanide to wildlife, although detoxification, habitat modification and denying wildlife access have been used effectively. Hazing techniques have proven ineffective. Apparently no literature exists that documents accurate wildlife monitoring protocols on potentially toxic cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions or any understanding on the analysis of any derived dataset. This places the onus on mining operations to document that no risk to wildlife exists. Cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities are environmental control structures to contain tailings, a standard practice in the mining

  1. A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Nichols, O; Possingham, H; Moore, M; Ricci, P F; Noller, B N

    2007-10-01

    Wildlife deaths associated with cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions have plagued the gold mining industries for many years, yet there is little published data showing the relationship between wildlife mortality and cyanide toxicity. A gap of knowledge exists in monitoring, understanding the causal relationships and managing risks to wildlife from cyanide-bearing waste solutions and tailings. There is a need for the gold industry to address this issue and to meet the International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC) guidelines. The perceived extent of the issue varies, with one study finding the issue inadequately monitored and wildlife deaths grossly underestimated. In Nevada, USA during 1990 and 1991, 9512 carcasses were reported of over 100 species, although there was underestimation due to reporting being voluntary. Of these, birds comprised 80-91% of vertebrate carcasses reported annually. At Northparkes, Australia in 1995, it was initially estimated that 100 bird carcasses were present by mine staff following a tailings incident; when a thorough count was conducted, 1583 bird carcasses were recorded. Eventually, 2700 bird deaths were documented over a four-month period. It is identified that avian deaths are usually undetected and significantly underestimated, leading to a perception that a risk does not exist. Few guidelines and information are available to manage the risks of cyanide to wildlife, although detoxification, habitat modification and denying wildlife access have been used effectively. Hazing techniques have proven ineffective. Apparently no literature exists that documents accurate wildlife monitoring protocols on potentially toxic cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions or any understanding on the analysis of any derived dataset. This places the onus on mining operations to document that no risk to wildlife exists. Cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities are environmental control structures to contain tailings, a standard practice in the mining

  2. Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment. PMID:20705081

  3. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  4. Degradation of soil cyanide by single and mixed cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Nwokoro, Ogbonnaya; Dibua, Marie Esther Uju

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study whether certain bacteria could be used for cyanide degradation in soil. The bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis were selected based on their good growth in a minimal medium containing 0.8 mg mL-1 potassium cyanide (KCN). In this study we tested their ability to reduce cyanide levels in a medium containing 1.5 mg mL-1 of KCN. Although both microorganisms reduced cyanide levels, Pseudomonas stutzeri was the more effective test organism. Later on, the selected cultures were grown, diluted and their various cell concentrations were used individually and in combination to test their ability of cyanide degradation in soil samples collected around a cassava processing mill. Bacillus subtilis caused degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil immediately with an inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) to 0.072 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) implying a 66.9 % reduction. Pseudomonas stutzeri cell concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) decreased soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil initially to 0.061 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) (72 % reduction). The mixed culture of the two bacteria produced the best degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil sample with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) initially to 0.025 mg g-1 soil with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) after 10 days incubation resulting in an 88.5 % degradation of soil cyanide. The analysed bacteria displayed high cyanide degradation potential and may be useful for efficient decontamination of cyanide contaminated sites.

  5. Cleft Palate Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish , and Mandarin ! Information on Cleft Lip and Palate Our booklets and factsheets address a variety of ... Bear. –Paige with her Cleftline™ teddy bear– Cleft Palate Foundation 1504 East Franklin Street, Suite 102 Chapel ...

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  13. A Foundation for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the funding of scientific research by the National Science Foundation (NSF) during the past 25 years. Reviews in general terms the types of broad research accomplished through NSF funds in various fields of science. (MLH)

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    ... with Hydrocephalus Fetal MRI Advancements Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Communication and Development Therapy Eye Findings in Hydrocephalus News & Events Member Benefits & Services How to Join Make a Donation Website design by SDGi . © 2014 National Hydrocephalus Foundation. All rights ...

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  19. [A method of cleaning overalls contaminated with sodium cyanide].

    PubMed

    Beliakov, A A; Mironov, L A

    1990-01-01

    The contributors propose a new technique of cleaning overalls in galvanic shops from crystalline natrium cyanide (NC) and alkaline solutions. The technique includes washing in hot 0.05% syntamide-5 solution for 4-5 min., double rinsing and centrifuging. The remaining quantity of NC on washed overalls does not exceed 0.02 mg/m2 (evaluated in hydrocyanic acid). Subsequent contaminations of the overalls with NC do not entail the accumulation of NC residual content. The physical and chemical characteristics of this type of overall washing are more preferable as compared to those attained through soaking in ferric sulfate solution. PMID:2161780

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE REMAINS OF THREE TEN FOOT DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS ARE AT CENTER. THE SCATTER IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND IS THE REMAINS OF A LARGE RECTANGULAR HOLDING TANK POSSIBLY A SETTLING TANK. THIS AREA WAS MOST LIKELY CONSTRUCTED LATER IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AFTER MINING HAD CEASED AND ONLY TAILINGS WERE BEING RECLAIMED. AN EXACT DATE CANNOT BE DETERMINED HOWEVER THESE WORKS ARE DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT THAN THE ORIGINAL LAYOUT. THE SANDY AREA THAT OCCUPIES THE FOREGROUND AND THE CENTER ARE TAILINGS. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Cyanide in bronchoalveolar lavage is not diagnostic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stutz, M D; Gangell, C L; Berry, L J; Garratt, L W; Sheil, B; Sly, P D

    2011-03-01

    Early detection of the cyanobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is considered the key to delaying chronic pulmonary disease. We investigated whether cyanide in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could be used as an early diagnostic biomarker of infection. Cyanide was measured in 226 BAL samples (36 P. aeruginosa infected) obtained from 96 infants and young children with CF participating in an early surveillance programme involving annual BAL. Cyanide was detected in 97.2% of P. aeruginosa infected and 60.5% of uninfected samples. Cyanide concentrations were significantly higher in BALs infected with P. aeruginosa (median (25th-75th percentile) 27.3 (22.1-33.3) μM) than those which were not (17.2 (7.85-23.0) μM, p<0.001). The best sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were obtained with a cut-off concentration of 20.6 μM, and were 83%, 66%, 32% and 96%, respectively. Neutrophil number in BAL was a significant predictor of cyanide concentration (p<0.001). Cyanide concentration can distinguish between P. aeruginosa infected and uninfected BALs as a group, but not individually; therefore, cyanide is a poor diagnostic biomarker of P. aeruginosa infection. Cyanide levels in BAL are related to the level of neutrophilic inflammation.

  3. Development of a site-specific marine water quality standard for cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Arredondo, L.A.; Brix, K.V.; Cardwell, R.D.; Marsden, A.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to develop a site-specific marine standard for cyanide. The generic cyanide standard of 1 {micro}g/L is ``driven`` by toxicity data for eastern rock crab (Cancer irroratus) zoeae. The reported LC50 for C. irroratus is 4.9 {micro}g/L cyanide and is six times more sensitive that any other marine species tested. In order to develop a site-specific standard for Washington state, cyanide toxicity tests were conducted using the first stage zoeae of Cancer magister and Cancer oregonensis, two Cancer resident to Puget Sound, in accordance with standard ASTM test methods. Testing with C. magister and C. oregonensis resulted in Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVS) of 68 and 131 {micro}g/L cyanide based on measured test concentrations. This is considerably higher than that reported for C. irroratus, is more consistent with cyanide toxicity values for other species tested, and results in a water quality criterion of 9.85 {micro}g/L cyanide with inclusion of these values in the data set. This paper presents the test methods used and the potential effects the test results may have on the marine water quality criterion for cyanide.

  4. Simultaneous degradation of cyanide and phenol in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Mishra, Ram Sushil; Jadhav, Shilpa V; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, T

    2011-07-01

    Coal coking, precious metals mining and nitrile polymer industries generate over several billion liters of cyanide-containing waste annually. Economic and environmental considerations make biological technologies attractive for treatment of wastes containing high organic content, in which the microbial cultures can remove concentrations of organics and cyanide simultaneously. For cyanide and phenol bearing waste treatment, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor has been developed, which successfully removed free cyanide 98% (with feed concentration of 20 mg 1(-1)) in presence of phenol. The effect of cyanide on phenol degradation was studied with varying concentrations of phenol as well as cyanide under anaerobic conditions. This study revealed that the methanogenic degradation of phenol can occur in the presence of cyanide concentration 30-38 mg 1(-1). Higher cyanide concentration inhibited the phenol degradation rate. The inhibition constant Ki was found to be 38 mg 1(-1) with phenol removal rate of 9.09 mg 1(-1.) x h.

  5. Turn-on fluorescent detection of cyanide based on the inner filter effect of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shang, Li; Qin, Chuanjiang; Jin, Lihua; Wang, Lixiang; Dong, Shaojun

    2009-07-01

    A simple, sensitive fluorescent method for detecting cyanide has been developed based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). With a high extinction coefficient and tunable plasmon absorption feature, Ag NPs are expected to be a powerful absorber to tune the emission of the fluorophore in the IFE-based fluorescent assays. In the present work, we developed a turn-on fluorescent assay for cyanide based on the strong absorption of Ag NPs to both excitation and emission light of an isolated fluorescence indicator. In the presence of cyanide, the absorber Ag NPs will dissolve gradually, which then leads to recovery of the IFE-decreased emission of the fluorophore. The concentration of Ag NPs in the detection system was found to affect the fluorescence response toward cyanide greatly. Under the optimum conditions, the present IFE-based approach can detect cyanide ranging from 5.0 x 10(-7) to 6.0 x 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 2.5 x 10(-7) M, which is much lower than the corresponding absorbance-based approach and compares favorably with other reported fluorescent methods. In addition, the present method possesses a good selectivity for cyanide over other common anions and further application in cyanide-spiked water samples suggested a recovery between 98.2 and 101.4%. Therefore, our proposed IFE-based fluorescent method is expected to be applied for cyanide determination in practical applications.

  6. Modelling anaerobic digestion acclimatisation to a biodegradable toxicant: application to cyanide.

    PubMed

    Zaher, U; Moussa, M S; Widyatmika, I N; van Der Steen, P; Gijzen, H J; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2006-01-01

    The observed acclimatisation to biodegradable toxicants in anaerobic cassava wastewater treatment is explained by modelling anaerobic cyanide degradation. A complete degradation pathway is proposed for cyanide. Cyanide degradation is modelled as enzymatic hydrolysis to formate and ammonia. Ammonia is added to the inorganic nitrogen content of the digester while formate is degraded by the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Cyanide irreversible enzyme inhibition is modelled as an inhibition factor to acetate uptake processes. Cyanide irreversible toxicity is modelled as a decay factor to the acetate degraders. Cyanide as well as added phosphorus buffer solution were considered in the chemical equilibrium calculations of pH. The observed reversible effect after acclimatisation of sludge is modelled by a population shift between two aceticlastic methanogens that have different tolerance to cyanide toxicity. The proposed pathway is added to the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model no.1 (ADM1). The ADM1 model with the designed extension is validated by an experiment using three lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors which were exposed to different cyanide loadings.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus C1.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, P R; Rawlings, D E; Woods, D R; Lindsey, G G

    1993-01-01

    A cyanide-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pumilus C1 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme consisted of three polypeptides of 45.6, 44.6, and 41.2 kDa; the molecular mass by gel filtration was 417 kDa. Electron microscopy revealed a multimeric, rod-shaped protein approximately 9 by 50 nm. Cyanide was rapidly degraded to formate and ammonia. Enzyme activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 to 8.0. Activity was enhanced by Sc3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Tb3+; enhancement was independent of metal ion concentration at concentrations above 5 microM. Reversible enhancement of enzymatic activity by azide was maximal at 4.5 mM azide and increased with time. No activity was recorded with the cyanide substrate analogs CNO-, SCN-, CH3CN, and N3- and the possible degradation intermediate HCONH2. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 2.56 +/- 0.48 mM for cyanide and a Vmax of 88.03 +/- 4.67 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. The Km increased approximately twofold in the presence of 10 microM Cr3+ to 5.28 +/- 0.38 mM for cyanide, and the Vmax increased to 197.11 +/- 8.51 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. We propose naming this enzyme cyanide dihydratase. Images PMID:8407782

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide (Bteich+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margules, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-05-01

    Table 3 contains assigned rotational transitions of the ground state and the first excited vibrational state (v5=1) of carbonyl cyanide. Table 4 contains predicted transitions of the ground vibrational state of carbonyl cyanide in the frequency range up to 1THz. (2 data files).

  9. Development of biochemical and transformation cyanide antidotes. Final report, 13 January 1993-12 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Isom, G.E.

    1996-02-01

    Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.

  10. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Water-Soluble Salts of the Dithiane (Sulfanegen) from 3-Mercaptopyruvate for Intramuscular Administration

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Steven E.; Monteil, Alexandre R.; Cohen, Jonathan F.; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T.

    2013-01-01

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote. PMID:23301495

  11. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.

  12. Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

  13. Nitrocobinamide, a new cyanide antidote that can be administered by intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Patel, Hemal H; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

    2015-02-26

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure.

  14. Cobinamide is superior to other treatments in a mouse model of cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Balasubramanian, Maheswari; Blackledge, William; Mohammad, Othman M.; Alvarez, Luis; Boss, Gerry R.; Bigby, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Context Cyanide is a rapidly acting cellular poison, primarily targeting cytochrome c oxidase, and is a common occupational and residential toxin, mostly via smoke inhalation. Cyanide is also a potential weapon of mass destruction, with recent credible threats of attacks focusing the need for better treatments, since current cyanide antidotes are limited and impractical for rapid deployment in mass casualty settings. Objective We have used mouse models of cyanide poisoning to compare the efficacy of cobinamide, the precursor to cobalamin (vitamin B12), to currently approved cyanide antidotes. Cobinamide has extremely high affinity for cyanide and substantial solubility in water. Materials and Methods We studied cobinamide in both an inhaled and intraperitoneal model of cyanide poisoning in mice. Results We found cobinamide more effective than hydroxocobalamin, sodium thiosulfate, sodium nitrite, and the combination of sodium thiosulfate-sodium nitrite in treating cyanide poisoning. Compared to hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide was 3 and 11 times more potent in the intraperitoneal and inhalation models, respectively. Cobinamide sulfite was rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection, and mice recovered from a lethal dose of cyanide even when given at a time when they had been apneic for over two minutes. In range finding studies, cobinamide sulfite at doses up to 2000 mg/kg exhibited no clinical toxicity. Discussion and Conclusion These studies demonstrate that cobinamide is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as cobinamide sulfite. Based on these animal data cobinamide sulfite appears to be an antidote worthy of further testing as a therapy for mass casualties. PMID:20704457

  15. Photobiomodulation partially rescues visual cortical neurons from cyanide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, H L; Whelan, H T; Eells, J T; Meng, H; Buchmann, E; Lerch-Gaggl, A; Wong-Riley, M

    2006-05-12

    Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment has documented therapeutic effects on neurons functionally inactivated by tetrodotoxin or methanol intoxication. Light-emitting diode pretreatment also reduced potassium cyanide-induced cell death, but the mode of death via the apoptotic or necrotic pathway was unclear. The current study tested our hypothesis that light-emitting diode rescues neurons from apoptotic cell death. Primary neuronal cultures from postnatal rat visual cortex were pretreated with light-emitting diode for 10 min at a total energy density of 30 J/cm2 before exposing to potassium cyanide for 28 h. With 100 or 300 microM potassium cyanide, neurons died mainly via the apoptotic pathway, as confirmed by electron microscopy, Hoechst 33258, single-stranded DNA, Bax, and active caspase-3. In the presence of caspase inhibitor I, the percentage of apoptotic cells in 300microM potassium cyanide was significantly decreased. Light-emitting diode pretreatment reduced apoptosis from 36% to 17.9% (100 microM potassium cyanide) and from 58.9% to 39.6% (300 microM potassium cyanide), representing a 50.3% and 32.8% reduction, respectively. Light-emitting diode pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 elicited by potassium cyanide. It also reversed the potassium cyanide-induced increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 to control levels. Moreover, light-emitting diode decreased the intensity of 5-(and -6) chloromethy-2', 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester, a marker of reactive oxygen species, in neurons exposed to 300 microM potassium cyanide. These results indicate that light-emitting diode pretreatment partially protects neurons against cyanide-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, most likely by decreasing reactive oxygen species production, down-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins and activating anti-apoptotic proteins, as well as increasing energy metabolism in neurons as reported previously.

