Science.gov

Sample records for cyber security self-assessment

  1. CS2SAT: THE CONTROL SYSTEMS CYBER SECURITY SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Kathleen A. Lee

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division has developed the Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) that provides users with a systematic and repeatable approach for assessing the cyber-security posture of their industrial control system networks. The CS2SAT was developed by cyber security experts from Department of Energy National Laboratories and with assistance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The CS2SAT is a desktop software tool that guides users through a step-by-step process to collect facility-specific control system information and then makes appropriate recommendations for improving the system’s cyber-security posture. The CS2SAT provides recommendations from a database of industry available cyber-security practices, which have been adapted specifically for application to industry control system networks and components. Each recommendation is linked to a set of actions that can be applied to remediate-specific security vulnerabilities.

  2. Metaphors for cyber security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).

  3. The Cyber Security Crisis

    ScienceCinema

    Spafford, Eugene [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2016-07-12

    Despite considerable activity and attention, the overall state of information security continues to get worse. Attacks are increasing, fraud and theft are rising, and losses may exceed $100 billion per year worldwide. Many factors contribute to this, including misplaced incentives for industry, a lack of attention by government, ineffective law enforcement, and an uninformed image of who the perpetrators really are. As a result, many of the intended attempts at solutions are of limited (if any) overall effectiveness. This presentation will illustrate some key aspects of the cyber security problem and its magnitude, as well as provide some insight into causes and enabling factors. The talk will conclude with some observations on how the computing community can help improve the situation, as well as some suggestions for 'cyber self-defense.'

  4. The Cyber Security Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Eugene

    2006-05-10

    Despite considerable activity and attention, the overall state of information security continues to get worse. Attacks are increasing, fraud and theft are rising, and losses may exceed $100 billion per year worldwide. Many factors contribute to this, including misplaced incentives for industry, a lack of attention by government, ineffective law enforcement, and an uninformed image of who the perpetrators really are. As a result, many of the intended attempts at solutions are of limited (if any) overall effectiveness. This presentation will illustrate some key aspects of the cyber security problem and its magnitude, as well as provide some insight into causes and enabling factors. The talk will conclude with some observations on how the computing community can help improve the situation, as well as some suggestions for 'cyber self-defense.'

  5. Cyber Security Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-03

    CSET is a desktop software tool that guides users through a step-by-step process to assess their control system network security practices against recognized industry standards. The output from CSET is a prioritized list of recommendations for improving the cyber security posture of your organization’s ICS or enterprise network. CSET derives the recommendations from a database of cybersecurity standards, guidelines, and practices. Each recommendation is linked to a set of actions that can be applied to enhance cybersecurity controls.

  6. Cyber Security Applications: Freeware & Shareware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss some assignments using freeware/shareware instructors can find on the Web to use to provide students with hands-on experience in this arena. Also, the college, Palm Beach State College, via a grant with the U.S. Department of Labor, has recently purchased a unique cyber security device that simulates cyber security attacks…

  7. INL@Work Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, May

    2010-01-01

    May Chaffin is one of many Idaho National Laboratory researchers who are helping secure the nation's critical infrastructure from cyber attacks. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. INL@Work Cyber Security

    ScienceCinema

    Chaffin, May

    2016-07-12

    May Chaffin is one of many Idaho National Laboratory researchers who are helping secure the nation's critical infrastructure from cyber attacks. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. Nuclear Lessons for Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    important and so talked about with less clarity and less apparent understanding [than cyber security]. . . . I have sat in very small group meetings in...states that consists only of conflict in the virtual layer of cyberspace. But this avoids important issues of the interconnection of the physical and...often attributed to Mark Twain, “History never repeats itself, but sometimes it rhymes.” There are some important nuclear-cyber strategic [ 22

  10. Visualizing Cyber Security: Usable Workspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; North, Christopher L.; Endert, Alexander; Rose, Stuart J.

    2009-10-11

    An environment that supports cyber analytics work should enable multiple, simultaneous investigations, information foraging, and provide a solution space for organizing data. We describe our study of cyber security professionals and visualizations in a large, high-resolution display work environment. We discuss the tasks and needs of analysts that such an environment can support and present several prototypes designed to support these needs. We conclude with a usability evaluation of the prototypes and additional lessons learned.

  11. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation’s cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested – both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  12. Maritime Cyber Security University Research: Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    i Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Maritime Cyber Security University Research Phase I - Final Report... Cyber Security University Research: Phase I - Final Report Appendices ii UNCLAS | CG-926 RDC | J. Connelly, et al. Public | May 2016 N O T...Macesker Executive Director United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Cyber Security

  13. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  14. 76 FR 43696 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), Cyber Security... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35): New Information Collection Request, Nationwide Cyber Security...

  15. The Defender's Role in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-05

    The embodiment of this work is a table top game to explore cyber security and network defense concepts and cost. The game structure is such that it provides players an immersive environment to play a given role in cyber security to investigate the result of infrastructure and response decisions.

  16. Mathematical and Statistical Opportunities in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Meza, Juan; Campbell, Scott; Bailey, David

    2009-03-23

    The role of mathematics in a complex system such as the Internet has yet to be deeply explored. In this paper, we summarize some of the important and pressing problems in cyber security from the viewpoint of open science environments. We start by posing the question 'What fundamental problems exist within cyber security research that can be helped by advanced mathematics and statistics'? Our first and most important assumption is that access to real-world data is necessary to understand large and complex systems like the Internet. Our second assumption is that many proposed cyber security solutions could critically damage both the openness and the productivity of scientific research. After examining a range of cyber security problems, we come to the conclusion that the field of cyber security poses a rich set of new and exciting research opportunities for the mathematical and statistical sciences.

  17. 76 FR 22409 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), Cyber... a cyber network security assessment so that a full measure of gaps and capabilities can be completed...

  18. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  19. Cyber Security and Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Onyeji, Ijeoma; Bazilian, Morgan; Bronk, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Both the number and security implications of sophisticated cyber attacks on companies providing critical energy infrastructures are increasing. As power networks and, to a certain extent, oil and gas infrastructure both upstream and downstream, are becoming increasingly integrated with information communication technology systems, they are growing more susceptible to cyber attacks.

  20. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Patrick, Scott W.; Perkins, Casey J.; Muller, George; Lancaster, Mary J.; Hutton, William J.

    2013-02-28

    Securing high value and critical assets is one of the biggest challenges facing this nation and others around the world. In modern integrated systems, there are four potential modes of attack available to an adversary: • physical only attack, • cyber only attack, • physical-enabled cyber attack, • cyber-enabled physical attack. Blended attacks involve an adversary working in one domain to reduce system effectiveness in another domain. This enables the attacker to penetrate further into the overall layered defenses. Existing vulnerability assessment (VA) processes and software tools which predict facility vulnerabilities typically evaluate the physical and cyber domains separately. Vulnerabilities which result from the integration of cyber-physical control systems are not well characterized and are often overlooked by existing assessment approaches. In this paper, we modified modification of the timely detection methodology, used for decades in physical security VAs, to include cyber components. The Physical and Cyber Risk Analysis Tool (PACRAT) prototype illustrates an integrated vulnerability assessment that includes cyber-physical interdependencies. Information about facility layout, network topology, and emplaced safeguards is used to evaluate how well suited a facility is to detect, delay, and respond to attacks, to identify the pathways most vulnerable to attack, and to evaluate how often safeguards are compromised for a given threat or adversary type. We have tested the PACRAT prototype on critical infrastructure facilities and the results are promising. Future work includes extending the model to prescribe the recommended security improvements via an automated cost-benefit analysis.

