Science.gov

Sample records for cyber security issues

  1. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  2. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  3. Cyber-Security Issues in Healthcare Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G

    2017-02-01

    In 1999-2003, SIIM (then SCAR) sponsored the creation of several special topic Primers, one of which was concerned with computer security. About the same time, a multi-society collaboration authored an ACR Guideline with a similar plot; the latter has recently been updated. The motivation for these efforts was the launch of Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). That legislation directed care providers to enable the portability of patient medical records across authorized medical centers, while simultaneously protecting patient confidentiality among unauthorized agents. These policy requirements resulted in the creation of numerous technical solutions which the above documents described. While the mathematical concepts and algorithms in those papers are as valid today as they were then, recent increases in the complexity of computer criminal applications (and defensive countermeasures) and the pervasiveness of Internet connected devices have raised the bar. This work examines how a medical center can adapt to these evolving threats.

  4. Metaphors for cyber security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).

  5. The Cyber Security Crisis

    ScienceCinema

    Spafford, Eugene [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2016-07-12

    Despite considerable activity and attention, the overall state of information security continues to get worse. Attacks are increasing, fraud and theft are rising, and losses may exceed $100 billion per year worldwide. Many factors contribute to this, including misplaced incentives for industry, a lack of attention by government, ineffective law enforcement, and an uninformed image of who the perpetrators really are. As a result, many of the intended attempts at solutions are of limited (if any) overall effectiveness. This presentation will illustrate some key aspects of the cyber security problem and its magnitude, as well as provide some insight into causes and enabling factors. The talk will conclude with some observations on how the computing community can help improve the situation, as well as some suggestions for 'cyber self-defense.'

  6. The Cyber Security Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Eugene

    2006-05-10

    Despite considerable activity and attention, the overall state of information security continues to get worse. Attacks are increasing, fraud and theft are rising, and losses may exceed $100 billion per year worldwide. Many factors contribute to this, including misplaced incentives for industry, a lack of attention by government, ineffective law enforcement, and an uninformed image of who the perpetrators really are. As a result, many of the intended attempts at solutions are of limited (if any) overall effectiveness. This presentation will illustrate some key aspects of the cyber security problem and its magnitude, as well as provide some insight into causes and enabling factors. The talk will conclude with some observations on how the computing community can help improve the situation, as well as some suggestions for 'cyber self-defense.'

  7. Realizing Scientific Methods for Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2012-07-18

    There is little doubt among cyber security researchers about the lack of scientic rigor that underlies much of the liter-ature. The issues are manifold and are well documented. Further complicating the problem is insufficient scientic methods to address these issues. Cyber security melds man and machine: we inherit the challenges of computer science, sociology, psychology, and many other elds and create new ones where these elds interface. In this paper we detail a partial list of challenges imposed by rigorous science and survey how other sciences have tackled them, in the hope of applying a similar approach to cyber security science. This paper is by no means comprehensive: its purpose is to foster discussion in the community on how we can improve rigor in cyber security science.

  8. Cyber Security Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-03

    CSET is a desktop software tool that guides users through a step-by-step process to assess their control system network security practices against recognized industry standards. The output from CSET is a prioritized list of recommendations for improving the cyber security posture of your organization’s ICS or enterprise network. CSET derives the recommendations from a database of cybersecurity standards, guidelines, and practices. Each recommendation is linked to a set of actions that can be applied to enhance cybersecurity controls.

  9. Cyber security: a critical examination of information sharing versus data sensitivity issues for organisations at risk of cyber attack.

    PubMed

    Mallinder, Jason; Drabwell, Peter

    Cyber threats are growing and evolving at an unprecedented rate.Consequently, it is becoming vitally important that organisations share information internally and externally before, during and after incidents they encounter so that lessons can be learned, good practice identified and new cyber resilience capabilities developed. Many organisations are reluctant to share such information for fear of divulging sensitive information or because it may be vague or incomplete. This provides organisations with a complex dilemma: how to share information as openly as possibly about cyber incidents, while protecting their confidentiality and focusing on service recovery from such incidents. This paper explores the dilemma of information sharing versus sensitivity and provides a practical overview of considerations every business continuity plan should address to plan effectively for information sharing in the event of a cyber incident.

  10. Cyber Security Applications: Freeware & Shareware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss some assignments using freeware/shareware instructors can find on the Web to use to provide students with hands-on experience in this arena. Also, the college, Palm Beach State College, via a grant with the U.S. Department of Labor, has recently purchased a unique cyber security device that simulates cyber security attacks…

  11. INL@Work Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, May

    2010-01-01

    May Chaffin is one of many Idaho National Laboratory researchers who are helping secure the nation's critical infrastructure from cyber attacks. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. INL@Work Cyber Security

    ScienceCinema

    Chaffin, May

    2016-07-12

    May Chaffin is one of many Idaho National Laboratory researchers who are helping secure the nation's critical infrastructure from cyber attacks. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. Visualizing Cyber Security: Usable Workspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; North, Christopher L.; Endert, Alexander; Rose, Stuart J.

    2009-10-11

    An environment that supports cyber analytics work should enable multiple, simultaneous investigations, information foraging, and provide a solution space for organizing data. We describe our study of cyber security professionals and visualizations in a large, high-resolution display work environment. We discuss the tasks and needs of analysts that such an environment can support and present several prototypes designed to support these needs. We conclude with a usability evaluation of the prototypes and additional lessons learned.

  14. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation’s cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested – both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  15. Evaluation of current visualization tools for cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, John T.; Newey, Brent

    2010-04-01

    Visualization tools for cyber security often overlook related research from the information visualization domain. Cyber security data sets are notoriously large, yet many of the popular analysis tools use 3D techniques and parallel coordinates which have been shown to suffer issues of occlusion when applied to large data sets1,2. While techniques exist to ameliorate these issues they are typically not used. In this paper we evaluate several cyber security visualization tools based on established design principles and human-computer interaction research. We conclude by enumerating challenges, requirements, and recommendations for future work.

  16. ATIP Report: Cyber Security Research in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-05

    groups in the field of cyber security in China. Progress has recently been made in the areas of cryptography, web security, intrusion detection & attack...China. Progress has recently been made in the areas of cryptography, web security, intrusion detection & attack analysis, cloud security, mobile security...CYBER SECURITY RESEARCH IN CHINA 1 4.4 Shandong University 5. RESEARCH PROGRESS 5.1 Cryptography 5.2 Web Security 5.3 Intrusion Detection and

  17. Proceedings Second Annual Cyber Security and Information Infrastructure Research Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Krings, Axel; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Mili, Ali; Trien, Joseph P

    2006-01-01

    The workshop theme is Cyber Security: Beyond the Maginot Line Recently the FBI reported that computer crime has skyrocketed costing over $67 billion in 2005 alone and affecting 2.8M+ businesses and organizations. Attack sophistication is unprecedented along with availability of open source concomitant tools. Private, academic, and public sectors invest significant resources in cyber security. Industry primarily performs cyber security research as an investment in future products and services. While the public sector also funds cyber security R&D, the majority of this activity focuses on the specific mission(s) of the funding agency. Thus, broad areas of cyber security remain neglected or underdeveloped. Consequently, this workshop endeavors to explore issues involving cyber security and related technologies toward strengthening such areas and enabling the development of new tools and methods for securing our information infrastructure critical assets. We aim to assemble new ideas and proposals about robust models on which we can build the architecture of a secure cyberspace including but not limited to: * Knowledge discovery and management * Critical infrastructure protection * De-obfuscating tools for the validation and verification of tamper-proofed software * Computer network defense technologies * Scalable information assurance strategies * Assessment-driven design for trust * Security metrics and testing methodologies * Validation of security and survivability properties * Threat assessment and risk analysis * Early accurate detection of the insider threat * Security hardened sensor networks and ubiquitous computing environments * Mobile software authentication protocols * A new "model" of the threat to replace the "Maginot Line" model and more . . .

  18. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  19. The Defender's Role in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-05

    The embodiment of this work is a table top game to explore cyber security and network defense concepts and cost. The game structure is such that it provides players an immersive environment to play a given role in cyber security to investigate the result of infrastructure and response decisions.

  20. Mathematical and Statistical Opportunities in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Meza, Juan; Campbell, Scott; Bailey, David

    2009-03-23

    The role of mathematics in a complex system such as the Internet has yet to be deeply explored. In this paper, we summarize some of the important and pressing problems in cyber security from the viewpoint of open science environments. We start by posing the question 'What fundamental problems exist within cyber security research that can be helped by advanced mathematics and statistics'? Our first and most important assumption is that access to real-world data is necessary to understand large and complex systems like the Internet. Our second assumption is that many proposed cyber security solutions could critically damage both the openness and the productivity of scientific research. After examining a range of cyber security problems, we come to the conclusion that the field of cyber security poses a rich set of new and exciting research opportunities for the mathematical and statistical sciences.

  1. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  2. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  3. Cyber Security and Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Onyeji, Ijeoma; Bazilian, Morgan; Bronk, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Both the number and security implications of sophisticated cyber attacks on companies providing critical energy infrastructures are increasing. As power networks and, to a certain extent, oil and gas infrastructure both upstream and downstream, are becoming increasingly integrated with information communication technology systems, they are growing more susceptible to cyber attacks.

  4. Mitigating Cyber Security Risk in Satellite Ground Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/BICHLER/AY2015 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MITIGATING CYBER SECURITY RISK IN SATELLITE GROUND SYSTEMS by...7 Cyberspace Components of Satellite Ground Systems...9 CYBER THREATS TO SATELLITE GROUND SYSTEMS .................................................10 Cyber Espionage

  5. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Patrick, Scott W.; Perkins, Casey J.; Muller, George; Lancaster, Mary J.; Hutton, William J.

    2013-02-28

    Securing high value and critical assets is one of the biggest challenges facing this nation and others around the world. In modern integrated systems, there are four potential modes of attack available to an adversary: • physical only attack, • cyber only attack, • physical-enabled cyber attack, • cyber-enabled physical attack. Blended attacks involve an adversary working in one domain to reduce system effectiveness in another domain. This enables the attacker to penetrate further into the overall layered defenses. Existing vulnerability assessment (VA) processes and software tools which predict facility vulnerabilities typically evaluate the physical and cyber domains separately. Vulnerabilities which result from the integration of cyber-physical control systems are not well characterized and are often overlooked by existing assessment approaches. In this paper, we modified modification of the timely detection methodology, used for decades in physical security VAs, to include cyber components. The Physical and Cyber Risk Analysis Tool (PACRAT) prototype illustrates an integrated vulnerability assessment that includes cyber-physical interdependencies. Information about facility layout, network topology, and emplaced safeguards is used to evaluate how well suited a facility is to detect, delay, and respond to attacks, to identify the pathways most vulnerable to attack, and to evaluate how often safeguards are compromised for a given threat or adversary type. We have tested the PACRAT prototype on critical infrastructure facilities and the results are promising. Future work includes extending the model to prescribe the recommended security improvements via an automated cost-benefit analysis.

  6. Embracing the Cloud for Better Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Lagesse, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    The future of cyber security is inextricably tied to the future of computing. Organizational needs and economic factors will drive computing outcomes. Cyber security researchers and practitioners must recognize the path of computing evolution and position themselves to influence the process to incorporate security as an inherent property. The best way to predict future computing trends is to look at recent developments and their motivations. Organizations are moving towards outsourcing their data storage, computation, and even user desktop environments. This trend toward cloud computing has a direct impact on cyber security: rather than securing user machines, preventing malware access, and managing removable media, a cloud-based security scheme must focus on enabling secure communication with remote systems. This change in approach will have profound implications for cyber security research efforts. In this work, we highlight existing and emerging technologies and the limitations of cloud computing systems. We then discuss the cyber security efforts that would support these applications. Finally, we discuss the implications of these computing architecture changes, in particular with respect to malware and social engineering.

  7. Cyber / Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Simpkins, Bret E.

    2012-07-28

    Abstract Both physical protection and cyber security domains offer solutions for the discovery of vulnerabilities through the use of various assessment processes and software tools. Each vulnerability assessment (VA) methodology provides the ability to identify and categorize vulnerabilities, and quantifies the risks within their own areas of expertise. Neither approach fully represents the true potential security risk to a site and/or a facility, nor comprehensively assesses the overall security posture. The technical approach to solving this problem was to identify methodologies and processes that blend the physical and cyber security assessments, and develop tools to accurately quantify the unaccounted for risk. SMEs from both the physical and the cyber security domains developed the blending methodologies, and cross trained each other on the various aspects of the physical and cyber security assessment processes. A local critical infrastructure entity volunteered to host a proof of concept physical/cyber security assessment, and the lessons learned have been leveraged by this effort. The four potential modes of attack an adversary can use in approaching a target are; Physical Only Attack, Cyber Only Attack, Physical Enabled Cyber Attack, and the Cyber Enabled Physical Attack. The Physical Only and the Cyber Only pathway analysis are two of the most widely analyzed attack modes. The pathway from an off-site location to the desired target location is dissected to ensure adversarial activity can be detected and neutralized by the protection strategy, prior to completion of a predefined task. This methodology typically explores a one way attack from the public space (or common area) inward towards the target. The Physical Enabled Cyber Attack and the Cyber Enabled Physical Attack are much more intricate. Both scenarios involve beginning in one domain to affect change in the other, then backing outward to take advantage of the reduced system effectiveness, before

  8. Using a Prediction Model to Manage Cyber Security Threats.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Venkatesh; Cherurveettil, Priyesh; Muthu Sivashanmugam, Premapriya

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-attacks are an important issue faced by all organizations. Securing information systems is critical. Organizations should be able to understand the ecosystem and predict attacks. Predicting attacks quantitatively should be part of risk management. The cost impact due to worms, viruses, or other malicious software is significant. This paper proposes a mathematical model to predict the impact of an attack based on significant factors that influence cyber security. This model also considers the environmental information required. It is generalized and can be customized to the needs of the individual organization.

  9. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  10. Cyber Security: Critical Infrastructure Controls Assessment Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Industry SANS ‐ CAG OASIS Private   ISA ‐99 <more…> SOX <more…> OWASP <more…> And Growing Day by Day……………….. CIP Security Controls Assessment...NERC-CIP NIST-Cyber Grid Chemical Cyber Physical System Security Standards PCI OASIS OWASP Nuclear Transportation ISA -99 CIP Security Controls...Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.  –           14. ISA  – Industrial Society for Automation 15. ISO – International Standards Organization

  11. CYBER/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-07-17

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  12. Cyber Security--Are You Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Scott

    2007-01-01

    During the summer 2002 term, Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee's Information Technologies Division offered a one credit-hour network security course--which barely had adequate student interest to meet the institution's enrollment requirements. Today, OSU-Okmulgee boasts one of the nation's premier cyber security programs. Many prospective…

  13. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  14. Maritime Cyber Security University Research: Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Macesker Executive Director United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Cyber Security...Performing Organization Name and Address U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 10. Work Unit No

  15. Cyber-Security Curricula for Basic Users

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Safe Coalition ―is a broad partnership of governors and/or first spouses, attorney generals, public health and educational professionals , law...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CYBER-SECURITY...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704–0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is

  16. Maritime Cyber Security University Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Experimental Research E- CAT Economic Consequences Analysis Tool ECA Economic Consequence Analysis FS-ISAC Financial Services Information Sharing...threats. CREATE’s Economic Consequences Analysis Tool (E- CAT ), which provides fast economic consequences of attacks, was to be extended to include cyber...linkages, and remediation of damages. The white paper also presented a summary of the recently developed Economic Consequence Analysis Tool (E- CAT

  17. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A.

    2006-07-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from an intruder attempting to

  18. Comparison of two methods to quantify cyber and physical security effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, Gregory Dane; Gordon, Kristl A.

    2005-11-01

    With the increasing reliance on cyber technology to operate and control physical security system components, there is a need for methods to assess and model the interactions between the cyber system and the physical security system to understand the effects of cyber technology on overall security system effectiveness. This paper evaluates two methodologies for their applicability to the combined cyber and physical security problem. The comparison metrics include probabilities of detection (P{sub D}), interruption (P{sub I}), and neutralization (P{sub N}), which contribute to calculating the probability of system effectiveness (P{sub E}), the probability that the system can thwart an adversary attack. P{sub E} is well understood in practical applications of physical security but when the cyber security component is added, system behavior becomes more complex and difficult to model. This paper examines two approaches (Bounding Analysis Approach (BAA) and Expected Value Approach (EVA)) to determine their applicability to the combined physical and cyber security issue. These methods were assessed for a variety of security system characteristics to determine whether reasonable security decisions could be made based on their results. The assessments provided insight on an adversary's behavior depending on what part of the physical security system is cyber-controlled. Analysis showed that the BAA is more suited to facility analyses than the EVA because it has the ability to identify and model an adversary's most desirable attack path.

  19. 76 FR 22409 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... a cyber network security assessment so that a full measure of gaps and capabilities can be completed... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs.... SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate...

  20. 76 FR 43696 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... government to complete a cyber network security assessment so that a full measure of gaps and capabilities... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD),...

  1. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  2. Cyber Security Research Frameworks For Coevolutionary Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, George D.; Tauritz, Daniel Remy

    2015-12-03

    Several architectures have been created for developing and testing systems used in network security, but most are meant to provide a platform for running cyber security experiments as opposed to automating experiment processes. In the first paper, we propose a framework termed Distributed Cyber Security Automation Framework for Experiments (DCAFE) that enables experiment automation and control in a distributed environment. Predictive analysis of adversaries is another thorny issue in cyber security. Game theory can be used to mathematically analyze adversary models, but its scalability limitations restrict its use. Computational game theory allows us to scale classical game theory to larger, more complex systems. In the second paper, we propose a framework termed Coevolutionary Agent-based Network Defense Lightweight Event System (CANDLES) that can coevolve attacker and defender agent strategies and capabilities and evaluate potential solutions with a custom network defense simulation. The third paper is a continuation of the CANDLES project in which we rewrote key parts of the framework. Attackers and defenders have been redesigned to evolve pure strategy, and a new network security simulation is devised which specifies network architecture and adds a temporal aspect. We also add a hill climber algorithm to evaluate the search space and justify the use of a coevolutionary algorithm.

  3. Interdependent Risk and Cyber Security: An Analysis of Security Investment and Cyber Insurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Woohyun

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of firms rely on highly interconnected information networks. In such environments, defense against cyber attacks is complicated by residual risks caused by the interdependence of information security decisions of firms. IT security is affected not only by a firm's own management strategies but also by those of others. This…

  4. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  5. S5: New Threats to Cyber-Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University 29-Oct-2014 S5: New Threats to Cyber - Security Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Threats to Cyber - Security 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sherman /Mark S. 5d...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Mark Sherman S5: New Threats to Cyber - Security © 2014 Carnegie

  6. Bio-Inspired Cyber Security for Smart Grid Deployments

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, Archibald D.; Thompson, Seth R.; Doroshchuk, Ruslan A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2013-05-01

    mart grid technologies are transforming the electric power grid into a grid with bi-directional flows of both power and information. Operating millions of new smart meters and smart appliances will significantly impact electric distribution systems resulting in greater efficiency. However, the scale of the grid and the new types of information transmitted will potentially introduce several security risks that cannot be addressed by traditional, centralized security techniques. We propose a new bio-inspired cyber security approach. Social insects, such as ants and bees, have developed complex-adaptive systems that emerge from the collective application of simple, light-weight behaviors. The Digital Ants framework is a bio-inspired framework that uses mobile light-weight agents. Sensors within the framework use digital pheromones to communicate with each other and to alert each other of possible cyber security issues. All communication and coordination is both localized and decentralized thereby allowing the framework to scale across the large numbers of devices that will exist in the smart grid. Furthermore, the sensors are light-weight and therefore suitable for implementation on devices with limited computational resources. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Digital Ants framework and then present results from test bed-based demonstrations that show that Digital Ants can identify a cyber attack scenario against smart meter deployments.

  7. Security Informatics Research Challenges for Mitigating Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2014-09-30

    This paper addresses cognitive implications and research needs surrounding the problem of cyber friendly re (FF). We dene cyber FF as intentional o*ensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission e*ectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. We describe examples of cyber FF and discuss how it ts within a general conceptual framework for cyber security failures. Because it involves human failure, cyber FF may be considered to belong to a sub-class of cyber security failures characterized as unintentional insider threats. Cyber FF is closely related to combat friendly re in that maintaining situation awareness (SA) is paramount to avoiding unintended consequences. Cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system and its nodes, the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive and o*ensive countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. We describe a test bed designed to support empirical research on factors a*ecting cyber FF. Finally, we discuss mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF, including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches.

  8. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  9. Science of Cyber-Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    available, health has improved beyond the dreams of our ancestors. One class of basic objects, diseases are described in a generally useful way. Some have...research annually) some diseases , like influenza, are only managed, killing tens of thou- sands each year. The aspirations of the field are bounded by...or dissuaded, which is not possible with disease agents. For many years, banks had layers of annoying physical security, bullet proof glass, armed

  10. Mission Assurance Modeling and Simulation: A Cyber Security Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendron, Gerald; Roberts, David; Poole, Donold; Aquino, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a cyber security modeling and simulation roadmap to enhance mission assurance governance and establish risk reduction processes within constrained budgets. The term mission assurance stems from risk management work by Carnegie Mellon's Software Engineering Institute in the late 19905. By 2010, the Defense Information Systems Agency revised its cyber strategy and established the Program Executive Officer-Mission Assurance. This highlights a shift from simply protecting data to balancing risk and begins a necessary dialogue to establish a cyber security roadmap. The Military Operations Research Society has recommended a cyber community of practice, recognizing there are too few professionals having both cyber and analytic experience. The authors characterize the limited body of knowledge in this symbiotic relationship. This paper identifies operational and research requirements for mission assurance M&S supporting defense and homeland security. M&S techniques are needed for enterprise oversight of cyber investments, test and evaluation, policy, training, and analysis.

  11. Building organisational cyber resilience: A strategic knowledge-based view of cyber security management.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Jason

    The concept of cyber resilience has emerged in recent years in response to the recognition that cyber security is more than just risk management. Cyber resilience is the goal of organisations, institutions and governments across the world and yet the emerging literature is somewhat fragmented due to the lack of a common approach to the subject. This limits the possibility of effective collaboration across public, private and governmental actors in their efforts to build and maintain cyber resilience. In response to this limitation, and to calls for a more strategically focused approach, this paper offers a knowledge-based view of cyber security management that explains how an organisation can build, assess, and maintain cyber resilience.

  12. Cyber security best practices for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, I.

    2012-07-01

    When deploying software based systems, such as, digital instrumentation and controls for the nuclear industry, it is vital to include cyber security assessment as part of architecture and development process. When integrating and delivering software-intensive systems for the nuclear industry, engineering teams should make use of a secure, requirements driven, software development life cycle, ensuring security compliance and optimum return on investment. Reliability protections, data loss prevention, and privacy enforcement provide a strong case for installing strict cyber security policies. (authors)

  13. Cyber security risk assessment for SCADA and DCS networks.

    PubMed

    Ralston, P A S; Graham, J H; Hieb, J L

    2007-10-01

    The growing dependence of critical infrastructures and industrial automation on interconnected physical and cyber-based control systems has resulted in a growing and previously unforeseen cyber security threat to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and distributed control systems (DCSs). It is critical that engineers and managers understand these issues and know how to locate the information they need. This paper provides a broad overview of cyber security and risk assessment for SCADA and DCS, introduces the main industry organizations and government groups working in this area, and gives a comprehensive review of the literature to date. Major concepts related to the risk assessment methods are introduced with references cited for more detail. Included are risk assessment methods such as HHM, IIM, and RFRM which have been applied successfully to SCADA systems with many interdependencies and have highlighted the need for quantifiable metrics. Presented in broad terms is probability risk analysis (PRA) which includes methods such as FTA, ETA, and FEMA. The paper concludes with a general discussion of two recent methods (one based on compromise graphs and one on augmented vulnerability trees) that quantitatively determine the probability of an attack, the impact of the attack, and the reduction in risk associated with a particular countermeasure.

  14. Ant-Based Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; Maiden, Wendy M.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Templeton, Steven J.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2011-07-12

    We describe a swarming-agent-based, mixed-initiative approach to infrastructure defense where teams of humans and software agents defend cooperating organizations in tandem by sharing insights and solutions without violating proprietary boundaries. The system places human administrators at the appropriate level where they provide system guidance while lower-level agents carry out tasks humans are unable to perform quickly enough to mitigate today’s security threats. Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) uses our ant-based approach to enable dialogue between humans and agents to foster a collaborative problem-solving environment, increase human situational awareness and influence using visualization and shared control. We discuss theoretical implementation characteristics along with results from recent proof-of-concept implementations.

  15. Cyber security analysis testbed : combining real, emulation, and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Villamarin, Charles H.; Eldridge, John M.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Urias, Vincent E.

    2010-07-01

    Cyber security analysis tools are necessary to evaluate the security, reliability, and resilience of networked information systems against cyber attack. It is common practice in modern cyber security analysis to separately utilize real systems of computers, routers, switches, firewalls, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models to analyze the interplay between cyber threats and safeguards. In contrast, Sandia National Laboratories has developed novel methods to combine these evaluation platforms into a hybrid testbed that combines real, emulated, and simulated components. The combination of real, emulated, and simulated components enables the analysis of security features and components of a networked information system. When performing cyber security analysis on a system of interest, it is critical to realistically represent the subject security components in high fidelity. In some experiments, the security component may be the actual hardware and software with all the surrounding components represented in simulation or with surrogate devices. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a cyber testbed that combines modeling and simulation capabilities with virtual machines and real devices to represent, in varying fidelity, secure networked information system architectures and devices. Using this capability, secure networked information system architectures can be represented in our testbed on a single, unified computing platform. This provides an 'experiment-in-a-box' capability. The result is rapidly-produced, large-scale, relatively low-cost, multi-fidelity representations of networked information systems. These representations enable analysts to quickly investigate cyber threats and test protection approaches and configurations.

  16. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  17. Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    security. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare , Estonia, Georgia, Russian Federation Cyber Strategy, Convention on Cybercrime, NATO Center...Federation ......................................................................................... 33  X.  The Future of Russian Cyber Warfare ................................................................... 39...Issue 15.09); Binoy Kampmark, Cyber Warfare Between Estonia And Russia, (Contemporary Review: Autumn, 2003), p 288-293; Jaak Aaviksoo, Address by the

  18. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide

    2009-09-01

    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis.

  19. Evaluation Report on "The Department's Unclassified Cyber Security Program"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    defenses against malicious intruders and other externals threats. These are positive accomplishments. However, in our judgment, additional action is required to further enhance the Department's unclassified cyber security program and help reduce risks to its systems and data. For example, our current review identified opportunities for improvements in areas such as security planning and testing, systems inventory, access controls, and configuration management. In particular, we issued a number of findings at sites managed by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). We also identified weaknesses across various Department program elements. Issues that warrant further attention include: (1) Weaknesses such as outdated security plans and not completing annual security control self-assessments were identified at several sites; (2) The Department had not yet resolved systems inventory issues and had yet to deploy a complex-wide automated asset management tool to help track information technology resources and identify interfaces between systems or networks; (3) Although certain improvements had been made to enhance access controls, we noted deficiencies such as a lack of periodic account reviews and inadequate password management at a number of sites; and (4) Previously identified weaknesses in configuration management had been corrected, however, we found problems related to weak administrator account settings and failure to install software patches, as well as incomplete implementation of the Federal Desktop Core Configuration. These internal control weaknesses existed, at least in part, because certain cyber security roles and responsibilities were not clearly delineated. Program officials also had not effectively performed monitoring and review activities essential for evaluating the adequacy of cyber security performance. In some cases, officials had not ensured that weaknesses discovered during audits and other evaluations were recorded and tracked to

  20. Cyber-Physical System Security of Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-01-31

    Abstract—This panel presentation will provide perspectives of cyber-physical system security of smart grids. As smart grid technologies are deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more prevalent and more complex, and the cyber component of this cyber-physical system is increasing in importance. Studying system behavior in the face of failures (e.g., cyber attacks) allows a characterization of the systems’ response to failure scenarios, loss of communications, and other changes in system environment (such as the need for emergent updates and rapid reconfiguration). The impact of such failures on the availability of the system can be assessed and mitigation strategies considered. Scenarios associated with confidentiality, integrity, and availability are considered. The cyber security implications associated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in the United States are discussed.

  1. A Taxonomy of Operational Cyber Security Risks Version 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    A Taxonomy of Operational Cyber Security Risks Version 2 James J. Cebula Mary E. Popeck Lisa R. Young May 2014 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI...EvaluationSM DM-0001337 CMU/SEI-2014-TN-006 | i Table of Contents Abstract vii Introduction 1 Taxonomy of Operational Cyber Security Risks 2...Selected Taxonomy Subclasses and Elements 17 Appendix B: Mapping of Selected Taxonomy Subclasses and Elements to NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 4 Controls 30

  2. Process Control System Cyber Security Standards - An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2006-05-01

    The use of cyber security standards can greatly assist in the protection of process control systems by providing guidelines and requirements for the implementation of computer-controlled systems. These standards are most effective when the engineers and operators, using the standards, understand what each standard addresses. This paper provides an overview of several standards that deal with the cyber security of process measurements and control systems.