  16. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2).

  17. Biological properties of extremely acidic cyanide-laced mining waste.

    PubMed

    Feketeová, Zuzana; Hulejová Sládkovičová, Veronika; Mangová, Barbara; Pogányová, Andrea; Šimkovic, Ivan; Krumpál, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    With respect to acidic, cyanide-laced tailings, the data about in situ toxicity and biological activity in highly polluted environment are often lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial characteristics, composition of oribatid mite species, and level of genotoxic impact on plants in the area of inactive tailings pond (Horná Ves, Kremnica region). Sampling of the tailings, soils and selected plant species was carried out in spring of 2012. Trace element analysis (inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectrometry) showed that concentration of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the tailings is approximately in thousands of ppm (mg kg(-1)). Amount of lead exceeded 16,000 mg kg(-1), which is perceived as the biggest threat with respect to possible toxicity. The risk is accentuated by extremely acidic pH of the tailings material which approached 2. In such conditions great mobility of (divalent) heavy metal cations is expected. The total cyanide concentration in the tailings was 472 mg kg(-1). Results of performed tests and measurements suggest that microbial activity at the tailings site (and its close environment) is hampered markedly. In the sludge material we detected low abundance of soil bacteria (2.08 × 10(4) CFU) and predominance of slowly growing K-strategists. On the other hand, the content of microbial C in the sludge sample was not too low, considering its extreme acidity and high amount of risk elements. In the same sample, just one mite species, Oppiella (O.) uliginosa (Willmann 1919), was identified. Also in case of the dam site the abundance of mites was considerably lower in comparison to reference sample. Values of Oribatida abundance were in positive correlation with values of microbial biomass carbon. Results of the pollen grain abortivity test, applied in situ on chosen plant species, indicated substantial presence of genotoxicity in the environment. Total induction index of tailings pond reached 3.59(±2.4) which expresses also

  18. Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

    2014-12-01

    A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN- anion over other anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, H2PO4-, HSO4-, SCN- and ClO4- by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN- in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN- is down to 8.8 × 10-8 M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9 × 10-6 M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN- test kit to detect CN- in pure water for “in-the-field” measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide.

  19. Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

    2014-12-10

    A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN(-) anion over other anions such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), AcO(-), H2PO4(-), HSO4(-), SCN(-) and ClO4(-) by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN(-) in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN(-) is down to 8.8×10(-8)M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9×10(-6)M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN(-) test kit to detect CN(-) in pure water for "in-the-field" measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide.

  20. Reversible mechanism for spin crossover in transition-metal cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Mukul; van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2011-03-01

    Spin transitions generally occur in compounds of octahedrally coordinated 3 d transition metal ions. These transitions can be induced by external perturbations such as light, heat, pressure, magnetic field, and chemical substitution. Transition metal cyanides are one such material, which exhibit reversible spin transition while perturbed with light at T < 10 K . Here we report the first-principles (DFT+U) study of anhydrated KCoFe (CN)6 . We find that the complete spin transition from the low spin ground sate (S=0) to a high spin (S=2) state takes place due to intra-atomic and inter-atomic charge transfers in two steps. In the first step a d-electron is transferred from Fe to Co through cyanide ligand, which is followed by the d-electron rearrangement in the Co. This spin transition is strongly correlated with the internal lattice, and we find as large as 10% extension of the Co -N bond via a Jahn-Teller active (tetragonally distorted) lattice in the intermediate spin (S = 1) state. The calculated energy required for this transition is in agreement with experiments. We further predict that this spin transition in such materials can be induced, and further tuned, by external pressure to enable realization of such reversible transitions at ambient temperatures.

  1. Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.

    PubMed

    Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation.

  2. Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations.

    SciTech Connect

    JEFFERY,; LEWINS, D.

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following new book for free distribution: Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations, Preface by Sir Alan Cottrell Introduction 1. Four-Square Foundations: The Laws of Thermodynamics 2. Maximum Entropy and Minimum Energy: The Master Functions and Equations 3. Ideal Gases and their Applications 4. Real Fluids and Some Applications 5. Van der Waals: A Model for Real Fluids 6. Surface Tension: Bubbles and Drops 7. Inert and Reactive Mixtures; An introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics 8. Radiation Thermodynamics: Solar Power Potential 9. Outposts of the Empire 10. A Glimpse into Statistical Thermodynamics Envoi

  3. Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations.

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following new book for free distribution: Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations, Preface by Sir Alan Cottrell Introduction 1. Four-Square Foundations: The Laws of Thermodynamics 2. Maximum Entropy and Minimum Energy: The Master Functions and Equations 3. Ideal Gases and their Applications 4. Real Fluids and Some Applications 5. Van der Waals: A Model for Real Fluids 6. Surface Tension: Bubbles and Drops 7. Inert and Reactive Mixtures;more » An introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics 8. Radiation Thermodynamics: Solar Power Potential 9. Outposts of the Empire 10. A Glimpse into Statistical Thermodynamics Envoi« less

  4. Piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance sensor for trace aqueous cyanide ion determination.

    PubMed

    Timofeyenko, Yegor G; Rosentreter, Jeffrey J; Mayo, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Using selective reaction chemistry, our present research has developed an online, real-time sensor capable of monitoring toxic cyanide at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide are reacted with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric crystal to indirectly sense cyanide concentration by the dissolution of metallic gold. The quartz crystal is an AT-cut wafer sandwiched between two neoprene O-rings within the liquid flow cell. The presence of cyanide in solution results in the selective formation of a soluble dicyano-gold complex according to the Elsner reaction: 4Au + 8CN- + 2H2O + O2 <=> 4Au(CN)2- + 4OH-. The resulting loss of gold from the electrode is detected by the piezoelectric crystal as a resonant frequency change. Since free cyanide is a weak acid (pKa = 9.3), available protons compete for cyanide ligands. Therefore, increased sample pH provides higher sensitivity. The detection limits at pH 12 are 16.1 and 2.7 ppb for analysis times of 10 min and 1 h, respectively. The incorporation of the flow cell improves both analyte sensitivity and instrument precision, with an average signal intensity drift of only 5% over a 2-h analysis. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from low ppb to hundreds of ppm. This detection method offers the advantage of selectively detecting cyanides posing a biohazard while avoiding detection of stable metal cyanides. This aspect of the system is based on competitive exchange of available metals and gold with cyanide ligands. Stable metal cyanide complexes possess a higher formation constant than cyanoaurate. This detection system has been configured into a flow injection analysis array for simple adaptation to automation. Anions commonly found in natural waters have been examined for interference effects. Additionally, the sensor is free from interference by aqueous cyanide analogues

  5. Modulating effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis on induced cyanide toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, O M; Olabode, O O

    2011-12-20

    The effect of lyophilised aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (TO) on induced cyanide toxicity in rats was investigated. Twenty 3-week old male wistar albino rats were randomly distributed into one control and three treatment groups of five rats each: control group (group1), group treated with 3mg/kg body wt of cyanide only (group2), group treated with 3mg/kg body wt. each of cyanide and extract (group3), and a group treated with 3mg/kg Body wt of extract only (group4) were used for the investigation. Cyanide toxicity reduced both food and water intake (p<0.05), while the food intake was improved in group3, this effect of the extract on food was not observed on water intake. Cyanide reduced average body weight of rats significantly (p<0.05). The reduction effect of cyanide on body weight was countered by Telfairia occidentalis extract. The extract did not have an observable effect on rats' body weight. Ocular lesion was observed in 67% of rats in group2 . This ocular effect of cyanide was mitigated significantly by Telfairia occidentalis as only 17% of the rats in group3 had ocular lesion. Cyanide toxicity produced nasal discharge in 39% of the rat population in group2 while there was a partial but considerable reduction (21%) in the severity of nasal discharge in group 3. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the organ/body wt.ratio between the treatments and the control groups for all the organs examined in the study. Biochemical analysis of liver enzymes showed that cyanide (group2) damaged the liver as there was significantly elevated presence (p<0.05) of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALP) above those of the control group. The damaging effect of cyanide on the liver was ameliorated by Telfairia occidentalis considerably.Histopathological effect of cyanide toxicity on the organs examined included multifocal degeneration and necrosis of the liver, mild kidney congestion and congestion of the brain. These effects

  6. The Foundation Directory, Edition 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marianna O., Ed.; Bowers, Patricia, Ed.

    The fourth edition of "The Foundation Directory" lists and describes 5,454 foundations and surveys their grants. The directory was prepared from foundation reports and government records. The foundations listed either have assets of $500.00 or made grants totally at least $25,000.00 in the year of record. Education is the leading beneficiary of…

  7. Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

    The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation…

  8. Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. January 1970-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains 126 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. January 1980-March 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Mar 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains 119 citations with title list and subject index.)

  10. The Broad Foundations, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 2008 foundation report provides an opportunity to look back and ahead as the organization reviews what has been accomplished and identifies challenges to be tackled in the future in the areas of education, scientific and medical research, and the arts. Grant making from the perspective of grantees is presented in each area. [This document was…

  11. Foundation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This document describes some of the many programs sponsored by the National Science Foundation in its efforts to continue to promote systemic science and mathematics education reform. Brief descriptions of the following programs are included: (1) Interactive Math Program Restructures 9-12 Math Education; (2) Algebra I Project Sparks Citywide…

  12. The Broad Foundations, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

  13. Immune Deficiency Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for IDF Join our nationwide network of volunteers Resources For Patients & Families Peer Support Speak with someone who understands Locate a Physician ... secure Legacy Giving Establish your personal legacy and support IDF 'Immune Deficiency Foundation Remembers' Plaque Pay tribute to ... Educational Resources Find a wealth of IDF educational publications and ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF®), a division of the Parkinson's Foundation, seeks research proposals for emerging ideas to help solve, treat and end the disease. PDF investments of $2.7 million are part of its comprehensive strategy to mobilize ... Initiatives Research We Fund Results Apply ...

  15. Foundations of Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabito, Margaret Gorts

    The foundations, development, and delivery of distance education were examined through a literature review and first-hand experience in administration and teaching in an international online school. The evolution of distance education was traced from the 1800s, when it was a print-based method of instruction conducted at a distance, through the…

  16. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification process and its eliminating method in a suspended activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xibiao; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Yongdi; Chen, Xiurong

    2014-02-01

    Inhibition of nitrification by four typical pollutants (acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, acetonitrile and cyanide) in acrylonitrile wastewater was investigated. The inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification was strongest, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.218 mg·gVSS-1 being observed in a municipal activated sludge system. However, the performance of nitrification was recovered when cyanide was completely degraded. The nitrification, which had been inhibited by 4.17 mg·gVSS-1 of free cyanide for 24 h, was recovered to greater than 95% of that without cyanide after 10 days of recovery. To overcome cyanide inhibition, cyanide-degrading bacteria were cultivated in a batch reactor by increasing the influent cyanide concentration in a stepwise manner, which resulted in an increase in the average cyanide degradation rate from 0.14 to 1.01 mg CN-·gVSS-1·h-1 over 20 days. The cultured cyanide-degrading bacteria were shaped like short rods, and the dominant cyanide-degrading bacteria strain was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB by PCR.

  17. Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. PMID:25049534

  18. Effect of harvesting frequency, variety and leaf maturity on nutrient composition, hydrogen cyanide content and cassava foliage yield.

    PubMed

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

    2012-12-01

    The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

  19. Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, T.; Arrhenius, G.; Paplawsky, W.

    1994-01-01

    The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to formferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperatue (approximately 0 C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolamide and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives.

  20. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R.; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a life threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain-barrier to upregulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino (NSA) mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. PMID:25692407

  1. Cyanide and sulfide interact with nitrogenous compounds to influence the relaxation of various smooth muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Smith, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    Sodium nitroprusside relaxed guinea pig ileum after the segment had been submaximally contracted by either histamine or acetylcholine, intact isolated rabbit gall bladder after submaximal contraction by either acetylcholine or cholecystokinin octapeptide, and rat pulmonary artery helical strips after submaximal contraction with norepinephrine. In each of these cases the relaxation produced by nitroprusside was at least partially reversed by the subsequent addition of excess sodium cyanide. Cyanide, however, in nontoxic concentrations did not reverse the spasmolytic effects of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium azide, nitroglycerin, sodium nitrite, or nitric oxide hemoglobin on guinea pig ileum, nor did cyanide alone in the same concentrations have any effect. The similar interaction between nitroprusside and cyanide on rabbit aortic strips is not dependent on the presence of an intact endothelia cell layer. Also, on rabbit aortic strips and like cyanide, sodium sulfide reversed the spasmolytic effects of azide and hydroxylamine, but it had little or no effect on the relaxation induced by papaverine. Unlike cyanide, however, sulfide augmented the relaxation induced by nitroprusside, and it reversed the effects of nitric oxide hemoglobin, nitroglycerin, and nitrite. A direct chemical reaction between sulfide and nitroprusside may account for the difference between it and cyanide. Although evidence was obtained also for a direct chemical reaction between sulfide and norepinephrine, that reaction does not seem to have played a role in these results.

  2. Depletion of host-derived cyanide in the gut of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Jeffers, P M; Mantella, D

    2002-02-01

    Using a colorimetric procedure, we assessed the HCN-p of black cherry leaves (Prunus serotina) ingested by the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum, and the cyanide content of the bolus as it passed thorough the caterpillar's digestive tract and into the detritus pool. The mean HCN-p of leaves in our study area was 1902 +/- 174 (SE) ppm. Young leaves found at the tips of growing branches, which the caterpillars preferred, had a significantly higher HCN-p (3032 +/- 258 ppm) than older leaves found at the middle (1542 +/- 243 ppm) or base of the shoot (1131 +/- 159 ppm). Following a bout of overnight feeding on young leaves, the cyanide content of the foregut and midgut boluses of early sixth-instar caterpillars averaged 631 +/- 161 ppm, and 14 +/- 3 ppm, respectively, indicating that host-derived cyanide is rapidly depleted as the bolus transits the gut. Some cyanide, however, remains. In three studies, the mean cyanide content of fresh fecal pellets ranged from approximately 20 to 38 ppm, while the dried, compacted pellets ranged from 63 to 85 ppm. Food in the foreguts of mature caterpillars dispersing over the ground in search of pupation sites had 417 +/- 99 ppm cyanide. The potential impact of this egested and caterpillar-transported cyanide on the consumer and detritivore communities is discussed.