  1. Realizing Scientific Methods for Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2012-07-18

    There is little doubt among cyber security researchers about the lack of scientic rigor that underlies much of the liter-ature. The issues are manifold and are well documented. Further complicating the problem is insufficient scientic methods to address these issues. Cyber security melds man and machine: we inherit the challenges of computer science, sociology, psychology, and many other elds and create new ones where these elds interface. In this paper we detail a partial list of challenges imposed by rigorous science and survey how other sciences have tackled them, in the hope of applying a similar approach to cyber security science. This paper is by no means comprehensive: its purpose is to foster discussion in the community on how we can improve rigor in cyber security science.

  2. Embracing the Cloud for Better Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Lagesse, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    The future of cyber security is inextricably tied to the future of computing. Organizational needs and economic factors will drive computing outcomes. Cyber security researchers and practitioners must recognize the path of computing evolution and position themselves to influence the process to incorporate security as an inherent property. The best way to predict future computing trends is to look at recent developments and their motivations. Organizations are moving towards outsourcing their data storage, computation, and even user desktop environments. This trend toward cloud computing has a direct impact on cyber security: rather than securing user machines, preventing malware access, and managing removable media, a cloud-based security scheme must focus on enabling secure communication with remote systems. This change in approach will have profound implications for cyber security research efforts. In this work, we highlight existing and emerging technologies and the limitations of cloud computing systems. We then discuss the cyber security efforts that would support these applications. Finally, we discuss the implications of these computing architecture changes, in particular with respect to malware and social engineering.

  3. Cyber Security: Critical Infrastructure Controls Assessment Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Industry SANS ‐ CAG OASIS Private   ISA‐99 <more…> SOX <more…> OWASP <more…> And Growing Day by Day……………….. CIP Security Controls Assessment...NERC-CIP NIST-Cyber Grid Chemical Cyber Physical System Security Standards PCI OASIS OWASP Nuclear Transportation ISA-99 CIP Security Controls...the Advancement of Structured Information Standards 22. OWASP  ‐ Open Web Application Security Project  23. PCI – Payment Card Industry 24. PCS

  4. Cyber / Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Simpkins, Bret E.

    2012-07-28

    Abstract Both physical protection and cyber security domains offer solutions for the discovery of vulnerabilities through the use of various assessment processes and software tools. Each vulnerability assessment (VA) methodology provides the ability to identify and categorize vulnerabilities, and quantifies the risks within their own areas of expertise. Neither approach fully represents the true potential security risk to a site and/or a facility, nor comprehensively assesses the overall security posture. The technical approach to solving this problem was to identify methodologies and processes that blend the physical and cyber security assessments, and develop tools to accurately quantify the unaccounted for risk. SMEs from both the physical and the cyber security domains developed the blending methodologies, and cross trained each other on the various aspects of the physical and cyber security assessment processes. A local critical infrastructure entity volunteered to host a proof of concept physical/cyber security assessment, and the lessons learned have been leveraged by this effort. The four potential modes of attack an adversary can use in approaching a target are; Physical Only Attack, Cyber Only Attack, Physical Enabled Cyber Attack, and the Cyber Enabled Physical Attack. The Physical Only and the Cyber Only pathway analysis are two of the most widely analyzed attack modes. The pathway from an off-site location to the desired target location is dissected to ensure adversarial activity can be detected and neutralized by the protection strategy, prior to completion of a predefined task. This methodology typically explores a one way attack from the public space (or common area) inward towards the target. The Physical Enabled Cyber Attack and the Cyber Enabled Physical Attack are much more intricate. Both scenarios involve beginning in one domain to affect change in the other, then backing outward to take advantage of the reduced system effectiveness, before

  5. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  6. CYBER/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-07-17

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  7. Cyber Security--Are You Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Scott

    2007-01-01

    During the summer 2002 term, Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee's Information Technologies Division offered a one credit-hour network security course--which barely had adequate student interest to meet the institution's enrollment requirements. Today, OSU-Okmulgee boasts one of the nation's premier cyber security programs. Many prospective…

  8. Cyber Security--Are You Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Scott

    2007-01-01

    During the summer 2002 term, Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee's Information Technologies Division offered a one credit-hour network security course--which barely had adequate student interest to meet the institution's enrollment requirements. Today, OSU-Okmulgee boasts one of the nation's premier cyber security programs. Many prospective…

  9. Integrated Safeguards and Security Management Self-Assessment 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Lunford, Dan; Ramsey, Dwayne

    2005-04-01

    In 2002 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory deployed the first Integrated Safeguards and Security Management (ISSM) Self-Assessment process, designed to measure the effect of the Laboratory's ISSM efforts. This process was recognized by DOE as a best practice and model program for self-assessment and training. In 2004, the second Self-Assessment was launched. The cornerstone of this process was an employee survey that was designed to meet several objectives: (1) Ensure that Laboratory assets are protected. (2) Provide a measurement of the Laboratory's current security status that can be compared against the 2002 Self-Assessment baseline. (3) Educate all Laboratory staff about security responsibilities, tools, and practices. (4) Provide security staff with feedback on the effectiveness of security programs. (5) Provide line management with the information they need to make informed decisions about security. This 2004 Self Assessment process began in July 2004 with every employee receiving an information packet and instructions for completing the ISSM survey. The Laboratory-wide survey contained questions designed to measure awareness and conformance to policy and best practices. The survey response was excellent--90% of Berkeley Lab employees completed the questionnaire. ISSM liaisons from each division followed up on the initial survey results with individual employees to improve awareness and resolve ambiguities uncovered by the questionnaire. As with the 2002 survey, the Self-Assessment produced immediate positive results for the ISSM program and revealed opportunities for longer-term corrective actions. Results of the questionnaire provided information for organizational profiles and an institutional summary. The overall level of security protection and awareness was very high--often above 90%. Post-survey work by the ISSM liaisons and line management consistently led to improved awareness and metrics, as shown by a comparison of profiles at the

  10. Cyber Hygiene for Control System Security

    DOE PAGES

    Oliver, David

    2015-10-08

    There are many resources from government and private industry available to assist organizations in reducing their attack surface and enhancing their security posture. Furthermore, standards are being written and improved upon to make the practice of securing a network more manageable. And while the specifics of network security are complex, most system vulnerabilities can be mitigated using fairly simple cyber hygiene techniques like those offered above.

  11. Towards Efficient Collaboration in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Peter SY; Bruce, Joseph R.; Fink, Glenn A.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Best, Daniel M.; McGrath, Liam R.; Endert, Alexander

    2010-06-03

    Cyber security analysts in different geographical and organizational domains are often largely tasked with similar duties, albeit with domain-specific variations. These analysts necessarily perform much of the same work independently— for instance, analyzing the same list of security bulletins released by largely the same set of software vendors. As such, communication and collaboration between such analysts would be mutually beneficial to the analysts involved, potentially reducing redundancy and offering the opportunity to preemptively alert each other to high-severity security alerts in a more timely fashion. However, several barriers to practical and efficient collaboration exist, and as such, no such framework exists to support such efforts. In this paper, we discuss the inherent difficulties which make efficient collaboration between cyber security analysts a difficult goal to achieve. We discuss preliminary ideas and concepts towards a collaborative cyber-security framework currently under development, whose goal is to facilitate analyst collaboration across these boundaries. While still in its early stages, we describe work-in-progress towards achieving this goal, including motivation, functionality, concepts, and a high-level description of the proposed system architecture.