  3. Secure control systems with application to cyber-physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jin; Djouadi, Seddik M; Nutaro, James J; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2014-01-01

    Control systems are computer-based systems with networked units consisting of sensors, actuators, control processing units, and communication devices. The role of control system is to interact, monitor, and control physical processes. Reactive power control is a fundamental issue in ensuring the security of the power network. It is claimed that Synchronous Condensers (SC) have been used at both distribution and transmission voltage levels to improve stability and to maintain voltages within desired limits under changing load conditions and contingency situations. Performance of PI controller corresponding to various tripping faults are analyzed for SC systems. Most of the eort in protecting these systems has been in protection against random failures or reliability. However, besides failures these systems are subject to various signal attacks for which new analysis are discussed here. When a breach does occur, it is necessary to react in a time commensurate with the physical dynamics of the system as it responds to the attack. Failure to act swiftly enough may result in undesirable, and possibly irreversible, physical eects. Therefore, it is meaningful to evaluate the security of a cyber-physical system, especially to protect it from cyber-attack. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to the SC systems.

  4. Cyber Security: A Road Map for Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-19

    Cyber warfare is a form of information warfare, sometimes seen as analogous to conventional warfare, among a range of potential actors, including...nation states, non-state groups, and a complex hybrid of conflict involving both state and non-state actors. Cyber warfare is a tool of national power...An entire nation s ability to operate and fight in the information age is vital toward survival. Nowadays, cyber warfare is mostly focused on

  5. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  6. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  7. Strengthening DoD Cyber Security with the Vulnerability Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: DoD, Acquisition, Vulnerability Market, Reverse Auction, Metric Strengthening DoD Cyber Security with the Vulnerability Market Maj Bradley C...hackers are in the world today ( Carroll , 2012). By leveraging reputational exclusivity and the egos of A Publication of the Defense Acquisition...Author Biographies Maj Bradley C. Panton, USAF, is currently an acquisition program manager at the U.S. Cyber Command. As a program manager, Maj

  8. Evaluation of a Cyber Security System for Hospital Network.

    PubMed

    Faysel, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the cyber security systems use simulated data in evaluating their detection capabilities. The proposed cyber security system utilizes real hospital network connections. It uses a probabilistic data mining algorithm to detect anomalous events and takes appropriate response in real-time. On an evaluation using real-world hospital network data consisting of incoming network connections collected for a 24-hour period, the proposed system detected 15 unusual connections which were undetected by a commercial intrusion prevention system for the same network connections. Evaluation of the proposed system shows a potential to secure protected patient health information on a hospital network.

  9. The cyber security threat stops in the boardroom.

    PubMed

    Scully, Tim

    The attitude that 'it won't happen to me' still prevails in the boardrooms of industry when senior executives consider the threat of targeted cyber intrusions. Not much has changed in the commercial world of cyber security over the past few years; hackers are not being challenged to find new ways to steal companies' intellectual property and confidential information. The consequences of even major security breaches seem not to be felt by the leaders of victim companies. Why is this so? Surely IT security practitioners are seeking new ways to detect and prevent targeted intrusions into companies' networks? Are the consequences of targeted intrusions so insignificant that the captains of industry tolerate them? Or do only others feel the pain of their failure? This paper initially explores the failure of cyber security in industry and contends that, while industry leaders should not be alone in accepting responsibility for this failure, they must take the initiative to make life harder for cyber threat actors. They cannot wait for government leadership on policy, strategy or coordination. The paper then suggests some measures that a CEO can adopt to build a new corporate approach to cyber security.

  10. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  11. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  12. Towards A Network-of-Networks Framework for Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Choudhury, Sutanay; Hogan, Emilie A.; Hui, Peter SY; Johnson, John R.; Ray, Indrajit; Holder, Lawrence B.

    2013-06-07

    Networks-of-networks (NoN) is a graph-theoretic model of interdependent networks that have distinct dynamics at each network (layer). By adding special edges to represent relationships between nodes in different layers, NoN provides a unified mechanism to study interdependent systems intertwined in a complex relationship. While NoN based models have been proposed for cyber-physical systems, in this paper we build towards a three-layer NoN model for an enterprise cyber system. Each layer captures a different facet of a cyber system. We then discuss the potential benefits of graph-theoretic analysis enabled from such a model. Our goal is to provide a novel and powerful tool for modeling and analyzing problems in cyber security.

  13. Cyber security evaluation of II&C technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken

    2014-11-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, which is conducted in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Within the LWRS Program, the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. The II&C Pathway is conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Cyber security is a common concern among nuclear utilities and other nuclear industry stakeholders regarding the digital technologies that are being developed under this program. This concern extends to the point of calling into question whether these types of technologies could ever be deployed in nuclear plants given the possibility that the information in them can be compromised and the technologies themselves can potentially be exploited to serve as attack vectors for adversaries. To this end, a cyber security evaluation has been conducted of these technologies to determine whether they constitute a threat beyond what the nuclear plants already manage within their regulatory-required cyber security programs. Specifically, the evaluation is based on NEI 08-09, which is the industry’s template for cyber security programs and evaluations, accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as responsive to the requirements of the nuclear power plant cyber security regulation found in 10 CFR 73.54. The evaluation was conducted by a

  14. Process Control System Cyber Security Standards - An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans; V Stanley Scown; Rolf Carlson; Shabbir Shamsuddin; George Shaw; Jeff Dagle; Paul W Oman; Jeannine Schmidt

    2005-10-01

    The use of cyber security standards can greatly assist in the protection of critical infrastructure by providing guidelines and requisite imperatives in the implementation of computer-controlled systems. These standards are most effective when the engineers and operators using the standards understand what each of the standards addresses and does not address. This paper provides a review and comparison of ten documents dealing with control system cyber security. It is not meant to be a complete treatment of all applicable standards; rather, this is an exemplary analysis showing the benefits of comparing and contrasting differing documents.

  15. Security and Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Rice, Theora R.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2016-08-30

    As you have seen from the previous chapters, cyber-physical systems (CPS) are broadly used across technology and industrial domains. While these systems enable process optimization and efficiency and allow previously impossible functionality, security and privacy are key concerns for their design, development, and operation. CPS have been key components utilized in some of the highest publicized security breaches over the last decade. In this chapter, we will look over the CPS described in the previous chapters from a security perspective. In this chapter, we explain classical information and physical security fundamentals in the context of CPS and contextualize them across application domains. We give examples where the interplay of functionality and diverse communication can introduce unexpected vulnerabilities and produce larger impacts. We will discuss how CPS security and privacy is inherently different from that of pure cyber or physical systems and what may be done to secure these systems, considering their emergent cyber-physical properties. Finally, we will discuss security and privacy implications of merging infrastructural and personal CPS. Our hope is to impart the knowledge of what CPS security and privacy are, why they are important, and explain existing processes and challenges.

  16. Data fusion in cyber security: first order entity extraction from common cyber data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2012-06-01

    The Joint Directors of Labs Data Fusion Process Model (JDL Model) provides a framework for how to handle sensor data to develop higher levels of inference in a complex environment. Beginning from a call to leverage data fusion techniques in intrusion detection, there have been a number of advances in the use of data fusion algorithms in this subdomain of cyber security. While it is tempting to jump directly to situation-level or threat-level refinement (levels 2 and 3) for more exciting inferences, a proper fusion process starts with lower levels of fusion in order to provide a basis for the higher fusion levels. The process begins with first order entity extraction, or the identification of important entities represented in the sensor data stream. Current cyber security operational tools and their associated data are explored for potential exploitation, identifying the first order entities that exist in the data and the properties of these entities that are described by the data. Cyber events that are represented in the data stream are added to the first order entities as their properties. This work explores typical cyber security data and the inferences that can be made at the lower fusion levels (0 and 1) with simple metrics. Depending on the types of events that are expected by the analyst, these relatively simple metrics can provide insight on their own, or could be used in fusion algorithms as a basis for higher levels of inference.

  17. Cyber Security and American Cyber Competitiveness Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S130) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. A Comparison of Cross-Sector Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a review and comparison (commonality and differences) of three cross-sector cyber security standards and an internationally recognized information technology standard. The comparison identifies the security areas covered by each standard and reveals where the standards differ in emphasis. By identifying differences in the standards, the user can evaluate which standard best meets their needs. For this report, only cross-sector standards were reviewed.

  19. Study on Cyber Security and Threat Evaluation in SCADA Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    http://www.isa.org/Template.cfm?Section=Shop_ISA&Template=/ Ecommerce /ProductDisplay.cfm&Produ ctid=9665 • Integrating Electronic Security into...the Manufacturing and Control Systems Environment, ISA, 2004 - http://www.isa.org/Template.cfm?Section=books&template= Ecommerce /FileDisplay.cfm...template= Ecommerce /FileDisplay.cfm&ProductID=738 0&file=Preview.pdf • Peterson, D. and Howard, D. "Cyber Security for the Electric Sector," September 12

  20. UVI Cyber-security Workshop Workshop Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuykendall, Tommie G.; Allsop, Jacob Lee; Anderson, Benjamin Robert; Boumedine, Marc; Carter, Cedric; Galvin, Seanmichael Yurko; Gonzalez, Oscar; Lee, Wellington K.; Lin, Han Wei; Morris, Tyler Jake; Nauer, Kevin S.; Potts, Beth A.; Ta, Kim Thanh; Trasti, Jennifer; White, David R.

    2015-07-08

    The cybersecurity consortium, which was established by DOE/NNSA’s Minority Serving Institutions Partnerships Program (MSIPP), allows students from any of the partner schools (13 HBCUs, two national laboratories, and a public school district) to have all consortia options available to them, to create career paths and to open doors to DOE sites and facilities to student members of the consortium. As a part of this year consortium activities, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Virgin Islands conducted a week long cyber workshop that consisted of three courses; Digital Forensics and Malware Analysis, Python Programming, and ThunderBird Cup. These courses are designed to enhance cyber defense skills and promote learning within STEM related fields.

  1. Breaking the cyber-security dilemma: aligning security needs and removing vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-09-01

    Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings.

  2. CS2SAT: THE CONTROL SYSTEMS CYBER SECURITY SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Kathleen A. Lee

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division has developed the Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) that provides users with a systematic and repeatable approach for assessing the cyber-security posture of their industrial control system networks. The CS2SAT was developed by cyber security experts from Department of Energy National Laboratories and with assistance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The CS2SAT is a desktop software tool that guides users through a step-by-step process to collect facility-specific control system information and then makes appropriate recommendations for improving the system’s cyber-security posture. The CS2SAT provides recommendations from a database of industry available cyber-security practices, which have been adapted specifically for application to industry control system networks and components. Each recommendation is linked to a set of actions that can be applied to remediate-specific security vulnerabilities.

  3. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  4. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Robert A; Jones, Corinne L; Iannacone, Michael D; Testa, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  5. Cyber Security: Assessing Our Vulnerabilities and Developing an Effective Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spafford, Eugene H.

    The number and sophistication of cyberattacks continues to increase, but no national policy is in place to confront them. Critical systems need to be built on secure foundations, rather than the cheapest general-purpose platform. A program that combines education in cyber security, increasing resources for law enforcement, development of reliable systems for critical applications, and expanding research support in multiple areas of security and reliability is essential to combat risks that are far beyond the nuisances of spam email and viruses, and involve widespread espionage, theft, and attacks on essential services.

  6. Validating Cyber Security Requirements: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerabilities in a system may have widely varying impacts on system security. In practice, security should not be defined as the absence of vulnerabilities. In practice, security should not be quantified by the number of vulnerabilities. Security should be managed by pursuing a policy that leads us first to the highest impact vulnerabilities. In light of these observations, we argue in favor of shifting our focus from vulnerability avoidance/removal to measurable security attributes. To this effect, we recommend a logic be used for system security, which captures/represents security properties in quantifiable, verifiable, measurable terms so that it is possible to reason about security in terms of its observable/perceptible effects rather than its hypothesized causes. This approach is orthogonal to existing techniques for vulnerability avoidance, removal, detection, and recovery, in the sense that it provides a means to assess, quantify, and combine these techniques.

  7. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  8. SecureCPS: Defending a nanosatellite cyber-physical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Lance; Vu, Huy; Udrea, Bogdan; Hagar, Hamilton; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.; Yampolskiy, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Recent inexpensive nanosatellite designs employ maneuvering thrusters, much as large satellites have done for decades. However, because a maneuvering nanosatellite can threaten HVAs on-­orbit, it must provide a level of security typically reserved for HVAs. Securing nanosatellites with maneuvering capability is challenging due to extreme cost, size, and power constraints. While still in the design process, our low-­cost SecureCPS architecture promises to dramatically improve security, to include preempting unknown binaries and detecting abnormal behavior. SecureCPS also applies to a broad class of cyber-­physical systems (CPS), such as aircraft, cars, and trains. This paper focuses on Embry-­Riddle's ARAPAIMA nanosatellite architecture, where we assume any off-­the-­shelf component could be compromised by a supply chain attack.1 Based on these assumptions, we have used Vanderbilt's Cyber Physical -­ Attack Description Language (CP-­ADL) to represent realistic attacks, analyze how these attacks propagate in the ARAPAIMA architecture, and how to defeat them using the combination of a low-­cost Root of Trust (RoT) Module, Global InfoTek's Advanced Malware Analysis System (GAMAS), and Anomaly Detection by Machine Learning (ADML).2 Our most recent efforts focus on refining and validating the design of SecureCPS.

  9. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  10. LESSONS LEARNED FROM CYBER SECURITY ASSESSMENTS OF SCADA AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Fink

    2006-10-01

    The results from ten cyber security vulnerability assessments of process control, SCADA and energy management systems, or components of those systems were reviewed to identify common problem areas. The common vulnerabilities ranged from conventional IT security issues to specific weaknesses in control system protocols. In each vulnerability category, relative measures were assigned to the severity of the vulnerability and ease with which an attacker could exploit the vulnerability. Suggested mitigations are identified in each category. Recommended mitigations having the highest impact on reducing vulnerability are listed for asset owners and system vendors.

  11. Tensions in collaborative cyber security and how they affect incident detection and response

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2009-12-01

    Security often requires collaboration, but when multiple stakeholders are involved, it is typical for their priorities to differ or even conflict with one another. In today’s increasingly networked world, cyber security collaborations may span organizations and countries. In this chapter, we address collaboration tensions, their effects on incident detection and response, and how these tensions may potentially be resolved. We present three case studies of collaborative cyber security within the U.S. government and discuss technical, social, and regulatory challenges to collaborative cyber security. We suggest possible solutions, and present lessons learned from conflicts. Finally, we compare collaborative solutions from other domains and apply them to cyber security collaboration. Although we concentrate our analysis on collaborations whose purpose is to achieve cyber security, we believe that this work applies readily to security tensions found in collaborations of a general nature as well.

  12. Cyber Assessment Methods For SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    May Robin Permann; Kenneth Rohde

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  13. Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  14. An Analytical Framework for Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    We are divergent with the threat… Malware: 125 lines of code* Li ne s of C od e 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 x x x x DEC Seal Stalker Milky ... Way Snort Network Flight Recorder Unified Threat Management 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 Security software

  15. Using Arabic CAPTCHA for Cyber Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Alghathbar, Khaled S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alkelabi, Abdullah M.; Alajaji, Abdulaziz

    Bots are automated programs designed to make auto registrations in online services, resulting in wastage of resources and breach of web security. English based CAPTCHAs are used to prevent bots from abusing these online services. However, English based CAPTCHAs have some inherent flaws and have been broken by bots. In this paper, an Arabic text based CAPTCHA is proposed. The CAPTCHA text image is distorted with background noise. Background noise and dots in the Arabic text makes CAPTCHA hard to be broken by Arabic OCRs. The proposed scheme is useful in Arabic speaking countries and in protecting internet resources. The proposed CAPTCHA scheme is both secure and robust. Experimental results show that background noise is a good defense mechanism against OCR recognizing Arabic text.

  16. 78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi..., until the maximum of 20 participants is selected, all interested U.S. IT and cyber-security firms...

  17. Lessons Learned in Over a Decade of Technical Support for U.S. Nuclear Cyber Security Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Craig, Philip A.; Bass, Robert B.

    2013-09-05

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) nuclear cyber security team has been providing technical support to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) since 2002. This team has provided cyber security technical experties in conducting cyber security inspections, developing of regulatory rules and guidance, reviewing facility cyber security plans, developing inspection guidance, and developing and teaching NRC inspectors how to conduct cyber security assessments. The extensive experience the PNNL team has gathered has allowed them to compile a lenghty list of recommendations on how to improve cyber security programs and conduct assessments. A selected set of recommendations are presented, including the need to: integrate an array of defenisve strategies into a facility’s cyber security program, coordinate physical and cyber security activities, train phycial security forces to resist a cyber-enabled physical attack, improve estimates of the consequences of a cyber attack, properly resource cyber security assessments, appropropriately account for insider threats, routinely monitor security devices for potential attacks, supplement compliance-based requirements with risk-based decision making, and introduce the concept of resilience into cyber security programs.

  18. Probabilistic Characterization of Adversary Behavior in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    The objective of this SMS effort is to provide a probabilistic characterization of adversary behavior in cyber security. This includes both quantitative (data analysis) and qualitative (literature review) components. A set of real LLNL email data was obtained for this study, consisting of several years worth of unfiltered traffic sent to a selection of addresses at ciac.org. The email data was subjected to three interrelated analyses: a textual study of the header data and subject matter, an examination of threats present in message attachments, and a characterization of the maliciousness of embedded URLs.

  19. Critical issues in process control system security : DHS spares project.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Jacquelynne; McIntyre, Annie; Henrie, Morgan

    2010-10-01

    The goals of this event are: (1) Discuss the next-generation issues and emerging risks in cyber security for control systems; (2) Review and discuss common control system architectures; (3) Discuss the role of policy, standards, and supply chain issues; (4) Interact to determine the most pertinent risks and most critical areas of the architecture; and (5) Merge feedback from Control System Managers, Engineers, IT, and Auditors.

  20. Secure it now or secure it later: the benefits of addressing cyber-security from the outset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Nutaro, James

    2013-05-01

    The majority of funding for research and development (R&D) in cyber-security is focused on the end of the software lifecycle where systems have been deployed or are nearing deployment. Recruiting of cyber-security personnel is similarly focused on end-of-life expertise. By emphasizing cyber-security at these late stages, security problems are found and corrected when it is most expensive to do so, thus increasing the cost of owning and operating complex software systems. Worse, expenditures on expensive security measures often mean less money for innovative developments. These unwanted increases in cost and potential slowing of innovation are unavoidable consequences of an approach to security that finds and remediate faults after software has been implemented. We argue that software security can be improved and the total cost of a software system can be substantially reduced by an appropriate allocation of resources to the early stages of a software project. By adopting a similar allocation of R&D funds to the early stages of the software lifecycle, we propose that the costs of cyber-security can be better controlled and, consequently, the positive effects of this R&D on industry will be much more pronounced.

  1. Emerging Security Mechanisms for Medical Cyber Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kocabas, Ovunc; Soyata, Tolga; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2016-01-01

    The following decade will witness a surge in remote health-monitoring systems that are based on body-worn monitoring devices. These Medical Cyber Physical Systems (MCPS) will be capable of transmitting the acquired data to a private or public cloud for storage and processing. Machine learning algorithms running in the cloud and processing this data can provide decision support to healthcare professionals. There is no doubt that the security and privacy of the medical data is one of the most important concerns in designing an MCPS. In this paper, we depict the general architecture of an MCPS consisting of four layers: data acquisition, data aggregation, cloud processing, and action. Due to the differences in hardware and communication capabilities of each layer, different encryption schemes must be used to guarantee data privacy within that layer. We survey conventional and emerging encryption schemes based on their ability to provide secure storage, data sharing, and secure computation. Our detailed experimental evaluation of each scheme shows that while the emerging encryption schemes enable exciting new features such as secure sharing and secure computation, they introduce several orders-of-magnitude computational and storage overhead. We conclude our paper by outlining future research directions to improve the usability of the emerging encryption schemes in an MCPS.

  2. Network Intrusion Detection and Visualization using Aggregations in a Cyber Security Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Czejdo, Bogdan; Ferragut, Erik M; Goodall, John R; Laska, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of achieving situational understanding is a limiting factor in effective, timely, and adaptive cyber-security analysis. Anomaly detection fills a critical role in network assessment and trend analysis, both of which underlie the establishment of comprehensive situational understanding. To that end, we propose a cyber security data warehouse implemented as a hierarchical graph of aggregations that captures anomalies at multiple scales. Each node of our pro-posed graph is a summarization table of cyber event aggregations, and the edges are aggregation operators. The cyber security data warehouse enables domain experts to quickly traverse a multi-scale aggregation space systematically. We describe the architecture of a test bed system and a summary of results on the IEEE VAST 2012 Cyber Forensics data.

  3. Cyber Terrorism: A Study of the Extent of Coverage in Computer Security Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Janet J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    On September 11th, 2001 the United States experienced the largest terrorist attack in its history. This event caused many government agencies to review their security practices and procedures. It also has raised awareness of other avenues that terrorists might pursue to achieve their goals, including cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can be…

  4. Towards an Experimental Testbed Facility for Cyber-Physical Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Manz, David O.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2012-01-07

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are under great scrutiny due to large Smart Grid investments and recent high profile security vulnerabilities and attacks. Research into improved security technologies, communication models, and emergent behavior is necessary to protect these systems from sophisticated adversaries and new risks posed by the convergence of CPSs with IT equipment. However, cyber-physical security research is limited by the lack of access to universal cyber-physical testbed facilities that permit flexible, high-fidelity experiments. This paper presents a remotely-configurable and community-accessible testbed design that integrates elements from the virtual, simulated, and physical environments. Fusing data between the three environments enables the creation of realistic and scalable environments where new functionality and ideas can be exercised. This novel design will enable the research community to analyze and evaluate the security of current environments and design future, secure, cyber-physical technologies.

  5. Cyber Friendly Fire: Research Challenges for Security Informatics

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2013-06-06

    This paper addresses cognitive implications and research needs surrounding the problem of cyber friendly fire (FF). We define cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintention-ally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, maintaining situation awareness (SA) is paramount to avoiding cyber FF incidents. Cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system’s topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system and its nodes, the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive and offensive countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. Mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF— including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches—are discussed.

  6. An Analysis of Pennsylvania's Cyber Charter Schools. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John; Schott, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania's first cyber charter school opened in 1998, enrolling 44 full-time students. From this modest beginning, Pennsylvania's cyber charter sector has grown to 16 schools enrolling 35,000 students from all but one school district in the Commonwealth. Pennsylvania has one of the nation's most extensive cyber charter sectors, and six…

  7. A genetic epidemiology approach to cyber-security

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security. PMID:25028059

  8. Cyber-Security Considerations for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-07-26

    The electrical power grid is evolving into the “smart grid”. The goal of the smart grid is to improve efficiency and availability of power by adding more monitoring and control capabilities. These new technologies and mechanisms are certain to introduce vulnerabilities into the power grid. In this paper we provide an overview of the cyber security state of the electrical power grid. We highlight some of the vulnerabilities that already exist in the power grid including limited capacity systems, implicit trust and the lack of authentication. We also address challenges of complexity, scale, added capabilities and the move to multipurpose hardware and software as the power grid is upgraded. These changes create vulnerabilities that did not exist before and bring increased risks. We conclude the paper by showing that there are a number mitigation strategies that can help keep the risk at an acceptable level.

  9. A genetic epidemiology approach to cyber-security.

    PubMed

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-16

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  10. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  11. Cyber security challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy

    PubMed Central

    Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Losavio, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The world is experiencing an evolution of Smart Cities. These emerge from innovations in information technology that, while they create new economic and social opportunities, pose challenges to our security and expectations of privacy. Humans are already interconnected via smart phones and gadgets. Smart energy meters, security devices and smart appliances are being used in many cities. Homes, cars, public venues and other social systems are now on their path to the full connectivity known as the “Internet of Things.” Standards are evolving for all of these potentially connected systems. They will lead to unprecedented improvements in the quality of life. To benefit from them, city infrastructures and services are changing with new interconnected systems for monitoring, control and automation. Intelligent transportation, public and private, will access a web of interconnected data from GPS location to weather and traffic updates. Integrated systems will aid public safety, emergency responders and in disaster recovery. We examine two important and entangled challenges: security and privacy. Security includes illegal access to information and attacks causing physical disruptions in service availability. As digital citizens are more and more instrumented with data available about their location and activities, privacy seems to disappear. Privacy protecting systems that gather data and trigger emergency response when needed are technological challenges that go hand-in-hand with the continuous security challenges. Their implementation is essential for a Smart City in which we would wish to live. We also present a model representing the interactions between person, servers and things. Those are the major element in the Smart City and their interactions are what we need to protect. PMID:25685517

  12. Cyber security challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy.

    PubMed

    Elmaghraby, Adel S; Losavio, Michael M

    2014-07-01

    The world is experiencing an evolution of Smart Cities. These emerge from innovations in information technology that, while they create new economic and social opportunities, pose challenges to our security and expectations of privacy. Humans are already interconnected via smart phones and gadgets. Smart energy meters, security devices and smart appliances are being used in many cities. Homes, cars, public venues and other social systems are now on their path to the full connectivity known as the "Internet of Things." Standards are evolving for all of these potentially connected systems. They will lead to unprecedented improvements in the quality of life. To benefit from them, city infrastructures and services are changing with new interconnected systems for monitoring, control and automation. Intelligent transportation, public and private, will access a web of interconnected data from GPS location to weather and traffic updates. Integrated systems will aid public safety, emergency responders and in disaster recovery. We examine two important and entangled challenges: security and privacy. Security includes illegal access to information and attacks causing physical disruptions in service availability. As digital citizens are more and more instrumented with data available about their location and activities, privacy seems to disappear. Privacy protecting systems that gather data and trigger emergency response when needed are technological challenges that go hand-in-hand with the continuous security challenges. Their implementation is essential for a Smart City in which we would wish to live. We also present a model representing the interactions between person, servers and things. Those are the major element in the Smart City and their interactions are what we need to protect.

  13. Cyber Science and Security - An R&D Partnership at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J; Henson, V

    2011-03-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has established a mechanism for partnership that integrates the high-performance computing capabilities of the National Labs, the network and cyber technology expertise of leading information technology companies, and the long-term research vision of leading academic cyber programs. The Cyber Science and Security Center is designed to be a working partnership among Laboratory, Industrial, and Academic institutions, and provides all three with a shared R&D environment, technical information sharing, sophisticated high-performance computing facilities, and data resources for the partner institutions and sponsors. The CSSC model is an institution where partner organizations can work singly or in groups on the most pressing problems of cyber security, where shared vision and mutual leveraging of expertise and facilities can produce results and tools at the cutting edge of cyber science.

  14. Situational Awareness as a Measure of Performance in Cyber Security Collaborative Work

    SciTech Connect

    Malviya, Ashish; Fink, Glenn A.; Sego, Landon H.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2011-04-11

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge in turn could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. We conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the Pacific-rim Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (PRCCDC) and analyzed it to study the behavior of cyber defenders. We propose that situational awareness predicts performance of cyber security professionals, and in this paper we focus on our collection and analysis of competition data to determine whether it supports our hypothesis. In addition to normal cyber data, we collected situational awareness and workload data and compared it against the performance of cyber defenders as indicated by their competition score. We conclude that there is a weak correlation between our measure of situational awareness and performance that we hope to exploit in further studies.

  15. A developmental approach to learning causal models for cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugan, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    To keep pace with our adversaries, we must expand the scope of machine learning and reasoning to address the breadth of possible attacks. One approach is to employ an algorithm to learn a set of causal models that describes the entire cyber network and each host end node. Such a learning algorithm would run continuously on the system and monitor activity in real time. With a set of causal models, the algorithm could anticipate novel attacks, take actions to thwart them, and predict the second-order effects flood of information, and the algorithm would have to determine which streams of that flood were relevant in which situations. This paper will present the results of efforts toward the application of a developmental learning algorithm to the problem of cyber security. The algorithm is modeled on the principles of human developmental learning and is designed to allow an agent to learn about the computer system in which it resides through active exploration. Children are flexible learners who acquire knowledge by actively exploring their environment and making predictions about what they will find,1, 2 and our algorithm is inspired by the work of the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget.3 Piaget described how children construct knowledge in stages and learn new concepts on top of those they already know. Developmental learning allows our algorithm to focus on subsets of the environment that are most helpful for learning given its current knowledge. In experiments, the algorithm was able to learn the conditions for file exfiltration and use that knowledge to protect sensitive files.