  3. Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Xue, Juan Qin; Liu, Ni Na; Li, Guo Ping; Dang, Long Tao

    2016-01-01

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total cyanide was determined using the silver nitrate titration method. Regression analysis and optimization of the conditions were conducted using the Design-Expert software and response surface methodology (RSM). The actual cyanide removals and the removals predicted using RSM analysis were in close agreement, and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: the volume fraction of Span-80, 4% (v/v); the volume fraction of TOA, 4% (v/v); the concentration of NaOH, 1% (w/v); and the emulsion-to-external-phase volume ratio, 1:7. Under the optimum conditions, the removal of total cyanide was 95.07%, and the RSM predicted removal was 94.90%, with a small exception. The treatment of cyanide wastewater using an ELM is an effective technique for application in industry. PMID:27533852

  4. Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

  5. Depletion of host-derived cyanide in the gut of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Jeffers, P M; Mantella, D

    2002-02-01

    Using a colorimetric procedure, we assessed the HCN-p of black cherry leaves (Prunus serotina) ingested by the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum, and the cyanide content of the bolus as it passed thorough the caterpillar's digestive tract and into the detritus pool. The mean HCN-p of leaves in our study area was 1902 +/- 174 (SE) ppm. Young leaves found at the tips of growing branches, which the caterpillars preferred, had a significantly higher HCN-p (3032 +/- 258 ppm) than older leaves found at the middle (1542 +/- 243 ppm) or base of the shoot (1131 +/- 159 ppm). Following a bout of overnight feeding on young leaves, the cyanide content of the foregut and midgut boluses of early sixth-instar caterpillars averaged 631 +/- 161 ppm, and 14 +/- 3 ppm, respectively, indicating that host-derived cyanide is rapidly depleted as the bolus transits the gut. Some cyanide, however, remains. In three studies, the mean cyanide content of fresh fecal pellets ranged from approximately 20 to 38 ppm, while the dried, compacted pellets ranged from 63 to 85 ppm. Food in the foreguts of mature caterpillars dispersing over the ground in search of pupation sites had 417 +/- 99 ppm cyanide. The potential impact of this egested and caterpillar-transported cyanide on the consumer and detritivore communities is discussed. PMID:11925066

  6. Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt

    SciTech Connect

    Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

  7. Correlation of atmospheric and inhaled blood cyanide levels in miniature pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Stemler, F.W.; Kaminskis, A.; Tezak-Reid, T.M.; Stotts, R.R.; Moran, T.S.

    1995-12-31

    The LCT5O (exposure time and atmospheric concentration needed to produce 50% lethality) has been commonly used to quantify the toxicity of a gas such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Few studies have been performed in which blood cyanide concentrations were measured simultaneously in animals at Imown exposure concentrations and time. This study was an attempt to correlate which blood cyanide levels would cause lethality in miniature pigs when exposed to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for a fixed time. An automated microdistillation assay (1) was used to continuously monitor arterial blood cyanide before, during and after the exposures to a HCN/air mixture. Seven animals were exposed to a HCN/air mixture for two minutes each, four to 1176 + or - SD 70 mg/m3, and three animals to 2125 + or - SD 91 mg/m3. Two of the three animals exposed to the high HCN/air mixture died with a peak blood cyanide concentration of about 4.1 + or - SD 0.38 ug/mL. Four animals exposed to the low HCN/air mixture had a peak blood cyanide concentration of 2.94 i SD 0.71 ug/mL. All four survived for a 24-bour post-exposure observation period before they were sacrificed. Several physiological parameters were also monitored.

  8. Development and activation of cyanide-resistant respiration in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Medentsev, A G; Akimenko, V K

    1999-08-01

    Changes in respiratory activity and in the contents of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) were studied in cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica during the development of cyanide-resistant respiration. The transition of the yeast from the logarithmic to the stationary growth phase due to exhaustion of glucose was associated with decreased endogenous respiration and with the activation of a cyanide-resistant oxidase. Cyanide activated cell respiration during the stationary growth phase. The cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by benzohydroxamic acid (BHA), an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase. In the absence of cyanide, BHA had no effect on the cells which had the cyanide-resistant oxidase. This indicates that the cells do not use the alternative pathway in vivo. The decreased endogenous respiration of the cells was accompanied by decreased contents of adenine nucleotides. Addition of cyanide resulted in a sharp decrease in the content of ATP, in a twofold increase in the content of ADP, and in a fivefold increase in the content of AMP. In the absence of cyanide, BHA had virtually no effect on the contents of adenine nucleotides. The decreased rate of oxygen consumption during the transition of the cells to the stationary growth phase was caused by the decreased activity of the main cytochrome-containing respiratory chain (2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) stimulated respiration). The alternative oxidase was synthesized in the cell but was inactive. Cyanide stimulated respiration due to activation of the alternative oxidase via the AMP produced. The decrease in the cell content of ATP is suggested to be a factor inducing the synthesis of the alternative oxidase.

  9. Enzymatic cyanide degradation by cell-free extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M.

    PubMed

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Latif Ibrahim, Abdul; Cass, Anthony E G

    2015-01-01

    The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63 mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20 mM KCN within 80 min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant. PMID:25723061

  10. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of cyanide using copper-impregnated pumice and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kitis, Mehmet; Karakaya, Emine; Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Akcil, Ata

    2005-04-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the oxidative destruction of free cyanide with hydrogen peroxide and copper-impregnated pumice as a heterogeneous catalyst. Original or copper-impregnated pumices added alone were not effective adsorbents of negatively charged cyanide ions due to incompatible surface interactions. Peroxide and original pumices added together were also ineffective in removing cyanide. However, for all of the three natural pumices tested with various particle size fractions, the use of copper-impregnated pumices and peroxide together significantly enhanced both the initial rate and extent of cyanide removal. Although copper-impregnated specific surface area was the major factor affecting the rate and extent of cyanide destruction for a particular pumice source with similar surface chemistries, the type of surface chemistry (i.e., specific functional groups) within different pumice sources also appears to be a very important factor. Lower rates and extents of cyanide removals were observed at pH 11 compared to pH 8 probably because of the negative impacts of alkaline conditions in terms of scavenging peroxide and forming more negatively charged pumice surfaces. Both the initial rate and ultimate extent of cyanide removals were generally higher at a temperature of 20 degrees C compared with those found at 10 degrees C. The use of copper-impregnated pumice as a light, cheap, readily available, natural, and porous heterogeneous catalyst either in completely mixed/suspended or fixed-bed reactor configurations may be an effective treatment technology for cyanide removal from solution. This new approach may minimize downstream metal removal problems experienced in conventional cyanide oxidation technologies.

  11. Enzymatic cyanide degradation by cell-free extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M.

    PubMed

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Latif Ibrahim, Abdul; Cass, Anthony E G

    2015-01-01

    The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63 mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20 mM KCN within 80 min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant.

  12. Use of the wetting method on cassava flour in three konzo villages in Mozambique reduces cyanide intake and may prevent konzo in future droughts.

    PubMed

    Nhassico, Dulce; Bradbury, James Howard; Cliff, Julie; Majonda, Rita; Cuambe, Constantino; Denton, Ian C; Foster, Matthew P; Martins, Arlinda; Cumbane, Adelaide; Sitoe, Luis; Pedro, Joao; Muquingue, Humberto

    2016-07-01

    Konzo is an irreversible paralysis of the legs that occurs mainly in children and young women associated with large cyanide intake from bitter cassava coupled with malnutrition. In East Africa outbreaks occur during drought, when cassava plants produce much more cyanogens than normal. A wetting method that removes cyanogens from cassava flour was taught to the women of three konzo villages in Mozambique, to prevent sporadic konzo and konzo outbreaks in the next drought. The intervention was in three villages with 72 konzo cases and mean konzo prevalence of 1.2%. The percentage of children with high (>350 μmol/L) urinary thiocyanate content and at risk of contracting konzo in Cava, Acordos de Lusaka, and Mujocojo reduced from 52, 10, and 6 at baseline to 17, 0, and 4 at conclusion of the intervention. Cassava flour showed large reductions in total cyanide over the intervention. The percentage of households using the wetting method was 30-40% in Acordos de Lusaka and Mujocojo and less in Cava. If the wetting method is used extensively by households during drought it should prevent konzo outbreaks and chronic cyanide intoxication. We recommend that the wetting method be taught in all konzo areas in East Africa. PMID:27386105

  13. Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration of Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marco; Lüscher, Andreas; Hebeisen, Thomas; Zanetti, Silvia; Schubiger, Franz; Scalet, Mario

    Differently managed (cutting frequency and N fertilization) Trifolium repens monocultures were grown at 60 Pa and 35 Pa of pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2) in a Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) array. The concentrations of cyanide, digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation were measured at different harvests throughout the growing season. The average cyanide concentrations differed significantly in the years and the seasons within the year; however, the concentrations were not affected by CO 2. Digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation differed significantly with the seasons of the year and cutting frequencies. While digestible organic matter and net energy for lactation were not affected by elevated pCO 2, the concentration of crude protein decreased from 288 g kg -1 at ambient to 251 g kg -1 at elevated pCO 2. Since the crude protein concentration in herbage from Trifolium monocultures was very high even at elevated CO 2, it is suggested that this decrease in crude protein concentration does not negatively affect forage quality. We conclude that, in Trifolium herbage, the seasons of the year and management practices are more decisive for forage quality than changes in pCO 2. We shall discuss how forage quality and cyanide intake by ruminants may, however, be affected by CO 2-induced shifts in the proportion of species in mixed plant communities.

  14. Use of the wetting method on cassava flour in three konzo villages in Mozambique reduces cyanide intake and may prevent konzo in future droughts.

    PubMed

    Nhassico, Dulce; Bradbury, James Howard; Cliff, Julie; Majonda, Rita; Cuambe, Constantino; Denton, Ian C; Foster, Matthew P; Martins, Arlinda; Cumbane, Adelaide; Sitoe, Luis; Pedro, Joao; Muquingue, Humberto

    2016-07-01

    Konzo is an irreversible paralysis of the legs that occurs mainly in children and young women associated with large cyanide intake from bitter cassava coupled with malnutrition. In East Africa outbreaks occur during drought, when cassava plants produce much more cyanogens than normal. A wetting method that removes cyanogens from cassava flour was taught to the women of three konzo villages in Mozambique, to prevent sporadic konzo and konzo outbreaks in the next drought. The intervention was in three villages with 72 konzo cases and mean konzo prevalence of 1.2%. The percentage of children with high (>350 μmol/L) urinary thiocyanate content and at risk of contracting konzo in Cava, Acordos de Lusaka, and Mujocojo reduced from 52, 10, and 6 at baseline to 17, 0, and 4 at conclusion of the intervention. Cassava flour showed large reductions in total cyanide over the intervention. The percentage of households using the wetting method was 30-40% in Acordos de Lusaka and Mujocojo and less in Cava. If the wetting method is used extensively by households during drought it should prevent konzo outbreaks and chronic cyanide intoxication. We recommend that the wetting method be taught in all konzo areas in East Africa.

  15. Mammal mortality at Arizona, California, and Nevada gold mines using cyanide extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Hothem, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Five-hundred nineteen mammals were reported dead at cyanide-extraction gold mines in Arizona [USA], California, and Nevada from 1984 through 1989. Most numerous were rodents (34.9%) and bats (33.7%); 'bat' was the most often reported category among 24 species or species groups. There are an estimated 160 cyanide-extraction gold mines in these three states, and the number is increasing. Ten mammal species listed as endangered, threatened, rare, protected, or species of special concern are known to have cyanide-extraction gold mines within their geographic ranges.

  16. Acute cyanide intoxication treated with a combination of hydroxycobalamin, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Mannaioni, Guido; Vannacci, Alfredo; Marzocca, Cosimo; Zorn, Anna Monica; Peruzzi, Sandro; Moroni, Flavio

    2002-01-01

    An 80-year-old diabetic patient was admitted to the hospital because of sudden unconsciousness and severe metabolic acidosis. His son reported the possibility of cyanide poisoning. Clinical data and the detection of cyanide in blood and gastric material confirmed this possibility. Supportive therapy and the following antidotes--sodium nitrite two doses 300 mg i.v., sodium thiosulfate 3 g i.v., and hydroxocobalamin 4 g in 24 hours--were administered immediately and the patient completely recovered in 48 hours. Our observations suggest that timely and appropriate use of antidotes for cyanide intoxication may prevent death, even in aged diabetic patients. PMID:12126191

  17. 9. May 20, 1963 SEED BUILDING FOUNDATION WALLS Under Construction. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. May 20, 1963 SEED BUILDING FOUNDATION WALLS Under Construction. Looking southeast showing north and west walls of Machinery Shed - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  18. Ground-based infrared spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, P. L.; Goldman, A.; Brault, J. W.; Stokes, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A number of lines of the nu-3 band of hydrogen cyanide have been detected in solar absorption spectra recorded near sunrise and sunset at Kitt Peak National Observatory (elevation 2095 m) with a 0.01/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Analysis of two of the strongest and best isolated lines has led to a value of 2.73 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm for the vertical column abundance of HCN above Kitt Peak. The accuracy of this value is estimated as + or - 25%. This result, combined with the stratospheric concentration of HCN derived by Coffey, Mankin, and Cicerone (1981), yields 166 parts per trillion by volume for the average mixing ratio of HCN between 2 and 12 km. This is the first determination of the HCN concentration in the nonurban troposphere.

  19. The Submillimeter Wave Spectrum of Isotopic Methyl Cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Mueller, H. S. P.

    1996-01-01

    The laboratory submillimeter wave rotational spectrum of the 13CH3CN, CH3C13CN, and CH3C15N isotopomers of methyl cyanide has been observed in natural abundance in the 294 to 607 GHz region. The maximum J and K values are 34 and 14, respectively. Fifteen additional CH3CN transitions up to K = 21 were also measured. The transitions of all four species are fitted to a symmetric top Hamiltonian, and the rotation and distortion constants are determined. The 14N quadrupole and spin rotation coupling constants are also calculated and presented. Suggested values for many other parameters, which could not be directly determined from the isotope spectra, are calculated from the normal species values and isotope relationships. The determined and calculated constants should predict the spectrum of the three isotopomers to well over 1 THz accurately enough for astronomical assignments.

  20. A Peptoid-Based Fluorescent Sensor for Cyanide Detection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bumhee; Lee, Jeeyeon

    2016-01-01

    Peptoids, N-substituted glycine oligomers, are versatile peptidomimetics with diverse biomedical applications. However, strategies to the development of novel fluorescent peptoids as chemical sensors have not been extensively explored, yet. Here, we synthesized a novel peptoid-based fluorescent probe in which a coumarin moiety was incorporated via copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Fluorescence of the newly generated coumarin-peptoid was dramatically quenched upon coordination of the Cu(2+) ion, and the resulting peptoid-Cu(2+) complex exhibited significant Turn-ON fluorescence following the addition of CN(-). The rapid and reversible response, combined with cyanide selectivity of the synthesized peptoid, reflects a multistep photo-process and supports its utility as a new type of CN(-) sensor. PMID:26978334

  1. A ferromagnetically coupled Fe42 cyanide-bridged nanocage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonchul; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Tao; Hamachi, Kohei; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Baker, Michael L.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Duan, Chunying; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of artificial nanoscale units into superstructures is a prevalent topic in science. In biomimicry, scientists attempt to develop artificial self-assembled nanoarchitectures. However, despite extensive efforts, the preparation of nanoarchitectures with superior physical properties remains a challenge. For example, one of the major topics in the field of molecular magnetism is the development of high-spin (HS) molecules. Here, we report a cyanide-bridged magnetic nanocage composed of 18 HS iron(III) ions and 24 low-spin iron(II) ions. The magnetic iron(III) centres are ferromagnetically coupled, yielding the highest ground-state spin number (S=45) of any molecule reported to date. PMID:25562786

  2. A ferromagnetically coupled Fe42 cyanide-bridged nanocage.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soonchul; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Tao; Hamachi, Kohei; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Baker, Michael L; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Duan, Chunying; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of artificial nanoscale units into superstructures is a prevalent topic in science. In biomimicry, scientists attempt to develop artificial self-assembled nanoarchitectures. However, despite extensive efforts, the preparation of nanoarchitectures with superior physical properties remains a challenge. For example, one of the major topics in the field of molecular magnetism is the development of high-spin (HS) molecules. Here, we report a cyanide-bridged magnetic nanocage composed of 18 HS iron(III) ions and 24 low-spin iron(II) ions. The magnetic iron(III) centres are ferromagnetically coupled, yielding the highest ground-state spin number (S = 45) of any molecule reported to date. PMID:25562786

  3. Protein kinase c inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Maduh, E.U.; Nealley, E.W.; Song, H.; Wang, P.C.; Baskin, S.I.