  12. Secure Multiparty Computation for Cooperative Cyber Risk Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Secure Multiparty Computation for Cooperative Cyber Risk Assessment Kyle Hogan, Noah Luther, Nabil Schear, Emily Shen, Sophia Yakoubov, Arkady...Malacaria. How to spend it: Optimal investment for cyber security . In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Agents and CyberSecurity...common problem organizations face is determining which security updates to perform and patches to apply to minimize the risk of potential vulnerabilities

  13. Interdependent Risk and Cyber Security: An Analysis of Security Investment and Cyber Insurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Woohyun

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of firms rely on highly interconnected information networks. In such environments, defense against cyber attacks is complicated by residual risks caused by the interdependence of information security decisions of firms. IT security is affected not only by a firm's own management strategies but also by those of others. This…

  14. Interdependent Risk and Cyber Security: An Analysis of Security Investment and Cyber Insurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Woohyun

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of firms rely on highly interconnected information networks. In such environments, defense against cyber attacks is complicated by residual risks caused by the interdependence of information security decisions of firms. IT security is affected not only by a firm's own management strategies but also by those of others. This…

  15. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  16. S5: New Threats to Cyber-Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University 29-Oct-2014 S5: New Threats to Cyber - Security Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Threats to Cyber - Security 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sherman /Mark S. 5d...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Mark Sherman S5: New Threats to Cyber - Security © 2014 Carnegie

  17. Security Informatics Research Challenges for Mitigating Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2014-09-30

    This paper addresses cognitive implications and research needs surrounding the problem of cyber friendly re (FF). We dene cyber FF as intentional o*ensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission e*ectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. We describe examples of cyber FF and discuss how it ts within a general conceptual framework for cyber security failures. Because it involves human failure, cyber FF may be considered to belong to a sub-class of cyber security failures characterized as unintentional insider threats. Cyber FF is closely related to combat friendly re in that maintaining situation awareness (SA) is paramount to avoiding unintended consequences. Cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system and its nodes, the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive and o*ensive countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. We describe a test bed designed to support empirical research on factors a*ecting cyber FF. Finally, we discuss mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF, including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches.

  18. Security analysis of cyber-physical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Lichen

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, Cyber-Physical System (CPS) has become an important research direction of academic circles and scientific and technological circles at home and abroad, is considered to be following the third wave of world information technology after the computer, the Internet. PS is a multi-dimensional, heterogeneous, deep integration of open systems, Involving the computer, communication, control and other disciplines of knowledge. As the various disciplines in the research theory and methods are significantly different, so the application of CPS has brought great challenges. This paper introduces the definition and characteristics of CPS, analyzes the current situation of CPS, analyzes the security threats faced by CPS, and gives the security solution for security threats. It also discusses CPS-specific security technology, to promote the healthy development of CPS in information security.

  19. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  20. Mission Assurance Modeling and Simulation: A Cyber Security Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendron, Gerald; Roberts, David; Poole, Donold; Aquino, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a cyber security modeling and simulation roadmap to enhance mission assurance governance and establish risk reduction processes within constrained budgets. The term mission assurance stems from risk management work by Carnegie Mellon's Software Engineering Institute in the late 19905. By 2010, the Defense Information Systems Agency revised its cyber strategy and established the Program Executive Officer-Mission Assurance. This highlights a shift from simply protecting data to balancing risk and begins a necessary dialogue to establish a cyber security roadmap. The Military Operations Research Society has recommended a cyber community of practice, recognizing there are too few professionals having both cyber and analytic experience. The authors characterize the limited body of knowledge in this symbiotic relationship. This paper identifies operational and research requirements for mission assurance M&S supporting defense and homeland security. M&S techniques are needed for enterprise oversight of cyber investments, test and evaluation, policy, training, and analysis.

  1. Building organisational cyber resilience: A strategic knowledge-based view of cyber security management.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Jason

    The concept of cyber resilience has emerged in recent years in response to the recognition that cyber security is more than just risk management. Cyber resilience is the goal of organisations, institutions and governments across the world and yet the emerging literature is somewhat fragmented due to the lack of a common approach to the subject. This limits the possibility of effective collaboration across public, private and governmental actors in their efforts to build and maintain cyber resilience. In response to this limitation, and to calls for a more strategically focused approach, this paper offers a knowledge-based view of cyber security management that explains how an organisation can build, assess, and maintain cyber resilience.

  2. Ant-Based Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; Maiden, Wendy M.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Templeton, Steven J.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2011-07-12

    We describe a swarming-agent-based, mixed-initiative approach to infrastructure defense where teams of humans and software agents defend cooperating organizations in tandem by sharing insights and solutions without violating proprietary boundaries. The system places human administrators at the appropriate level where they provide system guidance while lower-level agents carry out tasks humans are unable to perform quickly enough to mitigate today’s security threats. Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) uses our ant-based approach to enable dialogue between humans and agents to foster a collaborative problem-solving environment, increase human situational awareness and influence using visualization and shared control. We discuss theoretical implementation characteristics along with results from recent proof-of-concept implementations.

  3. Cyber security best practices for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, I.

    2012-07-01

    When deploying software based systems, such as, digital instrumentation and controls for the nuclear industry, it is vital to include cyber security assessment as part of architecture and development process. When integrating and delivering software-intensive systems for the nuclear industry, engineering teams should make use of a secure, requirements driven, software development life cycle, ensuring security compliance and optimum return on investment. Reliability protections, data loss prevention, and privacy enforcement provide a strong case for installing strict cyber security policies. (authors)

  4. Evaluation Report on "The Department's Unclassified Cyber Security Program"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    defenses against malicious intruders and other externals threats. These are positive accomplishments. However, in our judgment, additional action is required to further enhance the Department's unclassified cyber security program and help reduce risks to its systems and data. For example, our current review identified opportunities for improvements in areas such as security planning and testing, systems inventory, access controls, and configuration management. In particular, we issued a number of findings at sites managed by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). We also identified weaknesses across various Department program elements. Issues that warrant further attention include: (1) Weaknesses such as outdated security plans and not completing annual security control self-assessments were identified at several sites; (2) The Department had not yet resolved systems inventory issues and had yet to deploy a complex-wide automated asset management tool to help track information technology resources and identify interfaces between systems or networks; (3) Although certain improvements had been made to enhance access controls, we noted deficiencies such as a lack of periodic account reviews and inadequate password management at a number of sites; and (4) Previously identified weaknesses in configuration management had been corrected, however, we found problems related to weak administrator account settings and failure to install software patches, as well as incomplete implementation of the Federal Desktop Core Configuration. These internal control weaknesses existed, at least in part, because certain cyber security roles and responsibilities were not clearly delineated. Program officials also had not effectively performed monitoring and review activities essential for evaluating the adequacy of cyber security performance. In some cases, officials had not ensured that weaknesses discovered during audits and other evaluations were recorded and tracked to

  5. Cyber security analysis testbed : combining real, emulation, and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Villamarin, Charles H.; Eldridge, John M.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Urias, Vincent E.