  16. Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures: Application of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic in Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-08-01

    Resiliency and cyber security of modern critical infrastructures is becoming increasingly important with the growing number of threats in the cyber-environment. This paper proposes an extension to a previously developed fuzzy logic based anomaly detection network security cyber sensor via incorporating Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (T2 FL). In general, fuzzy logic provides a framework for system modeling in linguistic form capable of coping with imprecise and vague meanings of words. T2 FL is an extension of Type-1 FL which proved to be successful in modeling and minimizing the effects of various kinds of dynamic uncertainties. In this paper, T2 FL provides a basis for robust anomaly detection and cyber security state awareness. In addition, the proposed algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental cyber-security test-bed.

  17. NERSC Cyber Security Challenges That Require DOE Development andSupport

    SciTech Connect

    Draney, Brent; Campbell, Scott; Walter, Howard

    2007-01-16

    Traditional security approaches do not adequately addressall the requirements of open, scientific computing facilities. Many ofthe methods used for more restricted environments, including almost allcorporate/commercial systems, do not meet the needs of today's science.Use of only the available "state of the practice" commercial methods willhave adverse impact on the ability of DOE to accomplish its sciencegoals, and impacts the productivity of the DOE Science community. Inparticular, NERSC and other high performance computing (HPC) centers havespecial security challenges that are unlikely to be met unless DOE fundsdevelopment and support of reliable and effective tools designed to meetthe cyber security needs of High Performance Science. The securitychallenges facing NERSC can be collected into three basic problem sets:network performance and dynamics, application complexity and diversity,and a complex user community that can have transient affiliations withactual institutions. To address these problems, NERSC proposes thefollowing four general solutions: auditing user and system activityacross sites; firewall port configuration in real time;cross-site/virtual organization identity management and access control;and detecting security issues in application middleware. Solutions arealsoproposed for three general long term issues: data volume,application complexity, and information integration.

  18. 21st Century Cyber Security: Legal Authorities and Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Cyber warfare has risen to the level of strategic effect. Exigent threats in cyberspace are a critical U.S. strategic vulnerability for which U.S...operations cross many sections of United States Code. But, they have not yielded a genuine whole-of-government approach. This SRP argues that cyber warfare has

  19. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  20. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  1. A preliminary cyber-physical security assessment of the Robot Operating System (ROS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClean, Jarrod; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the course of the last few years, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has become a highly popular software framework for robotics research. ROS has a very active developer community and is widely used for robotics research in both academia and government labs. The prevalence and modularity of ROS cause many people to ask the question: "What prevents ROS from being used in commercial or government applications?" One of the main problems that is preventing this increased use of ROS in these applications is the question of characterizing its security (or lack thereof). In the summer of 2012, a crowd sourced cyber-physical security contest was launched at the cyber security conference DEF CON 20 to begin the process of characterizing the security of ROS. A small-scale, car-like robot was configured as a cyber-physical security "honeypot" running ROS. DEFFCON-20 attendees were invited to find exploits and vulnerabilities in the robot while network traffic was collected. The results of this experiment provided some interesting insights and opened up many security questions pertaining to deployed robotic systems. The Federal Aviation Administration is tasked with opening up the civil airspace to commercial drones by September 2015 and driverless cars are already legal for research purposes in a number of states. Given the integration of these robotic devices into our daily lives, the authors pose the following question: "What security exploits can a motivated person with little-to-no experience in cyber security execute, given the wide availability of free cyber security penetration testing tools such as Metasploit?" This research focuses on applying common, low-cost, low-overhead, cyber-attacks on a robot featuring ROS. This work documents the effectiveness of those attacks.

  2. China’s Cyber Power and America’s National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    12 James R. Langevin , Michael T. McCaul, and Harry Raduege, Cybersecurity Two Years Later: A Report of the CSIS Commission on Cybersecurity for...Committee on Intelligence, Paul B. Kurtz: Cyber Security Hearing, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., September 19, 2008, 7-9, http://www.fas.org/irp/ congress...Motivations of Selected Nation States, 16; U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Paul B. Kurtz: Cyber

  3. Applications for cyber security - System and application monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    Standard network security measures are adequate for defense against external attacks. However, many experts agree that the greater threat is from internal sources. Insiders with malicious intentions can change controller instructions, change alarm thresholds, and issue commands to equipment which can damage equipment and compromise control system integrity. In addition to strict physical security the state of the system must be continually monitored. System and application monitoring goes beyond the capabilities of network security appliances. It will include active processes, operating system services, files, network adapters and IP addresses. The generation of alarms is a crucial feature of system and application monitoring. The alarms should be integrated to avoid the burden on operators of checking multiple locations for security violations. Tools for system and application monitoring include commercial software, free software, and ad-hoc tools that can be easily created. System and application monitoring is part of a 'defense-in-depth' approach to a control network security plan. Layered security measures prevent an individual security measure failure from being exploited into a successful security breach. Alarming of individual failures is essential for rapid isolation and correction of single failures. System and application monitoring is the innermost layer of this defense strategy. (authors)

  4. Cyber-Physical Security Assessment (CyPSA) Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Luis; Patapanchala, Panini; Zonouz, Saman; Davis, Kate; Davis, Matt; Berthier, Robin; Bamba, Mouna; Soubigou, Olivier; Rayala, Vishnu Priya; Weaver, Gabe; Rogers, Edmond; Bobba, Rakesh; Nicol, David; Sauer, Pete

    2016-08-31

    CyPSA seeks to organize and gain insight into the diverse sets of data that a critical infrastructure provider must manage. Specifically CyPSA inventories, manages, and analyzes assets and relations among those assets. A variety of interfaces are provided. CyPSA inventories assets (both cyber and physical). This may include the cataloging of assets through a common interface. Data sources used to generate a catalogue of assets include PowerWorld, NPView, NMap Scans, and device configurations. Depending upon the role of the person using the tool the types of assets accessed as well as the data sources through which asset information is accessed may vary. CyPSA allows practitioners to catalogue relations among assets and these may either be manually or programmatically generated. For example, some common relations among assets include the following: Topological Network Data: Which devices and assets are connected and how? Data sources for this kind of information include NMap scans, NPView topologies (via Firewall rule analysis). Security Metrics Outputs: The output of various security metrics such as overall exposure. Configure Assets:CyPSA may eventually include the ability to configure assets including relays and switches. For example, a system administrator would be able to configure and alter the state of a relay via the CyPSA interface. Annotate Assets: CyPSA also allows practitioners to manually and programmatically annotate assets. Sources of information with which to annotate assets include provenance metadata regarding the data source from which the asset was loaded, vulnerability information from vulnerability databases, configuration information, and the output of an analysis in general.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Based Anomaly Detection for Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jason Wright; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Resiliency and security in critical infrastructure control systems in the modern world of cyber terrorism constitute a relevant concern. Developing a network security system specifically tailored to the requirements of such critical assets is of a primary importance. This paper proposes a novel learning algorithm for anomaly based network security cyber sensor together with its hardware implementation. The presented learning algorithm constructs a fuzzy logic rule based model of normal network behavior. Individual fuzzy rules are extracted directly from the stream of incoming packets using an online clustering algorithm. This learning algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental test-bed mimicking the environment of a critical infrastructure control system.

  6. IEC 61850 and IEC 62351 Cyber Security Acceleration Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Manz, David O.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to identify and discuss concerns with the use and adoption of IEC 62351 security standard for IEC 61850 compliant control system products. The industry participants discussed performance, interoperability, adoption, challenges, business cases, and future issues.

  7. Good Things in Small Packages: Micro Worlds and Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    David I Gertman

    2013-11-01

    Cyber events, as perpetrated by terrorists and nation states, have become commonplace as evidenced in national and international news media. Cyber attacks affect day-to-day activities of end users through exploitation of social networks, businesses such as banking and stock exchanges, and government entities including Departments of Defense. They are becoming more frequent and sophisticated. Currently, efforts are directed to understanding the methods employed by attackers and towards dissecting the planning and activities of the perpetrator, including review of psychosocial factors.

  8. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  9. Cyber Security Indications and Warning System (SV): CRADA 1573.94 Project Accomplishments Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Tan Chang; Robinson, David G.

    2011-09-08

    As the national focus on cyber security increases, there is an evolving need for a capability to provide for high-speed sensing of events, correlation of events, and decision-making based on the adverse events seen across multiple independent large-scale network environments. The purpose of this Shared Vision project, Cyber Security Indications and Warning System, was to combine both Sandia's and LMC's expertise to discover new solutions to the challenge of protecting our nation's infrastructure assets. The objectives and scope of the proposal was limited to algorithm and High Performance Computing (HPC) model assessment in the unclassified environment within funding and schedule constraints. The interest is the identification, scalability assessment, and applicability of current utilized cyber security algorithms as applied in an HPC environment.

  10. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger [corrected] people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns.

  11. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  12. Secure estimation, control and optimization of uncertain cyber-physical systems with applications to power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Ahmad Fayez

    Transportation networks, wearable devices, energy systems, and the book you are reading now are all ubiquitous cyber-physical systems (CPS). These inherently uncertain systems combine physical phenomena with communication, data processing, control and optimization. Many CPSs are controlled and monitored by real-time control systems that use communication networks to transmit and receive data from systems modeled by physical processes. Existing studies have addressed a breadth of challenges related to the design of CPSs. However, there is a lack of studies on uncertain CPSs subject to dynamic unknown inputs and cyber-attacks---an artifact of the insertion of communication networks and the growing complexity of CPSs. The objective of this dissertation is to create secure, computational foundations for uncertain CPSs by establishing a framework to control, estimate and optimize the operation of these systems. With major emphasis on power networks, the dissertation deals with the design of secure computational methods for uncertain CPSs, focusing on three crucial issues---(1) cyber-security and risk-mitigation, (2) network-induced time-delays and perturbations and (3) the encompassed extreme time-scales. The dissertation consists of four parts. In the first part, we investigate dynamic state estimation (DSE) methods and rigorously examine the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed routines under dynamic attack-vectors and unknown inputs. In the second part, and utilizing high-frequency measurements in smart grids and the developed DSE methods in the first part, we present a risk mitigation strategy that minimizes the encountered threat levels, while ensuring the continual observability of the system through available, safe measurements. The developed methods in the first two parts rely on the assumption that the uncertain CPS is not experiencing time-delays, an assumption that might fail under certain conditions. To overcome this challenge, networked unknown input

  13. Modeling and simulation for cyber-physical system security research, development and applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Chavez, Adrian R.; Urrea, Jorge Mario; Pattengale, Nicholas; McDonald, Michael James; Cassidy, Regis H.; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Mulder, John C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid modeling and simulation architecture developed at Sandia for understanding and developing protections against and mitigations for cyber threats upon control systems. It first outlines the challenges to PCS security that can be addressed using these technologies. The paper then describes Virtual Control System Environments (VCSE) that use this approach and briefly discusses security research that Sandia has performed using VCSE. It closes with recommendations to the control systems security community for applying this valuable technology.

  14. Combining Traditional Cyber Security Audit Data with Psychosocial Data: Towards Predictive Modeling for Insider Threat Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to motivate the combination of traditional cyber security audit data with psychosocial data, so as to move from an insider threat detection stance to one that enables prediction of potential insider presence. Two distinctive aspects of the approach are the objective of predicting or anticipating potential risks and the use of organizational data in addition to cyber data to support the analysis. The chapter describes the challenges of this endeavor and progress in defining a usable set of predictive indicators, developing a framework for integrating the analysis of organizational and cyber security data to yield predictions about possible insider exploits, and developing the knowledge base and reasoning capability of the system. We also outline the types of errors that one expects in a predictive system versus a detection system and discuss how those errors can affect the usefulness of the results.

  15. Security Hardened Cyber Components for Nuclear Power Plants: Phase I SBIR Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franusich, Michael D.

    2016-03-18

    SpiralGen, Inc. built a proof-of-concept toolkit for enhancing the cyber security of nuclear power plants and other critical infrastructure with high-assurance instrumentation and control code. The toolkit is based on technology from the DARPA High-Assurance Cyber Military Systems (HACMS) program, which has focused on applying the science of formal methods to the formidable set of problems involved in securing cyber physical systems. The primary challenges beyond HACMS in developing this toolkit were to make the new technology usable by control system engineers and compatible with the regulatory and commercial constraints of the nuclear power industry. The toolkit, packaged as a Simulink add-on, allows a system designer to assemble a high-assurance component from formally specified and proven blocks and generate provably correct control and monitor code for that subsystem.

  16. 75 FR 18819 - Second DRAFT NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628, Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Second DRAFT NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628, Smart..., Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and Requirements. This second draft has been updated to address the... and the requirements section has been revised to include requirements for the entire Smart...

  17. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  18. Closing the Cyber Gap: Integrating Cross-Government Cyber Capabilities to Support the DHS Cyber Security Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    panic and demands on the government to ensure our citizens’ security. In the days immediately following the attacks of 9/11, the Bush administration...200 words) Following the 9/11 terror attacks , the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was mandated to ensure the security of the nation’s...Ph.D. Chair, Department of National Security Affairs iii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iv ABSTRACT Following the 9/11 terror attacks

  19. Main control computer security model of closed network systems protection against cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymen, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    The model that brings the data input/output under control in closed network systems, that maintains the system securely, and that controls the flow of information through the Main Control Computer which also brings the network traffic under control against cyber-attacks. The network, which can be controlled single-handedly thanks to the system designed to enable the network users to make data entry into the system or to extract data from the system securely, intends to minimize the security gaps. Moreover, data input/output record can be kept by means of the user account assigned for each user, and it is also possible to carry out retroactive tracking, if requested. Because the measures that need to be taken for each computer on the network regarding cyber security, do require high cost; it has been intended to provide a cost-effective working environment with this model, only if the Main Control Computer has the updated hardware.

  20. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  1. Abortion: a national security issue.

    PubMed

    Mumford, S D

    1982-04-15

    The national security implications of abortion have not been addressed in a public forum but could come to be the single most important facet of the abortion debate. Abortion has been and will continue to be an essential variable in fertility control. Any serious effort at population growth control in the next few decades will have to recognize the role abortion has in birth rate decline. At this time an estimated 40-50 million abortions are performed worldwide each year; 1/2 of them are illegal. In the absence of abortion, annual growth would approach approximately 120 million. Growth of this magnitude would probably place intolerable strains on the economics and environments of some nations. To recognize the role of abortion in fertility control is to emphasize the inescapable need for abortion as 1 element in any comprehensive family planning service. Excessive population growth leads to chronic unemployment and the frustration of the goals of hundreds of millions of people. While this new threat to the security of individual nations and ultimately to global security has not been widely acknowledged, it is beginning to gain the attention of people of different professions and distinctive political persuasions. In many ways, rampant population growth is an even more dangerous and subtle threat to the world than thermonuclear war, for it is intrinsically less subject to rational safeguards and less amenable to organized control. Possibly the greatest and most pervasive problem is the declining ability to meet human needs in the areas of food, raw material, and resources, counterpoised against what are clearly rising expectations of growing populations. The following facts cannot be disputed: world population is a threat to the security of all nations, including the U.S.; abortion is essential to any effective population growth control effort; abortion is a national security issue; and as the availability of legal abortion in the U.S. goes, so goes the availability

  2. Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    attribution 1.1 Authentication, Authorization, and Trust Management Definition Authentication is the process of verifying the identity or authority of a...November 2005, for elaboration). Functional Cyber Security 33 1.2 Access Control and Privilege Management Definition Access control and privilege...management and real-time queuing theory. 5.11 Integrated, Enterprise-Wide Security Monitoring and Management Definition An enterprise consists of one or

  3. Cyber security with radio frequency interferences mitigation study for satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Genshe; Tian, Xin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Nguyen, Tien M.; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite systems including the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the satellite communications (SATCOM) system provide great convenience and utility to human life including emergency response, wide area efficient communications, and effective transportation. Elements of satellite systems incorporate technologies such as navigation with the global positioning system (GPS), satellite digital video broadcasting, and information transmission with a very small aperture terminal (VSAT), etc. The satellite systems importance is growing in prominence with end users' requirement for globally high data rate transmissions; the cost reduction of launching satellites; development of smaller sized satellites including cubesat, nanosat, picosat, and femtosat; and integrating internet services with satellite networks. However, with the promising benefits, challenges remain to fully develop secure and robust satellite systems with pervasive computing and communications. In this paper, we investigate both cyber security and radio frequency (RF) interferences mitigation for satellite systems, and demonstrate that they are not isolated. The action space for both cyber security and RF interferences are firstly summarized for satellite systems, based on which the mitigation schemes for both cyber security and RF interferences are given. A multi-layered satellite systems structure is provided with cross-layer design considering multi-path routing and channel coding, to provide great security and diversity gains for secure and robust satellite systems.

  4. Cyber Security and Reliability in a Digital Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    in a follow‐on to Terminal Fury, the U.S. European Command in Austere Challenge, and the U.S. Transportation Command in Turbo Challenge...Longuemare, Private Consultant  Hon. (Dr.) William Schneider, Jr., International Planning Services  Government Advisors    Mr. Lee  Badger , National Institute...Virtual Machine  Mr. Steve Stone and   CAPT Mike Murray  U.S. Transportation Command  TRANSCOM Security issues  June 15–16, 2011  Mr. Lee  Badger   National

  5. On detection and visualization techniques for cyber security situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Wei, Shixiao; Shen, Dan; Blowers, Misty; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe; Zhang, Hanlin; Lu, Chao

    2013-05-01

    Networking technologies are exponentially increasing to meet worldwide communication requirements. The rapid growth of network technologies and perversity of communications pose serious security issues. In this paper, we aim to developing an integrated network defense system with situation awareness capabilities to present the useful information for human analysts. In particular, we implement a prototypical system that includes both the distributed passive and active network sensors and traffic visualization features, such as 1D, 2D and 3D based network traffic displays. To effectively detect attacks, we also implement algorithms to transform real-world data of IP addresses into images and study the pattern of attacks and use both the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based scheme and the statistical based scheme to detect attacks. Through an extensive simulation study, our data validate the effectiveness of our implemented defense system.

  6. Rapid Acquisition and Fielding for Information Assurance and Cyber Security in the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of...in-Publication Data Porche, Isaac, 1968– Rapid acquisition and fielding for information assurance and cyber security in the Navy / Isaac R. Porche

  7. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was selected from the list of standards identified

  8. Defining and Computing a Value Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In past work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities\\; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  9. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  10. Sandia Cyber Omni Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Peterson, Todd Bruner

    2014-07-02

    SCOT cyber security team enhancement tool that coordinates activities, captures knowledge, and serves as a platform to automate time-consuming tasks that a cyber security team needs to perform in its daily operations.

  11. Cyber crimes.

    PubMed

    Nuzback, Kara

    2014-07-01

    Since it began offering cyber liability coverage in December 2011, the Texas Medical Liability Trust has received more than 150 cyber liability claims, most of which involved breaches of electronic protected health information. TMLT's cyber liability insurance will protect practices financially should a breach occur. The insurance covers a breach notification to customers and business partners, expenses for legal counsel, information security and forensic data services, public relations support, call center and website support, credit monitoring, and identity theft restoration services.

  12. Towards a Relation Extraction Framework for Cyber-Security Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Corinne L; Bridges, Robert A; Huffer, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2015-01-01

    In order to assist security analysts in obtaining information pertaining to their network, such as novel vulnerabilities, exploits, or patches, information retrieval methods tailored to the security domain are needed. As labeled text data is scarce and expensive, we follow developments in semi-supervised NLP and implement a bootstrapping algorithm for extracting security entities and their relationships from text. The algorithm requires little input data, specifically, a few relations or patterns (heuristics for identifying relations), and incorporates an active learning component which queries the user on the most important decisions to prevent drifting the desired relations. Preliminary testing on a small corpus shows promising results, obtaining precision of .82.

  13. Cloud Security: Issues and Research Directions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-18

    al. present two storage isolation schemes that enable cloud users with high security requirements to verify that their disk storage is isolated from...Proof of Isolation for Cloud Storage Zhan Wang, Kun Sun, Sushil Jajodia, and Jiwu Jing 6. Selective and Fine-Grained Access to Data in the Cloud ... Cloud Security: Issues and Research Directions We organized an invitational workshop at George Mason University on Cloud Security: Issues and Research

  14. Security Analysis of Smart Grid Cyber Physical Infrastructures Using Modeling and Game Theoretic Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2015-01-01

    Cyber physical computing infrastructures typically consist of a number of sites are interconnected. Its operation critically depends both on cyber components and physical components. Both types of components are subject to attacks of different kinds and frequencies, which must be accounted for the initial provisioning and subsequent operation of the infrastructure via information security analysis. Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the electric sector failure scenarios and impact analyses by the NESCOR Working Group Study, From the Section 5 electric sector representative failure scenarios; we extracted the four generic failure scenarios and grouped them into three specific threat categories (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) to the system. These specific failure scenarios serve as a demonstration of our simulation. The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the electric sector functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the cyber physical infrastructure network with respect to CIA.

  15. Using cyber vulnerability testing techniques to expose undocumented security vulnerabilities in DCS and SCADA equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, J.

    2006-07-01

    This session starts by providing an overview of typical DCS (Distributed Control Systems) and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) architectures, and exposes cyber security vulnerabilities that vendors never admit, but are found through a comprehensive cyber testing process. A complete assessment process involves testing all of the layers and components of a SCADA or DCS environment, from the perimeter firewall all the way down to the end devices controlling the process, including what to look for when conducting a vulnerability assessment of real-time control systems. The following systems are discussed: 1. Perimeter (isolation from corporate IT or other non-critical networks) 2. Remote Access (third Party access into SCADA or DCS networks) 3. Network Architecture (switch, router, firewalls, access controls, network design) 4. Network Traffic Analysis (what is running on the network) 5. Host Operating Systems Hardening 6. Applications (how they communicate with other applications and end devices) 7. End Device Testing (PLCs, RTUs, DCS Controllers, Smart Transmitters) a. System Discovery b. Functional Discovery c. Attack Methodology i. DoS Tests (at what point does the device fail) ii. Malformed Packet Tests (packets that can cause equipment failure) iii. Session Hijacking (do anything that the operator can do) iv. Packet Injection (code and inject your own SCADA commands) v. Protocol Exploitation (Protocol Reverse Engineering / Fuzzing) This paper will provide information compiled from over five years of conducting cyber security testing on control systems hardware, software, and systems. (authors)

  16. Using Discrete Event Simulation to Model Attacker Interactions with Cyber and Physical Security Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Perkins, Casey; Muller, George

    2015-10-08

    The number of connections between physical and cyber security systems is rapidly increasing due to centralized control from automated and remotely connected means. As the number of interfaces between systems continues to grow, the interactions and interdependencies between them cannot be ignored. Historically, physical and cyber vulnerability assessments have been performed independently. This independent evaluation omits important aspects of the integrated system, where the impacts resulting from malicious or opportunistic attacks are not easily known or understood. Here, we describe a discrete event simulation model that uses information about integrated physical and cyber security systems, attacker characteristics and simple responsemore » rules to identify key safeguards that limit an attacker's likelihood of success. Key features of the proposed model include comprehensive data generation to support a variety of sophisticated analyses, and full parameterization of safeguard performance characteristics and attacker behaviours to evaluate a range of scenarios. Lastly, we also describe the core data requirements and the network of networks that serves as the underlying simulation structure.« less

  17. Using Discrete Event Simulation to Model Attacker Interactions with Cyber and Physical Security Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Casey; Muller, George

    2015-10-08

    The number of connections between physical and cyber security systems is rapidly increasing due to centralized control from automated and remotely connected means. As the number of interfaces between systems continues to grow, the interactions and interdependencies between them cannot be ignored. Historically, physical and cyber vulnerability assessments have been performed independently. This independent evaluation omits important aspects of the integrated system, where the impacts resulting from malicious or opportunistic attacks are not easily known or understood. Here, we describe a discrete event simulation model that uses information about integrated physical and cyber security systems, attacker characteristics and simple response rules to identify key safeguards that limit an attacker's likelihood of success. Key features of the proposed model include comprehensive data generation to support a variety of sophisticated analyses, and full parameterization of safeguard performance characteristics and attacker behaviours to evaluate a range of scenarios. Lastly, we also describe the core data requirements and the network of networks that serves as the underlying simulation structure.

  18. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  19. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In earlier works (Ben-Aissa et al. 2010; Abercrombie et al. 2008; Sheldon et al. 2009), we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  20. CS651 Computer Systems Security Foundations 3d Imagination Cyber Security Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Roy S.

    2015-03-02

    3d Imagination is a new company that bases its business on selling and improving 3d open source related hardware. The devices that they sell include 3d imagers, 3d printers, pick and place machines and laser etchers. They have a fast company intranet for ease in sharing, storing and printing large, complex 3d designs. They have an employee set that requires a variety of operating systems including Windows, Mac and a variety of Linux both for running business services as well as design and test machines. There are a wide variety of private networks for testing transfer rates to and from the 3d devices, without interference with other network tra c. They do video conferencing conferencing with customers and other designers. One of their machines is based on the project found at delta.firepick.org(Krassenstein, 2014; Biggs, 2014), which in future, will perform most of those functions. Their devices all include embedded systems, that may have full blown operating systems. Most of their systems are designed to have swappable parts, so when a new technology is born, it can be quickly adopted by people with 3d Imagination hardware. This company is producing a fair number of systems and components, however to get the funding they need to mass produce quality parts, so they are preparing for an IPO to raise the funds they need. They would like to have a cyber-security audit performed so they can give their investors con dence that they are protecting their data, customers information and printers in a proactive manner.

  1. Towards an integrated defense system for cyber security situation awareness experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an implemented defense system is demonstrated to carry out cyber security situation awareness. The developed system consists of distributed passive and active network sensors designed to effectively capture suspicious information associated with cyber threats, effective detection schemes to accurately distinguish attacks, and network actors to rapidly mitigate attacks. Based on the collected data from network sensors, image-based and signals-based detection schemes are implemented to detect attacks. To further mitigate attacks, deployed dynamic firewalls on hosts dynamically update detection information reported from the detection schemes and block attacks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system. A future plan to design an effective defense system is also discussed based on system theory.

  2. Three tenets for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Jeff; Cybenko, George

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a threat-driven quantitative mathematical framework for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment. Called The Three Tenets, this originally empirical approach has been used by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for secure system research and development. The Tenets were first documented in 2005 as a teachable methodology. The Tenets are motivated by a system threat model that itself consists of three elements which must exist for successful attacks to occur: - system susceptibility; - threat accessibility and; - threat capability. The Three Tenets arise naturally by countering each threat element individually. Specifically, the tenets are: Tenet 1: Focus on What's Critical - systems should include only essential functions (to reduce susceptibility); Tenet 2: Move Key Assets Out-of-Band - make mission essential elements and security controls difficult for attackers to reach logically and physically (to reduce accessibility); Tenet 3: Detect, React, Adapt - confound the attacker by implementing sensing system elements with dynamic response technologies (to counteract the attackers' capabilities). As a design methodology, the Tenets mitigate reverse engineering and subsequent attacks on complex systems. Quantified by a Bayesian analysis and further justified by analytic properties of attack graph models, the Tenets suggest concrete cyber security metrics for system assessment.

  3. Security Issues in E-learning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiantis, L. E.; Stergiou, E.; Margariti, S. V.

    2007-12-01

    With increasing threats to e-software, security will become a high priority in the systems of the future. What is debatable, however, is how that security will be approached. Current security methods manage potential risks with restrictive, autocratic mechanisms that ignore users, their tasks and the organisational setting. The result is a dramatic decrease in the usability of online programs. Another approach, proposed by this paper, is to develop security and its mechanisms for and with its users. Whichever approach is taken, security is set to be the burning issue of the future as users trust the global online world less and the threats from unauthorised access increase.

  4. Cyber Security: Big Data Think II Working Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas; Shaw, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This presentation focuses on approaches that could be used by a data computation center to identify attacks and ensure malicious code and backdoors are identified if planted in system. The goal is to identify actionable security information from the mountain of data that flows into and out of an organization. The approaches are applicable to big data computational center and some must also use big data techniques to extract the actionable security information from the mountain of data that flows into and out of a data computational center. The briefing covers the detection of malicious delivery sites and techniques for reducing the mountain of data so that intrusion detection information can be useful, and not hidden in a plethora of false alerts. It also looks at the identification of possible unauthorized data exfiltration.

  5. Institutional Foundations for Cyber Security: Current Responses and New Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    N/A WSIS : World Summit on the Information Society Global summit on information security; publishes resolutions and monitors implementation... WSIS , helps to clarify the nature of the intergovernmental eco-system by illustrating the broad differences in institutional and statutory status that...extension of OECD’s core mission and provides a common approach for all member states. WSIS . The World Summit on the Information Society ( WSIS

  6. At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare: Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare : Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force by Craig Stallard, Squadron leader, Royal...in the conduct of cyber warfare . The 2009 Defence White Paper provided some clarity by indentifying cyber warfare as critical to the maintenance...of national security, but left open the most important issue: should cyber warfare be a joint engagement or a service oriented fight? The RAAF

  7. Cyber Security for the Spaceport Command and Control System: Vulnerability Management and Compliance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunawan, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, the number of malicious threats to organizations is continually increasing. In June of 2015, the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) had a data breach resulting in the compromise of millions of government employee records. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not exempt from these attacks. Cyber security is becoming a critical facet to the discussion of moving forward with projects. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) aims to develop the launch control system for the next generation launch vehicle in the coming decades. There are many ways to increase the security of the network it uses, from vulnerability management to ensuring operating system images are compliant with securely configured baselines recommended by the United States Government.