    1995-12-31

    We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, l-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 3/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. H-7, I mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication.

  4. Foundations of logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first book to give an account of the mathematical foundations of Logic Programming. Its purpose is to collect the basic theoretical results of Logic Programming, which have previously only been available in widely scattered research papers. In addition to presenting the technical results, the book also contains many illustrative examples. Many of the examples and problems are part of the folklore of Logic Programming and are not easily obtainable elsewhere.

  5. CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Romanos

    1995-03-10

    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  6. Wronski's Foundations of Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Roi

    2016-09-01

    Argument This paper reconstructs Wronski's philosophical foundations of mathematics. It uses his critique of Lagrange's algebraic analysis as a vignette to introduce the problems that he raised, and argues that these problems have not been properly appreciated by his contemporaries and subsequent commentators. The paper goes on to reconstruct Wronski's mathematical law of creation and his notions of theory and techne, in order to put his objections to Lagrange in their philosophical context. Finally, Wronski's proof of his universal law (the expansion of a given function by any series of functions) is reviewed in terms of the above reconstruction. I argue that Wronski's philosophical approach poses an alternative to the views of his contemporary mainstream mathematicians, which brings up the contingency of their choices, and bridges the foundational concerns of early modernity with those of the twentieth-century foundations crisis. I also argue that Wronski's views may be useful to contemporary philosophy of mathematical practice, if they are read against their metaphysical grain. PMID:27573997

  7. Physicians and foundation hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cooper, John; Black, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Foundation NHS Trusts will be constituted in the same way as Mutual Societies, and local people and patients will be invited to become subscribers. Subscribers will elect a board of governors who will appoint the non-executive directors of the Trusts. Foundation Trusts will be outside the performance management system, but will be subject to a regulator and to inspection. Contracts with commissioners will be legally enforceable. Issues discussed in the article include: financial borrowing; whether competition is being reintroduced; poaching staff; fears of a two-tier health service; fragmentation of the NHS; the impact on research and teaching; and the impact on the current 'target culture'. Local communities and patient groups may welcome involvement with their local hospitals, but special interest groups could be a danger. Foundation Trusts may bring back some of the better features of NHS Trusts as originally conceived, and offer better opportunities for clinicians to influence local policies and priorities. Fears of yet another organisational change are an important issue. Only time will tell whether the outcome will justify the effort the changes will involve. PMID:14703035

  8. Wronski's Foundations of Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Roi

    2016-09-01

    Argument This paper reconstructs Wronski's philosophical foundations of mathematics. It uses his critique of Lagrange's algebraic analysis as a vignette to introduce the problems that he raised, and argues that these problems have not been properly appreciated by his contemporaries and subsequent commentators. The paper goes on to reconstruct Wronski's mathematical law of creation and his notions of theory and techne, in order to put his objections to Lagrange in their philosophical context. Finally, Wronski's proof of his universal law (the expansion of a given function by any series of functions) is reviewed in terms of the above reconstruction. I argue that Wronski's philosophical approach poses an alternative to the views of his contemporary mainstream mathematicians, which brings up the contingency of their choices, and bridges the foundational concerns of early modernity with those of the twentieth-century foundations crisis. I also argue that Wronski's views may be useful to contemporary philosophy of mathematical practice, if they are read against their metaphysical grain.

  9. Foundations of chaotic mixing.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Stephen; Ottino, Julio M

    2004-05-15

    The simplest mixing problem corresponds to the mixing of a fluid with itself; this case provides a foundation on which the subject rests. The objective here is to study mixing independently of the mechanisms used to create the motion and review elements of theory focusing mostly on mathematical foundations and minimal models. The flows under consideration will be of two types: two-dimensional (2D) 'blinking flows', or three-dimensional (3D) duct flows. Given that mixing in continuous 3D duct flows depends critically on cross-sectional mixing, and that many microfluidic applications involve continuous flows, we focus on the essential aspects of mixing in 2D flows, as they provide a foundation from which to base our understanding of more complex cases. The baker's transformation is taken as the centrepiece for describing the dynamical systems framework. In particular, a hierarchy of characterizations of mixing exist, Bernoulli --> mixing --> ergodic, ordered according to the quality of mixing (the strongest first). Most importantly for the design process, we show how the so-called linked twist maps function as a minimal picture of mixing, provide a mathematical structure for understanding the type of 2D flows that arise in many micromixers already built, and give conditions guaranteeing the best quality mixing. Extensions of these concepts lead to first-principle-based designs without resorting to lengthy computations.

  10. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  11. Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Leinz, R.W.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2002-01-01

    In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities.

  12. A coumarin-indole based colorimetric and 'turn on' fluorescent probe for cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu; Dai, Xi; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel coumarin-indole based chemodosimeter with a simple structure was designed and prepared via a condensation reaction in high yield. The probe exhibited very high selectivity towards cyanide on both fluorescence and UV-vis spectra, which allowed it to quantitatively detect and imaging cyanide ions in organic-aqueous solution by either fluorescence enhancement or colorimetric changes. Confirmed by 1H NMR and HRMS spectra, the detection mechanism was proved to be related with the Michael addition reaction induced by cyanide ions, which blocked the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of the probe. Moreover, the probe was able to be utilized efficiently in a wide pH range (7.5-10) with negligible interference from other anions and a low detection limit of 0.51 μM. Application in 5 kinds of natural water source and accurate detection of cyanide in tap water solvent system also indicated the high practical significance of the probe.

  13. Proton-Coupled Reduction of an Iron Cyanide Complex to Methane and Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Rittle, Jonathan; Peters, Jonas C

    2016-09-26

    Nitrogenase enzymes mediate the six-electron reductive cleavage of cyanide to CH4 and NH3 . Herein we demonstrate for the first time the liberation of CH4 and NH3 from a well-defined iron cyanide coordination complex, [SiP(iPr) 3 ]Fe(CN) (where [SiP(iPr) 3 ] represents a tris(phosphine)silyl ligand), on exposure to proton and electron equivalents. [SiP(iPr) 3 ]Fe(CN) additionally serves as a useful entry point to rare examples of terminally-bound Fe(CNH) and Fe(CNH2 ) species that, in accord with preliminary mechanistic studies, are plausible intermediates of the cyanide reductive protonation to generate CH4 and NH3 . Comparative studies with a related [SiP(iPr) 3 ]Fe(CNMe2 ) complex suggests the possibility of multiple, competing mechanisms for cyanide activation and reduction. PMID:27607732

  14. Incorporation of Molecular Oxygen and Water during Enzymatic Oxidation of Cyanide by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C.; Kunz, D. A.; Venables, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    Cell extracts (high-speed [150,000 x g] supernatants) from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 catalyzed the oxidation of cyanide to CO(inf2) (and NH(inf3)). Conversion was both oxygen and NADH dependent, with 1 mol of each being consumed per mol of cyanide degraded. Analysis of (sup13)CO(inf2) by mass spectrometry indicated that one atom each of isotopically labelled oxygen 18 from molecular oxygen and water were incorporated during enzymatic conversion. The results confirm earlier reports of oxygenase-mediated cyanide conversion in this organism. A reaction pathway for cyanide oxidation involving initial monooxygenation followed by hydrolysis of a hypothetical oxygenated intermediate to CO(inf2) (and NH(inf3)) is proposed. PMID:16535345

  15. Determination of 15N/14N and 13C/12C in Solid and Aqueous Cyanides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The stable isotopic compositions of nitrogen and carbon in cyanide compounds can be determined by combusting aliquots in sealed tubes to form N2 gas and CO2 gas and analyzing the gases by mass spectrometry. Free cyanide (CN-aq + HCNaq) in simple solutions can also be analyzed by first precipitating the cyanide as copper(II) ferrocyanide and then combusting the precipitate. Reproducibility is ??0.5??? or better for both ??15N and ??13C. If empirical corrections are made on the basis of carbon yields, the reproducibility of ??13C can be improved to ??0.2???. The analytical methods described herein are sufficiently accurate and precise to apply stable isotope techniques to problems of cyanide degradation in natural waters and industrial process solutions.

  16. A coumarin-indole based colorimetric and "turn on" fluorescent probe for cyanide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Dai, Xi; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel coumarin-indole based chemodosimeter with a simple structure was designed and prepared via a condensation reaction in high yield. The probe exhibited very high selectivity towards cyanide on both fluorescence and UV-vis spectra, which allowed it to quantitatively detect and imaging cyanide ions in organic-aqueous solution by either fluorescence enhancement or colorimetric changes. Confirmed by (1)H NMR and HRMS spectra, the detection mechanism was proved to be related with the Michael addition reaction induced by cyanide ions, which blocked the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of the probe. Moreover, the probe was able to be utilized efficiently in a wide pH range (7.5-10) with negligible interference from other anions and a low detection limit of 0.51μM. Application in 5 kinds of natural water source and accurate detection of cyanide in tap water solvent system also indicated the high practical significance of the probe.

  17. Comparison of cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide physiologic effects in rabbits using diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae; Mukai, David; Goodman, Seth; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Ahdout, Rebecca; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose is to compare cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide (CN)-induced physiologic effects in an animal model using diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Cyanide poisoning is a major threat worldwide. Cobinamide is a novel molecule that can bind two molecules of cyanide, has a much higher binding affinity than hydroxocobalamin, and is more water soluble. We investigated the ability of equimolar doses of cobinamide and hydroxocobalamin to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure in an animal model monitored continuously by DOS. Cyanide toxicity was induced in 16 New Zealand white rabbits by intravenous infusion. Animals were divided into three groups: controls (n=5) received saline following cyanide, hydroxocobalamin (N=6) following cyanide, and cobinamide (N=5) following cyanide. Cobinamide caused significantly faster and more complete recovery of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in cyanide-exposed animals than hydroxocobalamin- or saline-treated animals, with a recovery time constant of 13.8+/-7.1 min compared to 75.4+/-25.1 and 76.4+/-42.7 min, for hydroxocobalamin- and saline-treated animals, respectively (p<0.0001). This study indicates that cobinamide more rapidly and completely reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS.

  18. Source Attribution of Cyanides Using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S; Fraga, Carlos G; Carman, April J; Moran, James J

    2016-02-01

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs), such as cyanides, are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. Herein, stocks of KCN and NaCN were analyzed for trace anions by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC), carbon stable isotope ratio (δ(13)C) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The collected analytical data were evaluated using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least-squares (iPLS), genetic algorithm-based partial least-squares (GAPLS), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminant analysis (SVMDA). HCA of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported countries of origin resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries each having one known solid cyanide factory: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). Classification errors for two validation studies using anion impurity profiles collected over five years on different instruments were as low as zero for KNN and SVMDA, demonstrating the excellent reliability associated with using anion impurities for matching a cyanide sample to its factory using our current cyanide stocks. Variable selection methods reduced errors for those classification methods having errors greater than zero; iPLS-forward selection and F-ratio typically provided the lowest errors. Finally, using anion profiles to classify cyanides to a specific stock

  19. Measurement of the methyl cyanide E/A ratio in TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saito, S.; Kaifu, N.

    1993-01-01

    We have observed the methyl cyanide (CH3CN) J = 2-1 K = 0 and 1 transitions toward the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1 and have derived an E/A (ortho/para)abundance ratio N(E)/N(A) = 0.75 +/- 0.10. The total methyl cyanide column density is N(total) = 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm toward TMC-1, in agreement with earlier results from the J = 1-0 lines.

  20. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of cyanide and thiocyanate after separation on a melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, G; Demirata, B; Apak, R

    2000-11-01

    A simple indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyanide, based on the oxidation of the cyanide with chlorine (Cl(2)) is described. The residual chlorine is determined by the color reaction with o-tolidine (3,3'-dimethylbenzidine). The maximum absorbance for Cl(2) is at 437 nm. A linear calibration graph (0-4.0x10(-5) M CN(-)) is obtained under optimal reaction conditions at room temperature and pH 11-12. The stoichiometric mole ratio of chlorine to cyanide is 1:1. The effective molar absorptivity for cyanide is 5.87x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) at pH 1.6. The limit of quantification (LOQ) is 3.6x10(-7) M or 9.4 ppb. Effects of pH, excess reagent, sensitivity, reaction time and tolerance limits of interferent ions are reported. The method was applied to the determination of cyanide in a real sample. The basic interferent usually accompanying CN(-), i.e. thiocyanate, is separated from cyanide by sorption on a melamine-formaldehyde resin at pH 9 while cyanide is not retained. Thiocyanate is eluted with 0.4 M NaOH from the column and determined spectrophotometrically using the acidic FeCl(3) reagent. The initial column effluent containing cyanide was analyzed by both the developed chlorine-o-tolidine method and the conventional barbituric acid-pyridine (Spectroquant 14800) procedure, and the results were statistically compared. The developed method is relatively inexpensive and less laborious than the standard (Spectroquant) procedure, and insensitive to the common interferent, cyanate (CNO(-)).

  1. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Gideon, Daniel Andrew; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2014-12-12

    The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins' active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  2. PEPTIDE FORMATION MEDIATED BY HYDROGEN CYANIDE TETRAMER: A POSSIBLE PREBIOTIC PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sherwood; Flores, Jose; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1969-01-01

    Chemical evolution on the primitive earth must have involved condensation of α-amino acids to peptides. Under aqueous conditions consistent with current conceptions of primordial waters, heating glycerine with the hydrogen cyanide tetramer, diaminomaleonitrile, yields dipeptide. If nitrogen was cycled through primordial waters as cyanide, peptide synthesis by stepwise tetramer-mediated condensation of α-amino acids would have been a plausible process. PMID:5264133

  3. Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 degrees C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 degrees C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways.

  4. Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

    1992-04-01

    The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

  5. Source Attribution of Cyanides Using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S; Fraga, Carlos G; Carman, April J; Moran, James J

    2016-02-01

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs), such as cyanides, are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. Herein, stocks of KCN and NaCN were analyzed for trace anions by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC), carbon stable isotope ratio (δ(13)C) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The collected analytical data were evaluated using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least-squares (iPLS), genetic algorithm-based partial least-squares (GAPLS), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminant analysis (SVMDA). HCA of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported countries of origin resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries each having one known solid cyanide factory: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). Classification errors for two validation studies using anion impurity profiles collected over five years on different instruments were as low as zero for KNN and SVMDA, demonstrating the excellent reliability associated with using anion impurities for matching a cyanide sample to its factory using our current cyanide stocks. Variable selection methods reduced errors for those classification methods having errors greater than zero; iPLS-forward selection and F-ratio typically provided the lowest errors. Finally, using anion profiles to classify cyanides to a specific stock

  6. Effect of germination and autoclaving of sprouted finger millet and kidney beans on cyanide content.

    PubMed

    Chove, Bernard E; Mamiro, Peter R S

    2010-10-01

    Cyanide contents of locally purchased brown finger millet (Eleusine corocana L. Gaertner) and brown speckled kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaries var. Rose Coco) were determined using raw, germinated and autoclaved samples. The aim was to establish the extent of cyanide content increase resulting from the germination process and the effectiveness of the autoclaving process on the reduction of cyanide levels in the samples, for safety considerations. Autoclaving was carried out at 121degree C for 20 minutes. It was found that germination increased the cyanide content by 2.11 to 2.14 fold in finger millet for laboratory processed samples. In the case of kidney beans the increment was 1.76 to 1.77 fold for laboratory samples. The increments for field processed samples were in the same range as those for laboratory samples. Autoclaving reduced the cyanide content to between 61.8 and 65.9 % of the original raw contents for finger millet and between 56.6 to 57.8% in the case of kidney beans. The corresponding reductions for field samples were also found to be within the same ranges as the laboratory processed samples. It was concluded that autoclaving significantly reduced the cyanide levels in germinated finger millet and kidney beans.