    2010-07-01

    Cyber security analysis tools are necessary to evaluate the security, reliability, and resilience of networked information systems against cyber attack. It is common practice in modern cyber security analysis to separately utilize real systems of computers, routers, switches, firewalls, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models to analyze the interplay between cyber threats and safeguards. In contrast, Sandia National Laboratories has developed novel methods to combine these evaluation platforms into a hybrid testbed that combines real, emulated, and simulated components. The combination of real, emulated, and simulated components enables the analysis of security features and components of a networked information system. When performing cyber security analysis on a system of interest, it is critical to realistically represent the subject security components in high fidelity. In some experiments, the security component may be the actual hardware and software with all the surrounding components represented in simulation or with surrogate devices. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a cyber testbed that combines modeling and simulation capabilities with virtual machines and real devices to represent, in varying fidelity, secure networked information system architectures and devices. Using this capability, secure networked information system architectures can be represented in our testbed on a single, unified computing platform. This provides an 'experiment-in-a-box' capability. The result is rapidly-produced, large-scale, relatively low-cost, multi-fidelity representations of networked information systems. These representations enable analysts to quickly investigate cyber threats and test protection approaches and configurations.

  6. Proceedings Second Annual Cyber Security and Information Infrastructure Research Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Krings, Axel; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Mili, Ali; Trien, Joseph P

    2006-01-01

    The workshop theme is Cyber Security: Beyond the Maginot Line Recently the FBI reported that computer crime has skyrocketed costing over $67 billion in 2005 alone and affecting 2.8M+ businesses and organizations. Attack sophistication is unprecedented along with availability of open source concomitant tools. Private, academic, and public sectors invest significant resources in cyber security. Industry primarily performs cyber security research as an investment in future products and services. While the public sector also funds cyber security R&D, the majority of this activity focuses on the specific mission(s) of the funding agency. Thus, broad areas of cyber security remain neglected or underdeveloped. Consequently, this workshop endeavors to explore issues involving cyber security and related technologies toward strengthening such areas and enabling the development of new tools and methods for securing our information infrastructure critical assets. We aim to assemble new ideas and proposals about robust models on which we can build the architecture of a secure cyberspace including but not limited to: * Knowledge discovery and management * Critical infrastructure protection * De-obfuscating tools for the validation and verification of tamper-proofed software * Computer network defense technologies * Scalable information assurance strategies * Assessment-driven design for trust * Security metrics and testing methodologies * Validation of security and survivability properties * Threat assessment and risk analysis * Early accurate detection of the insider threat * Security hardened sensor networks and ubiquitous computing environments * Mobile software authentication protocols * A new "model" of the threat to replace the "Maginot Line" model and more . . .

  7. Evaluation of current visualization tools for cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, John T.; Newey, Brent

    2010-04-01

    Visualization tools for cyber security often overlook related research from the information visualization domain. Cyber security data sets are notoriously large, yet many of the popular analysis tools use 3D techniques and parallel coordinates which have been shown to suffer issues of occlusion when applied to large data sets1,2. While techniques exist to ameliorate these issues they are typically not used. In this paper we evaluate several cyber security visualization tools based on established design principles and human-computer interaction research. We conclude by enumerating challenges, requirements, and recommendations for future work.

  8. Empirical analysis of the effects of cyber security incidents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ginger; Garcia, Alfredo; Zhang, Weide

    2009-09-01

    We analyze the time series associated with web traffic for a representative set of online businesses that have suffered widely reported cyber security incidents. Our working hypothesis is that cyber security incidents may prompt (security conscious) online customers to opt out and conduct their business elsewhere or, at the very least, to refrain from accessing online services. For companies relying almost exclusively on online channels, this presents an important business risk. We test for structural changes in these time series that may have been caused by these cyber security incidents. Our results consistently indicate that cyber security incidents do not affect the structure of web traffic for the set of online businesses studied. We discuss various public policy considerations stemming from our analysis.

  9. Cyber-Physical System Security of Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-01-31

    Abstract—This panel presentation will provide perspectives of cyber-physical system security of smart grids. As smart grid technologies are deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more prevalent and more complex, and the cyber component of this cyber-physical system is increasing in importance. Studying system behavior in the face of failures (e.g., cyber attacks) allows a characterization of the systems’ response to failure scenarios, loss of communications, and other changes in system environment (such as the need for emergent updates and rapid reconfiguration). The impact of such failures on the availability of the system can be assessed and mitigation strategies considered. Scenarios associated with confidentiality, integrity, and availability are considered. The cyber security implications associated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in the United States are discussed.

  10. USCYBERCOM and Cyber Security: Is a Comprehensive Strategy Possible?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-12

    Cyberspace ( NSSC )4 outlining five national priorities and placing much of the security burden on the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). From...supporting a growing opinion that the nation remained at risk and had yet to address the priorities it recommended in the 2003 NSSC . Although cyber... Mills , “War Fighting in Cyber Space Evolving Force Presentation and Command and Control,” Air and Space Power Journal, 25, no. 1, Spring 2011, http

  11. Process Control System Cyber Security Standards - An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2006-05-01

    The use of cyber security standards can greatly assist in the protection of process control systems by providing guidelines and requirements for the implementation of computer-controlled systems. These standards are most effective when the engineers and operators, using the standards, understand what each standard addresses. This paper provides an overview of several standards that deal with the cyber security of process measurements and control systems.

  12. Cyber Security: A Road Map for Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-19

    Cyber warfare is a form of information warfare, sometimes seen as analogous to conventional warfare, among a range of potential actors, including...nation states, non-state groups, and a complex hybrid of conflict involving both state and non-state actors. Cyber warfare is a tool of national power...An entire nation s ability to operate and fight in the information age is vital toward survival. Nowadays, cyber warfare is mostly focused on

  13. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  14. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  15. Evaluation of a Cyber Security System for Hospital Network.

    PubMed

    Faysel, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the cyber security systems use simulated data in evaluating their detection capabilities. The proposed cyber security system utilizes real hospital network connections. It uses a probabilistic data mining algorithm to detect anomalous events and takes appropriate response in real-time. On an evaluation using real-world hospital network data consisting of incoming network connections collected for a 24-hour period, the proposed system detected 15 unusual connections which were undetected by a commercial intrusion prevention system for the same network connections. Evaluation of the proposed system shows a potential to secure protected patient health information on a hospital network.

  16. The cyber security threat stops in the boardroom.

    PubMed

    Scully, Tim

    The attitude that 'it won't happen to me' still prevails in the boardrooms of industry when senior executives consider the threat of targeted cyber intrusions. Not much has changed in the commercial world of cyber security over the past few years; hackers are not being challenged to find new ways to steal companies' intellectual property and confidential information. The consequences of even major security breaches seem not to be felt by the leaders of victim companies. Why is this so? Surely IT security practitioners are seeking new ways to detect and prevent targeted intrusions into companies' networks? Are the consequences of targeted intrusions so insignificant that the captains of industry tolerate them? Or do only others feel the pain of their failure? This paper initially explores the failure of cyber security in industry and contends that, while industry leaders should not be alone in accepting responsibility for this failure, they must take the initiative to make life harder for cyber threat actors. They cannot wait for government leadership on policy, strategy or coordination. The paper then suggests some measures that a CEO can adopt to build a new corporate approach to cyber security.