  8. PACE: Pattern Accurate Computationally Efficient Bootstrapping for Timely Discovery of Cyber-Security Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Nikki C; Bridges, Robert A; Iannacone, Michael D; Czejdo, Bogdan; Perez, Nicolas E; Goodall, John R

    2013-01-01

    Public disclosure of important security information, such as knowledge of vulnerabilities or exploits, often occurs in blogs, tweets, mailing lists, and other online sources significantly before proper classification into structured databases. In order to facilitate timely discovery of such knowledge, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning algorithm, PACE, for identifying and classifying relevant entities in text sources. The main contribution of this paper is an enhancement of the traditional bootstrapping method for entity extraction by employing a time-memory trade-off that simultaneously circumvents a costly corpus search while strengthening pattern nomination, which should increase accuracy. An implementation in the cyber-security domain is discussed as well as challenges to Natural Language Processing imposed by the security domain.

  9. Shopping For Danger: E-commerce techniques applied to collaboration in cyber security

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Fink, Glenn A.

    2012-05-24

    Collaboration among cyber security analysts is essential to a successful protection strategy on the Internet today, but it is uncommonly practiced or encouraged in operating environments. Barriers to productive collaboration often include data sensitivity, time and effort to communicate, institutional policy, and protection of domain knowledge. We propose an ambient collaboration framework, Vulcan, designed to remove the barriers of time and effort and mitigate the others. Vulcan automated data collection, collaborative filtering, and asynchronous dissemination, eliminating the effort implied by explicit collaboration among peers. We instrumented two analytic applications and performed a mock analysis session to build a dataset and test the output of the system.

  10. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  11. Scenario-based approach to risk analysis in support of cyber security

    SciTech Connect

    Gertman, D. I.; Folkers, R.; Roberts, J.

    2006-07-01

    The US infrastructure is continually challenged by hostile nation states and others who would do us harm. Cyber vulnerabilities and weaknesses are potential targets and are the result of years of construction and technological improvement in a world less concerned with security than is currently the case. As a result, cyber attack presents a class of challenges for which we are just beginning to prepare. What has been done in the nuclear, chemical and energy sectors as a means of anticipating and preparing for randomly occurring accidents and off-normal events is to develop scenarios as a means by which to prioritize and quantify risk and to take action. However, the number of scenarios risk analysts can develop is almost limitless. How do we ascertain which scenario has the greatest merit? One of the more important contributions of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) has been to quantify the initiating event probability associated with various classes of accidents; and to quantify the occurrence of various conditions, i.e., end-states, as a function of these important accident sequences. Typically, various classes of conditions are represented by scenarios and are quantified in terms of cut sets and binned into end states. For example, the nuclear industry has a well-defined set of initiating events that are studied in assessing risk. The maturation of risk analysis for cyber security from accounting for barriers or looking at conditions statically to one of ascertaining the probability associated with certain events is, in part, dependent upon the adoption of a scenario-based approach. For example, scenarios take into account threats to personnel and public safety; economic damage, and compromises to major operational and safety functions. Scenarios reflect system, equipment, and component configurations as well as key human-system interactions related to event detection, diagnosis, mitigation and restoration of systems. As part of a cyber attack directed toward

  12. Data-Intensive Visual Analysis for Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Best, Daniel M.; Love, Douglas V.; Bohn, Shawn J.

    2013-01-29

    Protecting communications networks against attacks where the aim is to steal information, disrupt order, or harm critical infrastructure can require the collection and analysis of staggering amounts of data. The ability to detect and respond to threats quickly is a paramount concern across sectors, and especially for critical government, utility and financial networks. Yet detecting emerging or incipient threats in immense volumes of network traffic requires new computational and analytic approaches. Network security increasingly requires cooperation between human analysts able to spot suspicious events through means such as data visualization and automated systems that process streaming network data in near real-time to triage events so that human analysts are best able to focus their work.

  13. Social Security: The Notch Issue.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-24

    changes to the benefit formula should be made and, if so, what form they should take. Notch May Affect It has been claimed that the notch affects...Another factor was a form of "bracket creep" due to the fixed wage brackets or bendpoints in the benefit formula. As an individual’s wages rose, so...Security Taxes; lBenefit Formula Differential, 96th Congress, ist ’,sion. Skpt. 27, 1979. 𔃼The form of the transition provisions was debated

  14. Comprehensive, Multi-Source Cyber-Security Events Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kent, Alexander D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-21

    This data set represents 58 consecutive days of de-identified event data collected from five sources within Los Alamos National Laboratory’s corporate, internal computer network. The data sources include Windows-based authentication events from both individual computers and centralized Active Directory domain controller servers; process start and stop events from individual Windows computers; Domain Name Service (DNS) lookups as collected on internal DNS servers; network flow data as collected on at several key router locations; and a set of well-defined red teaming events that present bad behavior within the 58 days. In total, the data set is approximately 12 gigabytes compressed across the five data elements and presents 1,648,275,307 events in total for 12,425 users, 17,684 computers, and 62,974 processes. Specific users that are well known system related (SYSTEM, Local Service) were not de-identified though any well-known administrators account were still de-identified. In the network flow data, well-known ports (e.g. 80, 443, etc) were not de-identified. All other users, computers, process, ports, times, and other details were de-identified as a unified set across all the data elements (e.g. U1 is the same U1 in all of the data). The specific timeframe used is not disclosed for security purposes. In addition, no data that allows association outside of LANL’s network is included. All data starts with a time epoch of 1 using a time resolution of 1 second. In the authentication data, failed authentication events are only included for users that had a successful authentication event somewhere within the data set.

  15. Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddi, Ram Mohan

    The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

  16. Mixed-Initiative Cyber Security: Putting humans in the right loop

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; Maiden, Wendy M.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2009-05-11

    In recent years, organizations and their computer infrastructures have grown intertwined in complex relationships through mergers, acquisitions, reorganizations, and cooperative service delivery. Defensive actions and policy changes by one organization may have far-reaching negative consequences on its partner organizations. Human-only or machine-only approaches are insufficient. The former are slow but highly adaptable, while the latter are fast but highly specialized. In either case, humans retain the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their automated systems. Deploying automated defenses does not absolve humans of their inherent responsibility. We believe the solution lies in mixed-initiative defense unifying the complementary qualities of both human- and machine-based approaches. We describe the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID), a new cyber-defense paradigm employing complex-adaptive swarm intelligence, logical rational agents, and human insight to enable collaborative cyber defense among cooperating organizations in an infrastructure setting. CID takes a mixed-initiative approach to infrastructure defense where teams of humans and software agents defend cooperating organizations in tandem, sharing insights and solutions without violating proprietary boundaries. CID will help create security policy via dialogue between humans and agents, foster a collaborative problem-solving environment, and increase human situational awareness and influence through visualization and shared control. CID will provide a foundation for building trust between humans and agents within and between organizations.

  17. Overview of Climate Confluence Security Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Presentation will focus on an overview of the security perspectives based on the confluence considerations including energy, economics and climate change. This will include perspectives from reports generated by the Quadrennial Defense Review, Joint Forces Command, the Center for Strategic International Studies, MIT, the Inter-agency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Center for Naval Analysis, and other relevant reports. The presentation will highlight the connections between resource issues and climate change which can be interpreted into security concerns. General discussion of global issues, contextual review of AR4 WGII may be included and any other report updates as applicable. The purpose of this presentation is to give a rounded view of the general qualitative and quantitative perspectives regarding climate related security considerations.

  18. Quantifying and measuring cyber resiliency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cybenko, George

    2016-05-01

    Cyber resliency has become an increasingly attractive research and operational concept in cyber security. While several metrics have been proposed for quantifying cyber resiliency, a considerable gap remains between those metrics and operationally measurable and meaningful concepts that can be empirically determined in a scientific manner. This paper describes a concrete notion of cyber resiliency that can be tailored to meet specific needs of organizations that seek to introduce resiliency into their assessment of their cyber security posture.

  19. A macro-economic framework for evaluation of cyber security risks related to protection of intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Andrijcic, Eva; Horowitz, Barry

    2006-08-01

    The article is based on the premise that, from a macro-economic viewpoint, cyber attacks with long-lasting effects are the most economically significant, and as a result require more attention than attacks with short-lasting effects that have historically been more represented in literature. In particular, the article deals with evaluation of cyber security risks related to one type of attack with long-lasting effects, namely, theft of intellectual property (IP) by foreign perpetrators. An International Consequence Analysis Framework is presented to determine (1) the potential macro-economic consequences of cyber attacks that result in stolen IP from companies in the United States, and (2) the likely sources of such attacks. The framework presented focuses on IP theft that enables foreign companies to make economic gains that would have otherwise benefited the U.S. economy. Initial results are presented.

  20. Combining Traditional Cyber Security Audit Data with Psychosocial Data: Towards Predictive Modeling for Insider Threat Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    The purpose of this chapter is to motivate the combination of traditional cyber security audit data with psychosocial data, to support a move from an insider threat detection stance to one that enables prediction of potential insider presence. Twodistinctiveaspects of the approach are the objectiveof predicting or anticipating potential risksandthe useoforganizational datain additiontocyber datato support the analysis. The chapter describes the challenges of this endeavor and reports on progressin definingausablesetof predictiveindicators,developingaframeworkfor integratingthe analysisoforganizationalandcyber securitydatatoyield predictions about possible insider exploits, and developing the knowledge base and reasoning capabilityof the system.We also outline the typesof errors that oneexpectsina predictive system versus a detection system and discuss how those errors can affect the usefulness of the results.

  1. Current and potential cyber attacks on medical journals; guidelines for improving security.

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, Mehdi; Seno, Seyed Amin Hosseini; Borchardt, Glenn

    2017-03-01

    At the moment, scholarly publishing is faced with much academic misconduct and threats such as predatory journals, hijacked journals, phishing, and other scams. In response, we have been discussing this misconduct and trying to increase the awareness of researchers, but it seems that there is a lack of research that presents guidelines for editors to help them protect themselves against these threats. It seems that information security is missing in some parts of scholarly publishing that particularly involves medical journals. In this paper, we explain different types of cyber-attacks that especially threaten editors and academic journals. We then explain the details involved in each type of attack. Finally, we present general guidelines for detection and prevention of the attacks. In some cases, we use small experiments to show that our claim is true. Finally, we conclude the paper with a prioritization of these attacks.

  2. Quantifying Availability in SCADA Environments Using the Cyber Security Metric MFC

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Rabai, Latifa Ben Arfa; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are distributed networks dispersed over large geographic areas that aim to monitor and control industrial processes from remote areas and/or a centralized location. They are used in the management of critical infrastructures such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution, water and sewage, manufacturing/industrial manufacturing as well as oil and gas production. The availability of SCADA systems is tantamount to assuring safety, security and profitability. SCADA systems are the backbone of the national cyber-physical critical infrastructure. Herein, we explore the definition and quantification of an econometric measure of availability, as it applies to SCADA systems; our metric is a specialization of the generic measure of mean failure cost.

  3. Introducing cyber.

    PubMed

    Hult, Fredrik; Sivanesan, Giri

    In January 2012, the World Economic Forum made cyber attacks its fourth top global risk. In the 2013 risk report, cyber attacks were noted to be an even higher risk in absolute terms. The reliance of critical infrastructure on cyber working has never been higher; the frequency, intensity, impact and sophistication of attacks is growing. This trend looks likely to continue. It can be argued that it is no longer a question whether an organisation will be successfully hacked, but how long it will take to detect. In the ever-changing cyber environment, traditional protection techniques and reliance on preventive controls are not enough. A more agile approach is required to give assurance of a sufficiently secure digital society. Are we faced with a paradigm shift or a storm in a digital teacup? This paper offers an introduction to why cyber is important, a wider taxonomy on the topic and some historical context on how the discipline of cyber security has evolved, and an interpretation on what this means in the new normal of today.

  4. Water security-National and global issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, James A.; Campbell, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Potable or clean freshwater availability is crucial to life and economic, environmental, and social systems. The amount of freshwater is finite and makes up approximately 2.5 percent of all water on the Earth. Freshwater supplies are small and randomly distributed, so water resources can become points of conflict. Freshwater availability depends upon precipitation patterns, changing climate, and whether the source of consumed water comes directly from desalination, precipitation, or surface and (or) groundwater. At local to national levels, difficulties in securing potable water sources increase with growing populations and economies. Available water improves living standards and drives urbanization, which increases average water consumption per capita. Commonly, disruptions in sustainable supplies and distribution of potable water and conflicts over water resources become major security issues for Government officials. Disruptions are often influenced by land use, human population, use patterns, technological advances, environmental impacts, management processes and decisions, transnational boundaries, and so forth.

  5. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-05-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, an established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices.

  6. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-05-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, anmore » established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices.« less

  7. 78 FR 66984 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB); Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., nonproliferation, political- military affairs, international security, and related aspects of public diplomacy. The.... policy and issues regarding arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, cyber stability, energy security, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive...

  8. Enhancing the cyber-security of smart grids with applications to synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Seemita

    In the power grids, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are used as part of the Energy Management System (EMS) for enabling grid monitoring, control and protection. In recent times, with the ongoing installation of thousands of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), system operators are becoming increasingly reliant on PMU-generated synchrophasor measurements for executing wide-area monitoring and real-time control. The availability of PMU data facilitates dynamic state estimation of the system, thus improving the efficiency and resiliency of the grid. Since the SCADA and PMU data are used to make critical control decisions including actuation of physical systems, the timely availability and integrity of this networked data is of paramount importance. Absence or wrong control actions can potentially lead to disruption of operations, monetary loss, damage to equipments or surroundings or even blackout. This has posed new challenges to information security especially in this age of ever-increasing cyber-attacks. In this thesis, potential cyber-attacks on smart grids are presented and effective and implementable schemes are proposed for detecting them. The focus is mainly on three kinds of cyber-attacks and their detection: (i) gray-hole attacks on synchrophasor systems, (ii) PMU data manipulation attacks and (iii) data integrity attacks on SCADA systems. In the case of gray-hole attacks, also known as packet-drop attacks, the adversary may arbitrarily drop PMU data packets as they traverse the network, resulting in unavailability of time-sensitive data for the various critical power system applications. The fundamental challenge is to distinguish packets dropped by the adversary from those that occur naturally due to network congestion.The proposed gray-hole attack detection technique is based on exploiting the inherent timing information in the GPS time-stamped PMU data packets and using the temporal trends of the latencies to classify the cause of

  9. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, Jonathan T.; Silva, Austin Ray; Avina, Glory Emmanuel; Forsythe, James C.

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  10. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum concentration by security issue. 27.204... security issue. (a) Release Chemicals—(1) Release-Toxic Chemicals. If a release-toxic chemical of interest...)(v) for fuels that are stored in aboveground tank farms (including farms that are part of...

  11. Coalition Game-Based Secure and Effective Clustering Communication in Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yan; Dong, Wei; Qian, Jin; Jing, Tao

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the low efficiency of cluster-based communication for the crossroad scenario in the Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS), which is due to the overload of the cluster head resulting from a large number of transmission bandwidth requirements. After formulating the issue as a coalition formation game, a coalition-based clustering strategy is proposed, which could converge into a Nash-stable partition to accomplish the clustering formation process. In the proposed strategy, the coalition utility is formulated by the relative velocity, relative position and the bandwidth availability ratio of vehicles among the cluster. Employing the coalition utility, the vehicles are denoted as the nodes that make the decision whether to switch to a new coalition or stay in the current coalition. Based on this, we can make full use of the bandwidth provided by cluster head under the requirement of clustering stability. Nevertheless, there exist selfish nodes during the clustering formation, so as to intend to benefit from networks. This behavior may degrade the communication quality and even destroy the cluster. Thus, we also present a reputation-based incentive and penalty mechanism to stop the selfish nodes from entering clusters. Numerical simulation results show that our strategy, CG-SECC, takes on a better performance for the tradeoff between the stability and efficiency of clustering communication. Besides, a case study demonstrates that the proposed incentive and penalty mechanism can play an important role in discovering and removing malicious nodes. PMID:28264469

  12. Coalition Game-Based Secure and Effective Clustering Communication in Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS).

    PubMed

    Huo, Yan; Dong, Wei; Qian, Jin; Jing, Tao

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, we address the low efficiency of cluster-based communication for the crossroad scenario in the Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS), which is due to the overload of the cluster head resulting from a large number of transmission bandwidth requirements. After formulating the issue as a coalition formation game, a coalition-based clustering strategy is proposed, which could converge into a Nash-stable partition to accomplish the clustering formation process. In the proposed strategy, the coalition utility is formulated by the relative velocity, relative position and the bandwidth availability ratio of vehicles among the cluster. Employing the coalition utility, the vehicles are denoted as the nodes that make the decision whether to switch to a new coalition or stay in the current coalition. Based on this, we can make full use of the bandwidth provided by cluster head under the requirement of clustering stability. Nevertheless, there exist selfish nodes duringtheclusteringformation,soastointendtobenefitfromnetworks. Thisbehaviormaydegrade the communication quality and even destroy the cluster. Thus, we also present a reputation-based incentive and penalty mechanism to stop the selfish nodes from entering clusters. Numerical simulation results show that our strategy, CG-SECC, takes on a better performance for the tradeoff between the stability and efficiency of clustering communication. Besides, a case study demonstrates that the proposed incentive and penalty mechanism can play an important role in discovering and removing malicious nodes.

  13. Transportation Security: Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    results of covert testing of airport security checkpoints demonstrating deficiencies in detecting improvised explosives and incendiary devices...34 A key issue in the debate over aviation security immediately following September 11, 2001, was whether airport security screeners should be...intentional wrongdoing on the part of airport security screeners, whether they be federal or private. Nonetheless, while the pilot program airports

  14. Infotech. Cyber security. Health care learns to share scares and solutions.

    PubMed

    Colias, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Health care information technology leaders and others are coming together to share scary experiences and develop best practices to guard against crippling computer viruses, scheming hackers and other cyber threats.

  15. Cyber Defense: An International View

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Now op- erating in the private sector, CSRC provides in- depth analysis on a wide range of security issues affecting Russia and its relations with...to e-government, civilian con- trol of the military, threat perception , and much more. The United States is no exception and has developed its own...threat perception , and much more. The United States is no exception and has developed its own approach to organizing cyber defense based on

  16. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  17. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum concentration by security issue. 27.204... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by... is present in a mixture, and the concentration of the chemical is equal to or greater than...

  18. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum concentration by security issue. 27.204... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by... is present in a mixture, and the concentration of the chemical is equal to or greater than...

  19. Software Development Life Cycle Security Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Daljit; Kaur, Parminder

    2011-12-01

    Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. The main cause is that software can't withstand security attacks because of vulnerabilities in it which are caused by defective specifications design and implementation. We have conducted a survey asking software developers, project managers and other people in software development about their security awareness and implementation in Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The survey was open to participation for three weeks and this paper explains the survey results.

  20. Policy, Technology, and Practice in Cyber Charter Schools: Framing the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, June

    2011-01-01

    Background: Online learning in K-12 education has grown rapidly in the past decade. Cyber charter schools (CCSs) have been a particularly controversial form of online school, but there is very little scholarly examination of these new organizations. As CCSs expand, policymakers and stakeholders have a critical need to understand how to evolve the…

  1. Security and privacy issues of personal health.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    While health systems in developed countries and increasingly also in developing countries are moving from organisation-centred to person-centred health service delivery, the supporting communication and information technology is faced with new risks regarding security and privacy of stakeholders involved. The comprehensively distributed environment puts special burden on guaranteeing communication security services, but even more on guaranteeing application security services dealing with privilege management, access control and audit regarding social implication and connected sensitivity of personal information recorded, processed, communicated and stored in an even internationally distributed environment.

  2. Secure coprocessing applications and research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.W.

    1996-08-01

    The potential of secure coprocessing to address many emerging security challenges and to enable new applications has been a long-standing interest of many members of the Computer Research and Applications Group, including this author. The purpose of this paper is to summarize this thinking, by presenting a taxonomy of some potential applications and by summarizing what we regard as some particularly interesting research questions.

  3. Microcomputer Security Issues in an Office Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    34Protecting Our Resources," Government Data Systems, pp. 19-25 (Nov/Dec 1984). 10. Schlosberg, Jeremy , "Out of Site," Digital Review , pp. 37-41 (March...34Key Organizations and Security Cosultants." NL 5 I NCSC PC SECURITY PERSPECTIVE Not surprisingly, NCSC’s main thrust, historically , has been the...both the hardware and each sensitive program and data set. The OISSO must review these tasks on a regular basis, say yearly, as projects change, new

  4. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    longer adequate to rely solely on the now traditional defense-in-depth strategy. We must recognize that we are engaged in a form of warfare, cyber warfare , and... warfare . This causes security devices to be used ineffectively and responses to be untimely. Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the... cyber warfare strategy and tactics requires a cyber warfare command and control system. Responses to cyber attacks do not require offensive measures

  5. What is the current state of the science of Cyber defense?

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J.

    2015-10-09

    My overall sense of the cyber defense field is one of an adolescent discipline currently bogged down in a cloud of issues, the most iconic of which is the great diversity of approaches that are being aggregated to form a coherent field. Because my own expertise is complex systems and materials physics research, I have limited direct experience in cyber security sciences except as a user of secure networks and computing resources. However, in producing this report, I have found with certainty that there exists no calculus for cyber risk assessment, mitigation, and response, although some hopeful precepts toward this end are emerging.

  6. A CyberCIEGE Traffic Analysis Extension for Teaching Network Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Multiplayer Online Role-playing Game MO Method of Operation MTA Mail Transfer Agent OTP One-Time Password PCAP Packet Capture PDML...ready to launch its latest massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) “SyberSIEGE”! The product is currently in the final stages of...CyberCIEGE is an interactive game simulating realistic scenarios that teaches the players Information Assurance (IA) concepts. The existing game

  7. Security Issues in mGovernment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish; Hanumanthappa, M.; Reddy, Bhavanam Lakshma

    E-government is one of the most rapidly evolving service domains in the contemporary information society. Many governments have already developed and provided e-government services to businesses and citizens. Nowadays actors in the government domain attempt to take the next step and exploit the latest wireless technologies in order to provide ubiquitous services for mobile users. However, this approach involves some hidden risks mainly due to the inherent insecurity of the air medium and the vulnerabilities of the wireless systems. Thus, in this paper we investigate the security gaps and considerations which should be taken into account for an m-government system. Finally, we provide a list of security guidelines and policies, which the users of the system should be aware of and follow in order to avoid security attacks.

  8. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing... Technology (NIST) is seeking information relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC). NIST is... Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) to coordinate effectively when responding to...

  9. How is health a security issue? Politics, responses and issues.

    PubMed

    Lo Yuk-ping, Catherine; Thomas, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    In the closing decade of the 20th century the myriad challenges posed by infectious disease in a globalized environment began to be re-conceptualized as threats to national and human security. The most widely applied model for identifying and responding to such threats is securitization theory, as proposed by the Copenhagen School. Although its analytical framework is generally accepted, its utility remains contested; especially in non-European and non-state settings. The papers in this special edition have several aims: (1) to analyse ways by which Asian states and international organizations have identified health challenges as security threats, (2) to draw upon the securitization model as a way of understanding the full extent to which these states and international organizations have responded to the health threat, and (3) to identify areas where the theory might be strengthened so as to provide greater analytical clarity in areas of health security. This paper acts as a broad introduction to a set of papers on 'Unhealthy governance' and explores some of the key findings from the subsequent papers.

  10. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. National Issues Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Greg; Melville, Keith

    Designed to stimulate thinking about United States-Soviet relationships in terms of nuclear weapons and national security, this document presents ideas and issues that represent differing viewpoints and positions. Chapter 1, "Rethinking the U.S.-Soviet Relationship," considers attempts to achieve true national security, and chapter 2,…

  11. Brainjacking: Implant Security Issues in Invasive Neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Pycroft, Laurie; Boccard, Sandra G; Owen, Sarah L F; Stein, John F; Fitzgerald, James J; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2016-08-01

    The security of medical devices is critical to good patient care, especially when the devices are implanted. In light of recent developments in information security, there is reason to be concerned that medical implants are vulnerable to attack. The ability of attackers to exert malicious control over brain implants ("brainjacking") has unique challenges that we address in this review, with particular focus on deep brain stimulation implants. To illustrate the potential severity of this risk, we identify several mechanisms through which attackers could manipulate patients if unauthorized access to an implant can be achieved. These include blind attacks in which the attacker requires no patient-specific knowledge and targeted attacks that require patient-specific information. Blind attacks include cessation of stimulation, draining implant batteries, inducing tissue damage, and information theft. Targeted attacks include impairment of motor function, alteration of impulse control, modification of emotions or affect, induction of pain, and modulation of the reward system. We also discuss the limitations inherent in designing implants and the trade-offs that must be made to balance device security with battery life and practicality. We conclude that researchers, clinicians, manufacturers, and regulatory bodies should cooperate to minimize the risk posed by brainjacking.

  12. Cyber warfare: Armageddon in a Teacup?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    Security concerns over the growing capability of Cyber Warfare are in the forefront of national policy and security discussions. In order to enable a...realistic discussion of the topic this thesis seeks to analyze demonstrated Cyber Warfare capability and its ability to achieve strategic political...objectives. This study examines Cyber Warfare conducted against Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Israel in 2008. In all three cases Cyber Warfare did

  13. 18 CFR 131.43 - Report of securities issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... issued. 131.43 Section 131.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.43 Report of securities issued. Link to an amendment published at 70 FR...

  14. 18 CFR 131.43 - Report of securities issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... issued. 131.43 Section 131.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.43 Report of securities issued. Link to an amendment published at 70 FR...

  15. 18 CFR 131.43 - Report of securities issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... issued. 131.43 Section 131.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.43 Report of securities issued. Link to an amendment published at 70 FR...

  16. 18 CFR 131.43 - Report of securities issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... issued. 131.43 Section 131.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.43 Report of securities issued. Link to an amendment published at 70 FR...

  17. 18 CFR 131.43 - Report of securities issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... issued. 131.43 Section 131.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.43 Report of securities issued. Link to an amendment published at 70 FR...

  18. Cyber Warfare: China’s Strategy to Dominate in Cyber Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    CYBER WARFARE : CHINA‘S STRATEGY TO DOMINATE IN CYBER SPACE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...warfare supports the use of cyber warfare in future conflict. The IW militia unit organization provides each Chinese military region commander with...China, Strategy, Cyber Warfare , Cyber Space, Information Warfare, Electronic Warfare 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  19. MAC layer security issues in wireless mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Ganesh; Thilagam, P. Santhi

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing capability, in addition to their low cost and easy maintenance. Securing WMNs is more challenging and complex issue due to their inherent characteristics such as shared wireless medium, multi-hop and inter-network communication, highly dynamic network topology and decentralized architecture. These vulnerable features expose the WMNs to several types of attacks in MAC layer. The existing MAC layer standards and implementations are inadequate to secure these features and fail to provide comprehensive security solutions to protect both backbone and client mesh. Hence, there is a need for developing efficient, scalable and integrated security solutions for WMNs. In this paper, we classify the MAC layer attacks and analyze the existing countermeasures. Based on attacks classification and countermeasures analysis, we derive the research directions to enhance the MAC layer security for WMNs.

  20. Ergonomics issues in national identity card for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Paul H P; Yuen, Y Y; Loo, W H

    2013-09-01

    Ever since the 9/11 terrorist attack, many countries are considering the use of smart national identity card (SNIC) which has the ability to identify terrorists due to its biometric verification function. However, there are many ergonomics issues in the use of SNIC, e.g. card credibility. This research presents a case study survey of Malaysian users. Although most citizens (>96%) own MyKad (Malaysia SNIC), many do not carry it around and use its applications. This defeats one of its main purposes, i.e. combating terrorism. Thus, the research investigates ergonomics issues affecting the citizens' Intention to Use (ITU) MyKad for homeland security by using an extended technology acceptance model. Five hundred questionnaires were collected and analysed using structural equation modelling. Results show that perceived credibility and performance expectancy are the key issues. The findings provide many countries with insights into methods of addressing ergonomics issues and increasing adoption of SNIC for homeland security.

  1. Secure messaging via the cloud and mobile devices: data security issues emerge with new technologies.

    PubMed

    Prestigiacomo, Jennifer

    2011-05-01

    The secure messaging space is alive with new innovations that are moving the industry forward. Key in this space is the push toward moving secure messaging to the cloud and pushing it out to mobile devices. Among the examples are solutions that allow physicians to receive encrypted email on mobile devices, as well as ones that allow doctors to securely text-message each other to coordinate care. However, the security issues around these emerging technologies in this very active space must be further explored.