  7. Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Yie, Shangmian; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Chengdong; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenping; Lan, Jingchao; Huang, Xiangming; Luo, Li; Cai, Kailai; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-01-01

    The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda’s feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We compared differences of rhodanese activity and gene expressions among giant panda, rabbit (herbivore) and cat (carnivore), and between newborn and adult giant pandas. Bamboo shoots contained 3.2 mg/kg of cyanide and giant pandas absorbed more than 65% of cyanide. However, approximately 80% of absorbed cyanide was metabolized to less toxic thiocyanate that was discharged in urine. Rhodanese expression and activity in liver and kidney of giant panda were significantly higher than in cat, but lower than in rabbit (all P < 0.05). Levels in adult pandas were higher than that in newborn cub. Phylogenetic analysis of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the rhodanese gene supported a closer relationship of giant panda with carnivores than with herbivores. PMID:27703267

  8. An effective method for the detoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater by Bacillus sp. CN-22.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chou-Fei; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Deng, Mao-Cheng; Feng, Lei; Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2014-04-01

    The biodetoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater has become increasingly popular because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Therefore, we have developed an effective method, optimised by response surface methodology, for detoxifying cyanide-rich wastewater using Bacillus sp. CN-22, which was newly isolated from a cyanide-contaminated electroplating sludge and could tolerate a CN⁻ concentration of 700 mg L⁻¹. The concentration of CN⁻ in the treated wastewater decreased from 200 to 6.62 mg L⁻¹ after cultivation with 2.38 % inocula for 72 h on the medium, consisting of 0.05 % KH₂PO₄, 0.15 % K₂HPO₄, 1.0 mM MgCl₂, 1.0 mM FeCl₃, 0.1 % NH₄Cl, and 0.1 % glycerol. The CN⁻ degradability of 96.69 % is similar to the predicted value of 96.82 %. The optimal cultivation conditions were controlled as follows: initial pH, 10.3; temperature, 31 °C; and rotary speed, 193 rpm. The maintenance of higher pH in the overall treatment procedures may avoid the production of volatile HCN and the risk associated with cyanide detoxification. Additionally, the bacterial strain Bacillus sp. CN-22, with its potent cyanide-degrading activity at the initial CN⁻ concentration of 200 mg L⁻¹, may be employed to effectively treat cyanide-rich wastewater, especially electroplating effluent.

  9. Effect of germination and autoclaving of sprouted finger millet and kidney beans on cyanide content.

    PubMed

    Chove, Bernard E; Mamiro, Peter R S

    2010-10-01

    Cyanide contents of locally purchased brown finger millet (Eleusine corocana L. Gaertner) and brown speckled kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaries var. Rose Coco) were determined using raw, germinated and autoclaved samples. The aim was to establish the extent of cyanide content increase resulting from the germination process and the effectiveness of the autoclaving process on the reduction of cyanide levels in the samples, for safety considerations. Autoclaving was carried out at 121degree C for 20 minutes. It was found that germination increased the cyanide content by 2.11 to 2.14 fold in finger millet for laboratory processed samples. In the case of kidney beans the increment was 1.76 to 1.77 fold for laboratory samples. The increments for field processed samples were in the same range as those for laboratory samples. Autoclaving reduced the cyanide content to between 61.8 and 65.9 % of the original raw contents for finger millet and between 56.6 to 57.8% in the case of kidney beans. The corresponding reductions for field samples were also found to be within the same ranges as the laboratory processed samples. It was concluded that autoclaving significantly reduced the cyanide levels in germinated finger millet and kidney beans. PMID:24409633

  10. An uncommon case of a suicide with inhalation of hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Kirschbaum, K M; Madea, B

    2011-01-30

    An uncommon suicide by oral ingestion of potassium cyanide salts and contemporaneous inhalation of hydrogen cyanide is presented. A 48-year-old tradesman was found dead sitting in his car. A penetrating odor of bitter almonds was noticed when opening the doors. A camping stove and a cooking pot containing large amounts of dark blue crystals were found in the footwell of the car. White powder adhered to his fingers and to the area around the mouth. Furthermore bottles containing potassium ferrocyanide and different kinds of acid and leach were found in the car together with internet information about, e.g. potassium ferrocyanide and potassium cyanide. At autopsy hemorrhages and erosions of the mucosa of the respiratory tract, esophagus and stomach were found. Concentrations of cyanide were 0.2mg/l in stomach contents, 0.96mg/kg in brain tissue, 2.79mg/kg in lungs, and 5.3mg/l in blood. The white and toxic powder potassium cyanide was formed by heating of the yellow crystals of potassium ferrocyanide on the camping stove. This powder was probably ingested orally. Addition of acid converted the salt into the highly toxic gas hydrogen cyanide. Oxidation with atmospheric oxygen built the dark blue ferrous compound Prussian blue. This case report of a person who was not familiar with chemicals demonstrates the acquisition of professional information via the internet, enabling a suicide with a complex procedure.

  11. An effective method for the detoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater by Bacillus sp. CN-22.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chou-Fei; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Deng, Mao-Cheng; Feng, Lei; Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2014-04-01

    The biodetoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater has become increasingly popular because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Therefore, we have developed an effective method, optimised by response surface methodology, for detoxifying cyanide-rich wastewater using Bacillus sp. CN-22, which was newly isolated from a cyanide-contaminated electroplating sludge and could tolerate a CN⁻ concentration of 700 mg L⁻¹. The concentration of CN⁻ in the treated wastewater decreased from 200 to 6.62 mg L⁻¹ after cultivation with 2.38 % inocula for 72 h on the medium, consisting of 0.05 % KH₂PO₄, 0.15 % K₂HPO₄, 1.0 mM MgCl₂, 1.0 mM FeCl₃, 0.1 % NH₄Cl, and 0.1 % glycerol. The CN⁻ degradability of 96.69 % is similar to the predicted value of 96.82 %. The optimal cultivation conditions were controlled as follows: initial pH, 10.3; temperature, 31 °C; and rotary speed, 193 rpm. The maintenance of higher pH in the overall treatment procedures may avoid the production of volatile HCN and the risk associated with cyanide detoxification. Additionally, the bacterial strain Bacillus sp. CN-22, with its potent cyanide-degrading activity at the initial CN⁻ concentration of 200 mg L⁻¹, may be employed to effectively treat cyanide-rich wastewater, especially electroplating effluent. PMID:24337345

  12. Treatment of cyanide wastewater by bulk liquid membrane using tricaprylamine as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Xue, Juanqin; Liu, Nina; Yu, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The transport of cyanide from wastewater through a bulk liquid membrane (BLM) containing tricaprylamine (TOA) as a carrier was studied. The effect of cyanide concentration in the feed solution, TOA concentration in the organic phase, the stirring speed, NaOH concentration in the stripping solution and temperature on cyanide transport was determined through BLM. Mass transfer of cyanide through BLM was analyzed by following the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions, and the kinetic parameters (k(1), k(2), R(m)(max), t(max), J(a)(max), J(d)(max)) were also calculated. Apparently, increase in membrane entrance (k(1)) and exit rate (k(2)) constants was accompanied by a rise in temperature. The values of activation energies were obtained as 35.6 kJ/mol and 18.2 kJ/mol for removal and recovery, respectively. These values showed that both removal and recovery steps in cyanide transport is controlled by the rate of the chemical complexation reaction. The optimal reaction conditions were determined by BLM using trioctylamine as the carrier: feed phase: pH 4, carrier TOA possession ratio in organic phase: 2% (V/V), stripping phase concentration of NaOH: 1% (W/V), reaction time: 60 min, stirring speed: 250 r/min. Under the above conditions, the removal rate was up to 92.96%. The experiments demonstrated that TOA was a good carrier for cyanide transport through BLM in this study. PMID:27332833

  13. Cyanide levels found in infected cystic fibrosis sputum inhibit airway ciliary function.

    PubMed

    Nair, Chandrika; Shoemark, Amelia; Chan, Mario; Ollosson, Sarah; Dixon, Mellissa; Hogg, Claire; Alton, Eric W F W; Davies, Jane C; Williams, Huw D

    2014-11-01

    We have previously reported cyanide at concentrations of up to 150 μM in the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a negative correlation with lung function. Our aim was to investigate possible mechanisms for this association, focusing on the effect of pathophysiologically relevant cyanide levels on human respiratory cell function. Ciliary beat frequency measurements were performed on nasal brushings and nasal air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures obtained from healthy volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients. Potassium cyanide decreased ciliary beat frequency in healthy nasal brushings (n = 6) after 60 min (150 μM: 47% fall, p<0.0012; 75 μM: 32% fall, p<0.0001). Samples from cystic fibrosis patients (n = 3) showed similar results (150 μM: 55% fall, p = 0.001). Ciliary beat frequency inhibition was not due to loss of cell viability and was reversible. The inhibitory mechanism was independent of ATP levels. KCN also significantly inhibited ciliary beat frequency in ALI cultures, albeit to a lesser extent. Ciliary beat frequency measurements on ALI cultures treated with culture supernatants from P. aeruginosa mutants defective in virulence factor production implicated cyanide as a key component inhibiting the ciliary beat frequency. If cyanide production similarly impairs mucocilliary clearance in vivo, it could explain the link with increased disease severity observed in cystic fibrosis patients with detectable cyanide in their airway.

  14. Treatment of cyanide wastewater by bulk liquid membrane using tricaprylamine as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Xue, Juanqin; Liu, Nina; Yu, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The transport of cyanide from wastewater through a bulk liquid membrane (BLM) containing tricaprylamine (TOA) as a carrier was studied. The effect of cyanide concentration in the feed solution, TOA concentration in the organic phase, the stirring speed, NaOH concentration in the stripping solution and temperature on cyanide transport was determined through BLM. Mass transfer of cyanide through BLM was analyzed by following the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions, and the kinetic parameters (k(1), k(2), R(m)(max), t(max), J(a)(max), J(d)(max)) were also calculated. Apparently, increase in membrane entrance (k(1)) and exit rate (k(2)) constants was accompanied by a rise in temperature. The values of activation energies were obtained as 35.6 kJ/mol and 18.2 kJ/mol for removal and recovery, respectively. These values showed that both removal and recovery steps in cyanide transport is controlled by the rate of the chemical complexation reaction. The optimal reaction conditions were determined by BLM using trioctylamine as the carrier: feed phase: pH 4, carrier TOA possession ratio in organic phase: 2% (V/V), stripping phase concentration of NaOH: 1% (W/V), reaction time: 60 min, stirring speed: 250 r/min. Under the above conditions, the removal rate was up to 92.96%. The experiments demonstrated that TOA was a good carrier for cyanide transport through BLM in this study.

  15. Effectiveness of intramuscularly administered cyanide antidotes and the rate of methemoglobin formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, J.A.; Von Bredow, J.D.

    1993-05-13

    Successful first aid therapy for cyanide intoxication is dependent upon the immediate administration of antidotes which directly or indirectly interact with the cyanide ion to remove it from circulation. Exceptionally rapid methemoglobin formers (hydroxylamine hydrochloride 'HA) and Dimethylaminophenol (DMAP) are usually able to prevent the lethal effect of cyanide following intramuscular injections in doses sufficient to induce 20% methemoglobin (HA = 20 mg/kg and DMAP= 2 mg/kg). Sodium nitrite, the methemoglobin inducer approved by the FDA and is available for military use, must be administered by intravenous infusion since it is not an effective cyanide antidote by the intramuscular route. In the normal un-intoxicated animal an intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite will form 20% methemoglobin at a rapid rate; however, in the presence of acute cyanide intoxication the associated severe bradycardia appears to limit the rate of absorption of sodium nitrite from the intramuscular site which prevents the rapid formation of sufficient methemoglobin to counteract cyanide intoxication.

  16. Novel colorimetric sensors for cyanide based on azo-hydrazone tautomeric skeletons.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Olajire A; Adesuji, Temitope E; Thomas, Olusegun E

    2014-07-15

    The monoazo dyes, 4-carboxyl-2, 6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes dyes (AZ-01, AZ-03 and AZ-04), were evaluated as a highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cyanide ion. The recognition of cyanide ion gave an obvious colour change from light yellow to brownish red and upon dilution with acetone produced a purple to lilac colour. Optimum conditions for the reaction between the azo dyes and cyanide ion were established at 30°C for 5 min, and different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships between the CN(-) concentrations and light absorption were established. Using these azo-hydrazone molecular switch entities, excellent selectivity towards the detection of CN(-) in aqueous solution over miscellaneous competitive anions was observed. Such selectivity mainly results from the possibility of nucleophilic attack on the azo-hydrazone chemosensors by cyanide anions in aqueous system, which is not afforded by other competing anions. The cyanide chemosensor method described here should have potential application as a new family probes for detecting cyanide in aqueous solution.

  17. Sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin for the empiric treatment of cyanide poisoning?

    PubMed

    Hall, Alan H; Dart, Richard; Bogdan, Gregory

    2007-06-01

    Cyanide poisoning must be seriously considered in victims of smoke inhalation from enclosed space fires; it is also a credible terrorism threat agent. The treatment of cyanide poisoning is empiric because laboratory confirmation can take hours or days. Empiric treatment requires a safe and effective antidote that can be rapidly administered by either out-of-hospital or emergency department personnel. Among several cyanide antidotes available, sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin have been proposed for use in these circumstances. The evidence available to assess either sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin is incomplete. According to recent safety and efficacy studies in animals and human safety and uncontrolled efficacy studies, hydroxocobalamin seems to be an appropriate antidote for empiric treatment of smoke inhalation and other suspected cyanide poisoning victims in the out-of-hospital setting. Sodium thiosulfate can also be administered in the out-of-hospital setting. The efficacy of sodium thiosulfate is based on individual case studies, and there are contradictory conclusions about efficacy in animal models. The onset of antidotal action of sodium thiosulfate may be too slow for it to be the only cyanide antidote for emergency use. Hydroxocobalamin is being developed for potential introduction in the United States and may represent a new option for emergency personnel in cases of suspected or confirmed cyanide poisoning in the out-of-hospital setting. PMID:17098327

  18. Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

    The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

  19. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  20. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Leboffe, Loris; Polticelli, Fabio

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  1. Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

  2. Selective electrowinning of silver and gold from cyanide process solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nehl, F.H.; Murphy, J.E.; Atkinson, G.B.; Walters, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines investigated the selective electrowinning of Ag and Au from cyanide solutions contaminated with Cu, with the goal of decreasing the amount of Cu codeposited. Decreasing Cu codeposited will reduce refinery costs. Direct current was applied to the cell in pulsed and square wave voltages at 0.70 A [center dot] h per 150 mL of solution. Times tested for each cycle ranged from 1 to 100,000 ms. Graphite, lead, and stainless steel were evaluated as electrode materials. Square wave electrowinning at 70 C gave the best separation of Ag and Au from Cu. Applying 2.5 V during the duty cycle, 0.0 V the rest of the period, a duty cycle to 10 to 30%, and a period of 100 to 1,000 ms gave the following results: Ag concentrations decreased from 34 to 0.1 [mu]g/mL, Au concentrations decreased from 54 to 0.2 [mu]g/mL, and Cu concentrations remained almost constant at 560 [mu]g/mL.

  3. Cyanide conversion to thiocyanate by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST)

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, S.I.; Wing, D.A.; Kirby, S.D.

    1990-02-26

    Cyanide (CN) metabolism by MPST may detoxify CN to its less harmful product thiocyanate (SCN). In addition, MPST displays greater activity than rhodanese in extramitochondrial sites and in other organs which may play an important role in CN's toxicity. A 3% (W/V) homogenate of bovine kidney MPST was prepared. It was assayed using CN and mercaptopyruvate. The buffered (pH 9.5) suspension was incubated for 10 minutes. The reaction was stopped with 38% formaldehyde containing 20% ferric nitrate in nitric acid and measured at 460 nm. Phosphate buffer decreased the apparent rate of conversion of CN to SCN by 90% compared with glycine, borate, or bistris propane buffers. Hypotaurine and propanethiosulfate, but not taurine or thiomallic acid, increased the activity of MPST in a dose-related manner; e.g., hypotaurine, 0.1, 1 and 10 mmole, increased MPST indicates that several compounds increase the rate of formation of SCN from CN and may provide a potential new class of antidotes against the toxicity of CN.