  17. Evaluating U.S. and Chinese Cyber Security Strategies Within a Cultural Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    AU/ACSC/Patton, Diane E./AY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Evaluating U.S. and Chinese Cyber Security Strategies...7 Applications to Respective Cyber Strategies and National Security ...internet, ultimately leading to degradation in cyber security on a national level.44 Further, the widespread influence of internet access has changed

  18. Towards A Network-of-Networks Framework for Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Choudhury, Sutanay; Hogan, Emilie A.; Hui, Peter SY; Johnson, John R.; Ray, Indrajit; Holder, Lawrence B.

    2013-06-07

    Networks-of-networks (NoN) is a graph-theoretic model of interdependent networks that have distinct dynamics at each network (layer). By adding special edges to represent relationships between nodes in different layers, NoN provides a unified mechanism to study interdependent systems intertwined in a complex relationship. While NoN based models have been proposed for cyber-physical systems, in this paper we build towards a three-layer NoN model for an enterprise cyber system. Each layer captures a different facet of a cyber system. We then discuss the potential benefits of graph-theoretic analysis enabled from such a model. Our goal is to provide a novel and powerful tool for modeling and analyzing problems in cyber security.

  19. Closing the Cyber Gap: Integrating Cross-Government Cyber Capabilities to Support the DHS Cyber Security Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    skills kept me in the game when pressures got too high and sleep was a rare privilege. Kyra and Conner fully supported my educational pursuit even as...Sommestad, Mathias Ekstedt, and Pontus Johnson, “Cyber Security Risks Assessment with Bayesian Defense Graphs and Architectural Models,” in 42nd...Security Risks Assessment with Bayesian Defense Graphs and Architectural Models.” In 42nd International Conference On System Sciences, 2009, edited by

  20. Cyber security evaluation of II&C technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken

    2014-11-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, which is conducted in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Within the LWRS Program, the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. The II&C Pathway is conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Cyber security is a common concern among nuclear utilities and other nuclear industry stakeholders regarding the digital technologies that are being developed under this program. This concern extends to the point of calling into question whether these types of technologies could ever be deployed in nuclear plants given the possibility that the information in them can be compromised and the technologies themselves can potentially be exploited to serve as attack vectors for adversaries. To this end, a cyber security evaluation has been conducted of these technologies to determine whether they constitute a threat beyond what the nuclear plants already manage within their regulatory-required cyber security programs. Specifically, the evaluation is based on NEI 08-09, which is the industry’s template for cyber security programs and evaluations, accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as responsive to the requirements of the nuclear power plant cyber security regulation found in 10 CFR 73.54. The evaluation was conducted by a

  1. Process Control System Cyber Security Standards - An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans; V Stanley Scown; Rolf Carlson; Shabbir Shamsuddin; George Shaw; Jeff Dagle; Paul W Oman; Jeannine Schmidt

    2005-10-01

    The use of cyber security standards can greatly assist in the protection of critical infrastructure by providing guidelines and requisite imperatives in the implementation of computer-controlled systems. These standards are most effective when the engineers and operators using the standards understand what each of the standards addresses and does not address. This paper provides a review and comparison of ten documents dealing with control system cyber security. It is not meant to be a complete treatment of all applicable standards; rather, this is an exemplary analysis showing the benefits of comparing and contrasting differing documents.

  2. Using a Prediction Model to Manage Cyber Security Threats

    PubMed Central

    Muthu Sivashanmugam, Premapriya

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-attacks are an important issue faced by all organizations. Securing information systems is critical. Organizations should be able to understand the ecosystem and predict attacks. Predicting attacks quantitatively should be part of risk management. The cost impact due to worms, viruses, or other malicious software is significant. This paper proposes a mathematical model to predict the impact of an attack based on significant factors that influence cyber security. This model also considers the environmental information required. It is generalized and can be customized to the needs of the individual organization. PMID:26065024

  3. Using a Prediction Model to Manage Cyber Security Threats.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Venkatesh; Cherurveettil, Priyesh; Muthu Sivashanmugam, Premapriya

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-attacks are an important issue faced by all organizations. Securing information systems is critical. Organizations should be able to understand the ecosystem and predict attacks. Predicting attacks quantitatively should be part of risk management. The cost impact due to worms, viruses, or other malicious software is significant. This paper proposes a mathematical model to predict the impact of an attack based on significant factors that influence cyber security. This model also considers the environmental information required. It is generalized and can be customized to the needs of the individual organization.

  4. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  5. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  6. Cyber Security and American Cyber Competitiveness Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    Senate - 01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Cyber Security and American Cyber Competitiveness Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Security and Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Rice, Theora R.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2016-08-30

    As you have seen from the previous chapters, cyber-physical systems (CPS) are broadly used across technology and industrial domains. While these systems enable process optimization and efficiency and allow previously impossible functionality, security and privacy are key concerns for their design, development, and operation. CPS have been key components utilized in some of the highest publicized security breaches over the last decade. In this chapter, we will look over the CPS described in the previous chapters from a security perspective. In this chapter, we explain classical information and physical security fundamentals in the context of CPS and contextualize them across application domains. We give examples where the interplay of functionality and diverse communication can introduce unexpected vulnerabilities and produce larger impacts. We will discuss how CPS security and privacy is inherently different from that of pure cyber or physical systems and what may be done to secure these systems, considering their emergent cyber-physical properties. Finally, we will discuss security and privacy implications of merging infrastructural and personal CPS. Our hope is to impart the knowledge of what CPS security and privacy are, why they are important, and explain existing processes and challenges.

  9. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  10. Data fusion in cyber security: first order entity extraction from common cyber data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2012-06-01

    The Joint Directors of Labs Data Fusion Process Model (JDL Model) provides a framework for how to handle sensor data to develop higher levels of inference in a complex environment. Beginning from a call to leverage data fusion techniques in intrusion detection, there have been a number of advances in the use of data fusion algorithms in this subdomain of cyber security. While it is tempting to jump directly to situation-level or threat-level refinement (levels 2 and 3) for more exciting inferences, a proper fusion process starts with lower levels of fusion in order to provide a basis for the higher fusion levels. The process begins with first order entity extraction, or the identification of important entities represented in the sensor data stream. Current cyber security operational tools and their associated data are explored for potential exploitation, identifying the first order entities that exist in the data and the properties of these entities that are described by the data. Cyber events that are represented in the data stream are added to the first order entities as their properties. This work explores typical cyber security data and the inferences that can be made at the lower fusion levels (0 and 1) with simple metrics. Depending on the types of events that are expected by the analyst, these relatively simple metrics can provide insight on their own, or could be used in fusion algorithms as a basis for higher levels of inference.

  11. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A.

    2006-07-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from an intruder attempting to

  12. Cyber Security and American Cyber Competitiveness Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S130) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Study on Cyber Security and Threat Evaluation in SCADA Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    http://www.isa.org/Template.cfm?Section=Shop_ISA&Template=/ Ecommerce /ProductDisplay.cfm&Produ ctid=9665 • Integrating Electronic Security into...the Manufacturing and Control Systems Environment, ISA, 2004 - http://www.isa.org/Template.cfm?Section=books&template= Ecommerce /FileDisplay.cfm...template= Ecommerce /FileDisplay.cfm&ProductID=738 0&file=Preview.pdf • Peterson, D. and Howard, D. "Cyber Security for the Electric Sector," September 12

  14. A Comparison of Cross-Sector Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a review and comparison (commonality and differences) of three cross-sector cyber security standards and an internationally recognized information technology standard. The comparison identifies the security areas covered by each standard and reveals where the standards differ in emphasis. By identifying differences in the standards, the user can evaluate which standard best meets their needs. For this report, only cross-sector standards were reviewed.