  2. Reviews on Security Issues and Challenges in Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Y. Z.; Zaaba, Z. F.; Samsudin, N. F.

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing service provided by the third party allowing share of resources and data among devices. It is widely used in many organizations nowadays and becoming more popular because it changes the way of how the Information Technology (IT) of an organization is organized and managed. It provides lots of benefits such as simplicity and lower costs, almost unlimited storage, least maintenance, easy utilization, backup and recovery, continuous availability, quality of service, automated software integration, scalability, flexibility and reliability, easy access to information, elasticity, quick deployment and lower barrier to entry. While there is increasing use of cloud computing service in this new era, the security issues of the cloud computing become a challenges. Cloud computing must be safe and secure enough to ensure the privacy of the users. This paper firstly lists out the architecture of the cloud computing, then discuss the most common security issues of using cloud and some solutions to the security issues since security is one of the most critical aspect in cloud computing due to the sensitivity of user's data.

  3. Scenario Selection and Student Assessment Modules for CyberCIEGE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    effective implementation plan to further this, it is important to promote awareness of security issues to a wide spectrum of users. Information systems...explored within the scope of this thesis. Futher, [Irvine 2003] has also indicated that this is planned for a future iteration of CyberCIEGE’s...REFERENCES [Anderson 1972] James Anderson. “Computer Security Technology Planning Study”. Technical report ESD-TR-73-5, vol II, USAF Electronics

  4. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    EPA experts have pointed to the change by drinking water treatment facilities from gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change...12, 2008. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress Congressional Research Service 9 such as chlorine

  5. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-16

    have pointed to the change by drinking water treatment facilities from gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified...Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress Congressional Research Service 9 such as chlorine , for purposes such

  6. A Three-Stage Colonel Blotto Game with Applications to Cyber-Physical Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-15

    infrastructures is [13]. Another interesting experimental paper is [14] where the authors study social interactions using a Facebook ap- plication called “Project...other for securing the servers. The hacker observes the security level of each network and decides on the amount of resource it deploys to hack each of...resource the hacker will allocate to hack the servers in each network. In particular, if the hacker has very little resource as compared to the network

  7. Security and privacy issues with health care information technology.

    PubMed

    Meingast, Marci; Roosta, Tanya; Sastry, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    The face of health care is changing as new technologies are being incorporated into the existing infrastructure. Electronic patient records and sensor networks for in-home patient monitoring are at the current forefront of new technologies. Paper-based patient records are being put in electronic format enabling patients to access their records via the Internet. Remote patient monitoring is becoming more feasible as specialized sensors can be placed inside homes. The combination of these technologies will improve the quality of health care by making it more personalized and reducing costs and medical errors. While there are benefits to technologies, associated privacy and security issues need to be analyzed to make these systems socially acceptable. In this paper we explore the privacy and security implications of these next-generation health care technologies. We describe existing methods for handling issues as well as discussing which issues need further consideration.

  8. Physical security and IT convergence: Managing the cyber-related risks.

    PubMed

    McCreight, Tim; Leece, Doug

    The convergence of physical security devices into the corporate network is increasing, due to the perceived economic benefits and efficiencies gained from using one enterprise network. Bringing these two networks together is not without risk. Physical devices like closed circuit television cameras (CCTV), card access readers, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning controllers (HVAC) are typically not secured to the standards we expect for corporate computer networks. These devices can pose significant risks to the corporate network by creating new avenues to exploit vulnerabilities in less-than-secure implementations of physical systems. The ASIS Information Technology Security Council (ITSC) developed a white paper describing steps organisations can take to reduce the risks this convergence can pose, and presented these concepts at the 2015 ASIS/ISC2 Congress in Anaheim, California.(1) This paper expands upon the six characteristics described by ITSC, and provides business continuity planners with information on how to apply these recommendations to physical security devices that use the corporate network.

  9. Cyber-Security Holism: A System of Solutions for a Distributed Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    SUBTITLE CYCBER-SECURITY HOLISM: A SYSTEM OF SOLUTIONS FOR A DISTRIBUTED PROBLEM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Simple Dynamic Programing Example .....................................................................18...organism of the parts. Facing this complexity, I turned to holism, to systems theory, and to dynamic programming used to understand complexity in

  10. Computer Security Issues in Online Banking: An Assessment from the Context of Usable Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmadi, FN; Zaaba, ZF; Osman, A.

    2016-11-01

    Today's online banking is a convenient mode of finance management. Despite the ease of doing online banking, there are people that still sceptical in utilizing it due to perception and its security. This paper highlights the subject of online banking security in Malaysia, especially from the perspective of the end-users. The study is done by assessing human computer interaction, usability and security. An online survey utilising 137 participants was previously conducted to gain preliminary insights on security issues of online banking in Malaysia. Following from those results, 37 participants were interviewed to gauge deeper understanding about end-users perception on online banking within the context of usable security. The results suggested that most of the end-users are continuingly experiencing significant difficulties especially in relation to the technical terminologies, security features and other technical issues. Although the security features are provided to provide a shield or protection, users are still incapable to cope with the technical aspects of such implementation.

  11. Mediating Cyber and Physical Threat Propagation in Security Smart Grid Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, Clifford; Tan, Kymie

    2011-10-01

    The power grid is a federated system. Regions of the system are controlled by different organizations and security of the grid is imposed from above through regulation of the security techniques used by the federants. This approach will be less effective as we move to a smart grid, where control of some elements of the grid rests in the customer’s home through technologies that enable remote access to appliances. These regions of the smart grid are less trusted, yet they interact in various ways with other parts of the grid. This paper demonstrates threat propagation in the smart grid from such regions, and discusses architectural approaches to mediating the impact of such flows.

  12. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-26

    the work plan in 2009, it did not support the adoption of a draft program of work for 2010.60 Ambassador Zamir Akram , Pakistan’s Permanent...Also see Statement by Ambassador Zamir Akram , Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the Conference on Disarmament, August 31, 2010. 61 Statement...by Ambassador Zamir Akram , February 18, 2010. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues Congressional Research Service 10

  13. Inquiry Response Security Issues with CGI Scripting and JAVA Implementations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-26

    remote systems. The phf cgi-script is supposed to provide a phone number lookup - service. But specific queries can be sent to it to run arbitrary...Subtitle Inquiry Response Security Issues with CGI Scripting and JAVA Implementations Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors Project... Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) IATAC 8283 Greensboro Drive McLean, VA 22102 Performing

  14. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the...alternative form of conflict, reviews the traditional principles of warfare and why they may or may not apply to cyber warfare , and proposes new principles of...warfare that may be needed to conduct cyber warfare . Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2

  15. Security issues at the Department of Energy and records management

    SciTech Connect

    NUSBAUM,ANNA W.

    2000-03-13

    In order to discuss the connection between security issues within the Department of Energy and records management, the author covers a bit of security history and talks about what she calls ``the Amazing Project''. Initiated in late May 1999, it was to be a tri-laboratory (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of Livermore, California, Los Alamos National Laboratory of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Sandia National Laboratories of Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California) project. The team that formed was tasked to develop the best set of security solutions that still enabled weapon mission work to get done and the security solutions were to be the same set for everyone. The amazing project was called ''The Integrated Security Management Project'', or ''ISecM' for short. She'll describe why she thinks this project was so amazing and what it accomplished. There's a bit of sad news about the project, but then she'll move onto discuss what was learned at Sandia as a result of the project and what they're currently doing in records management.

  16. US Cyber Challenge Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    0 2 2 Maryland Cyber Challenge & Conference 0 1 0 0 0 1 Miami Electronic Crimes Task Force 0 0 1 0 0 1 MITRE STEM CTF 0 0 2 0 0 2 Moraine Valley...Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) has a CTF technical environment hosted at Moraine Valley Community College outside of Chicago, IL. This

  17. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to `sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to `hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a `digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers. PMID:12554559

  18. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to 'sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to 'hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a 'digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers.

  19. The cyber threat, trophy information and the fortress mentality.

    PubMed

    Scully, Tim

    2011-10-01

    'It won't happen to me' is a prevalent mindset among senior executives in the private and public sectors when considering targeted cyber intrusions. This is exacerbated by the long-term adoption of a 'fortress mentality' towards cyber security, and by the attitude of many of our cyber-security professionals, who speak a different language when it comes to communicating cyber-security events to senior executives. The prevailing approaches to cyber security have clearly failed. Almost every week another serious, targeted cyber intrusion is reported, but reported intrusions are only the tip of the iceberg. Why have we got it so wrong? It must be acknowledged that cyber security is no longer the domain of cyber-security experts alone. Many more of us at various levels of leadership must understand, and be more deeply engaged in, the cyber-security challenge if we are to deal with the threat holistically and effectively. Governments cannot combat the cyber threat alone, particularly the so-called advanced persistent threat; they must work closely with industry as trusted partners. Industry will be the 'boots on the ground' in cyber security, but there are challenges to building this relationship, which must be based on sound principles.

  20. Integrated situational awareness for cyber attack detection, analysis, and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Sagduyu, Yalin; Deng, Julia; Li, Jason; Liu, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Real-time cyberspace situational awareness is critical for securing and protecting today's enterprise networks from various cyber threats. When a security incident occurs, network administrators and security analysts need to know what exactly has happened in the network, why it happened, and what actions or countermeasures should be taken to quickly mitigate the potential impacts. In this paper, we propose an integrated cyberspace situational awareness system for efficient cyber attack detection, analysis and mitigation in large-scale enterprise networks. Essentially, a cyberspace common operational picture will be developed, which is a multi-layer graphical model and can efficiently capture and represent the statuses, relationships, and interdependencies of various entities and elements within and among different levels of a network. Once shared among authorized users, this cyberspace common operational picture can provide an integrated view of the logical, physical, and cyber domains, and a unique visualization of disparate data sets to support decision makers. In addition, advanced analyses, such as Bayesian Network analysis, will be explored to address the information uncertainty, dynamic and complex cyber attack detection, and optimal impact mitigation issues. All the developed technologies will be further integrated into an automatic software toolkit to achieve near real-time cyberspace situational awareness and impact mitigation in large-scale computer networks.

  1. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  2. Cyber War: The Next Frontier for NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    addressing cyber-attacks, the severity of cyber-attacks, and what would need to occur in order for a victim-state to ask NATO to invoke Article 5. This...thesis discusses the readiness of NATO to respond to a cyber-attack and what the conditions necessary for an Article 5 response, and what that response...14. SUBJECT TERl’\\IS NATO, Article 5, cyber-attack, Tallinn Manual 17. SECURITY 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF CLASSIFICATION OF TffiS REPORT

  3. Current seismic sensor issues for defense and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Alex; Sicignano, Al; Sandy, Matt; Goldburt, Tim

    2004-09-01

    Seismic footstep detection-based systems are very important for various homeland security and military applications. Their performance and usefulness strongly depends on the characteristics of the seismic sensors. Unfortunately, currently available seismic sensors do not provide in satisfactory results. This paper describes the main issues of using seismic sensors for detection purposes and shows the key disadvantages of the most popular commercial seismic sensors/geophones. According to our results, the following are the key issues of poor seismic sensor performance: - Poor response to low frequency signals, leading to decrease of the detection range of targets - Unsatisfactory sensitivity threshold, causing missing low level seismic signals from outlying targets - Long damping signal time and corresponding low accuracy response, leading to problems with outlying target detection in high level noise environments - Low noise immunity from electromagnetic interference making seismic sensor operation in radar installation areas unreliable - Relatively bulky size and high price, which prevents extensive use of seismic sensors In addition, we have formulated objective requirements for seismic sensors to be used in defense and security applications

  4. 78 FR 62430 - Department of Defense (DoD)-Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Voluntary Cyber Security and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... ``or as soon as practicable thereafter'' following the word ``discovery'' and expressed caution that... representation of knowledge such as facts, data, or ] opinions in any medium or form, including textual... will be provided within 72 hours of discovery. DIB participants also may report other cyber...

  5. 76 FR 2151 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Coordination Office (NCO) for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD... the National Coordination Office for the Networking and Information Technology Research and...@nitrd.gov . SUMMARY: The NCO, on behalf of the Special Cyber Operations Research and Engineering...

  6. Cyber Insurance - Managing Cyber Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    regulations with respect to data breaches. The Health Insur - ance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) Breach Notification Rule 45 CFR §§ 164.400...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Cyber Insurance – Managing Cyber Risk Laura A. Odell, Project Leader...license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. Cyber Insurance – Managing Cyber Risk Data breaches involving

  7. Cyber security risk management: public policy implications of correlated risk, imperfect ability to prove loss, and observability of self-protection.

    PubMed

    Oğüt, Hulisi; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Menon, Nirup

    2011-03-01

    The correlated nature of security breach risks, the imperfect ability to prove loss from a breach to an insurer, and the inability of insurers and external agents to observe firms' self-protection efforts have posed significant challenges to cyber security risk management. Our analysis finds that a firm invests less than the social optimal levels in self-protection and in insurance when risks are correlated and the ability to prove loss is imperfect. We find that the appropriate social intervention policy to induce a firm to invest at socially optimal levels depends on whether insurers can verify a firm's self-protection levels. If self-protection of a firm is observable to an insurer so that it can design a contract that is contingent on the self-protection level, then self-protection and insurance behave as complements. In this case, a social planner can induce a firm to choose the socially optimal self-protection and insurance levels by offering a subsidy on self-protection. We also find that providing a subsidy on insurance does not provide a similar inducement to a firm. If self-protection of a firm is not observable to an insurer, then self-protection and insurance behave as substitutes. In this case, a social planner should tax the insurance premium to achieve socially optimal results. The results of our analysis hold regardless of whether the insurance market is perfectly competitive or not, implying that solely reforming the currently imperfect insurance market is insufficient to achieve the efficient outcome in cyber security risk management.

  8. FORWARD: DESERTIFICATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION: A SECURITY ISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Workshop focused on two basic concepts: security and desertification and their linkages. Since the end of the Cold War, traditional security concepts based on national sovereignty and territorial security have increasingly been brought under review. Currently, a broader defin...

  9. 76 FR 75781 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK46 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a... document contains temporary regulations that provide guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation... INFORMATION: Background Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) are securities issued by the...

  10. Securing Cyber Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    communities are fa- miliar with the Stuxnet malware that reportedly destroyed 1,000 centrifuges that were being used by Iran to enrich ura- nium...The Stuxnet deployment renewed interest in protecting SCADA systems and in defending against cyberattacks on our critical networks. Essentially, our

  11. 17 CFR 250.52 - Exemption of issue and sale of certain securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of issue and sale of certain securities. 250.52 Section 250.52 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... subsidiary company is organized and doing business; and (3) The interest rates and maturity dates of any...

  12. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  13. Perceptions of Accounting Practitioners and Educators on E-Business Curriculum and Web Security Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragothaman, Srinivasan; Lavin, Angeline; Davies, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This research examines, through survey administration, the perceptions of accounting practitioners and educators with respect to the multi-faceted security issues of e-commerce payment systems as well as e-business curriculum issues. Specific security issues explored include misuse/theft of personal and credit card information, spam e-mails,…

  14. 7 Key Challenges for Visualization in Cyber Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Endert, Alexander; Kidwell, Dan

    2014-12-02

    In this paper we present seven challenges, informed by two user studies, to be considered when developing a visualization for cyber security purposes. Cyber security visualizations must go beyond isolated solutions and “pretty picture” visualizations in order to make impact to users. We provide an example prototype that addresses the challenges with a description of how they are met. Our aim is to assist in increasing utility and adoption rates for visualization capabilities in cyber security.

  15. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  16. Cyber Exercise Playbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    all parties benefit from the exercise experience. Exercises are not performed to make an organization look bad; instead, they help to train and...techniques it utilized to attack a security posture. All parties benefit from an exercise that underscores the RT motto: ”we win, we lose. 23 Appendix...Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The

  17. Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public. The

  18. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  19. How many bytes does it take? A content analysis of cyber issues in couple and family therapy journals.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Markie L C; Hertlein, Katherine M; Smith, Justin M; Allen, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    In the fifteen years since the explosion of the Internet, using cyber technology for work and social functions has exponentially increased. Yet, questions around how to manage such changes remain elusive in family therapy literature. In this investigation, we conducted a content analysis to determine to what extent marriage/couple and family therapy (M/CFT) journals have responded to the integration of the Internet in couple and family life. We found 79 of 13,274 articles across seventeen journals focused on the Internet in some capacity. Implications for clinical practice, training, and future research are discussed.

  20. Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Chemical Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    analysis of all risk factors, including physical, cyber, and human. The interaction of both internal and external process and business systems must also be...interconnectivity, but restricts its scope by addressing the cyber issues of ICS.b Interactions with physical, business, and safety systems and their security...and the fully explored ramifications as a loss of control incident propagates through multi-industry and multi-sector interactions . CONTROL SYSTEMS

  1. Issues of Falsifying Financial Statements in Terms of Economic Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhitlukhina, Olga G.; Rakutko, Svetlana Y.; Berezhnova, Elena I.; Selezneva, Elena Y.; Belik, Elena V.; Shalaeva, Nina I.; Denisevich, Elena I.; Belik, Natalia V.; Saenko, Zhanna E.; Sultanova, Alina A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with problems of the country's economic security and entities, timely resolution of which influences directly the country's national security. The cornerstone of successful existence of any country, especially the Russian Federation, during such complicated period is the presence of effective national economic security system.…

  2. CyberTerrorism: Cyber Prevention vs Cyber Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CYBERTERRORISM...CYBER PREVENTION VS CYBER RECOVERY by Jeffrey R. DiBiasi December 2007 Thesis Advisor: Letitia Lawson Second Reader: Daniel Moran THIS...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CyberTerrorism: Cyber Prevention Vs Cyber Recovery 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey R. DiBiasi 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7

  3. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  4. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that…

  5. 76 FR 75829 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a... guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities issued with more than a de minimis... the coupon bond method described in Sec. 1.1275-7(d) applies to Treasury...

  6. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  7. Information Security Issues in Higher Education and Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Information security threats to educational institutions and their data assets have worsened significantly over the past few years. The rich data stores of institutional research are especially vulnerable, and threats from security breaches represent no small risk. New genres of threat require new kinds of controls if the institution is to prevent…

  8. An Examination of Issues Surrounding Information Security in California Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have provided increasing opportunities in higher education for delivering instruction and other services. However, exposure to information security attacks has been increasing as more organizations conduct their businesses online. Higher education institutions have one of the highest frequencies of security breaches as…

  9. Security Issues for Mobile Medical Imaging: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Chatterjee, Arindam R; Javan, Ramin; Radvany, Martin G; Shih, George

    2015-10-01

    The end-user of mobile device apps in the practice of clinical radiology should be aware of security measures that prevent unauthorized use of the device, including passcode policies, methods for dealing with failed login attempts, network manager-controllable passcode enforcement, and passcode enforcement for the protection of the mobile device itself. Protection of patient data must be in place that complies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and U.S. Federal Information Processing Standards. Device security measures for data protection include methods for locally stored data encryption, hardware encryption, and the ability to locally and remotely clear data from the device. As these devices transfer information over both local wireless networks and public cell phone networks, wireless network security protocols, including wired equivalent privacy and Wi-Fi protected access, are important components in the chain of security. Specific virtual private network protocols, Secure Sockets Layer and related protocols (especially in the setting of hypertext transfer protocols), native apps, virtual desktops, and nonmedical commercial off-the-shelf apps require consideration in the transmission of medical data over both private and public networks. Enterprise security and management of both personal and enterprise mobile devices are discussed. Finally, specific standards for hardware and software platform security, including prevention of hardware tampering, protection from malicious software, and application authentication methods, are vital components in establishing a secure platform for the use of mobile devices in the medical field.

  10. Bio-terrorism, "dirty bombs," hospitals, and security issues.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jesse C

    2004-01-01

    In the event of a bio-terrorism event, the role of the hospital security department will be critical if the disaster plans of health care providers are to be successfully carried out. It is imperative, says the author, that security providers be involved in every step of disaster and emergency response planning.

  11. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    PubMed

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  12. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

    2008-08-01

    issues and to accommodate for the diversity in both system and architecture types, a framework based in recommended practices to address forensics in the control systems domain is required. This framework must be fully flexible to allow for deployment into any control systems environment regardless of technologies used. Moreover, the framework and practices must provide for direction on the integration of modern network security technologies with traditionally closed systems, the result being a true defense-in-depth strategy for control systems architectures. This document takes the traditional concepts of cyber forensics and forensics engineering and provides direction regarding augmentation for control systems operational environments. The goal is to provide guidance to the reader with specifics relating to the complexity of cyber forensics for control systems, guidance to allow organizations to create a self-sustaining cyber forensics program, and guidance to support the maintenance and evolution of such programs. As the current control systems cyber security community of interest is without any specific direction on how to proceed with forensics in control systems environments, this information product is intended to be a first step.

  13. Education and the Degree of Data Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Phillip Dewitt

    2013-01-01

    New technology development has researchers inundated with a plethora of data security issues linked to cyber attacks and hackers' ability to transmogrify their techniques. The present research focused on the information technology managing officers' (ITMOs') level of education, size of organization, organization's industry, and effect they have on…

  14. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued? There are three book-entry securities systems... marketable Treasury securities. We maintain and transfer securities in these three book-entry systems at... inflation. Securities may be transferred from one system to the other, unless the securities are...

  15. Mitigating Security Issues: The University of Memphis Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert; Frolick, Mark N.

    2003-01-01

    Studied a server security breach at the University of Memphis, Tennessee, to highlight personnel roles, detection of the compromised server, policy enforcement, forensics, and the proactive search for other servers threatened in the same way. (SLD)

  16. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-05-26

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  17. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  18. National Security Report: Background and Perspective on Important National Security and Defense Policy Issues. Volume 1, Issue 4, May 1997. A look Ahead at the Quadrennial Defense Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    National Security Report bTah dadPn di d Produce b) Volume 1, Issue 4 Chairman, House National Security Committee May 1997 From the Chairman... A...perimetertoboardaU.S.MarineCorpsCH-53inside preparing for an uncertain future - challenges of an the U.S. Embassy housing compound in Tirana... aircraft prepare to deliver troops, equipment and supplies to pay for increased for many contingency operations worldwide, spending on long The likelihood of

  19. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

  20. Security issues in healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  1. Security issues of quantum cryptographic systems with imperfect detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Viacheslav

    The laws of quantum physics can be used to secure communications between two distant parties in a scheme called quantum key distribution (QKD), even against a technologically unlimited eavesdropper. While the theoretical security of QKD has been proved rigorously, current implementations of QKD are generally insecure. In particular, mathematical models of devices, such as detectors, do not accurately describe their real-life behaviour. Such seemingly insignificant discrepancies can compromise the security of the entire scheme, especially as novel detector technologies are being developed with little regard for potential vulnerabilities. In this thesis, we study how detector imperfections can impact the security of QKD and how to overcome such technological limitations. We first analyze the security of a high-speed QKD system with finite detector dead time tau. We show that the previously reported sifting approaches are not guaranteed to be secure in this regime. More specifically, Eve can induce a basis-dependent detection efficiency at the receiver's end. Modified key sifting schemes that are basis-independent, and thus secure in the presence of dead time and an active eavesdropper, are discussed and compared. It is shown that the maximum key generation rate is 1/(2tau) for passive basis selection, and 1/tau for active basis selection. The security analysis is also extended to the decoy state BB84 protocol. We then study a relatively new type of single-photon detector called the superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), and discover some unexpected behaviour. We report an afterpulsing effect present when the SNSPD is operated in the high bias current regime. In our standard set-up, the afterpulsing is most likely to occur at around 180 ns following a detection event, for both real counts and dark counts. We characterize the afterpulsing behaviour and speculate that it is not due to the SNSPD itself but rather the associated read-out circuit. We also

  2. Department of Defense Information Network (DODIN): A Study of Current Cyber Threats and Best Practices for Network Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Force 2025 and beyond. In order to continue to make progress towards the defense and security of our vital communication networks the Department of...List has provided trend information for security strategy decision making purposes. Purpose of the Study Army Warfighting Challenge #7 (Conduct...Corporation maintains the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) List of defined viruses and makes the information publicly available so that

  3. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    facilities from gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer...hazardous chemicals, such as chlorine , for purposes such as disinfection.29 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the presence

  4. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer substitution—as being...chemicals, such as chlorine , for purposes such as disinfection.29 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the presence of such

  5. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-10

    chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer substitution—as being...Congressional Research Service 9 such as chlorine , for purposes such as disinfection.22 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the

  6. Nuclear Arms and National Security. 1983 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies, this booklet outlines approaches for dealing with the threat of nuclear warfare in six sections. The first section, "Learning to Live with Nuclear Weapons," introduces the topic and considers what can be done to decrease the risk of nuclear warfare without jeopardizing the nation's security. "Arms…

  7. Border and Transportation Security: Overview of Congressional Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-17

    railways, airways, and waterways. While in the immediate aftermath of 9/11 efforts primarily concentrated on an expanded federal role in aviation ... security (in particular on the heightened screening of passengers and baggage), increasingly attention is being turned towards other modes of transportation.

  8. Brookhaven National Laboratory's capabilities for advanced analyses of cyber threats

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    BNL has several ongoing, mature, and successful programs and areas of core scientific expertise that readily could be modified to address problems facing national security and efforts by the IC related to securing our nation’s computer networks. In supporting these programs, BNL houses an expansive, scalable infrastructure built exclusively for transporting, storing, and analyzing large disparate data-sets. Our ongoing research projects on various infrastructural issues in computer science undoubtedly would be relevant to national security. Furthermore, BNL frequently partners with researchers in academia and industry worldwide to foster unique and innovative ideas for expanding research opportunities and extending our insights. Because the basic science conducted at BNL is unique, such projects have led to advanced techniques, unlike any others, to support our mission of discovery. Many of them are modular techniques, thus making them ideal for abstraction and retrofitting to other uses including those facing national security, specifically the safety of the nation’s cyber space.

  9. Issues of Human Security and Educational Development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Kpolovie, Peter James; Amaele, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from documents, observation, interview and questionnaire, we highlighted the role of issues of human security and its impact on the educational development of the Niger Delta region as well as means of enhancing human security in Nigeria. This article is a conceptual and methodological breakthrough in Nigeria's academic landscape where…

  10. Choices in International Conflict: With a Focus on Security Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Gregory; Mukai, Gary; Kim, Pearl; Leininger, James

    Many world leaders and scholars feel that the U.S.-Japan Security Alliance is essential for long-term peace, prosperity, and stability in Asia. The purpose of this curriculum unit is to examine this alliance by introducing students to case studies of international conflict, with a focus on security issues in Asia. Through each of the lessons…

  11. Information Security Trends and Issues in the Moodle E-Learning Platform: An Ethnographic Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research on information security trends and practices in e-learning is scarce. Many articles that have been published apply basic information security concepts to e-learning and list potential threats or propose frameworks for classifying threats. The purpose of this research is to identify, categorize and understand trends and issues in…

  12. Privacy and Security of Criminal History Information. An Analysis of Privacy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trubow, George B.

    Policies and issues associated with the privacy and security of criminal history information are presented. The first chapter discusses general concepts regarding privacy and security of criminal justice information, including definitions of basic terms, considerations of interests requiring attention when developing policy, relevance of fair…

  13. Secure Remote Access Issues in a Control Center Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Lee; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISS finally reached an operational state and exists for local and remote users. Onboard payload systems are managed by the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). Users access HOSC systems by internet protocols in support of daily operations, preflight simulation, and test. In support of this diverse user community, a modem security architecture has been implemented. The architecture has evolved over time from an isolated but open system to a system which supports local and remote access to the ISS over broad geographic regions. This has been accomplished through the use of an evolved security strategy, PKI, and custom design. Through this paper, descriptions of the migration process and the lessons learned are presented. This will include product decision criteria, rationale, and the use of commodity products in the end architecture. This paper will also stress the need for interoperability of various products and the effects of seemingly insignificant details.

  14. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-07

    Service 2 nonproliferation experts insight into the command and control of the Pakistani arsenal and its on- site safety and security procedures,”3 but...1980s. Highly-enriched uranium ( HEU ) is one of two types of fissile material used in nuclear weapons; the other is plutonium. The country’s main...United States that it would produce only LEU ,12 U.S. and Pakistani officials who were in government in 1990 indicated during a 1994 meeting that

  15. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-30

    Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007...for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty...Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http

  16. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile Materials estimates that Pakistan has enough fissile material...Adviser M. K. Narayanan said that the arsenal is safe and has adequate checks and balances.64 Similarly, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth ...Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080/download

  17. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    2007,” ibid.; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. 5 “Nuclear Notebook,” ibid. 6 “Global Fissile Material Report 2007,” International Panel on Fissile Materials...State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under...Nuclear Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http

  18. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-09

    International Panel on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile...and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under pretty close lock...Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080

  19. Protecting Critical Space Systems: A National Security Issue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    location, and other data stream down to Earth from satellites orbiting above—all of which are operated by military, civil, or commercial entities. These...service to the billions of people on Earth by 2010 (fig. 2), and none of them will have protection from an attack. We must develop a security system to...with celestial objects such as meteorites . Man-made hazards occur as a result of collisions with other space objects and unintentional interference such

  20. Yucca Mountain Transportation Security Issues: overview and update

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, J.D.; Halstead, R.J.; Dilger, F.; Collins, H.