  4. Transport of cyanide into guinea pig cardiac mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wisler, J A; Dulaney, M D; Pellicore, L S; Lenz, D E

    1991-05-01

    The transport of cyanide (CN) into cells has been presumed to be by passive diffusion. Recently, there have been reports that CN, in the form of an anion, may enter the cell by active or facilitated transport. To characterize the mechanism(s) and kinetics of CN movement across the cell membrane, we measured the rate of 14CN (Na salt) uptake into guinea-pig mitochondria. Initial velocities of CN movement into mitochondria were determined at time points ranging from 10-100 msec and at CN concentrations ranging from 1 microM-10 mM using a rapid filtration device. A Hofstee plot of the data suggests that an active or facilitated transport predominates at lower CN concentrations (less than 10 microM), whereas passive diffusion of CN predominates at higher CN concentrations. The kinetic constants for the active phase transport were Jmax = 0.9 pmol/ms and Kt = 14 microM. These results suggest that a large portion of CN movement across the cell membrane is due to an active or facilitated transport phenomenon.

  5. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  6. Physical and chemical transformations of sodium cyanide at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-12-01

    Pressure-induced physical and chemical transformations of sodium cyanide (NaCN) have been studied up to 50 GPa in diamond-anvil cells, using micro-Raman spectroscopy and angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction. We observe three phase transitions in this pressure range: NaCN-IIA (orthorhombic, Immm), to NaCN-IIB (orthorhombic, Pmmn) at 4 GPa, to NaCN-III (monoclinic, Cm) at 8 GPa, and to NaCN-IV (tetragonal, P4mm) at 15 GPa, which is stable to 25 GPa. At higher pressures, NaCN-IV undergoes an irreversible chemical change, which occurs over a large pressure range between 25 and 34 GPa. The new material exhibits a broad yet strong Raman band at around 1550 cm{sup -1}, indicating the formation of C = N bonds in a similar configuration of carbon graphite. The absence of sharp diffraction lines in this material suggests an amorphous nature of CN polymer products.

  7. Lactoperoxidase catalyzes in vitro activation of acrylonitrile to cyanide.

    PubMed

    Nasralla, Sherry N; Ghoneim, Asser I; Khalifa, Amani E; Gad, Mohamed Z; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2009-12-15

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used industrial chemical. Although it is a well reported animal carcinogen, its current designation to humans is "possibly carcinogenic". The present study aimed at investigating the ability of LPO enzyme system to oxidize ACN to cyanide (CN(-)) in vitro. Detection of CN(-) served as a marker for the possible generation of free radical intermediates implicated in ACN induced toxicity in the activation process. Optimum conditions for the oxidation of ACN to CN(-) were characterized with respect to pH, temperature and time of incubation as well as ACN, LPO and H(2)O(2) concentrations in incubation mixtures. Maximum reaction velocity (V(max)) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) were assessed. Addition of nitrite (NO(2)(-)) salts to the reaction mixtures significantly enhanced the rate of the reaction. Free radical scavengers (quercetin and trolox C), LPO enzyme inhibitor (resorcinol) and competitors for LPO binding (sodium azide and indomethacin) were found to reduce the rate of CN(-) production. Inclusion of the sulfhydryl compounds glutathione (GSH), NAC (N-acetylcysteine), D-penicillamine or L-cysteine enhanced the rate of ACN oxidation. The present results demonstrate the ability of LPO enzyme system to oxidize ACN to CN(-) and provide insight for the elucidation of ACN chronic toxicity.

  8. The foundation of physicianship.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Abraham; Brawer, James; Boudreau, J Donald

    2012-01-01

    Although the practice of medicine continually changes in response to new biomedical understanding, novel technologies, and evolving cultural contexts, the ethical foundations of the clinical relationship between patient and physician paradoxically remain constant. There are fundamental characteristics with respect to character, behavior, and responsibilities that are descriptive of and necessary to the role of healer and that underpin the notion of physicianship. This article discusses the underlying characteristics or virtues that are necessary to the practice of medicine from the perspectives of three different philosophic traditions: the Aristotelian idea of phronesis as developed in the work of Edmund Pellegrino; the notion of alterity as framed by Emmanuel Levinas; and the attributes necessary to healing as laid out in the kabbala.

  9. Foundations of Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andy

    The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or geomagnetism, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of Geomagnetism? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.

  10. Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.

    PubMed

    Cervino, J M; Hayes, R L; Honovich, M; Goreau, T J; Jones, S; Rubec, P J

    2003-05-01

    Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were exposed to varying concentrations of cyanide for varying time periods. Corals were exposed to 50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/l of cyanide ion (CN(-)) for 1-2 min (in seawater, the CN(-) forms hydrocyanic acid). These concentrations are much lower than those reportedly used by fish collectors. Exposed corals and anemones immediately retracted their tentacles and mesenterial filaments, and discharged copious amounts of mucus containing zooxanthellae. Gel electrophoreses techniques found changes in protein expression in both zooxanthellae and host tissue. Corals and anemones exposed to cyanide showed an immediate increase in mitotic cell division of their zooxenthellae, and a decrease in zooxanthellae density. In contrast, zooxanthellae cell division and density remained constant in controls. Histopathological changes included gastrodermal disruption, mesogleal degradation, and increased mucus in coral tissues. Zooxanthellae showed pigment loss, swelling, and deformation. Mortality occurred at all exposure levels. Exposed specimens experienced an increase in the ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria on the coral surface. The results demonstrate that exposure cyanide causes mortality to corals and anemones, even when applied at lower levels than that used by fish collectors. Even brief exposure to cyanide caused slow-acting and long-term damage to corals and their zooxanthellae. PMID:12735955

  11. Molecular Structures of Sulfur Cyanide Trifluoride, SF(3)CN, and Sulfinyl Cyanide Fluoride, FS(O)CN.

    PubMed

    Mack, Hans-Georg; Oberhammer, Heinz; Jacobs, Jürgen; Kronberg, Marc; Willner, Helge

    1996-02-14

    General valence force fields for SF(3)CN and FS(O)CN are derived from vibrational data taken from the literature and from theoretical calculations. Gas phase electron diffraction studies on both molecules yield the following geometric parameters (r(a) distances and angles with 3sigma uncertainties). SF(3)CN: r(S-F(e)) = 155.2(4) r(S-F(a)) = 165.7(3), r(S-C) = 173.6(8), r(C&tbd1;N) = 115.9(4) pm; angle(F(a)SF(e)) = 86.9(3), angle(F(a)SC) = 86.0(4) angle(F(e)SC) = 98.7(8), angle(F(a)SF(a)) = 169.0(6), angle(SCN) = 171(4) degrees. FS(O)CN: r(S-F) = 159.8(3), r(S=O) = 143.2(2), r(S-C) = 178.3(3), r(C&tbd1;N) = 115.0(3) pm; angle(FSO) = 104.9(4), angle(FSC) = 93.9(4), angle(CSO) = 105.3(5), angle(SCN) = 176(4) degrees. These experimental results are compared to ab initio values (HF/3-21G, HF/6-31G, and MP2/6-31G), and the bonding properties in these sulfur (IV) cyanides are discussed.

  12. Cyanides and isocyanides of first-row transition metals: molecular structure, bonding, and isomerization barriers.

    PubMed

    Rayón, Víctor M; Redondo, Pilar; Valdés, Haydee; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

    2007-07-19

    Cyanides and isocyanides of first-row transition metal M(CN) (M=Sc-Zn) are investigated with quantum chemistry techniques, providing predictions for their molecular properties. A careful analysis of the competition between cyanide and isocyanide isomers along the transition series has been carried out. In agreement with the experimental observations, late transition metals (Co-Zn) clearly prefer a cyanide arrangement. On the other hand, early transition metals (Sc-Fe), with the only exception of the Cr(CN) system, favor the isocyanide isomer. The theoretical calculations predict the following unknown isocyanides, ScNC(3Delta), TiNC(4Phi), VNC(5Delta), and MnNC(7Sigma+), and agree with the experimental observation of FeNC(6Delta) and the CrCN(6Sigma+) cyanide. First-row transition metal cyanides and isocyanides are predicted to have relatively large dissociation energies with values within the range 80-101 kcal mol(-1), except Zn(CN), which has a dissociation energy around 50-55 kcal mol(-1), and low isomerization barriers. A detailed analysis of the bonding has been carried out employing the topological analysis of the charge density and an energy decomposition analysis. The role of the covalent and electrostatic contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, as well as the importance of pi bonding, are discussed. PMID:17580838

  13. Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

    2013-05-01

    The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources.

  14. Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  15. Hexagonal cadmium oxide nanodisks: Efficient scaffold for cyanide ion sensing and photo-catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Rana, Dilbag Singh; Umar, Ahmad; Kumar, Ramesh; Chauhan, Mohinder Singh; Chauhan, Suvarcha

    2016-06-01

    Herein, we report the large-scale low-temperature aqueous solution based synthesis of hexagonal-shaped cadmium oxide (CdO) nanodisks. The synthesized nanodisks were characterized in detail to investigate the morphological, structural, optical and compositional properties using various analytical tools. The detailed characterizations revealed that the synthesized CdO nanodisks are grown in high-density, possessing well-crystallinity with cubic crystal phase and exhibiting good optical properties. Further, the prepared CdO nanodisks were used as efficient scaffold for cyanide ion sensor and photocatalyst applications. A luminescent sensor for the determination of cyanide ion in aqueous solution was fabricated based on synthesized CdO nanodisks. The fabricated luminescent sensor exhibited an extremely low detection limit (~1.40μmolL(-1)) towards cyanide ion which is significantly lower than the maximum permitted value of cyanide ion by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water (7.69μmolL(-1)). The interference studies of the fabricated sensor also demonstrate excellent selectivity towards cyanide ions compared to other coexisting ions. As a photocatalyst, the synthesized CdO nanodisks exhibited high photodegradation (~99.7%) of toxic methyl orange dye just in 90min using 0.25g of CdO nanodisks. PMID:27130090

  16. Malate Oxidation and Cyanide-Insensitive Respiration in Avocado Mitochondria during the Climacteric Cycle.

    PubMed

    Moreau, F; Romani, R

    1982-11-01

    After preparation on self-generated Percoll gradients, avocado (Persea americana Mill, var. Fuerte and Hass) mitochondria retain a high proportion of cyanide-insensitive respiration, especially with alpha-ketoglutarate and malate as substrates. Whereas alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation remains unchanged, the rate of malate oxidation increases as ripening advances through the climacteric. An enhancement of mitochondrial malic enzyme activity, measured by the accumulation of pyruvate, closely parallels the increase of malate oxidation. The capacity for cyanide-insensitive respiration is also considerably enhanced while respiratory control decreases (from 3.3 to 1.7), leading to high state 4 rates.Both malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme are functional in state 3, but malic enzyme appears to predominate before the addition of ADP and after its depletion. In the presence of cyanide, a membrane potential is generated when the alterntive pathway is operating. Cyanide-insensitive malate oxidation can be either coupled to the first phosphorylation site, sensitive to rotenone, or by-pass this site. In the absence of phosphate acceptor, malate oxidation is mainly carried out via malic enzyme and the alternative pathway. Experimental modification of the external mitochondrial environment in vitro (pH, NAD(+), glutamade) results in changes in malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme activities, which also modify cyanide resistance. It appears that a functional connection exists between malic enzyme and the alternative pathway via a rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenase and that this pathway is responsible, in part, for nonphosphorylating respiratory activity during the climacteric.

  17. Operating conditions for the continuous bioremediation of free cyanide contaminated wastewater using Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Santos, B A Q; Ntwampe, S K O; Doughari, J H; Muchatibaya, G

    2014-01-01

    Generation of cyanide-containing wastewater is a growing problem worldwide as numerous cyanide complexes are highly unstable and degrade to form free cyanide (F-CN), the most toxic form of cyanide. Agro-waste materials, such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) waste from the citrus industry, are rich in readily metabolisable carbohydrates that can supplement microbial activity and thus support biodegradation of toxic compounds in wastewater. This study reports on optimal operating conditions for the continuous biodegradation of F-CN in wastewater using an Aspergillus awamori isolate in a process supported solely using C. sinensis waste extract. The optimal degradation conditions were pH 8.75 and 37.02 °C with the isolate's F-CN tolerance being observed up to 430 mg F-CN/L. Furthermore, the ammonium produced as a by-product of F-CN degradation was also metabolised by the A. awamori, with negligible residual citric acid and formate being observed in the effluent post treatment. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using agricultural waste as a primary and sole carbon source for the cultivation of a cyanide-degrading A. awamori species for F-CN degradation under alkaline conditions. PMID:24622547

  18. Pure zinc sulfide quantum dot as highly selective luminescent probe for determination of hazardous cyanide ion.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and simple fluorescence method is presented for selective and sensitive determination of hazardous cyanide ion in aqueous solution based on functionalized zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dot (QD) as luminescent prob. The ultra-small ZnS QDs were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as an efficient capping agent. The prepared pure ZnS QDs was applied as an optical sensor for determination of cyanide ions in aqueous solutions. ZnS nanoparticles have exhibited a strong fluorescent emission at about 424 nm. The fluorescence intensity of QDs is linearly proportional to the cyanide ion concentration in the range 2.44×10(-6) to 2.59×10(-5)M with a detection limit of 1.70×10(-7)M at pH11. The designed fluorescent sensor possesses remarkable selectivity for cyanide ion over other anions such as Cl(-), Br(-), F(-), I(-), IO3(-), ClO4(-), BrO3(-), CO3(2-), NO2(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), S2O4(2-), C2O4(2-), SCN(-), N3(-), citrate and tartarate with negligible influences on the cyanide detection by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  19. Poisoning and suicide by cyanide jewelry cleaner in the US Hmong community: a case series.

    PubMed

    Garlich, Fiona M; Alsop, Judith Ann; Anderson, Deborah L; Geller, Richard J; Kalugdan, Theresa Thao; Roberts, David J; Thomas, Lindsey C

    2012-02-01

    Over 200 000 persons of Hmong ethnicity live in the United States. The majority of this Southeast Asian ethnic group live in California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Tradition plays a strong role in the Hmong population, and difficulty in assimilation into "Western ways" has been reported to result in depression and suicide attempts. Some products sold at Southeast Asian ethnic markets are well-known within the Hmong community to be lethal but are essentially unknown to the outside community. We describe eight cases in which cyanide-containing products were ingested by Hmong patients. Seven cases were suicide attempts involving the ingestion of a locally-purchased substance intended for cleaning metal, coins, or jewelry. One case involved the fatal ingestion of a cyanide-containing "herbal" cure. In the majority of the cases, cyanide was not initially suspected, and treatment was delayed due to lack of information regarding the product ingested. In the two patients who survived, the cyanide antidote kit (sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate) was administered early. Clinicians should be aware that unusual and potentially lethal products are easily available at ethnic markets. Cyanide toxicity should be suspected, and empiric antidote therapy initiated early, in patients of Hmong or Southeast Asian descent who present with sudden and unexplained cardiovascular collapse and metabolic acidosis, especially in the setting of a suspected suicidal ingestion.