  15. UVI Cyber-security Workshop Workshop Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuykendall, Tommie G.; Allsop, Jacob Lee; Anderson, Benjamin Robert; Boumedine, Marc; Carter, Cedric; Galvin, Seanmichael Yurko; Gonzalez, Oscar; Lee, Wellington K.; Lin, Han Wei; Morris, Tyler Jake; Nauer, Kevin S.; Potts, Beth A.; Ta, Kim Thanh; Trasti, Jennifer; White, David R.

    2015-07-08

    The cybersecurity consortium, which was established by DOE/NNSA’s Minority Serving Institutions Partnerships Program (MSIPP), allows students from any of the partner schools (13 HBCUs, two national laboratories, and a public school district) to have all consortia options available to them, to create career paths and to open doors to DOE sites and facilities to student members of the consortium. As a part of this year consortium activities, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Virgin Islands conducted a week long cyber workshop that consisted of three courses; Digital Forensics and Malware Analysis, Python Programming, and ThunderBird Cup. These courses are designed to enhance cyber defense skills and promote learning within STEM related fields.

  16. Breaking the cyber-security dilemma: aligning security needs and removing vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-09-01

    Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings.

  17. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Robert A; Jones, Corinne L; Iannacone, Michael D; Testa, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  18. Cyber Security Research Frameworks For Coevolutionary Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, George D.; Tauritz, Daniel Remy

    2015-12-03

    Several architectures have been created for developing and testing systems used in network security, but most are meant to provide a platform for running cyber security experiments as opposed to automating experiment processes. In the first paper, we propose a framework termed Distributed Cyber Security Automation Framework for Experiments (DCAFE) that enables experiment automation and control in a distributed environment. Predictive analysis of adversaries is another thorny issue in cyber security. Game theory can be used to mathematically analyze adversary models, but its scalability limitations restrict its use. Computational game theory allows us to scale classical game theory to larger, more complex systems. In the second paper, we propose a framework termed Coevolutionary Agent-based Network Defense Lightweight Event System (CANDLES) that can coevolve attacker and defender agent strategies and capabilities and evaluate potential solutions with a custom network defense simulation. The third paper is a continuation of the CANDLES project in which we rewrote key parts of the framework. Attackers and defenders have been redesigned to evolve pure strategy, and a new network security simulation is devised which specifies network architecture and adds a temporal aspect. We also add a hill climber algorithm to evaluate the search space and justify the use of a coevolutionary algorithm.

  19. Cyber Security: Assessing Our Vulnerabilities and Developing an Effective Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spafford, Eugene H.

    The number and sophistication of cyberattacks continues to increase, but no national policy is in place to confront them. Critical systems need to be built on secure foundations, rather than the cheapest general-purpose platform. A program that combines education in cyber security, increasing resources for law enforcement, development of reliable systems for critical applications, and expanding research support in multiple areas of security and reliability is essential to combat risks that are far beyond the nuisances of spam email and viruses, and involve widespread espionage, theft, and attacks on essential services.

  20. Bio-Inspired Cyber Security for Smart Grid Deployments

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, Archibald D.; Thompson, Seth R.; Doroshchuk, Ruslan A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2013-05-01

    mart grid technologies are transforming the electric power grid into a grid with bi-directional flows of both power and information. Operating millions of new smart meters and smart appliances will significantly impact electric distribution systems resulting in greater efficiency. However, the scale of the grid and the new types of information transmitted will potentially introduce several security risks that cannot be addressed by traditional, centralized security techniques. We propose a new bio-inspired cyber security approach. Social insects, such as ants and bees, have developed complex-adaptive systems that emerge from the collective application of simple, light-weight behaviors. The Digital Ants framework is a bio-inspired framework that uses mobile light-weight agents. Sensors within the framework use digital pheromones to communicate with each other and to alert each other of possible cyber security issues. All communication and coordination is both localized and decentralized thereby allowing the framework to scale across the large numbers of devices that will exist in the smart grid. Furthermore, the sensors are light-weight and therefore suitable for implementation on devices with limited computational resources. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Digital Ants framework and then present results from test bed-based demonstrations that show that Digital Ants can identify a cyber attack scenario against smart meter deployments.

  1. Validating Cyber Security Requirements: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerabilities in a system may have widely varying impacts on system security. In practice, security should not be defined as the absence of vulnerabilities. In practice, security should not be quantified by the number of vulnerabilities. Security should be managed by pursuing a policy that leads us first to the highest impact vulnerabilities. In light of these observations, we argue in favor of shifting our focus from vulnerability avoidance/removal to measurable security attributes. To this effect, we recommend a logic be used for system security, which captures/represents security properties in quantifiable, verifiable, measurable terms so that it is possible to reason about security in terms of its observable/perceptible effects rather than its hypothesized causes. This approach is orthogonal to existing techniques for vulnerability avoidance, removal, detection, and recovery, in the sense that it provides a means to assess, quantify, and combine these techniques.

  2. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  3. SecureCPS: Defending a nanosatellite cyber-physical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Lance; Vu, Huy; Udrea, Bogdan; Hagar, Hamilton; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.; Yampolskiy, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Recent inexpensive nanosatellite designs employ maneuvering thrusters, much as large satellites have done for decades. However, because a maneuvering nanosatellite can threaten HVAs on-­orbit, it must provide a level of security typically reserved for HVAs. Securing nanosatellites with maneuvering capability is challenging due to extreme cost, size, and power constraints. While still in the design process, our low-­cost SecureCPS architecture promises to dramatically improve security, to include preempting unknown binaries and detecting abnormal behavior. SecureCPS also applies to a broad class of cyber-­physical systems (CPS), such as aircraft, cars, and trains. This paper focuses on Embry-­Riddle's ARAPAIMA nanosatellite architecture, where we assume any off-­the-­shelf component could be compromised by a supply chain attack.1 Based on these assumptions, we have used Vanderbilt's Cyber Physical -­ Attack Description Language (CP-­ADL) to represent realistic attacks, analyze how these attacks propagate in the ARAPAIMA architecture, and how to defeat them using the combination of a low-­cost Root of Trust (RoT) Module, Global InfoTek's Advanced Malware Analysis System (GAMAS), and Anomaly Detection by Machine Learning (ADML).2 Our most recent efforts focus on refining and validating the design of SecureCPS.

  4. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  5. Tensions in collaborative cyber security and how they affect incident detection and response

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2009-12-01

    Security often requires collaboration, but when multiple stakeholders are involved, it is typical for their priorities to differ or even conflict with one another. In today’s increasingly networked world, cyber security collaborations may span organizations and countries. In this chapter, we address collaboration tensions, their effects on incident detection and response, and how these tensions may potentially be resolved. We present three case studies of collaborative cyber security within the U.S. government and discuss technical, social, and regulatory challenges to collaborative cyber security. We suggest possible solutions, and present lessons learned from conflicts. Finally, we compare collaborative solutions from other domains and apply them to cyber security collaboration. Although we concentrate our analysis on collaborations whose purpose is to achieve cyber security, we believe that this work applies readily to security tensions found in collaborations of a general nature as well.