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines four aspects of transportation security planning for the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The authors review the transportation sabotage consequence assessments prepared over the past five years by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects (NANP). The authors identify five critical uncertainties in the repository transportation system being developed by DOE, and assess the implications of these uncertainties for shipment security. The authors compare the security findings and recommendations of the recent National Academy of Sciences study of high-level nuclear waste transportation, with the State of Nevada petition for rulemaking (PRM 73-10) filed with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1999. The authors summarize recent trends in global terrorism and recommend research on alternative assumptions for threat assessments, and recommend that Federal agencies consider social-science based counter-terrorism strategies, such as precursor analysis, and the 'Day After' methodology developed by the Rand Corporation. (authors)

  1. Cyber Analogies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    including the time for reviewing instructions , searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing... CONTENTS 1 Introduction Emily O. Goldman & John Arquilla 7 The Cyber Pearl Harbor James J. Wirtz 15 Applying the Historical Lessons of Surprise Attack...As H.G. Wells put it, “History is a race between education and catastrophe.” SURPRISE ATTACK The primarily history- based analogies contained herein

  2. 76 FR 6637 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth Is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... researchers who develop solutions of the type under discussion, and researchers who exploit these solutions... protection, Defense-in-Depth was adopted by the National Security Agency (NSA) for main-frame computer system... those adversaries can structure their attacks to pass through all the layers of defensive measures....

  3. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  4. Post 9-11 Security Issues for Non-Power Reactor Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zaffuts, P. J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper addresses the legal and practical issues arising out of the design and implementation of a security-enhancement program for non power reactor nuclear facilities. The security enhancements discussed are derived from the commercial nuclear power industry's approach to security. The nuclear power industry's long and successful experience with protecting highly sensitive assets provides a wealth of information and lessons that should be examined by other industries contemplating security improvements, including, but not limited to facilities using or disposing of nuclear materials. This paper describes the nuclear industry's approach to security, the advantages and disadvantages of its constituent elements, and the legal issues that facilities will need to address when adopting some or all of these elements in the absence of statutory or regulatory requirements to do so.

  5. Awaiting the Cyber 9/11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-11

    information assurance practices is placing camouflage netting, barbed wire, and sandbags to protect a position. Network defense 5 information...nothing appeared on the Syrian radar screens except the images that Israel put there during the attack.30 As Richard Clarke stated in his book, Cyber...PhD, Vice President, URI Reseach and Economic Development University of Rhode Island Peter Alphonso. "Cyber Security Symposium " (May 3, 2011). (48:44

  6. Security--A Sleeper Issue Comes into Its Own.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryland, Jane

    1989-01-01

    An overview of responses from a number of higher education associations (ACE, EDUCOM and NASULGC, and Cornell University) to the controversial issues that have arisen from the 1988 Internet "worm" are presented. Preliminary results from a CAUSE survey of higher education institutions are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  7. Perspectives on Peace: A Resource for Teaching Peace and Security Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinski, Marcel

    Designed to help teachers discuss and explore with students the many aspects of peace and security in a rapidly changing world, this teaching manual examines the issues from many different points of view. Students are encouraged to examine the issues, collect information, and present their own views and opinions based on the facts. The book…

  8. Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    January–February 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 44 FeatureCyber Focus Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought Maj Sean C. Butler, USAF In September 2007...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought 5a...2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 45 Butler Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought FeatureCyber Focus characterized by the use of electronics and the

  9. Toward improved software security training using a cyber warfare opposing force (CW OPFOR): the knowledge base design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2005-03-01

    "Train the way you will fight" has been a guiding principle for military training and has served the warfighter well as evidenced by numerous successful operations over the last decade. This need for realistic training for all combatants has been recognized and proven by the warfighter and continues to guide military training. However, to date, this key training principle has not been applied fully in the arena of cyberwarfare due to the lack of realistic, cost effective, reasonable, and formidable cyberwarfare opponents. Recent technological advances, improvements in the capability of computer-generated forces (CGFs) to emulate human behavior, and current results in research in information assurance and software protection, coupled with increasing dependence upon information superiority, indicate that the cyberbattlespace will be a key aspect of future conflict and that it is time to address the cyberwarfare training shortfall. To address the need for a cyberwarfare training and defensive testing capability, we propose research and development to yield a prototype computerized, semi-autonomous (SAF) red team capability. We term this capability the Cyber Warfare Opposing Force (CW OPFOR). There are several technologies that are now mature enough to enable, for the first time, the development of this powerful, effective, high fidelity CW OPFOR. These include improved knowledge about cyberwarfare attack and defense, improved techniques for assembling CGFs, improved techniques for capturing and expressing knowledge, software technologies that permit effective rapid prototyping to be effectively used on large projects, and the capability for effective hybrid reasoning systems. Our development approach for the CW OPFOR lays out several phases in order to address these requirements in an orderly manner and to enable us to test the capabilities of the CW OPFOR and exploit them as they are developed. We have completed the first phase of the research project, which

  10. Cyber attack analysis on cyber-physical systems: Detectability, severity, and attenuation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Cheolhyeon

    Security of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) against malicious cyber attacks is an important yet challenging problem. Since most cyber attacks happen in erratic ways, it is usually intractable to describe and diagnose them systematically. Motivated by such difficulties, this thesis presents a set of theories and algorithms for a cyber-secure architecture of the CPS within the control theoretic perspective. Here, instead of identifying a specific cyber attack model, we are focused on analyzing the system's response during cyber attacks. Firstly, we investigate the detectability of the cyber attacks from the system's behavior under cyber attacks. Specifically, we conduct a study on the vulnerabilities in the CPS's monitoring system against the stealthy cyber attack that is carefully designed to avoid being detected by its detection scheme. After classifying three kinds of cyber attacks according to the attacker's ability to compromise the system, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions under which such stealthy cyber attacks can be designed to cause the unbounded estimation error while not being detected. Then, the analytical design method of the optimal stealthy cyber attack that maximizes the estimation error is developed. The proposed stealthy cyber attack analysis is demonstrated with illustrative examples on Air Traffic Control (ATC) system and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation system applications. Secondly, in an attempt to study the CPSs' vulnerabilities in more detail, we further discuss a methodology to identify potential cyber threats inherent in the given CPSs and quantify the attack severity accordingly. We then develop an analytical algorithm to test the behavior of the CPS under various cyber attack combinations. Compared to a numerical approach, the analytical algorithm enables the prediction of the most effective cyber attack combinations without computing the severity of all possible attack combinations, thereby greatly reducing the

  11. 19th ICCRTS Cyber Operations Model for Multi-Domain Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-24

    kinetic or cyber domains, a security compromise in the DoD supply - chain with cyber-bombs in critical systems, and cyber-espionage of Defense Industrial...Gates. Amancio Ortega of Spanish retailer Zara moved up to No. 3 for the first time.[2] The United States can no longer assume an undisputed

  12. Cyber Security at the District Level: Are You Ready to Prevent Unlawful, Unauthorized or Simply Misguided Use of Your Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafee, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In an era of digital technologies, school districts find themselves on a cutting edge, one that slices both ways. Technological tools like the Internet, e-mail, networked computers and such have revolutionized the way children are taught and schools are run, but they also have created new management challenges and ethical issues that many school…

  13. National Security Report: Background and Perspective on Important National Security and Defense Policy Issues. Volume 2, Issue 5, November 1998. U.S. Policy Towards Iraq: Conceding Defect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    Issue 5 Chairman, House National Security Committee November 1998 From the Chairman... US. Policy Towards Iraq. (omng on the Conceding Defeat? Cheelsof...mass de- aircraft operating from bases in Saudi very much in doubt. Depite the struction. Arabia, Kuwait, and Turkey, were estab- devastation it...ships, and over 200 strike aircraft to the Iraq’s disarmament in the chemical, Persian Gulf region, redeploying aircraft biological, and ballistic

  14. Safety and security issues in developing and operating in intelligent transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this panel is to introduce the safety and security issues related to the development and operation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to Compass participants. Many of these issues need to be addressed by the system safety and computer security communities prior to the development and deployment of ITS. For example, how can information technology be applied in the context of a fully automated highway system (AHS) such that the safety, security, and performance of the system are not compromised? At present, the US and other countries are funding academia and industry to build prototype automated highway systems in which vehicles are controlled via drive-by-wire technology, with vehicles traveling at high speeds (in excess of 30 m/s) at close spacing (1 to 4 m). The potential impact of software errors or hardware errors on system safety and security are great.

  15. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  16. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    tools of IW can— in fact, should—be brought to bear before the onset of military operations in order to achieve the state’s objectives without having to...Shaheen Gori, “Brandishing the Cybered Bear .” 39 Russia is believed to have conducted low-level information warfare against Ukraine since at least 2009...Unwala and Shaheen Gori, “Brandishing the Cybered Bear : Information War and the Russian-Ukraine Conflict,” Military Cyber Affairs: Volume 1, Issue 1

  17. Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    s c h o o l o f S Y S T E M S a n d L O G I S T I C S education service research Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare Maj...DATE MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare 5a...AFIT Cyber 200/300 Courses Cyber Warfare IDE Program 34 Special Emphasis On… Enterprise Integration (Active Directory, PKI) Security

  18. What good cyber resilience looks like.

    PubMed

    Hult, Fredrik; Sivanesan, Giri

    In January 2012, the World Economic Forum made cyber attacks its fourth top global risk. In the 2013 risk report, cyber attacks were noted to be an even higher risk in absolute terms. The reliance of critical infrastructure on cyber working has never been higher; the frequency, intensity, impact and sophistication of attacks is growing. This trend looks likely to continue. It can be argued that it is no longer a question whether an organisation will be successfully hacked, but how long it will take to detect. In the ever-changing cyber environment, traditional protection techniques and reliance on preventive controls are not enough. A more agile approach is required to give assurance of a sufficiently secure digital society. Are we faced with a paradigm shift or a storm in a digital teacup? This paper offers an introduction to why cyber is important, a wider taxonomy on the topic and some historical context on how the discipline of cyber security has evolved, and an interpretation on what this means in the new normal of today.

  19. National Security Report: Background and Perspective on Important National Security and Defense Policy Issues. Volume 2, Issue 2, April 1998. Sales or Security? Supercomputers and Export Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    2 Chairman, House National Security Committee April 1998 Fromthe Chairman- Sales or Security? Supercomputers and Export Controls ilk)9o oil V e... military purposes, in Rus- fltJ Administatiii’ý’iclaxation of ers were inappropriately shipped without sia, China, and other countries ofprolifera- erc i...exuit controls. Under the required export licenses to military -re- tion concern. This shifted the burden of ~t i laxedpolicy the Administation did

  20. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  1. Let Slip the Dogs of (CYBER) War: Progressing Towards a Warfighting U.S. Cyber Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    requirements, nor a headquarters building (it is currently housed within NSA facilities on Fort George G. Meade , MD).22 In addition, the DOD cyber...Information Conflict: National Security Law in Cyberspace (Falls Church, VA: Aegis Research Corporation, 2000); Herbert Lin, “Offensive Cyber Operations...this legislation was pocket-vetoed by then President George H.W. Bush due to a lack of consistency between the stated intent of the oversight

  2. The U.S. Needs International Cyber Treaties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    formed to deal with issues surrounding cyber warfare . However, no major treaties between nations exist regarding this form of combat. Examining...the history of cyber warfare , the inadequate international response, the obstacles to international agreement, and poor U.S. readiness demonstrates...the current need for the U.S. to lead the effort to codify treaties. First, a brief history of cyber warfare helps to shed light on the international

  3. Education Issues Raised by S.744: The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…

  4. The Treatment of Peace and Security Issues in Social Studies Textbooks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.

    This examination of the treatment given to peace and security issues in American social studies textbooks begins by summarizing the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Curriculum Guidelines and a 1983 study of high school social studies topic priorities. Following a review of past textbook studies and a brief discussion of textbook…

  5. 12 CFR 559.12 - How may a subsidiary of a savings association issue securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true How may a subsidiary of a savings association issue securities? 559.12 Section 559.12 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUBORDINATE ORGANIZATIONS Regulations Applicable to All Savings Associations § 559.12...

  6. 12 CFR 159.12 - How may a subsidiary of a Federal savings association issue securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How may a subsidiary of a Federal savings association issue securities? 159.12 Section 159.12 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUBORDINATE ORGANIZATIONS § 159.12 How may a subsidiary of a Federal...

  7. Food Security (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 14-09, September 2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    The mission of that Agency is to ensure compliance with policies and procedures designed to ensure the area is not overfished .34 Although... overfishing remains an issue, the attention and resources committed to this initiative demonstrate the increasing level of EU commitment to food security

  8. 13 CFR 107.1505 - Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing Participating Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1505 Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing... the terms of your Leverage under § 107.1820(e). (a) Definition of Liquidity Impairment. A condition...

  9. 13 CFR 107.1505 - Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing Participating Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1505 Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing... the terms of your Leverage under § 107.1820(e). (a) Definition of Liquidity Impairment. A condition...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1505 - Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing Participating Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1505 Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing... the terms of your Leverage under § 107.1820(e). (a) Definition of Liquidity Impairment. A condition...

  11. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part VI--Investments in Securities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The sixth in a series of theory-based essays, this article presents accounting for investments in debt and equity securities along with some related conceptual and measurement issues. Additional coverage is devoted to potential ethical dilemmas and both theoretical and empirical literature related to this asset. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  12. 77 FR 15319 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a... proposed regulations ] (REG-130777-11), providing guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury...

  13. CYBER-205 Devectorizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakeotes, Christopher D.

    1990-01-01

    DEVECT (CYBER-205 Devectorizer) is CYBER-205 FORTRAN source-language-preprocessor computer program reducing vector statements to standard FORTRAN. In addition, DEVECT has many other standard and optional features simplifying conversion of vector-processor programs for CYBER 200 to other computers. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  14. Integrated Cyber Defenses: Towards Cyber Defense Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    addition, many nation states have begun to invest in developing real cyber warfare capabilities. Therefore, it is critical to U.S. military operations...challenge in the development of effective doctrine with respect to cyber warfare is that we have little real historical experience of conducting it. However

  15. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-12-19

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a month’s worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin® for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a month’s worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

  16. A Case Study on the Development and Implementation of Cyber Capabilities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Marquetta

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of U.S. cyber-capabilities can have a serious effect on the cyber-security stance of the US and significantly impact how well U.S. critical infrastructures are protected. The problem is that the state of the U.S. cyber-security could be negatively impacted by the dependency that the US displays in its use of defensive…

  17. Approaches for scalable modeling and emulation of cyber systems : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Minnich, Ronald G.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Rudish, Don W.

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this research was to combine theoretical and computational approaches to better understand the potential emergent behaviors of large-scale cyber systems, such as networks of {approx} 10{sup 6} computers. The scale and sophistication of modern computer software, hardware, and deployed networked systems have significantly exceeded the computational research community's ability to understand, model, and predict current and future behaviors. This predictive understanding, however, is critical to the development of new approaches for proactively designing new systems or enhancing existing systems with robustness to current and future cyber threats, including distributed malware such as botnets. We have developed preliminary theoretical and modeling capabilities that can ultimately answer questions such as: How would we reboot the Internet if it were taken down? Can we change network protocols to make them more secure without disrupting existing Internet connectivity and traffic flow? We have begun to address these issues by developing new capabilities for understanding and modeling Internet systems at scale. Specifically, we have addressed the need for scalable network simulation by carrying out emulations of a network with {approx} 10{sup 6} virtualized operating system instances on a high-performance computing cluster - a 'virtual Internet'. We have also explored mappings between previously studied emergent behaviors of complex systems and their potential cyber counterparts. Our results provide foundational capabilities for further research toward understanding the effects of complexity in cyber systems, to allow anticipating and thwarting hackers.

  18. 12 CFR 223.23 - What valuation and timing principles apply to purchases of and investments in securities issued...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....23 What valuation and timing principles apply to purchases of and investments in securities issued by... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What valuation and timing principles apply to purchases of and investments in securities issued by an affiliate? 223.23 Section 223.23 Banks and...

  19. 19 CFR 0.2 - All other CBP regulations issued under the authority of the Department of Homeland Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false All other CBP regulations issued under the authority of the Department of Homeland Security. 0.2 Section 0.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSFERRED OR DELEGATED AUTHORITY § 0.2 All other CBP regulations issued...

  20. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  1. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Economic Analysis of Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    calculated and require a good deal of guesswork ( Lemos , 2002). 2.2.3 Mi2g The British firm Mi2g has published numerous economic impact estimates...policy, has fallen out of favor. Users who are forced to periodically change their password are more likely to write it down or reuse a password used...Post. Lemos , Robert. January 21, 2002. “Data on Internet Threats Still Out Cold.” Available at <http://news.com.com/Data+on+Internet+threats+still

  3. Hardware Acceleration for Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    adapters from Napatech [23]. Platforms provided by research comunity are COMBO cards [4] from CESNET and NetFPGA [24] cards from Stanford. Endace and...allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an audio stream. The lower cost and greater flexibility helped to increase number of

  4. Cyber Crime Protection Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2012-02-15

    02/16/2012 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 324. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. An Analysis of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grid Software Architectures on Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Kumbhare, Alok; Cao, Baohua; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2011-07-09

    Power utilities globally are increasingly upgrading to Smart Grids that use bi-directional communication with the consumer to enable an information-driven approach to distributed energy management. Clouds offer features well suited for Smart Grid software platforms and applications, such as elastic resources and shared services. However, the security and privacy concerns inherent in an information rich Smart Grid environment are further exacerbated by their deployment on Clouds. Here, we present an analysis of security and privacy issues in a Smart Grids software architecture operating on different Cloud environments, in the form of a taxonomy. We use the Los Angeles Smart Grid Project that is underway in the largest U.S. municipal utility to drive this analysis that will benefit both Cloud practitioners targeting Smart Grid applications, and Cloud researchers investigating security and privacy.

  6. Application of the API/NPRA SVA methodology to transportation security issues.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A

    2006-03-17

    Security vulnerability analysis (SVA) is becoming more prevalent as the issue of chemical process security is of greater concern. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the National Petrochemical and Refiner's Association (NPRA) have developed a guideline for conducting SVAs of petroleum and petrochemical facilities in May 2003. In 2004, the same organizations enhanced the guidelines by adding the ability to evaluate transportation security risks (pipeline, truck, and rail). The importance of including transportation and value chain security in addition to fixed facility security in a SVA is that these issues may be critically important to understanding the total risk of the operation. Most of the SVAs done using the API/NPRA SVA and other SVA methods were centered on the fixed facility and the operations within the plant fence. Transportation interfaces alone are normally studied as a part of the facility SVA, and the entire transportation route impacts and value chain disruption are not commonly considered. Particularly from a national, regional, or local infrastructure analysis standpoint, understanding the interdependencies is critical to the risk assessment. Transportation risks may include weaponization of the asset by direct attack en route, sabotage, or a Trojan Horse style attack into a facility. The risks differ in the level of access control and the degree of public exposures, as well as the dynamic nature of the assets. The public exposures along the transportation route need to be carefully considered. Risks may be mitigated by one of many strategies including internment, staging, prioritization, conscription, or prohibition, as well as by administrative security measures and technology for monitoring and isolating the assets. This paper illustrates how these risks can be analyzed by the API/NPRA SVA methodology. Examples are given of a pipeline operation, and other examples are found in the guidelines.

  7. Implantable electronics: emerging design issues and an ultra light-weight security solution.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Wang, Xinmu; Bhunia, Swarup

    2010-01-01

    Implantable systems that monitor biological signals require increasingly complex digital signal processing (DSP) electronics for real-time in-situ analysis and compression of the recorded signals. While it is well-known that such signal processing hardware needs to be implemented under tight area and power constraints, new design requirements emerge with their increasing complexity. Use of nanoscale technology shows tremendous benefits in implementing these advanced circuits due to dramatic improvement in integration density and power dissipation per operation. However, it also brings in new challenges such as reliability and large idle power (due to higher leakage current). Besides, programmability of the device as well as security of the recorded information are rapidly becoming major design considerations of such systems. In this paper, we analyze the emerging issues associated with the design of the DSP unit in an implantable system. Next, we propose a novel ultra light-weight solution to address the information security issue. Unlike the conventional information security approaches like data encryption, which come at large area and power overhead and hence are not amenable for resource-constrained implantable systems, we propose a multilevel key-based scrambling algorithm, which exploits the nature of the biological signal to effectively obfuscate it. Analysis of the proposed algorithm in the context of neural signal processing and its hardware implementation shows that we can achieve high level of security with ∼ 13X lower power and ∼ 5X lower area overhead than conventional cryptographic solutions.

  8. Security Issues in Cross-Organizational Peer-to-Peer Applications and Some Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ankur; Awasthi, Lalit K.

    Peer-to-Peer networks have been widely used for sharing millions of terabytes of content, for large-scale distributed computing and for a variety of other novel applications, due to their scalability and fault-tolerance. However, the scope of P2P networks has somehow been limited to individual computers connected to the internet. P2P networks are also notorious for blatant copyright violations and facilitating several kinds of security attacks. Businesses and large organizations have thus stayed away from deploying P2P applications citing security loopholes in P2P systems as the biggest reason for non-adoption. In theory P2P applications can help fulfill many organizational requirements such as collaboration and joint projects with other organizations, access to specialized computing infrastructure and finally accessing the specialized information/content and expert human knowledge available at other organizations. These potentially beneficial interactions necessitate that the research community attempt to alleviate the security shortcomings in P2P systems and ensure their acceptance and wide deployment. This research paper therefore examines the security issues prevalent in enabling cross-organizational P2P interactions and provides some technical insights into how some of these issues can be resolved.

  9. The Human Side of Cyber Conflict: Organizing, Training, and Equipping the Air Force Cyber Workforce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    toward cyber operations but also a grasp of legal , policy, and ethical issues related to cyber operations and national se- curity. However, this cadre is...competitions provide legal outlets for students with creative computer skills. From these competitions and through its sponsorship of and advertising at these...flexibility to reliably move Airmen as needed, we recommend that the Air Force explore the legalities of including noncompete clauses to restrict

  10. Exploring security and privacy issues in hospital information system: an Information Boundary Theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Stanton, Jeffrey; Stam, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    A small community hospital (67 beds) in Central New York was undergoing a major technological change within the organization, as they move from the use of several legacy information systems to a hospital-wide information system. The focus of the present research is to explore the privacy and security information issues using a framework called Information Boundary Theory [Stanton, 2002]. IBT explains the motivational factors that lead to the revelation or disclosing of information.

  11. FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) issues new accounting rules for debt and equity securities.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, A; Bayou, M E

    1994-10-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued a new statement that requires all companies to change their methods of accounting for debt and equity securities. Rather than allowing organizations to use a historical cost approach in accounting for such financial instruments, FASB Statement No. 115 requires organizations to adopt a market value approach. The provisions of this statement will affect significantly organizations in the healthcare industry that have large investment portfolios.

  12. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    9 U.S. Department of State, Remarks: John Kerry, Secretary of State, U.S. Embassy Kyiv, March 4, 2014; Background Briefing: Senior Administration...and Secretary of State John Kerry and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov met on the sidelines of the NATO-Russia Council meeting in Brussels on... Stuart D. Goldman. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests Congressional Research Service 54 he did not anticipate a

  13. Multinational Experiment 7. Outcome 3 - Cyber Domain. Objective 3.3: Concept Framework Version 3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-03

    document contains color images . 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17...on its actions to prevent cyber attacks in general. Cyber attacks are extremely difficult for States to detect prior to the commission of a specific...identifying three main cyber crime categories: i) traditional forms of crime such as fraud and forgery , although in a cyber context; ii) the publication of

  14. Rise of a Cybered Westphalian Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    comparative security, cyberspace, organizations, and large- scale systems surprise and three books: Military Organizations, Complex Machines; Designing...large industrial control systems . Its name was Stuxnet. As a malicious piece of software, it came as a sur- prise despite having floated around a year...of protections and Windows operating systems , the sophisticated Stuxnet authors demon- strated a new level of threat to cyber security. Despite early

  15. Toward a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    2010-04-01

    Cyberspace is an indispensable part of the economy and society, but has been "polluted" with many compromised computers that can be abused to launch further attacks against the others. Since it is likely that there always are compromised computers, it is important to be aware of the (dynamic) cyber security-related situation, which is however challenging because cyberspace is an extremely large-scale complex system. Our project aims to investigate a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing. With the perspective of treating cyberspace as a large-scale complex system, the core question we aim to address is: What would be a competent theoretical (mathematical and algorithmic) framework for designing, analyzing, deploying, managing, and adapting cyber sensor systems so as to provide trustworthy information or input to the higher layer of cyber situation-awareness management, even in the presence of sophisticated malicious attacks against the cyber sensor systems?

  16. Gaining Cyber Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Gaining Cyber Dominance Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University NETCOM G3/5/7 TREX January 2015...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gaining Cyber Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...2014) 4 GCD Overview January 2015 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University FY15 Initiatives Gaining Cyber Dominance Program • Army topology development

  17. 12 CFR 1.130 - Type II securities; guidelines for obligations issued for university and housing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Type II securities; guidelines for obligations issued for university and housing purposes. 1.130 Section 1.130 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE... “teaching hospital”). (c) Obligation issued for housing purposes. An obligation issued for housing...

  18. 12 CFR 1.130 - Type II securities; guidelines for obligations issued for university and housing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Type II securities; guidelines for obligations issued for university and housing purposes. 1.130 Section 1.130 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE... “teaching hospital”). (c) Obligation issued for housing purposes. An obligation issued for housing...

  19. An analytic approach to cyber adversarial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Cybenko, George

    2012-06-01

    To date, cyber security investment by both the government and commercial sectors has been largely driven by the myopic best response of players to the actions of their adversaries and their perception of the adversarial environment. However, current work in applying traditional game theory to cyber operations typically assumes that games exist with prescribed moves, strategies, and payos. This paper presents an analytic approach to characterizing the more realistic cyber adversarial metagame that we believe is being played. Examples show that understanding the dynamic metagame provides opportunities to exploit an adversary's anticipated attack strategy. A dynamic version of a graph-based attack-defend game is introduced, and a simulation shows how an optimal strategy can be selected for success in the dynamic environment.

  20. Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Namoğlu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects.

  1. Co-Simulation Platform For Characterizing Cyber Attacks in Cyber Physical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sadi, Mohammad A. H.; Ali, Mohammad Hassan; Dasgupta, Dipankar; Abercrombie, Robert K; Kher, Shubhalaxmi

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid is a complex cyber physical system containing a numerous and variety of sources, devices, controllers and loads. Communication/Information infrastructure is the backbone of the smart grid system where different grid components are connected with each other through this structure. Therefore, the drawbacks of the information technology related issues are also becoming a part of the smart grid. Further, smart grid is also vulnerable to the grid related disturbances. For such a dynamic system, disturbance and intrusion detection is a paramount issue. This paper presents a Simulink and OPNET based co-simulated test bed to carry out a cyber-intrusion in a cyber-network for modern power systems and smart grid. The effect of the cyber intrusion on the physical power system is also presented. The IEEE 30 bus power system model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the simulated testbed. The experiments were performed by disturbing the circuit breakers reclosing time through a cyber-attack in the cyber network. Different disturbance situations in the proposed test system are considered and the results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed co-simulated scheme.

  2. Peace and security in Northeast Asia: The nuclear issue and the Korean Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Kihl, Y.W.; Hayes, P.; Scalapino, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Korean security was the focus of world-wide attention and concern in 1993--95 with North Korea's 'suspected' nuclear weapons program. Dubbed by some as the first post-Cold War nuclear crisis, it was triggered by the United Nations Security Council's move to impose economic sanctions on North Korea. Although the immediate crisis was defused diplomatically, the nuclear time bomb continues to tick on the Korean peninsula, and the issues remain under close international surveillance. This important book examines North Korea's nuclear controversy from a variety of perspectives, including nuclear reactor technology and technology transfer, economic sanctions and incentives, strategic calculus and confidence-building measures, the major powers, and environmental challenges that a nuclear-free zone in Korea will present.

  3. Impact modeling and prediction of attacks on cyber targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Aram; Michalk, Brian; Alford, Lee; Henney, Chris; Gilbert, Logan

    2010-04-01

    In most organizations, IT (information technology) infrastructure exists to support the organization's mission. The threat of cyber attacks poses risks to this mission. Current network security research focuses on the threat of cyber attacks to the organization's IT infrastructure; however, the risks to the overall mission are rarely analyzed or formalized. This connection of IT infrastructure to the organization's mission is often neglected or carried out ad-hoc. Our work bridges this gap and introduces analyses and formalisms to help organizations understand the mission risks they face from cyber attacks. Modeling an organization's mission vulnerability to cyber attacks requires a description of the IT infrastructure (network model), the organization mission (business model), and how the mission relies on IT resources (correlation model). With this information, proper analysis can show which cyber resources are of tactical importance in a cyber attack, i.e., controlling them enables a large range of cyber attacks. Such analysis also reveals which IT resources contribute most to the organization's mission, i.e., lack of control over them gravely affects the mission. These results can then be used to formulate IT security strategies and explore their trade-offs, which leads to better incident response. This paper presents our methodology for encoding IT infrastructure, organization mission and correlations, our analysis framework, as well as initial experimental results and conclusions.