  20. QCM Real-Time Sensor for monitoring of Poisonous Cyanide from Drinking Water and Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Bancuta, I.; Gheboianu, A. I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Staicu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper present Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) used for monitoring of poisonous cyanide in real-time at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide react with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric quartz crystal and extract the gold from electrode in solution. The dissolution of metallic gold depends by cyanide concentration, pH of solution, the flow debit and the time. The sensor is an AT-cut quartz crystal with CrAu or TiAu electrode metallization, 1.27 cm2 active areas and 5 MHz resonance frequency. We use QCM with the static liquid from 0.2 to 1 ml solution and dynamic liquid with flow debit from 0.2 to 1 mL/minute. The detection limits at pH 12 are about 5 ppb for analysis times of 10 min, and 2 ppb for analysis times of 20 minutes. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 50 ppb to hundreds of ppm. The ability to provide real-time monitoring of cyanide contaminants in water samples can be used for a variety of applications: on-line monitoring of contaminants in process, recycle, and waste water; groundwater quality monitoring; detection of contaminants in streams, lakes and water supplies; monitoring dumping in off-shore waterways.

  1. Cyanides and isocyanides of first-row transition metals: molecular structure, bonding, and isomerization barriers.

    PubMed

    Rayón, Víctor M; Redondo, Pilar; Valdés, Haydee; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

    2007-07-19

    Cyanides and isocyanides of first-row transition metal M(CN) (M=Sc-Zn) are investigated with quantum chemistry techniques, providing predictions for their molecular properties. A careful analysis of the competition between cyanide and isocyanide isomers along the transition series has been carried out. In agreement with the experimental observations, late transition metals (Co-Zn) clearly prefer a cyanide arrangement. On the other hand, early transition metals (Sc-Fe), with the only exception of the Cr(CN) system, favor the isocyanide isomer. The theoretical calculations predict the following unknown isocyanides, ScNC(3Delta), TiNC(4Phi), VNC(5Delta), and MnNC(7Sigma+), and agree with the experimental observation of FeNC(6Delta) and the CrCN(6Sigma+) cyanide. First-row transition metal cyanides and isocyanides are predicted to have relatively large dissociation energies with values within the range 80-101 kcal mol(-1), except Zn(CN), which has a dissociation energy around 50-55 kcal mol(-1), and low isomerization barriers. A detailed analysis of the bonding has been carried out employing the topological analysis of the charge density and an energy decomposition analysis. The role of the covalent and electrostatic contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, as well as the importance of pi bonding, are discussed.

  2. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife

  3. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife

  4. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for plant biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF)funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enabl...

  5. Creating a Successful Affiliated Foundation. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, Royster C.

    1999-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for the creation of effective affiliated foundations. An introductory section notes the increased use of such foundations by public colleges and universities for institutional fund-raising and management of property and endowments. The booklet finds that successful…

  6. Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide under simulated hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    Nitrogen is a fundamental element for life, where is present in structural (e.g., proteins), catalytic (e.g., enzymes and ribozymes), energy transfer (e.g., ATP) and information storage (RNA and DNA) biomolecules. Atmospheric and planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early atmospheres of Earth as dinitrogen (N2 ), an inert gas under normal atmospheric conditions. To be available for prebiotic synthesis it must be converted into hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ammonia (NH3 ) and/or nitric oxide (NO), in a process referred to as nitrogen fixation. Due to the strength of the triple bond in N2 , nitrogen fixation, while thermodynamically favored is kinetically restricted. In a reducing atmosphere dominated by CH4 -N2 , thunderstorm lightning efficiently produces HCN and NH3 (Stribling and Miller, 1987). Nevertheless, photochemical and geochemical constraints strongly suggest that the early atmosphere was weakly reducing, dominated by CO2 and N2 with traces of CH4 , CO, and H2 (Kasting, 1993). Under these conditions, HCN is no longer synthesized in the lightning channel and instead NO is formed (Navarro-Gonźlez, et al., 2001). In volcanic plumes, where magmatic gases a were more reducing than in the atmosphere, NO can also be formed by the lava heat (Mather et al., 2004) or volcanic lightning (Navarro-Gonźlez et al., 1998). Surprisingly, dinitrogen can be a reduced to NH3 in hydrothermal systems (Brandes et al., 1998), but the formation of HCN and its derivates were not investigated. The present work explores the possibility of the formation of HCN as well as other nitrile derivatives catalyzed by mineral surfaces in hydrothermal vents. To simulate a hydrothermal atmosphere, the experiments were carried out in a stainless steel Parr R minireactor with a 0.1 M NH4 HCO3 solution (200 ml) with or without a mineral surface exposed at 1 bar at temperatures ranging from 100 to 375° C. Different mineral matrices are been investigated. Our preliminary results

  7. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems.

  8. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

  9. Ford Foundation Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ford Foundation is sponsoring 40 three-year predoctoral fellowships and 10 one-year dissertation fellowships for minorities for 1987. The predoctoral fellowships include an annual stipend of $10,000 and an annual grant of $6000 to the fellow's institution in lieu of tuition and fees. Dissertation Fellows will receive a stipend of $18,000 and no institutional grant.The program is designed to increase the presence of under represented minorities in the nation's college and university faculties. The minority groups to be considered under this program are: American Indians, Alaskan Natives (Eskimo or Aleut), Black Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians or Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. The competition is open to any U.S. citizen who is a member of one of these groups, who is a beginning graduate student or is within 1 year of completing the dissertation, and who expects to work toward a Ph.D. or Sc.D. degree. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, and biological sciences. The National Research Council, which is administering the fellowships, can provide more information on which fields of study are and are not eligible for this program.

  10. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Kisiel, Z.; Wang, K.-S.

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  11. Effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) roots inoculation using different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species on sorption of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Soils and groundwater on sites of the former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are contaminated with various complex iron-cyanides (Fe-CN). Phytoremediation is a promising tool in stabilization and remediation of Fe-CN affected soils, however, it can be a challenging task due to extreme adverse and toxic conditions. Phytoremediation may be enhanced via rhizosphere microbial activity, which can cooperate on the degradation, transformation and uptake of the contaminants. Recently, increasing number of scientist reports improved plants performance in the removal of toxic compounds with the support of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF). Series of batch experiments using potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) solutions, in varying concentrations, were used to study the effect of ryegrass roots (Lolium perenne L.) inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis and a mixture of Rhizophagus irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus aggregatus, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum on Fe-CN sorption. Results indicated significantly higher colonization of R. irregularis than for the mixture of AMF species on ryegrass roots. Sorption experiments revealed significantly higher reduction of total CN and free CN content in the mycorrhizal roots, indicating greater cyanide decrease in the treatment inoculated with R. irregularis. Our study indicates contribution of AM fungi in phytoremediation of Fe-CN contaminated soil.

  12. Past, present and future of cyanide antagonism research: From the early remedies to the current therapies

    PubMed Central

    Petrikovics, Ilona; Budai, Marianna; Kovacs, Kristof; Thompson, David E

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews milestones in antidotal therapies for cyanide (CN) spanning early remedies, current antidotal systems and research towards next generation therapies. CN has been a part of plant defense mechanisms for millions of years. It became industrially important in the nineteenth century with the advent of CN assisted gold mining and the use of CN as a pest control agent. The biochemical basis of CN poisoning was actively studied and key mechanisms were understood as early as 1929. These fundamental studies led to a variety of antidotes, including indirect CN binders that generate methemoglobin, direct CN binders such as hydroxocobalamin, and sulfur donors that convert CN to the less toxic thiocyanate. Research on blood gases at the end of the twentieth century shed new light on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. The discovery of NO’s ability to compete with CN for enzymatic binding sites provided a previously missed explanation for the rapid efficacy of NO generating antidotes such as the nitrites. Presently used CN therapies include: methemoglobin/NO generators (e.g., sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and dimethyl aminophenol), sulfur donors (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and glutathione), and direct binding agents [(e.g., hydroxocobalamin and dicobalt salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (dicobalt edetate)]. A strong effort is being made to explore novel antidotal systems and to formulate them for rapid administration at the point of intoxication in mass casualty scenarios. New antidotes, formulations, and delivery systems are enhancing bioavailability and efficacy and hold promise for a new generation of improved CN countermeasures. PMID:26140275

  13. Past, present and future of cyanide antagonism research: From the early remedies to the current therapies.

    PubMed

    Petrikovics, Ilona; Budai, Marianna; Kovacs, Kristof; Thompson, David E

    2015-06-26

    This paper reviews milestones in antidotal therapies for cyanide (CN) spanning early remedies, current antidotal systems and research towards next generation therapies. CN has been a part of plant defense mechanisms for millions of years. It became industrially important in the nineteenth century with the advent of CN assisted gold mining and the use of CN as a pest control agent. The biochemical basis of CN poisoning was actively studied and key mechanisms were understood as early as 1929. These fundamental studies led to a variety of antidotes, including indirect CN binders that generate methemoglobin, direct CN binders such as hydroxocobalamin, and sulfur donors that convert CN to the less toxic thiocyanate. Research on blood gases at the end of the twentieth century shed new light on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. The discovery of NO's ability to compete with CN for enzymatic binding sites provided a previously missed explanation for the rapid efficacy of NO generating antidotes such as the nitrites. Presently used CN therapies include: methemoglobin/NO generators (e.g., sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and dimethyl aminophenol), sulfur donors (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and glutathione), and direct binding agents [(e.g., hydroxocobalamin and dicobalt salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (dicobalt edetate)]. A strong effort is being made to explore novel antidotal systems and to formulate them for rapid administration at the point of intoxication in mass casualty scenarios. New antidotes, formulations, and delivery systems are enhancing bioavailability and efficacy and hold promise for a new generation of improved CN countermeasures.

  14. Past, present and future of cyanide antagonism research: From the early remedies to the current therapies.

    PubMed

    Petrikovics, Ilona; Budai, Marianna; Kovacs, Kristof; Thompson, David E

    2015-06-26

    This paper reviews milestones in antidotal therapies for cyanide (CN) spanning early remedies, current antidotal systems and research towards next generation therapies. CN has been a part of plant defense mechanisms for millions of years. It became industrially important in the nineteenth century with the advent of CN assisted gold mining and the use of CN as a pest control agent. The biochemical basis of CN poisoning was actively studied and key mechanisms were understood as early as 1929. These fundamental studies led to a variety of antidotes, including indirect CN binders that generate methemoglobin, direct CN binders such as hydroxocobalamin, and sulfur donors that convert CN to the less toxic thiocyanate. Research on blood gases at the end of the twentieth century shed new light on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. The discovery of NO's ability to compete with CN for enzymatic binding sites provided a previously missed explanation for the rapid efficacy of NO generating antidotes such as the nitrites. Presently used CN therapies include: methemoglobin/NO generators (e.g., sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and dimethyl aminophenol), sulfur donors (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and glutathione), and direct binding agents [(e.g., hydroxocobalamin and dicobalt salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (dicobalt edetate)]. A strong effort is being made to explore novel antidotal systems and to formulate them for rapid administration at the point of intoxication in mass casualty scenarios. New antidotes, formulations, and delivery systems are enhancing bioavailability and efficacy and hold promise for a new generation of improved CN countermeasures. PMID:26140275

  15. Cyanide residue levels in extracted honey, comb honey and wax cappings.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M; Nelson, D L

    1979-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) residue levels were determined in samples of extracted honey, comb honey and was cappings at 1 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr intervals after destroying the bees in honey bee colonies with normal (ca. 8.5 g) and twice normal (ca. 17 g) doses of CyanogasR A-dust. Applications of CyanogasR A-dust, administered by means of a dust pump at normal and twice normal doses, gave an average residue of 0.01 and 0.04 microgram CN/g of extracted honey, 0.01 and 0.02 microgram CN/g of comb honey and 0.04 and 0.06 microgram CN/g of wax cappings, respectively. When the CyanogasR A-dust (ca. 17 g) was placed on a tray and placed on the bottom board of the hive, the average residue levels for extracted honey, comb honey and wax cappings were less than 0.004, 0.01 and 0.02 microgram CN/g, respectively. Random honey samples from beekeepers, who used CyanogasR to destroy bees, had a median level of 0.031 microgram CN/g, whereas honey from a packing plant and other commercial samples contained less than 0.004--0.026, median less than 0.004 microgram CN/g. Based on residue data from this study, the temporary registration for CyanogasR, to kill honey bees after crop removal, was revised to a full registration in May 1977.

  16. Corrin-based chemosensors for the ASSURED detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Zelder, Felix; Tivana, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for more than 500 million people, especially in Africa and South America. However, its consumption bears risks as it contains cyanogenic glycosides that convert enzymatically to toxic cyanide during cell damage. To avoid serious health problems by unintentional cyanide intake, this dangerous product of decomposition must be removed before consumption. For monitoring such food processing procedures and for controlling the quality and safety of cassava products on the market, a convenient and reliable analytical method for routine applications without laboratory equipment is required. This Perspective summarizes the authors' work on corrin-based chemosensors for the ('naked-eye') detection of endogenous cyanide in cassava samples. Considering selectivity, sensitivity, handling and speed of detection, these systems are superior to currently applied methods. Based on these properties, the development of a test kit for application by rural farmers in remote locations is proposed. PMID:25317920

  17. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Gideon, Daniel Andrew; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  18. Corrin-based chemosensors for the ASSURED detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Zelder, Felix; Tivana, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for more than 500 million people, especially in Africa and South America. However, its consumption bears risks as it contains cyanogenic glycosides that convert enzymatically to toxic cyanide during cell damage. To avoid serious health problems by unintentional cyanide intake, this dangerous product of decomposition must be removed before consumption. For monitoring such food processing procedures and for controlling the quality and safety of cassava products on the market, a convenient and reliable analytical method for routine applications without laboratory equipment is required. This Perspective summarizes the authors' work on corrin-based chemosensors for the ('naked-eye') detection of endogenous cyanide in cassava samples. Considering selectivity, sensitivity, handling and speed of detection, these systems are superior to currently applied methods. Based on these properties, the development of a test kit for application by rural farmers in remote locations is proposed.

  19. Rational design, synthesis of reaction-based dual-channel cyanide sensor in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Jian; Wei, Wei; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Xiao; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Qiu-Han; Dong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A new dual-channel sensor for the detection of cyanide was developed based on the conjugated of naphthalene and malononitrile. Upon the addition of CN-, the sensor displayed very large blue-shift in both fluorescence (80 nm) and absorption (120 nm) spectra. The sensor of cyanide was performed via the nucleophilic attack of cyanide anion to vinylic groups of the sensor with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry and the color changed of the sensor is mainly due to the intramolecular charge transfer process improvement. The intramolecular charge transfer progress was blocked with color changed and fluorescence blue-shift. The mechanism of sensor reaction with CN- ion was studied using 1H NMR and mass spectrometry.

  20. Thermoelectric Mechanism and Interface Characteristics of Cyanide-Free Nanogold-Coated Silver Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Wei; Hung, Fei-Yi; Lui, Truan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Traditional bath-plated gold contains a cyanide complex, which is an environmental hazard. In response, our study used a green plating process to produce cyanide-free gold-coated silver (cyanide-free ACA) bonding wire that has been proven to be a feasible alternative to gold bonding wire in semiconductor packaging. In this work, ACA wire annealed at 550°C was found to have stable microstructure and superior mechanical properties. Intermetallic compounds Ag2Al and AuAl2 grew from Ag-Au balls and Al pads after aging at 175°C for 500 h. After current testing, ACA wire was found to have improved electrical properties due to equiaxed grain growth. The gold nanolayer on the Ag surface increased the oxidation resistance. These results provide insights regarding the reliability of ACA wire in advanced bonding processes.

  1. Rational design, synthesis of reaction-based dual-channel cyanide sensor in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Jian; Wei, Wei; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Xiao; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Qiu-Han; Dong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A new dual-channel sensor for the detection of cyanide was developed based on the conjugated of naphthalene and malononitrile. Upon the addition of CN(-), the sensor displayed very large blue-shift in both fluorescence (80nm) and absorption (120nm) spectra. The sensor of cyanide was performed via the nucleophilic attack of cyanide anion to vinylic groups of the sensor with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry and the color changed of the sensor is mainly due to the intramolecular charge transfer process improvement. The intramolecular charge transfer progress was blocked with color changed and fluorescence blue-shift. The mechanism of sensor reaction with CN(-) ion was studied using (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry.