  6. The Cyber Science and Security Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, James M.; Spain, C. Wes

    2010-05-11

    We propose the establishment of a technical center applying some of the nation's premier high-performance computing and analytic capabilities to solutions for critical national security problems in large-scale cybersecurity.

  7. Cyber security risk assessment for SCADA and DCS networks.

    PubMed

    Ralston, P A S; Graham, J H; Hieb, J L

    2007-10-01

    The growing dependence of critical infrastructures and industrial automation on interconnected physical and cyber-based control systems has resulted in a growing and previously unforeseen cyber security threat to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and distributed control systems (DCSs). It is critical that engineers and managers understand these issues and know how to locate the information they need. This paper provides a broad overview of cyber security and risk assessment for SCADA and DCS, introduces the main industry organizations and government groups working in this area, and gives a comprehensive review of the literature to date. Major concepts related to the risk assessment methods are introduced with references cited for more detail. Included are risk assessment methods such as HHM, IIM, and RFRM which have been applied successfully to SCADA systems with many interdependencies and have highlighted the need for quantifiable metrics. Presented in broad terms is probability risk analysis (PRA) which includes methods such as FTA, ETA, and FEMA. The paper concludes with a general discussion of two recent methods (one based on compromise graphs and one on augmented vulnerability trees) that quantitatively determine the probability of an attack, the impact of the attack, and the reduction in risk associated with a particular countermeasure.

  8. Cyber Assessment Methods For SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    May Robin Permann; Kenneth Rohde

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  9. Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  10. Integration into Cyber Security Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    12 APPENDIX B - SOFTWARE USER’S MANUAL...actions have become possible as a result of evolving networks environments: advances in hardware, software , and communications technology; as well...systems. Such resulting technology integrates network security, adaptability, and survivability into existing and evolving architectures and systems

  11. An Analytical Framework for Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    We are divergent with the threat… Malware: 125 lines of code* Li ne s of C od e 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 x x x x DEC Seal Stalker Milky ... Way Snort Network Flight Recorder Unified Threat Management 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 Security software

  12. Using Arabic CAPTCHA for Cyber Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Alghathbar, Khaled S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alkelabi, Abdullah M.; Alajaji, Abdulaziz

    Bots are automated programs designed to make auto registrations in online services, resulting in wastage of resources and breach of web security. English based CAPTCHAs are used to prevent bots from abusing these online services. However, English based CAPTCHAs have some inherent flaws and have been broken by bots. In this paper, an Arabic text based CAPTCHA is proposed. The CAPTCHA text image is distorted with background noise. Background noise and dots in the Arabic text makes CAPTCHA hard to be broken by Arabic OCRs. The proposed scheme is useful in Arabic speaking countries and in protecting internet resources. The proposed CAPTCHA scheme is both secure and robust. Experimental results show that background noise is a good defense mechanism against OCR recognizing Arabic text.

  13. ATIP Report: Cyber Security Research in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-05

    provided within. KEYWORDS: Government S&T Policy / Funding, Information Technology / IT, Mathematics , Telecommunications / Networking COUNTRY...vulnerabilities. • The environment of the mobile Internet continues to deteriorate. The number of malicious software programs causing security incidents...involving mobile terminals has increased 331.3% compared to 2012. Among the 702,861 malicious software modules detected by CNCERT, 99.5% of them

  14. 78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi..., until the maximum of 20 participants is selected, all interested U.S. IT and cyber-security firms and...

  15. Lessons Learned in Over a Decade of Technical Support for U.S. Nuclear Cyber Security Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Craig, Philip A.; Bass, Robert B.

    2013-09-05

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) nuclear cyber security team has been providing technical support to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) since 2002. This team has provided cyber security technical experties in conducting cyber security inspections, developing of regulatory rules and guidance, reviewing facility cyber security plans, developing inspection guidance, and developing and teaching NRC inspectors how to conduct cyber security assessments. The extensive experience the PNNL team has gathered has allowed them to compile a lenghty list of recommendations on how to improve cyber security programs and conduct assessments. A selected set of recommendations are presented, including the need to: integrate an array of defenisve strategies into a facility’s cyber security program, coordinate physical and cyber security activities, train phycial security forces to resist a cyber-enabled physical attack, improve estimates of the consequences of a cyber attack, properly resource cyber security assessments, appropropriately account for insider threats, routinely monitor security devices for potential attacks, supplement compliance-based requirements with risk-based decision making, and introduce the concept of resilience into cyber security programs.

  16. 77 FR 27615 - Department of Defense (DoD)-Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Voluntary Cyber Security and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Cyber Security and Information Assurance (CS/IA) Activities AGENCY: Office of the DoD Chief Information... voluntary cyber security information sharing program between DoD and eligible DIB companies. The program.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: DIB Cyber Security and Information Assurance Program Office: (703...

  17. Probabilistic Characterization of Adversary Behavior in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    The objective of this SMS effort is to provide a probabilistic characterization of adversary behavior in cyber security. This includes both quantitative (data analysis) and qualitative (literature review) components. A set of real LLNL email data was obtained for this study, consisting of several years worth of unfiltered traffic sent to a selection of addresses at ciac.org. The email data was subjected to three interrelated analyses: a textual study of the header data and subject matter, an examination of threats present in message attachments, and a characterization of the maliciousness of embedded URLs.

  18. Comparison of two methods to quantify cyber and physical security effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, Gregory Dane; Gordon, Kristl A.

    2005-11-01

    With the increasing reliance on cyber technology to operate and control physical security system components, there is a need for methods to assess and model the interactions between the cyber system and the physical security system to understand the effects of cyber technology on overall security system effectiveness. This paper evaluates two methodologies for their applicability to the combined cyber and physical security problem. The comparison metrics include probabilities of detection (P{sub D}), interruption (P{sub I}), and neutralization (P{sub N}), which contribute to calculating the probability of system effectiveness (P{sub E}), the probability that the system can thwart an adversary attack. P{sub E} is well understood in practical applications of physical security but when the cyber security component is added, system behavior becomes more complex and difficult to model. This paper examines two approaches (Bounding Analysis Approach (BAA) and Expected Value Approach (EVA)) to determine their applicability to the combined physical and cyber security issue. These methods were assessed for a variety of security system characteristics to determine whether reasonable security decisions could be made based on their results. The assessments provided insight on an adversary's behavior depending on what part of the physical security system is cyber-controlled. Analysis showed that the BAA is more suited to facility analyses than the EVA because it has the ability to identify and model an adversary's most desirable attack path.

  19. Secure it now or secure it later: the benefits of addressing cyber-security from the outset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Nutaro, James

    2013-05-01

    The majority of funding for research and development (R&D) in cyber-security is focused on the end of the software lifecycle where systems have been deployed or are nearing deployment. Recruiting of cyber-security personnel is similarly focused on end-of-life expertise. By emphasizing cyber-security at these late stages, security problems are found and corrected when it is most expensive to do so, thus increasing the cost of owning and operating complex software systems. Worse, expenditures on expensive security measures often mean less money for innovative developments. These unwanted increases in cost and potential slowing of innovation are unavoidable consequences of an approach to security that finds and remediate faults after software has been implemented. We argue that software security can be improved and the total cost of a software system can be substantially reduced by an appropriate allocation of resources to the early stages of a software project. By adopting a similar allocation of R&D funds to the early stages of the software lifecycle, we propose that the costs of cyber-security can be better controlled and, consequently, the positive effects of this R&D on industry will be much more pronounced.