  4. 17 CFR 270.23c-2 - Call and redemption of securities issued by registered closed-end companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Call and redemption of... 1940 § 270.23c-2 Call and redemption of securities issued by registered closed-end companies. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of § 270.23c-1 (Rule N-23c-1), a registered closed-end investment company may...

  5. Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-15

    terrorists are able to communicate in a secure environment. Using steganography , they hide instructions, plans and pictures for their attacks in...local prayer leaders, audio -video cassettes and CDs promoting their cause; terrorist groups also use their own websites to recruit new members. This...spyware as well because it invariably includes components for tracking and reporting user information. steganography : The process of hiding

  6. A cognitive and economic decision theory for examining cyber defense strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Cyber attacks pose a major threat to modern organizations. Little is known about the social aspects of decision making among organizations that face cyber threats, nor do we have empirically-grounded models of the dynamics of cooperative behavior among vulnerable organizations. The effectiveness of cyber defense can likely be enhanced if information and resources are shared among organizations that face similar threats. Three models were created to begin to understand the cognitive and social aspects of cyber cooperation. The first simulated a cooperative cyber security program between two organizations. The second focused on a cyber security training program in which participants interact (and potentially cooperate) to solve problems. The third built upon the first two models and simulates cooperation between organizations in an information-sharing program.

  7. Risk in the Clouds?: Security Issues Facing Government Use of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyld, David C.

    Cloud computing is poised to become one of the most important and fundamental shifts in how computing is consumed and used. Forecasts show that government will play a lead role in adopting cloud computing - for data storage, applications, and processing power, as IT executives seek to maximize their returns on limited procurement budgets in these challenging economic times. After an overview of the cloud computing concept, this article explores the security issues facing public sector use of cloud computing and looks to the risk and benefits of shifting to cloud-based models. It concludes with an analysis of the challenges that lie ahead for government use of cloud resources.

  8. Securities and Exchange Commission Rule 151A and Annuities: Issues and Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    several States of the business of insurance is in the public interest….” (15 U.S.C. § 1011). 8 See CRS Report RL33235, Banking and Securities Regulation...Exchange Commission Rule 151A and Annuities: Issues and Legislation Congressional Research Service 7 for sale, information about the management of...annuities ( FIAs ),25 and (2) the SEC did not fulfill its statutory duty under Section 2(b) of the 1933 Act26 to consider the effect of the rule upon

  9. Active Learning with the CyberCIEGE Video Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    also includes a dozen animated tutorial videos that cover security topics such as malicious software, assurance and PKI. The CyberCIEGE...example, a traditional computer vulnerability ( hacking ) lab can show students how to use a Trojan horse to get around ACLs. CyberCIEGE brings added...are included within lab manuals and instructor notes. The simulation of PKI and VPN mechanisms has been described previously [7]. 5.1 Tutorial

  10. Modeling the Effects of Cyber Operations on Kinetic Battles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    arrows , and the flow in dt is represented near arrows . 33 In the two-sided Cyber Epidemic Combat model, although attrition rates associated with...expression for worm -scanning strategies. International Journal of Security and Networks, 4(3), 135–144. Cigital. 2013. President Obama Acknowledges Cyber...R. Kooij. 2009. Virus spread in networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 17(1), 1‒14. Vojnovic, M., A. J. Ganesh. 2008. On the race of worms

  11. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  12. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  13. Homeland Security

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  14. One-Day Conference on School Safety & Security and Fair Dismissals Issues (Dayton, Ohio, June 24, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Association, Dayton, OH.

    This booklet contains five chapters relating to issues in school safety and security, and fair dismissals: (1) "Ohio Legislation and Federal and State Decisions" (Richard J. Dickinson). Items of deliberation include financial matters, school safety issues, administrator and teacher contract matters, Title IX liability, school prayer, drug testing…

  15. 12 CFR 1.130 - Type II securities; guidelines for obligations issued for university and housing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... security. Facilities financed in this manner may include student buildings, classrooms, university utility... issued for university and housing purposes. 1.130 Section 1.130 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE...; guidelines for obligations issued for university and housing purposes. (a) Investment quality. An...

  16. Cyber in the Cloud -- Lessons Learned from INL's Cloud E-Mail Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand; Daniel Jones

    2012-12-01

    As we look at the cyber security ecosystem, are we planning to fight the battle as we did yesterday, with firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS), or are we sensing a change in how security is evolving and planning accordingly? With the technology enablement and possible financial benefits of cloud computing, the traditional tools for establishing and maintaining our cyber security ecosystems are being dramatically altered.

  17. Timing of cyber conflict.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  18. Timing of cyber conflict

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-01

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran’s nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide. PMID:24474752

  19. Towards a Research Agenda for Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.

    2009-11-18

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, degradation of skills due to continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situation awareness, and lack of training and discipline in offensive/defense response selection. While these problems are typically addressed in R&D focusing on traditional ground-based combat, there is also an emerging need for improving situation awareness and decision making on defensive/offensive response options in the cyber defense arena, where a mistaken response to an actual or perceived cyber attack could lead to destruction or compromise of friendly cyber assets. The purpose of this report is to examine cognitive factors that may affect cyber situation awareness and describe possible research needs to reduce the likelihood and effects of "friendly cyber fire" on cyber defenses, information infrastructures, and data. The approach is to examine concepts and methods that have been described in research applied to the more traditional problem of mitigating the occurrence of combat identification and fratricide. Application domains of interest include cyber security defense against external or internal (insider) threats.

  20. Quantifying Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Saha, Sudip

    2015-04-15

    Representation and propagation of uncertainty in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect of security games. Past research has primarily focused on representing the defender’s beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and intervals. Within cyber-settings, continuous probability distributions may still be appropriate for addressing statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume that the attacker’s payoffs differ over time. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information about the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as probability boxes with intervals. In this study, we explore the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties.

  1. Cyber Threat Assessment of Uplink and Commanding System for Mission Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Tan, Kymie M. C.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner; Faris, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Most of today's Mission Operations Systems (MOS) rely on Ground Data System (GDS) segment to mitigate cyber security risks. Unfortunately, IT security design is done separately from the design of GDS' mission operational capabilities. This incoherent practice leaves many security vulnerabilities in the system without any notice. This paper describes a new way to system engineering MOS, to include cyber threat risk assessments throughout the MOS development cycle, without this, it is impossible to design a dependable and reliable MOS to meet today's rapid changing cyber threat environment.

  2. Constructing a Cyber Preparedness Framework (CPF): The Lockheed Martin Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    The protection of sensitive data and technologies is critical in preserving United States (U.S.) national security and minimizing economic losses. However, during a cyber attack, the operational capability to constrain the exfiltrations of sensitive data and technologies may not be available. A cyber preparedness methodology (CPM) can improve…

  3. Ensuring U.S. Air Force Operations During Cyber Attacks Against Combat Support Systems: Guidance for Where to Focus Mitigation Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    can be attacked by cyber means in various ways—on networks , hardware, and databases. Even though cyber defense responsibilities do not fall within the...23   vii Summary While combat support communities are not responsible for defending cyber networks , they are required to ensure...that many combat support systems do not reside on the most secure networks indicates potential vulnerabilities to cyber attack. Yet the sheer number of

  4. Cyber Ricochet: Risk Management and Cyberspace Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    might be tempted to isolate their networks from the internet to secure them from unauthorized intrusion. However, such physical barriers do not...Army intelligence officer who now serves as Research Director for the U.S. Cyber Consequences Unit, stated that ‘Flame’ was a “ giant vacuum cleaner...ricochet’ is the propensity for malware to spread unpredictably across the internet. There have been several reports of computer viruses that were

  5. CyberPetri at CDX 2016: Real-time Network Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, Dustin L.; Best, Daniel M.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Paul, Celeste

    2016-10-24

    CyberPetri is a novel visualization technique that provides a flexible map of the network based on available characteristics, such as IP address, operating system, or service. Previous work introduced CyberPetri as a visualization feature in Ocelot, a network defense tool that helped security analysts understand and respond to an active defense scenario. In this paper we present a case study in which we use the CyberPetri visualization technique to support real-time situation awareness during the 2016 Cyber Defense Exercise.

  6. CYBER 200 Applications Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, J. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Applications suited for the CYBER 200 digital computer are discussed. Various areas of application including meteorology, algorithms, fluid dynamics, monte carlo methods, petroleum, electronic circuit simulation, biochemistry, lattice gauge theory, economics and ray tracing are discussed.

  7. A Systematic Comprehensive Computational Model for Stake Estimation in Mission Assurance: Applying Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Grimaila, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security breakdowns. In this paper, we discuss how this infrastructure can be used in the subject domain of mission assurance as defined as the full life-cycle engineering process to identify and mitigate design, production, test, and field support deficiencies of mission success. We address the opportunity to apply the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Carnegie Mellon University and Software Engineering Institute s Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP) in this context.

  8. Examining Cyber Command Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    its mission in its newest warlare domain , cyberspace, some have questioned its choices with regard to command and control of its cyber forces. This...thesis examines historical cases of new warlare domains and how the Department of Defense structured the command and control elements of its forces...dedicated to the air and space domains . It explores the current cyber command and control construct, and looks at two others that would likely be

  9. Taxonomies of Cyber Adversaries and Attacks: A Survey of Incidents and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we construct taxonomies of cyber adversaries and methods of attack, drawing from a survey of the literature in the area of cyber crime. We begin by addressing the scope of cyber crime, noting its prevalence and effects on the US economy. We then survey the literature on cyber adversaries, presenting a taxonomy of the different types of adversaries and their corresponding methods, motivations, maliciousness, and skill levels. Subsequently we survey the literature on cyber attacks, giving a taxonomy of the different classes of attacks, subtypes, and threat descriptions. The goal of this paper is to inform future studies of cyber security on the shape and characteristics of the risk space and its associated adversaries.

  10. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  11. An Integrated Approach for Physical and Cyber Security Risk Assessment: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Common Risk Model for Dams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is a consistent, mathematically rigorous, and easy to implement method for security risk assessment of dams... mathematically justifiable. The model also enables comparisons of risks to critical assets, both within and across critical infrastructure sectors...effective defenses at the dam; that is, the vulnerability, or P(S|A), for every scenario equals 1.0. Mathematically , this means that RC equals the

  12. A joint FED watermarking system using spatial fusion for verifying the security issues of teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, P; Krishna, P Venkata

    2014-05-01

    Teleradiology allows transmission of medical images for clinical data interpretation to provide improved e-health care access, delivery, and standards. The remote transmission raises various ethical and legal issues like image retention, fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc. A joint FED watermarking system means a joint fingerprint/encryption/dual watermarking system is proposed for addressing these issues. The system combines a region based substitution dual watermarking algorithm using spatial fusion, stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key, and fingerprint verification algorithm using invariants. This paper aims to give access to the outcomes of medical images with confidentiality, availability, integrity, and its origin. The watermarking, encryption, and fingerprint enrollment are conducted jointly in protection stage such that the extraction, decryption, and verification can be applied independently. The dual watermarking system, introducing two different embedding schemes, one used for patient data and other for fingerprint features, reduces the difficulty in maintenance of multiple documents like authentication data, personnel and diagnosis data, and medical images. The spatial fusion algorithm, which determines the region of embedding using threshold from the image to embed the encrypted patient data, follows the exact rules of fusion resulting in better quality than other fusion techniques. The four step stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key for encrypting the patient data with fingerprint verification system using algebraic invariants improves the robustness of the medical information. The experiment result of proposed scheme is evaluated for security and quality analysis in DICOM medical images resulted well in terms of attacks, quality index, and imperceptibility.

  13. Security for the digital information age of medicine: issues, applications, and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Michael A.; Pasieka, Michael S.; Lord, William P.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Mankovich, Nicholas J.

    1997-05-01

    Privacy and integrity of medical records is expected by patients. This privacy and integrity is often mandated by regulations. Traditionally, the security of medical records has been based on physical lock and key. As the storage of patient record information shifts from paper to digital, new security concerns arise. Digital cryptographic methods provide solutions to many of these new concerns. In this paper we overview new security concerns, new legislation mandating secure medical records and solutions providing security.

  14. Establishing a Cyber Warrior Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Cyber Warfare is widely touted to be the next generation of warfare. As America’s reliance on automated systems and information technology increases...so too does the potential vulnerability to cyber attack. Nation and non-nation states are developing the capability to wage cyber warfare . Historically

  15. 17 CFR 239.23 - Form N-14, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... registration of securities issued in business combination transactions by investment companies and business... companies and business development companies. This form shall be used by a registered investment company or a business development company as defined by section 2(a)(48) of the Investment Company Act of...

  16. The 1983 Amendments to the Social Security Act: The Issue of Intergenerational Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the conditions that prevailed before the passage of the 1983 amendments to the Social Security Act, the probable effects of the amendments, and the future direction of social security. Questions whether the amendments have in reality rescued social security from financial insolvency and discusses the concept of intergenerational equity.…

  17. A Dynamic Three-Dimensional Network Visualization Program for Integration into CyberCIEGE and Other Network Visualization Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    analyzers and intrusion detection systems can provide this additional information . In particular, game-based trainers, such as CyberCIEGE, have been...protocol analyzers and intrusion detection systems can provide this additional information . In particular, game-based trainers, such as CyberCIEGE...assurance training tool CyberCIEGE. This is a computer game-based trainer developed by collaboration between The Center for Information Systems Security

  18. [Security Management in Clinical Laboratory Departments and Facilities: Current Status and Issues].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Haku; Nakamura, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaru; Inoue, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding the current activities for protecting patients' privacy and the security of information systems (IS) related to the clinical laboratory departments of university hospitals, certified training facilities for clinical laboratories, and general hospitals in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The response rate was 47% from 215 medical institutions, including three commercial clinical laboratory centers. The results showed that there were some differences in management activities among facilities with respect to continuing education, the documentation or regulation of operational management for paper records, electronic information, remaining samples, genetic testing, and laboratory information for secondary use. They were suggested to be caused by differences in functions between university and general hospitals, differences in the scale of hospitals, or whether or not hospitals have received accreditation or ISO 15189. Regarding the IS, although the majority of facilities had sufficiently employed the access control to IS, there was some room for improvement in the management of special cases such as VIPs and patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, there were issues regarding the login method for computers shared by multiple staff, the showing of the names of personnel in charge of reports, and the risks associated with direct connections to systems and the Internet and the use of portable media such as USB memory sticks. These results indicated that further efforts are necessary for each facility to continue self-assessment and make improvements.

  19. Security and privacy issues in wireless sensor networks for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Liu, Jingwei; Kwak, Kyungsup

    2012-02-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in healthcare applications is growing in a fast pace. Numerous applications such as heart rate monitor, blood pressure monitor and endoscopic capsule are already in use. To address the growing use of sensor technology in this area, a new field known as wireless body area networks (WBAN or simply BAN) has emerged. As most devices and their applications are wireless in nature, security and privacy concerns are among major areas of concern. Due to direct involvement of humans also increases the sensitivity. Whether the data gathered from patients or individuals are obtained with the consent of the person or without it due to the need by the system, misuse or privacy concerns may restrict people from taking advantage of the full benefits from the system. People may not see these devices safe for daily use. There may also possibility of serious social unrest due to the fear that such devices may be used for monitoring and tracking individuals by government agencies or other private organizations. In this paper we discuss these issues and analyze in detail the problems and their possible measures.

  20. Wireless Network Security Vulnerabilities and Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad

    The dilemma of cyber communications insecurity has existed all the times since the beginning of the network communications. The problems and concerns of unauthorized access and hacking has existed form the time of introduction of world wide web communication and Internet's expansion for popular use in 1990s, and has remained till present time as one of the most important issues. The wireless network security is no exception. Serious and continuous efforts of investigation, research and development has been going on for the last several decades to achieve the goal of provision of 100 percent or full proof security for all the protocols of networking architectures including the wireless networking. Some very reliable and robust strategies have been developed and deployed which has made network communications more and more secure. However, the most desired goal of complete security has yet to see the light of the day. The latest Cyber War scenario, reported in the media of intrusion and hacking of each other's defense and secret agencies between the two super powers USA and China has further aggravated the situation. This sort of intrusion by hackers between other countries such as India and Pakistan, Israel and Middle East countries has also been going on and reported in the media frequently. The paper reviews and critically examines the strategies already in place, for wired network. Wireless Network Security and also suggests some directions and strategies for more robust aspects to be researched and deployed.

  1. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  2. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  3. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, Posy; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Blacklock, Claire; Hayward, Gail; Willcox, Merlin; Peersman, Wim; Moosa, Shabir; Mant, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration – it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Results Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses) felt they had become ‘de-skilled’. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS) compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Conclusions Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major concerns over security

  4. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  5. Designing Incentives for Marine Corps Cyber Workforce Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    to explore these challenges. Key fmdings show the importance of tailoring retention policies across three areas: monetary rewards (money and...retention policies across three areas: monetary rewards (money and benefits), non- monetary rewards (duty station preference, geographic stability...aviators. Qualified personnel matter in highly technical fields such as aviation and cyber security (DOD 2014). When bonuses or other types of monetary

  6. Breaking Bad: Reforming Cyber Acquisition via Innovative Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) leveraged crowdsourcing to fuse the computing powers of millions of citizens across the globe for the...Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution PPP Public-Private Partnerships SETI Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence USAF United States...and we will grow our investment in crucial capabilities like cyber; space; and intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance.”1 National Security

  7. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  8. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  9. Lemnos Interoperable Security Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, John; Halbgewachs, Ron; Chavez, Adrian; Smith, Rhett; Teumim, David

    2012-01-31

    The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or tunnels , to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock

  10. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  11. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  12. 77 FR 20536 - Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps Issued by Certain Clearing Agencies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... of the Federal Reserve System, shall jointly further define the terms ``swap,'' ``security-based swap... and buyer to seller, creating two new contracts.'' Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 in Connection With Request of Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. and...

  13. Self-Development for Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-10

    Aggressive self-development is a critical task for the cyber warfare professional. No matter the quality, formal training and education programs age...Books and Science Fiction); Technology and Cyber-Related Magazines and Blogs; Specific Cyber Warfare Journal and Magazine Articles; Key Documents on...the strengths and weaknesses of the major donor career fields to the cyber workforce, and a Self-Assessment of Cyber Domain Expertise for readers who wish to assess their own cyber warfare expertise.

  14. Defining the Role and Responsibility of the Fire Service Within Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    also be made to improve our resilience to a wide range of emergencies, including the possibility of terrorist attack and the results of climate change ...and civil society institutions. Some of these issues have high global public profiles, such as climate change , cyber security, preparing for pandemics...This affords the manager the capacity to plan for alternative operating environments and to react to change is enhanced (Fahey & Randall, 1998

  15. Survey on Security Issues in File Management in Cloud Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Udit

    2015-06-01

    Cloud computing has pervaded through every aspect of Information technology in past decade. It has become easier to process plethora of data, generated by various devices in real time, with the advent of cloud networks. The privacy of users data is maintained by data centers around the world and hence it has become feasible to operate on that data from lightweight portable devices. But with ease of processing comes the security aspect of the data. One such security aspect is secure file transfer either internally within cloud or externally from one cloud network to another. File management is central to cloud computing and it is paramount to address the security concerns which arise out of it. This survey paper aims to elucidate the various protocols which can be used for secure file transfer and analyze the ramifications of using each protocol.

  16. Security and privacy issues in implantable medical devices: A comprehensive survey.

    PubMed

    Camara, Carmen; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2015-06-01

    Bioengineering is a field in expansion. New technologies are appearing to provide a more efficient treatment of diseases or human deficiencies. Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) constitute one example, these being devices with more computing, decision making and communication capabilities. Several research works in the computer security field have identified serious security and privacy risks in IMDs that could compromise the implant and even the health of the patient who carries it. This article surveys the main security goals for the next generation of IMDs and analyzes the most relevant protection mechanisms proposed so far. On the one hand, the security proposals must have into consideration the inherent constraints of these small and implanted devices: energy, storage and computing power. On the other hand, proposed solutions must achieve an adequate balance between the safety of the patient and the security level offered, with the battery lifetime being another critical parameter in the design phase.

  17. Autonomic Intelligent Cyber Sensor (AICS) Version 1.0.1

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    The Autonomic Intelligent Cyber Sensor (AICS) provides cyber security and industrial network state awareness for Ethernet based control network implementations. The AICS utilizes collaborative mechanisms based on Autonomic Research and a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to: 1) identify anomalous network traffic; 2) discover network entity information; 3) deploy deceptive virtual hosts; and 4) implement self-configuring modules. AICS achieves these goals by dynamically reacting to the industrial human-digital ecosystem in which it resides. Information is transported internally and externally on a standards based, flexible two-level communication structure.

  18. National Security Issues 1982 Symposium. Worldwide Deployment of Tactical Forces and the C3I Connection, 4-5 October 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED NATIONAL SECURITY ISSUES SYMPOSIUM, 1982 6. PERFORMING OG. REPORT NUMBER MITRE Document M82-64 7. AUTHOR(s) S...parea, side It necseaw mid Identify by Woek ,us,,bee) I The National Security Issues Symposium 1982, held October 4-5, was cosponsored by the Electronic...Commander of the reactivated 552nd Airborne Warning and Control Wing. Session 4: Policy Issues for the Future Chairman: Dr. Jack P. Ruina Senior Consultant

  19. Privacy and Security Issues Surrounding the Protection of Data Generated by Continuous Glucose Monitors.

    PubMed

    Britton, Katherine E; Britton-Colonnese, Jennifer D

    2017-03-01

    Being able to track, analyze, and use data from continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and through platforms and apps that communicate with CGMs helps achieve better outcomes and can advance the understanding of diabetes. The risks to patients' expectation of privacy are great, and their ability to control how their information is collected, stored, and used is virtually nonexistent. Patients' physical security is also at risk if adequate cybersecurity measures are not taken. Currently, data privacy and security protections are not robust enough to address the privacy and security risks and stymies the current and future benefits of CGM and the platforms and apps that communicate with them.

  20. Risk assessment for physical and cyber attacks on critical infrastructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Bryan J.; Sholander, Peter E.; Phelan, James M.; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2005-08-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies. Existing risk assessment methodologies consider physical security and cyber security separately. As such, they do not accurately model attacks that involve defeating both physical protection and cyber protection elements (e.g., hackers turning off alarm systems prior to forced entry). This paper presents a risk assessment methodology that accounts for both physical and cyber security. It also preserves the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay and respond, while accounting for the possibility that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the results of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology provides a means for ranking those assets most at risk from malevolent attacks. Because the methodology is automated the analyst can also play 'what if with mitigation measures to gain a better understanding of how to best expend resources towards securing the facilities. It is simple enough to be applied to large infrastructure facilities without developing highly complicated models. Finally, it is applicable to facilities with extensive security as well as those that are less well-protected.

  1. Seeking Balance in Cyber Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    14 CrossTalk—January/February 2015 SOFTWARE EDUCATION TODAY Commander Michael Bilzor, USN, PhD, U.S. Naval Academy Abstract. The future cyber...course. In the paragraphs that follow, we advocate for a balanced approach that maximizes educational value, in order to prepare those future cyber...warriors for the battles that lay ahead of them. Seeking Balance in Cyber Education Theory vs. Application • The Biba model, published in 1975, did

  2. Electronic Warfare for Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    This research paper provides complete course content for the AFIT EENG 509, Electronic Warfare class. It is intended as a replacement for the existing course and designed for Intermediate Developmental Education (IDE) students in the Cyber Warfare degree program. This course provides relevant academic courseware and study material to give cyber warriors an academic and operational perspective on electronic warfare and its integration in the cyber domain.

  3. Cyber Early Warning System (CEWAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2006-103 Final Technical Report March 2006 CYBER EARLY WARNING SYSTEM (CEWAS) Telcordia Technologies...ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE MARCH 2006 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Aug 04 – Dec 06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CYBER EARLY WARNING ...that are in their initial stages or in progress. 4 The Enhanced InFilter system has the capability to provide early notification of cyber

  4. Editors' Preface to Special Issue on Drinking Water Safety, Security, and Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recognizing these needs, researchers from Zhejiang University (China), the US EPA and the University of Alberta (Canada) organized the “International Conference on Drinking Water Safety, Security and Sustainability” in October 2011 in Hangzhou, China. The conference was attended...

  5. Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Muller, George; Perkins, Casey J.; Lancaster, Mary J.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Patrick, Scott W.; Key, Bradley Robert

    2015-07-28

    Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one aspect, a computer-implemented security evaluation method includes accessing information regarding a physical architecture and a cyber architecture of a facility, building a model of the facility comprising a plurality of physical areas of the physical architecture, a plurality of cyber areas of the cyber architecture, and a plurality of pathways between the physical areas and the cyber areas, identifying a target within the facility, executing the model a plurality of times to simulate a plurality of attacks against the target by an adversary traversing at least one of the areas in the physical domain and at least one of the areas in the cyber domain, and using results of the executing, providing information regarding a security risk of the facility with respect to the target.

  6. Computer Security Concepts and Issues in the Information Technology Management (370) Curriculum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility e. EDP Auditors Foundation 3. National Computer Security Center 4. National Bureau of Standards 5...Society b. North America: DPMA and ICCP c. Canada. CIPS and DPMA 1. CIPS 2. DPMA Canada d. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility e. EDP...III d. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility e. EDP Auditors Foundation III 3. National Computer Security Center 4. National Bureau of

  7. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Cyber Testbed Considerations – Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Gray; Robert Anderson; Julio G. Rodriguez; Cheol-Kwon Lee

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: Identifying and understanding digital instrumentation and control (I&C) cyber vulnerabilities within nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, is critical if nation states desire to operate nuclear facilities safely, reliably, and securely. In order to demonstrate objective evidence that cyber vulnerabilities have been adequately identified and mitigated, a testbed representing a facility’s critical nuclear equipment must be replicated. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has built and operated similar testbeds for common critical infrastructure I&C for over ten years. This experience developing, operating, and maintaining an I&C testbed in support of research identifying cyber vulnerabilities has led the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute of the Republic of Korea to solicit the experiences of INL to help mitigate problems early in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of a similar testbed. The following information will discuss I&C testbed lessons learned and the impact of these experiences to KAERI.

  8. Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Analysis of the U.S. Electric Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, Colleen; Sterbentz, Dane; Wright, Aaron

    2016-12-20

    With utilities in the U.S. and around the world increasingly moving toward smart grid technology and other upgrades with inherent cyber vulnerabilities, correlative threats from malicious cyber attacks on the North American electric grid continue to grow in frequency and sophistication. The potential for malicious actors to access and adversely affect physical electricity assets of U.S. electricity generation, transmission, or distribution systems via cyber means is a primary concern for utilities contributing to the bulk electric system. This paper seeks to illustrate the current cyber-physical landscape of the U.S. electric sector in the context of its vulnerabilities to cyber attacks, the likelihood of cyber attacks, and the impacts cyber events and threat actors can achieve on the power grid. In addition, this paper highlights utility perspectives, perceived challenges, and requests for assistance in addressing cyber threats to the electric sector. There have been no reported targeted cyber attacks carried out against utilities in the U.S. that have resulted in permanent or long term damage to power system operations thus far, yet electric utilities throughout the U.S. have seen a steady rise in cyber and physical security related events that continue to raise concern. Asset owners and operators understand that the effects of a coordinated cyber and physical attack on a utility’s operations would threaten electric system reliability–and potentially result in large scale power outages. Utilities are routinely faced with new challenges for dealing with these cyber threats to the grid and consequently maintain a set of best practices to keep systems secure and up to date. Among the greatest challenges is a lack of knowledge or strategy to mitigate new risks that emerge as a result of an exponential rise in complexity of modern control systems. This paper compiles an open-source analysis of cyber threats and risks to the electric grid, utility best practices

  9. Cyber Asynchronous versus Blended Cyber Approach in Distance English Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Zi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to compare the single cyber asynchronous learning approach with the blended cyber learning approach in distance English education. Two classes of 70 students participated in this study, which lasted one semester of about four months, with one class using the blended approach for their English study and the other only using the…

  10. Cyber Power in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Cyber Warfare .................................................................86 V. Conclusions and Recommendations...40 2 – Asymmetric Effects of Cyber Warfare ........................................................................41 1 CYBER POWER... cyber warfare capabilities with other elements of national power, as evidenced by the concept of “informationization” (xinxihua) put forward in

  11. Out-Learning Attackers: A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Out-Learning Attackers: A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Defense FA9550-09-1-0049 Musacchio, John Frazier , Greg Kreidl, Pat Regents of University of...Security Program Final Report Project Period: 2/1/09 - 11/30/12 John Musacchio, UC Santa Cruz; Greg Frazier and Pat Kreidl BAE Systems 1 Introduction This...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0172 Out-Learning Attackers: A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Defense John Musacchio Regents of

  12. Video Games as a Training Tool to Prepare the Next Generation of Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    to make a large impact on the nation. The video game could then become one of our 1 best tools in improving information security awareness and... Video Games as a Training Tool to Prepare the Next Generation of Cyber Warriors Christopher Herr Dennis Allen Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Video Games as a Training Tool to Prepare the Next Generation of Cyber Warriors

  13. Cyber Warfare: Protecting Military Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Software is a key component in nearly every critical system used by the Department of Defense. Attacking the software in a system- cyber warfare - is a...revolutionary method of pursuing war. This article describes various cyber warfare approaches and suggests methods to counter them.