  2. Antidote treatment for cyanide poisoning with hydroxocobalamin causes bright pink discolouration and chemical-analytical interferences.

    PubMed

    Brunel, C; Widmer, C; Augsburger, M; Dussy, F; Fracasso, T

    2012-11-30

    Here we report the case of a 70-year-old woman who committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. During resuscitation cares, she underwent an antidote treatment by hydroxocobalamin. Postmortem investigations showed marked bright pink discolouration of organs and fluids, and a lethal cyanide blood concentration of 43 mg/L was detected by toxicological investigation. Discolouration of hypostasis and organs has widely been studied in forensic literature. In our case, we interpreted the unusual pink coloration as the result of the presence of hydroxocobalamin. This substance is a known antidote against cyanide poisoning, indicated because of its efficiency and poor adverse effects. However, its main drawback is to interfere with measurements of many routine biochemical parameters. We have tested the potential influence of this molecule in some routine postmortem investigations. The results are discussed.

  3. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of hydrogen cyanide levels in human breath.

    PubMed

    Stamyr, Kristin; Mörk, Anna-Karin; Johanson, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a potent and fast-acting toxin increasingly recognized as an important cause of death in fire victims. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of cyanide poisoning are essential to avoid fatalities. Unfortunately, there are at present few rapid diagnostic methods. A noninvasive methodology would be to use HCN in exhaled air as a marker for systemic exposure. To explore this possibility, we developed a preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The model suggests that breath HCN levels following inhalation exposure at near-lethal and lethal conditions are 0.1-1 ppm, i.e., one to two orders of magnitude higher than the background breath level of about 0.01 ppm in unexposed subjects. Hence, our results imply that breath analysis may be used as a rapid diagnostic method for cyanide poisoning.

  4. Limitations of the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater by ozonation and by the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, N; Miguel, N; Ovelleiro, J L; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of ozonation and the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process for the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater. The most efficient oxidation process is combined with coagulation-flocculation-decantation and lime-soda ash softening pretreatments. The oxidation in aqueous solution and industrial wastewater (at pH 9.5-12.3) by O3 was carried out using a range of concentration of consumed O3 from 10 to 290 mg/L. A molar ratio of H2O2/O3 from 0.1 to 5.2 with different concentrations of O3 constants was used for the H2O2-O3 process. The maximum cyanide removal obtained in coking wastewater was 90% using a mass ratio of O3/CN(-) of 9.5. Using lower concentrations of O3, cyanide is not removed and can even be generated due to the presence of other cyanide precursor organic micropollutants in the industrial matrix. The concentration of O3 is reduced to half for the same cyanide removal efficiency if the pretreatments are applied to reduce the carbonate and bicarbonate ions. The cyanide removal efficiency in coking wastewater is not improved if the O3 is combined with the H2O2. However, the preliminary cyanide removal treatment in aqueous solution showed an increase in the cyanide removal efficiency for the H2O2-O3 process.

  5. Limitations of the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater by ozonation and by the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, N; Miguel, N; Ovelleiro, J L; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of ozonation and the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process for the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater. The most efficient oxidation process is combined with coagulation-flocculation-decantation and lime-soda ash softening pretreatments. The oxidation in aqueous solution and industrial wastewater (at pH 9.5-12.3) by O3 was carried out using a range of concentration of consumed O3 from 10 to 290 mg/L. A molar ratio of H2O2/O3 from 0.1 to 5.2 with different concentrations of O3 constants was used for the H2O2-O3 process. The maximum cyanide removal obtained in coking wastewater was 90% using a mass ratio of O3/CN(-) of 9.5. Using lower concentrations of O3, cyanide is not removed and can even be generated due to the presence of other cyanide precursor organic micropollutants in the industrial matrix. The concentration of O3 is reduced to half for the same cyanide removal efficiency if the pretreatments are applied to reduce the carbonate and bicarbonate ions. The cyanide removal efficiency in coking wastewater is not improved if the O3 is combined with the H2O2. However, the preliminary cyanide removal treatment in aqueous solution showed an increase in the cyanide removal efficiency for the H2O2-O3 process. PMID:27438254

  6. EPR analysis of cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin and mutants in comparison to horse heart myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Trandafir, Florin; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal large differences between the ferric ((13)C-)cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin (NGB) and its H64Q and F28L point mutants and the cyanide complexes of mammalian myo- and haemoglobin. The point mutations, which involve residues comprising the distal haem pocket in NGB, induce smaller, but still significant changes, related to changes in the stabilization of the cyanide ligand. Furthermore, for the first time, the full (13)C hyperfine tensor of the cyanide carbon of cyanide-ligated horse heart myoglobin (hhMb) was determined using Davies ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance). Disagreement of these experimental data with earlier predictions based on (13)C NMR data and a theoretical model reveal significant flaws in the model assumptions. The same ENDOR procedure allowed also partial determination of the corresponding (13)C hyperfine tensor of cyanide-ligated NGB and H64QNGB. These (13)C parameters differ significantly from those of cyanide-ligated hhMb and challenge our current theoretical understanding of how the haem environment influences the magnetic parameters obtained by EPR and NMR in cyanide-ligated haem proteins.

  7. Cyanide removal from cassava mill wastewater using Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094 with mixed microorganisms in activated sludge treatment system.

    PubMed

    Kaewkannetra, P; Imai, T; Garcia-Garcia, F J; Chiu, T Y

    2009-12-15

    Cassava mill wastewater has a high organic and cyanide content and is an important economic product of traditional and rural low technology agro-industry in many parts of the world. However, the wastewater is toxic and can pose serious threat to the environment and aquatic life in the receiving waters. The ability of Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094, a N2-fixing bacterium, to grow and remove cyanide in cassava wastewater was evaluated. Results revealed that the cells in the exponential phase reduce the level of cyanide more rapidly than when the cells are at their stationary growth phase. The rate of cyanide removal by A. vinelandii depends on the initial cyanide concentration. As the initial cyanide concentration increased, removal rate increased and cyanide removal of up to 65.3% was achieved. In the subsequent pilot scale trial involving an activated sludge system, the introduction of A. vinelandii into the system resulted in cyanide removals of up to 90%. This represented an improvement of 20% when compared to the activated sludge system which did not incorporate the strain.

  8. Photodissociation/gas diffusion/ion chromatography system for determination of total and labile cyanide in waters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Rocklin, R.D.; Joyce, R.J.; Doyle, M.J. )

    1990-04-01

    An automated system for determination of total and labile cyanide in water samples has been developed. The stable metal-cyanide complexes such as Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3{minus}} are photodissociated in an acidic medium with an on-line pyrex glass reaction coil irradiated by an intense Hg lamp. The released cyanide (HCN) is separated from most interferences in the sample matrix and is collected in a dilute NaOH solution by gas diffusion using a hydrophobic porous membrane separator. The cyanide ion is then separated from remaining interferences such as sulfide by ion exchange chromatography and is detected by an amperometric detector. The characteristics of the automated system were studied with solutions of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes. The results of cyanide determination for a number of wastewater samples obtained with the new method were compared with those obtained with the standard method. The sample throughput of the system is eight samples per hour and the detection limit for total cyanide is 0.1 {mu}g/L.

  9. Comparison of brain mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity with cyanide LD(50) yields insight into the efficacy of prophylactics.

    PubMed

    Marziaz, Mandy L; Frazier, Kathryn; Guidry, Paul B; Ruiz, Robyn A; Petrikovics, Ilona; Haines, Donovan C

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory pathway, therefore inhibiting the cell oxygen utilization and resulting in the condition of histotoxic anoxia. The enzyme rhodanese detoxifies cyanide by utilizing sulfur donors to convert cyanide to thiocyanate, and new and improved sulfur donors are actively sought as researchers seek to improve cyanide prophylactics. We have determined brain cytochrome c oxidase activity as a marker for cyanide exposure for mice pre-treated with various cyanide poisoning prophylactics, including sulfur donors thiosulfate (TS) and thiotaurine (TT3). Brain mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation, the outer mitochondrial membrane was disrupted by a maltoside detergent, and the decrease in absorbance at 550 nm as horse heart ferrocytochrome c (generated by the dithiothreitol reduction of ferricytochrome c) was oxidized was monitored. Overall, the TS control prophylactic treatment provided significant protection of the cytochrome c oxidase activity. The TT3-treated mice showed reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity even in the absence of cyanide. In both treatment series, addition of exogenous Rh did not significantly enhance the prevention of cytochrome c oxidase inhibition, but the addition of sodium nitrite did. These findings can lead to a better understanding of the protection mechanism by various cyanide antidotal systems.

  10. Case Files of the University of Massachusetts Toxicology Fellowship: Does This Smoke Inhalation Victim Require Treatment with Cyanide Antidote?

    PubMed

    Hamad, Eike; Babu, Kavita; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide toxicity is common after significant smoke inhalation. Two cases are presented that provide framework for the discussion of epidemiology, pathogenesis, presenting signs and symptoms, and treatment options of inhalational cyanide poisoning. An evidence-based algorithm is proposed that utilizes point-of-care testing to help physicians identify patients who benefit most from antidotal therapy.

  11. Establishing a Local Education Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, James S.; Markland, Maureen S.

    This paper describes the process of establishing local education foundations for the purpose of raising revenues to supplement, not supplant, existing school programs. Plans to identify funding sources and define the purpose of the foundation tied to student and academic achievement must emerge in order to solicit private individuals or groups,…

  12. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been replaced or…

  13. Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... online suggestion box . Mailing Address: Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation 302 West Main Street, #100 Avon, Connecticut 06001 USA What Is CdLS? Who We Are What We Do Research Get Involved Find Support ... & Terms Site Map The Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) Foundation is a family support organization that ...

  14. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  15. The Psychological Foundations of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    1967-01-01

    This paper outlines problems which are central to the psychological foundations of mathematics. Discussed are the relations that exist between psychological and classical foundations of mathematics. It is shown how the inadequacies of current learning theories which account for complex mathematics learning may be made explicit for appropriate…

  16. Total cyanide analysis of tank core samples: Analytical results and supporting investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.

    1994-03-01

    The potential for a ferrocyanide explosion in Hanford site single-shelled waste storage tanks (SSTS) poses a serious safety concern. This potential danger developed in the 1950s when {sup 137}Cs was scavenged during the reprocessing of uranium recovery process waste by co-precipitating it along with sodium in nickel ferrocyanide salt. Sodium or potassium ferrocyanide and nickel sulfate were added to the liquid waste stored in SSTs. The tank storage space resulting from the scavenging process was subsequently used to store other waste types. Ferrocyanide salts in combinations with oxidizing agents, such as nitrate and nitrite, are known to explode when key parameters (temperature, water content, oxidant concentration, and fuel [cyanide]) are in place. Therefore, reliable total cyanide analysis data for actual SST materials are required to address the safety issue. Accepted cyanide analysis procedures do not yield reliable results for samples containing nickel ferrocyanide materials because the compounds are insoluble in acidic media. Analytical chemists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have developed a modified microdistillation procedure (see below) for analyzing total cyanide in waste tank matrices containing nickel ferrocyanide materials. Pacific Northwest Laboratory analyzed samples from Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-112 cores 34, 35, and 36 for total cyanide content using technical procedure PNL-ALO-285 {open_quotes}Total Cyanide by Remote Microdistillation and Agrentometric Titration,{close_quotes} Rev. 0. This report summarizes the results of these analyses along with supporting quality control data, and, in addition, summarizes the results of the test to check the efficacy of sodium nickel ferrocyanide solubilization from an actual core sample by aqueous EDTA/en to verify that nickel ferrocyanide compounds were quantitatively solubilized before actual distillation.

  17. Impedance spectroscopy and conductometric biosensing for probing catalase reaction with cyanide as ligand and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bouyahia, Naima; Hamlaoui, Mohamed Larbi; Hnaien, Mouna; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2011-02-01

    In this work, a new biosensor was prepared through immobilization of bovine liver catalase in a photoreticulated poly (vinyl alcohol) membrane at the surface of a conductometric transducer. This biosensor was used to study the kinetics of catalase-H(2)0(2) reaction and its inhibition by cyanide. Immobilized catalase exhibited a Michaelis-Menten behaviour at low H(2)0(2) concentrations (<100mM) with apparent constant K(M)(app)=84±3mM and maximal initial velocity V(M)(app)=13.4μS min(-1). Inhibition by cyanide was found to be non-competitive and inhibition binding constant K(i) was 13.9±0.3μM. The decrease of the biosensor response by increasing cyanide concentration was linear up to 50μM, with a cyanide detection limit of 6μM. In parallel, electrochemical characteristics of the catalase/PVA biomembrane and its interaction with cyanide were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Addition of the biomembrane onto the gold electrodes induced a significant increase of the interfacial polarization resistance R(P). On the contrary, cyanide binding resulted in a decrease of Rp proportional to KCN concentration in the 4 to 50μM range. Inhibition coefficient I(50) calculated by this powerful label-free and substrate-free technique (24.3μM) was in good agreement with that determined from the substrate-dependent conductometric biosensor (24.9μM).

  18. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  19. Impedance spectroscopy and conductometric biosensing for probing catalase reaction with cyanide as ligand and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bouyahia, Naima; Hamlaoui, Mohamed Larbi; Hnaien, Mouna; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2011-02-01

    In this work, a new biosensor was prepared through immobilization of bovine liver catalase in a photoreticulated poly (vinyl alcohol) membrane at the surface of a conductometric transducer. This biosensor was used to study the kinetics of catalase-H(2)0(2) reaction and its inhibition by cyanide. Immobilized catalase exhibited a Michaelis-Menten behaviour at low H(2)0(2) concentrations (<100mM) with apparent constant K(M)(app)=84±3mM and maximal initial velocity V(M)(app)=13.4μS min(-1). Inhibition by cyanide was found to be non-competitive and inhibition binding constant K(i) was 13.9±0.3μM. The decrease of the biosensor response by increasing cyanide concentration was linear up to 50μM, with a cyanide detection limit of 6μM. In parallel, electrochemical characteristics of the catalase/PVA biomembrane and its interaction with cyanide were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Addition of the biomembrane onto the gold electrodes induced a significant increase of the interfacial polarization resistance R(P). On the contrary, cyanide binding resulted in a decrease of Rp proportional to KCN concentration in the 4 to 50μM range. Inhibition coefficient I(50) calculated by this powerful label-free and substrate-free technique (24.3μM) was in good agreement with that determined from the substrate-dependent conductometric biosensor (24.9μM). PMID:20813591

  20. Non-lethal, repeated testing, anesthetized canine model for the evaluation of effectiveness of new forms of prophylaxis and therapy for cyanide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Von Bredow, J.; Vick, J.; Kaminskis, A.; Brewer, T.

    1993-05-13

    Acute cyanide intoxication has most often been modeled through the bolos intravenous administration of a lethal amount of sodium or potassium cyanide which provides reproducible effects and represents the most severe challenge to any new form of prophylaxis and therapy. Inhalation of cyanide leads to a similar acute onset of toxic signs which is controlled by the rate and depth of respiration. The cyanide induced halt in respiration also halts the continued absorption of cyanide leading to a well defined, consistent end point of the amount of cyanide absorbed. Regardless of the abundance of cyanide in the ambient air, the casualty can only absorb cyanide during respiration. A slow intravenous infusion of cyanide which is continued only until respiratory arrest is achieved should define the same limit of cyanide intoxication. Cyanide intoxication defined by the amount of sodium cyanide infused to induce respiratory arrest (RA) in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs provides the basis for the development of a useful repeated testing animal model. Utilization of the RA yields a surrogate endpoint in the anesthetized dog model and provides a non-traumatic, reproducible procedure to estimate the lethal level of CN in each dog as well defining the protective effect of pretreatments and antidotes.