  14. 76 FR 34920 - Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps Issued by Certain Clearing Agencies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... system.\\5\\ Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act provides the Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or... consultation with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, shall jointly further define the terms....'' Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems, Technical Committee of the International Organization...

  15. Compliance Issues and Homeland Security with New Federal Regulations for Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valcik, Nicolas A.

    2010-01-01

    Research advancements into different fields of study have increased the risks for accidents, criminal acts, or a potential breach of national security, and the types of hazardous materials (HAZMAT) stored and used at universities and colleges are under new scrutiny. Before, a chemistry laboratory might only have basic substances such as sulfur,…

  16. Career Obsolescence and Social Security: Emerging Education Policy Issues in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandow, Stuart A.

    This document is the second in a series of studies designed to examine the legal aspects of various potential educational problems in our society. This particular study deals with the case of a highly trained aerospace technician who sues the social security trust for loan benefits, arguing that he is economically disabled and has been retired by…

  17. Drinking Water: Experts’ Views on How Future Federal Funding Can Best Be Spent to Improve Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    and Response Teams NRWA National Rural Water Association NRDC Natural Resources Defense Council PDD Presidential Decision Directive SCADA Supervisory...vulnerabilities to the nation’s water supply systems. In response to the report’s findings, the President issued Presidential Decision Directive ( PDD ...3,300 people. Moreover, as was the case with other infrastructure sectors, PDD -63 focused primarily on threats to cyber security. Specifically, the

  18. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  19. How Should Public Administration Education Curriculum Within Indiana Higher Education Institutions Evolve to Reflect the Complex Homeland Security Issues Faced by Future Public Sector Employees?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    1 A. PROBLEM STATEMENT .............................................................................1 B. RESEARCH ...5 B. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH ................................................................7 C. METHOD...designed to provide cutting-edge and innovative research and publications on homeland security issues and subjects, and in offering courses on

  20. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  1. Methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable critical infrastructure equipment and mitigation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Lon Andrew; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NSCD), Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), contracted Sandia National Laboratories to develop a generic methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable, critical infrastructure assets and the development of mitigation strategies for their loss or compromise. The initial project has been divided into three discrete deliverables: (1) A generic methodology report suitable to all Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) Sectors (this report); (2) a sector-specific report for Electrical Power Distribution; and (3) a sector-specific report for the water sector, including generation, water treatment, and wastewater systems. Specific reports for the water and electric sectors are available from Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. 76 FR 18062 - U.S. Securities; Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds; Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Fiscal Service 31 CFR Parts 306, 356, 357, and 363 U.S. Securities; Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds; Book-Entry Treasury Bonds, Notes and Bills Held in Treasury... of securities from other book-entry systems will no longer be accepted. Treasury also intends...

  3. 78 FR 17219 - Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ..., such as new developments in systems engineering, cyber-security, ] knowledge management and how best to... the Under Secretary on policies, management processes, and organizational constructs as needed....

  4. Protecting Accelerator Control Systems in the Face of Sophisticated Cyber Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Cyber security for industrial control systems has received significant attention in the past two years. The news coverage of the Stuxnet attack, believed to be targeted at the control system for a uranium enrichment plant, brought the issue to the attention of news media and policy makers. This has led to increased scrutiny of control systems for critical infrastructure such as power generation and distribution, and industrial systems such as chemical plants and petroleum refineries. The past two years have also seen targeted network attacks aimed at corporate and government entities including US Department of Energy National Laboratories. Both of these developments have potential repercussions for the control systems of particle accelerators. The need to balance risks from potential attacks with the operational needs of an accelerator present a unique challenge for the system architecture and access model.

  5. EMP Threats to US National Security: Congressional Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huessy, Peter

    2011-04-01

    The US Congress is considering how best to respond to concerns that EMP is a real and present danger to US security. The threats come from a variety of areas: solar storms, non-nuclear EMP from man-made machines and devices; and nuclear EMP from a nuclear device exploded above CONUS or other critical areas important to the United States and its allies. Responses have to date included passage in the House of legislation to protect the electrical grid in the United States from such threats and hearings before the Homeland Security Committee. Additional efforts include examining missile defense responses, protection of the maritime domain, and hardening of US military and related civilian infrastructure. The House of Representatives has also examined what Europe, the European Union and NATO, both government and private industry, have done in these areas. Complicating matters are related issues of cyber-security and overall homeland security priorities.

  6. Security Assistance Reform: "Section 1206" Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-21

    maritime waters and on securing land and maritime borders. Some help military forces control their territories against terrorist threats. About 10...of maritime and land borders. Funding to support partner nations’ contributions to military and stability operations rose sharply in FY2010...and political engagement,” the letter states. One indicator of differing uses of Section 1206 and FMF assistance may be the relative size of funds

  7. Security Assistance Reform: "Section 1206" Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    were CT programs focused on controlling adjacent maritime waters and on securing land and maritime borders. Some help military forces control their...Africa, much of it for surveillance and control of maritime and land borders. Funding to support partner nations’ contributions to military and...relative size of funds spent in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region whose insecure borders and ungoverned spaces present, many argue, an ideal habitat for

  8. Is The Obesity Epidemic A National Security Issue Around The Globe?

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review To understand how obesity affects national security by focusing on three case study countries—the United States, China, and Mexico. Recent findings While in the United States and Mexico, over two-thirds of adults are overweight and obese compared to about 29% of Chinese, large increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity have occurred in all three countries in the past two decades. National security is affected in the US ranges both from an economic perspective-- increasing health care problems and costs to the point where our labor costs have reached uncompetitive cost levels, and from a military preparedness perspective, namely our overweight soldiers are unable to perform normal activities and functions required of soldiers. In both Mexico and China, it is the economic and health system costs that are dominant concerns, both the costs of obesity-related medical care and the productivity of the work force are creating potential long-term effects on economic competitiveness. Summary Obesity is adversely affecting the welfare, economic, and in some cases military security of these three countries. PMID:21543976

  9. Cyber-Bullying: Developing Policy to Direct Responses that are Equitable and Effective in Addressing This Special Form of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen; Jackson, Margaret; Cassidy, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    The article reviews existing research on cyber-bullying, framed through a policy lens. It is clear that public policy issues for cyber-bullying involve tensions between the values of freedom of speech, the best interests of the child, and parental and school protective authority over the child. Given the complexity of the problem, as well as…

  10. How to Protect your Kids from Cyber Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bullying How to Protect Your Kids from Cyber Bullying Tweet it Share it Cyber bullying can happen any time of the day. Teenagers ... tips will help you get started. Prevent Cyber Bullying You can prevent cyber bullying by knowing what ...

  11. Network systems security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  12. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  13. Students' perspectives on cyber bullying.

    PubMed

    Agatston, Patricia W; Kowalski, Robin; Limber, Susan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of cyber bullying on students and the possible need for prevention messages targeting students, educators, and parents. A total of 148 middle and high school students were interviewed during focus groups held at two middle and two high schools in a public school district. The focus groups were approximately 45 minutes in length. Students were divided by gender and asked a series of scripted questions by a same-gender student assistance counselor. We found that students' comments during the focus groups suggest that students-particularly females-view cyber bullying as a problem, but one rarely discussed at school, and that students do not see the school district personnel as helpful resources when dealing with cyber bullying. Students are currently experiencing the majority of cyber bullying instances outside of the school day; however there is some impact at school. Students were able to suggest some basic strategies for dealing with cyber bullying, but were less likely to be aware of strategies to request the removal of objectionable websites, as well as how to respond as a helpful bystander when witnessing cruel online behavior. We conclude that school districts should address cyber bullying through a combination of policies and information that are shared with students and parents. Schools should include cyber bullying as part of their bullying prevention strategies and include classroom lessons that address reporting and bystander behavior.

  14. 75 FR 26171 - Cyber Security Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... core Internet mechanism. Further, there recently has been an exponential growth in malware being... the most recent months. Unfortunately this growth also happens at a time when enterprises are...

  15. Cyber Security: A Crisis of Prioritization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    University David A. Patterson, Ph.D. Professor and E.H. and M.E. Pardee Chair of Computer Science University of California, Berkeley Alice G...plants, dams , the North American power grid, air traffic control systems, food and energy distribution, and the financial system, to name only some. The

  16. Data Diodes in Support of Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Okhravi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Interconnections between process control networks and en- terprise networks has resulted in the proliferation of stan- dard communication protocols in industrial control systems which exposes instrumentation, control systems, and the critical infrastructure components they operate to a variety of cyber attacks. Various standards and technologies have been proposed to protect industrial control systems against cyber attacks and to provide them with confidentiality, in- tegrity, and availability. Among these technologies, data diodes provide protection of critical systems by the means of physically enforcing traffic direction on the network. In order to deploy data diodes effectively, it is imperative to un- derstand the protection they provide, the protection they do not provide, their limitations, and their place in the larger security infrastructure. In this work, we briefly review the security challenges in an industrial control system, study data diodes, their functionalities and limitations, and pro- pose a scheme for their effective deployment in trusted pro- cess control networks (TPCNs.)

  17. Balancing Student Privacy, Campus Security, and Public Safety: Issues for Campus Leaders. Perspectives, Winter 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    The complex issues of promoting student mental health, privacy and public safety, and the balance among them, weigh on the minds of institutional leaders, educational policymakers, and local, state and federal officials. American campuses have a proud history of intellectual freedom, openness and public accessibility to their communities. However,…

  18. Salt II: Toward Security or Danger? A Balanced Account of the Key Issues in the Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Wallace, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    Facts and controversial issues concerning SALT II (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) are examined. The intent of the document is to enable non-specialists in military/strategic matters to arrive at their own conclusions. Central questions explored are: Is it possible to arrive at an agreement that will stabilize strategic arms competition and…

  19. 12 CFR 559.12 - How may a subsidiary of a savings association issue securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... acquiring a new subsidiary. If OTS notifies you within 30 days that the notice presents supervisory concerns... amount represents of the current book value of your assets on an unconsolidated basis; and the current book value of all such assets of the subsidiary; (2) The terms of any guarantee(s) issued by you or...

  20. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the book-entry systems in... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS... book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained? There are...

  1. Federation of UML models for cyber physical use cases

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-05

    This method employs the concept of federation, which is defined as the use of existing models that represent aspects of a system in specific domains (such as physical and cyber security domains) and building interfaces to link all of domain models. Federation seeks to build on existing bodies of work. Some examples include the Common Information Models (CIM) maintained by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 57 (IEC TC 57) for the electric power industry. Another relevant model is the CIM maintained by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)? this CIM defines a representation of the managed elements in an Information Technology (IT) environment. The power system is an example of a cyber-physical system, where the cyber systems, consisting of computing infrastructure such as networks and devices, play a critical role in the operation of the underlying physical electricity delivery system. Measurements from remote field devices are relayed to control centers through computer networks, and the data is processed to determine suitable control actions. Control decisions are then relayed back to field devices. It has been observed that threat actors may be able to successfully compromise this cyber layer in order to impact power system operation. Therefore, future control center applications must be wary of potentially compromised measurements coming from field devices. In order to ensure the integrity of the field measurements, these applications could make use of compromise indicators from alternate sources of information such as cyber security. Thus, modern control applications may require access to data from sources that are not defined in the local information model. In such cases, software application interfaces will require integration of data objects from cross-domain data models. When incorporating or federating different domains, it is important to have subject matter experts work together, recognizing that not everyone has the

  2. Semantic policy and adversarial modeling for cyber threat identification and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFrancesco, Anton; McQueary, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Today's enterprise networks undergo a relentless barrage of attacks from foreign and domestic adversaries. These attacks may be perpetrated with little to no funding, but may wreck incalculable damage upon the enterprises security, network infrastructure, and services. As more services come online, systems that were once in isolation now provide information that may be combined dynamically with information from other systems to create new meaning on the fly. Security issues are compounded by the potential to aggregate individual pieces of information and infer knowledge at a higher classification than any of its constituent parts. To help alleviate these challenges, in this paper we introduce the notion of semantic policy and discuss how it's use is evolving from a robust approach to access control to preempting and combating attacks in the cyber domain, The introduction of semantic policy and adversarial modeling to network security aims to ask 'where is the network most vulnerable', 'how is the network being attacked', and 'why is the network being attacked'. The first aspect of our approach is integration of semantic policy into enterprise security to augment traditional network security with an overall awareness of policy access and violations. This awareness allows the semantic policy to look at the big picture - analyzing trends and identifying critical relations in system wide data access. The second aspect of our approach is to couple adversarial modeling with semantic policy to move beyond reactive security measures and into a proactive identification of system weaknesses and areas of vulnerability. By utilizing Bayesian-based methodologies, the enterprise wide meaning of data and semantic policy is applied to probability and high-level risk identification. This risk identification will help mitigate potential harm to enterprise networks by enabling resources to proactively isolate, lock-down, and secure systems that are most vulnerable.

  3. A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense - Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-08

    McLaughlin, “US Strategy and Strategic Culture from 2017,” Global Brief, February 19, 2016; H.R. McMaster, “Probing for Weakness,” Wall Street...the last National Military Strategy was published in 2011, global disorder has significantly increased while some of our comparative military... strategy considered at a global or interregional level, as opposed to strategies for specific countries, regions, or issues. Geopolitics refers to

  4. How is cyber threat evolving and what do organisations need to consider?

    PubMed

    Borrett, Martin; Carter, Roger; Wespi, Andreas

    Organisations and members of the public are becoming accustomed to the increasing velocity, frequency and variety of cyber-attacks that they have been facing over the last few years. In response to this challenge, it is important to explore what can be done to offer commercial and private users a reliable and functioning environment. This paper discusses how cyber threats might evolve in the future and seeks to explore these threats more fully. Attention is paid to the changing nature of cyber-attackers and their motivations and what this means for organisations. Finally, useful and actionable steps are provided, which practitioners can use to understand how they can start to address the future challenges of cyber security.

  5. Issues and Requirements for Cybersecurity in Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    as simple as denial of service attacks and some as complex as attacks that exploit cyber vulnerabilities in order to alter key networks and software...and software security in light of the network centric warfare paradigm. In view of the need and threat, we present a new strategy for cyber defense...in the cyber battlespace in support of network centric warfare. Next, the paper presets a discussion of background material necessary to understand

  6. Cyber Intelligence Research Consortium (Poster)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-24

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...internal and external to an organization Contact: cyber-intel@sei.cmu.edu twitter: @sei_etc ©2014 Software Engineering Institute Analytical Acumen...guides for navigating key analytical practices and technologies to apply analytical techniques and technologies to a simulated cyber attack Crisis

  7. Secure Information Exchange Gateway for Electric Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, F. Russell; Carroll, J. Ritchie; Sanders, William; Yardley, Timothy; Heine, Erich; Hadley, Mark; McKinnon, David; Motteler, Barbara; Giri, Jay; Walker, William; McCartha, Esrick

    2014-09-30

    The major objectives of the SIEGate project were to improve the security posture and minimize the cyber-attack surface of electric utility control centers and to reduce the cost of maintaining control-room-to-control-room information exchange. Major project goals included the design, development, testing, and commercialization of a single security-hardened appliance that could meet industry needs for resisting cyber-attacks while protecting the confidentiality and integrity of a growing volume of real-time information needed to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system and interoperating with existing data formats and networking technologies. The SIEGate project has achieved its goals and objectives. The SIEGate Design Document, issued in March 2012, presented SIEGate use cases, provided SIEGate requirements, established SIEGate design principles, and prescribed design functionality of SIEGate as well as the components that make up SIEGate. SIEGate Release Version 1.0 was posted in January 2014. Release Version 1.0.83, which was posted on March 28, 2014, fixed many issues discovered by early adopters and added several new features. Release Candidate 1.1, which added additional improvements and bug fixes, was posted in June 2014. SIEGate executables have been downloaded more than 300 times. SIEGate has been tested at PJM, Entergy, TVA, and Southern. Security testing and analysis of SIEGate has been conducted at PNNL and PJM. Alstom has provided a summary of recommended steps for commercialization of the SIEGate Appliance and identified two deployment models with immediate commercial application.

  8. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  9. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future.

  10. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  11. Effective Management of Information Security and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    No university seems immune to cyber attacks. For many universities, such events have served as wake-up calls to develop a comprehensive information security and privacy strategy. This is no simple task, however. It involves balancing a culture of openness with a need for security and privacy. Security and privacy are not the same, and the…

  12. Cyberspace security system

    DOEpatents

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ferragut, Erik M

    2014-06-24

    A system evaluates reliability, performance and/or safety by automatically assessing the targeted system's requirements. A cost metric quantifies the impact of failures as a function of failure cost per unit of time. The metrics or measurements may render real-time (or near real-time) outcomes by initiating active response against one or more high ranked threats. The system may support or may be executed in many domains including physical domains, cyber security domains, cyber-physical domains, infrastructure domains, etc. or any other domains that are subject to a threat or a loss.

  13. Center for Strategic Leadership Issue Paper, August 2007, Volume 8-07. Military Education Workshop Addresses Threats to Stability and Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    support of partner countries to address such destabilizing issues as competition for scare resources, forced migration, food security, changing weather...upcoming National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), the National Inteligence Council (NIC) has reached out to a broad group of U.S. government organizations and...resource competition and conflict; water and food security; health and disease, and the stability of governments. The Army should be prepared to adapt

  14. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  15. Cyber Warfare as an Operational Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-03

    This paper explores cyber warfare as an option for creating operational fires effects. Initially, cyberspace is defined and explained from the...fires are defined and the advantages of their use are explained. From there, discussion focuses on how cyber warfare fulfills the purposes of...operational fires. Finally, the paper draws conclusions about the viability of cyber warfare as an operational fire and makes recommendations about how to prioritize the activities of the newly approved U.S. Cyber Command.

  16. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    The advent of cyber warfare has sparked a debate amongst theorists as to whether timeless Clausewitzian principles remain true in the 21st century...Violence, uncertainty, and rationality still accurately depict the nature of cyber warfare , however, its many defining attributes and means by which...this style of warfare is conducted has definitively changed the character of war. Although cyber warfare is contested in the cyber domain, it often

  17. Safety and security issues relating to low capacity storage of AN-based fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Marlair, Guy; Kordek, Marie-Astrid

    2005-08-31

    Motivated by both the Toulouse explosion, and a series of recent unexpected handling and storage accidents in well-developed countries, the safety issues associated with the storage of fertilizer grades of ammonium nitrate (AN) are considered with a focus on low storage capacity premises. Such facilities are numerous and, in large agricultural countries, include thousands of end-users and hundreds of small distributors. The strong oxidative (sometimes explosive) properties of products containing significant amounts of AN have led to a long history of major accidents including mass explosions in large storage units and pre 1950s, to mass explosions in ships. A major breakthrough in safety was achieved in the 1950s, with the promotion - amongst other improvements - of better anti-caking agents. Although modern AN fertilizers complying with current standards are not considered as explosive material per se, the latent risk of accidental detonation under specific conditions remains a real issue, and from a scientific point of view, cannot be completely ruled out-as dramatically demonstrated by the Toulouse disaster in France. The new insight provided here is derived from: (1) a literature review on hazardous properties of AN and AN-based fertilizers; (2) a review of accidents focusing more particularly on the reporting of recent new cases involving relatively small quantities of previously 'thought safe' products; (3) an examination of both the relevant regulatory framework and the level of hazard control achieved; (4) appropriate discussions of the economical, technical and organizational factors that could lead to some underestimation of the risk compared to large scale storage facilities. In terms of research requirements, the complex potential scenario 'mass explosion following a fire' requires further attention, as does the role and properties of molten ammonium nitrate, which could be the precursor for such an event to occur. Beyond research needs, reinforced

  18. Confronting the Pedagogical Challenge of Cyber Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanewald, Ria

    2008-01-01

    Cyber violence and the antidote of cyber safety are fast becoming a global concern for governments, educational authorities, teachers, parents and children alike. Despite substantial funding for information dissemination on preventative strategies and the development of electronic responses to hinder perpetrators, the phenomenon of cyber violence…

  19. Cyber Children: What Parents Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents need to be aware of the dangers and the opportunities the cyber world offers. Video games are being used in the classroom. Commerce is increasingly taking place online and computers are indispensable in the workplace. A cyber-oriented child possesses some great advantages. The author urges parents to become experts in the cyber world so…

  20. Cyber War Game in Temporal Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-09

    defender cyber game has been explored with various approaches such as game theory [18] or cognitive theory [20]. Zhu and Martinez [18] model a cyber game...with Insiders. In: Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM; 2015. p. 1–10. 18. Zhu M, Martinez S. Stackelberg-game analysis of correlated attacks in cyber-physical

  1. Discussing Cyber Ethics with Students Is Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Robert

    2003-01-01

    As computers become a larger part of the curriculum, educators everywhere are being asked to take a stand for cyber ethics, the right and wrong of computer and Internet use. Teachers cannot always depend on parents to instill cyber ethics. Parents may not know or follow the rules, either. Once students understand cyber ethics, they may have a…

  2. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  3. The Need for Cyber-Informed Engineering Expertise for Nuclear Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Engineering disciplines may not currently understand or fully embrace cyber security aspects as they apply towards analysis, design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear research reactors. Research reactors include a wide range of diverse co-located facilities and designs necessary to meet specific operational research objectives. Because of the nature of research reactors (reduced thermal energy and fission product inventory), hazards and risks may not have received the same scrutiny as normally associated with power reactors. Similarly, security may not have been emphasized either. However, the lack of sound cybersecurity defenses may lead to both safety and security impacts. Risk management methodologies may not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Although most research reactors are old and may not have the same digital footprint as newer facilities, any digital instrument and control function must be considered as a potential attack platform that can lead to sabotage or theft of nuclear material, especially for some research reactors that store highly enriched uranium. This paper will provide a discussion about the need for cyber-informed engineering practices that include the entire engineering lifecycle. Cyber-informed engineering as referenced in this paper is the inclusion of cybersecurity aspects into the engineering process. A discussion will consider several attributes of this process evaluating the long-term goal of developing additional cyber safety basis analysis and trust principles. With a culture of free information sharing exchanges, and potentially a lack of security expertise, new risk analysis and design methodologies need to be developed to address this rapidly evolving (cyber) threatscape.

  4. Some of Indonesian Cyber Law Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machmuddin, D. D.; Pratama, B.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber regulation is very important to control human interaction within the Internet network in cyber space. On the surface, innovation development in science and technology facilitates human activity. But on the inside, innovation was controlled by new business model. In cyber business activities mingle with individual protection. By this condition, the law should keep the balance of the activities. Cyber law problems, were not particular country concern, but its global concern. This is a good opportunity for developing country to catch up with developed country. Beside this opportunity for talented people in law and technology is become necessity. This paper tries to describe cyber law in Indonesia. As a product of a developing country there are some of weakness that can be explained. Terminology and territory of cyber space is become interesting to discuss, because this two problems can give a broad view on cyber law in Indonesia.

  5. 17 CFR 210.3-16 - Financial statements of affiliates whose securities collateralize an issue registered or being...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND...

  6. 17 CFR 210.3-16 - Financial statements of affiliates whose securities collateralize an issue registered or being...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND...

  7. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    TSGP eligibility.22 Port Security Grant Program The Port Security Grant Program ( PSGP ) provides funding for the protection of ports and port... psgp /index.shtm. 24 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Grant Programs Directorate, FY2009 Overview Grant Application Guidance, Washington, DC

  8. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-30

    Port Security Grant Program The Port Security Grant Program ( PSGP ) provides funding for the protection of ports and port infrastructure from...Federal Emergency Management Agency, Port Security Grant Program: Overview, Washington, DC, 2008, http://www.fema.gov/government/grant/ psgp /index.shtm

  9. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-21

    Research Service 6 Port Security Grant Program The Port Security Grant Program ( PSGP ) provides funding for the protection of ports and port...Grant Program: Overview, Washington, DC, 2008, http://www.fema.gov/government/grant/ psgp /index.shtm. 23 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Grant

  10. U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare: Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment...U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority...Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority The character of

  11. PeerShield: determining control and resilience criticality of collaborative cyber assets in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Hasan

    2012-06-01

    As attackers get more coordinated and advanced in cyber attacks, cyber assets are required to have much more resilience, control effectiveness, and collaboration in networks. Such a requirement makes it essential to take a comprehensive and objective approach for measuring the individual and relative performances of cyber security assets in network nodes. To this end, this paper presents four techniques as to how the relative importance of cyber assets can be measured more comprehensively and objectively by considering together the main variables of risk assessment (e.g., threats, vulnerabilities), multiple attributes (e.g., resilience, control, and influence), network connectivity and controllability among collaborative cyber assets in networks. In the first technique, a Bayesian network is used to include the random variables for control, recovery, and resilience attributes of nodes, in addition to the random variables of threats, vulnerabilities, and risk. The second technique shows how graph matching and coloring can be utilized to form collaborative pairs of nodes to shield together against threats and vulnerabilities. The third technique ranks the security assets of nodes by incorporating multiple weights and thresholds of attributes into a decision-making algorithm. In the fourth technique, the hierarchically well-separated tree is enhanced to first identify critical nodes of a network with respect to their attributes and network connectivity, and then selecting some nodes as driver nodes for network controllability.

  12. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  13. Cyber Astronomy: A Cyber University Course for School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, C. W.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Teaching university physics through the internet is not new, but a new course providing the same service for secondary school students is the first of its kind in Hong Kong. Taking advantage of the fast and affordable broadband internet in the region, some university courses have been converted to a cyber curriculum suitable for secondary school…

  14. Business continuity strategies for cyber defence: battling time and information overload.

    PubMed

    Streufert, John

    2010-11-01

    Can the same numbers and letters which are the life blood of modern business and government computer systems be harnessed to protect computers from attack against known information security risks? For the past seven years, Foreign Service officers and technicians of the US Government have sought to maintain diplomatic operations in the face of rising cyber attacks and test the hypothesis that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. As eight out of ten attacks leverage known computer security vulnerabilities or configuration setting weaknesses, a pound of cure would seem to be easy to come by. Yet modern security tools present an unusually consequential threat to business continuity - too much rather than too little information on cyber problems is presented, harking back to a phenomenon cited by social scientists in the 1960s called 'information overload'. Experience indicates that the longer the most serious cyber problems go untreated, the wider the attack surface adversaries can find. One technique used at the Department of State, called 'risk scoring', resulted in an 89 per cent overall reduction in measured risk over 12 months for the Department of State's servers and personal computers. Later refinements of risk scoring enabled technicians to correct unique security threats with unprecedented speed. This paper explores how the use of metrics, special care in presenting information to technicians and executives alike, as well as tactical use of organisational incentives can result in stronger cyber defences protecting modern organisations.

  15. Assessing the Risk of Catastrophic Cyber Attack: Lessons from the Electromagnetic Pulse Commission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    we have conducted. 15. SUBJECT TERMS electromagnetic pulse, electric grid, cyber, catastrophic, risk, threat, consequences 16. SECURITY...infrastructure affect others? What would failure of communication or transportation links or failure of the power grid to deliver electricity to refrigerators...For example, it worked with a special committee of power engineers selected by the North American Electric Reliability Corpo- ration (NERC), a

  16. Network Security Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    The Cashless Szci--;-: ..T..at the Crossroads, (New York: C-tn Wile" S--S ?ublishing Co., :981), P. 68. 10 Henry Geller, "Tele...n s :ssues: The...Business Plus S; :tion, 14 Mar 89, p. 9. Bequai, Esq., August. The Cashless Society: EFTS at the Crossroads. New York: John Wiley & Sons Publishing

  17. Cyber Security to the Edge: Applying Edge Theory to Cyber Security Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    System Seaman Timmy (compromised computer) assigned to a ship catches the flu. The Navy Med- ical Command (Service Computer Emergency Response Team)in...receive guid- ance on how to aid Seaman Timmy . If the corpsman doesn’t answer all questions there may be additional questions. The Medical Commands...directive to isolate Seaman Timmy may endanger the ship since Seaman Timmy is the helmsman, steering the ship while at sea, (critical system). Once

  18. Development of JSDF Cyber Warfare Defense Critical Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    attack identification capability is essential for a nation to defend her vital infrastructures against offensive cyber warfare . Although the necessity of...cyber-attack identification capability is quite clear, the Japans preparation against cyber warfare is quite limited.

  19. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenga, Todd.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  20. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…