  20. Secure control systems with application to cyber-physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jin; Djouadi, Seddik M; Nutaro, James J; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2014-01-01

    Control systems are computer-based systems with networked units consisting of sensors, actuators, control processing units, and communication devices. The role of control system is to interact, monitor, and control physical processes. Reactive power control is a fundamental issue in ensuring the security of the power network. It is claimed that Synchronous Condensers (SC) have been used at both distribution and transmission voltage levels to improve stability and to maintain voltages within desired limits under changing load conditions and contingency situations. Performance of PI controller corresponding to various tripping faults are analyzed for SC systems. Most of the eort in protecting these systems has been in protection against random failures or reliability. However, besides failures these systems are subject to various signal attacks for which new analysis are discussed here. When a breach does occur, it is necessary to react in a time commensurate with the physical dynamics of the system as it responds to the attack. Failure to act swiftly enough may result in undesirable, and possibly irreversible, physical eects. Therefore, it is meaningful to evaluate the security of a cyber-physical system, especially to protect it from cyber-attack. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to the SC systems.

  1. Emerging Security Mechanisms for Medical Cyber Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kocabas, Ovunc; Soyata, Tolga; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2016-01-01

    The following decade will witness a surge in remote health-monitoring systems that are based on body-worn monitoring devices. These Medical Cyber Physical Systems (MCPS) will be capable of transmitting the acquired data to a private or public cloud for storage and processing. Machine learning algorithms running in the cloud and processing this data can provide decision support to healthcare professionals. There is no doubt that the security and privacy of the medical data is one of the most important concerns in designing an MCPS. In this paper, we depict the general architecture of an MCPS consisting of four layers: data acquisition, data aggregation, cloud processing, and action. Due to the differences in hardware and communication capabilities of each layer, different encryption schemes must be used to guarantee data privacy within that layer. We survey conventional and emerging encryption schemes based on their ability to provide secure storage, data sharing, and secure computation. Our detailed experimental evaluation of each scheme shows that while the emerging encryption schemes enable exciting new features such as secure sharing and secure computation, they introduce several orders-of-magnitude computational and storage overhead. We conclude our paper by outlining future research directions to improve the usability of the emerging encryption schemes in an MCPS.

  2. Network Intrusion Detection and Visualization using Aggregations in a Cyber Security Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Czejdo, Bogdan; Ferragut, Erik M; Goodall, John R; Laska, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of achieving situational understanding is a limiting factor in effective, timely, and adaptive cyber-security analysis. Anomaly detection fills a critical role in network assessment and trend analysis, both of which underlie the establishment of comprehensive situational understanding. To that end, we propose a cyber security data warehouse implemented as a hierarchical graph of aggregations that captures anomalies at multiple scales. Each node of our pro-posed graph is a summarization table of cyber event aggregations, and the edges are aggregation operators. The cyber security data warehouse enables domain experts to quickly traverse a multi-scale aggregation space systematically. We describe the architecture of a test bed system and a summary of results on the IEEE VAST 2012 Cyber Forensics data.

  3. Cyber Terrorism: A Study of the Extent of Coverage in Computer Security Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Janet J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    On September 11th, 2001 the United States experienced the largest terrorist attack in its history. This event caused many government agencies to review their security practices and procedures. It also has raised awareness of other avenues that terrorists might pursue to achieve their goals, including cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can be…

  4. Cyber Terrorism: A Study of the Extent of Coverage in Computer Security Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Janet J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    On September 11th, 2001 the United States experienced the largest terrorist attack in its history. This event caused many government agencies to review their security practices and procedures. It also has raised awareness of other avenues that terrorists might pursue to achieve their goals, including cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can be…

  5. Towards an Experimental Testbed Facility for Cyber-Physical Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Manz, David O.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2012-01-07

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are under great scrutiny due to large Smart Grid investments and recent high profile security vulnerabilities and attacks. Research into improved security technologies, communication models, and emergent behavior is necessary to protect these systems from sophisticated adversaries and new risks posed by the convergence of CPSs with IT equipment. However, cyber-physical security research is limited by the lack of access to universal cyber-physical testbed facilities that permit flexible, high-fidelity experiments. This paper presents a remotely-configurable and community-accessible testbed design that integrates elements from the virtual, simulated, and physical environments. Fusing data between the three environments enables the creation of realistic and scalable environments where new functionality and ideas can be exercised. This novel design will enable the research community to analyze and evaluate the security of current environments and design future, secure, cyber-physical technologies.

  6. Cyber Friendly Fire: Research Challenges for Security Informatics

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2013-06-06

    This paper addresses cognitive implications and research needs surrounding the problem of cyber friendly fire (FF). We define cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintention-ally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, maintaining situation awareness (SA) is paramount to avoiding cyber FF incidents. Cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system’s topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system and its nodes, the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive and offensive countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. Mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF— including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches—are discussed.

  7. Cyber-Security Considerations for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-07-26

    The electrical power grid is evolving into the “smart grid”. The goal of the smart grid is to improve efficiency and availability of power by adding more monitoring and control capabilities. These new technologies and mechanisms are certain to introduce vulnerabilities into the power grid. In this paper we provide an overview of the cyber security state of the electrical power grid. We highlight some of the vulnerabilities that already exist in the power grid including limited capacity systems, implicit trust and the lack of authentication. We also address challenges of complexity, scale, added capabilities and the move to multipurpose hardware and software as the power grid is upgraded. These changes create vulnerabilities that did not exist before and bring increased risks. We conclude the paper by showing that there are a number mitigation strategies that can help keep the risk at an acceptable level.

  8. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  9. A genetic epidemiology approach to cyber-security.

    PubMed

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-16

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  10. A genetic epidemiology approach to cyber-security

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security. PMID:25028059

  11. Cyber security challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy

    PubMed Central

    Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Losavio, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The world is experiencing an evolution of Smart Cities. These emerge from innovations in information technology that, while they create new economic and social opportunities, pose challenges to our security and expectations of privacy. Humans are already interconnected via smart phones and gadgets. Smart energy meters, security devices and smart appliances are being used in many cities. Homes, cars, public venues and other social systems are now on their path to the full connectivity known as the “Internet of Things.” Standards are evolving for all of these potentially connected systems. They will lead to unprecedented improvements in the quality of life. To benefit from them, city infrastructures and services are changing with new interconnected systems for monitoring, control and automation. Intelligent transportation, public and private, will access a web of interconnected data from GPS location to weather and traffic updates. Integrated systems will aid public safety, emergency responders and in disaster recovery. We examine two important and entangled challenges: security and privacy. Security includes illegal access to information and attacks causing physical disruptions in service availability. As digital citizens are more and more instrumented with data available about their location and activities, privacy seems to disappear. Privacy protecting systems that gather data and trigger emergency response when needed are technological challenges that go hand-in-hand with the continuous security challenges. Their implementation is essential for a Smart City in which we would wish to live. We also present a model representing the interactions between person, servers and things. Those are the major element in the Smart City and their interactions are what we need to protect. PMID:25685517

  12. Cyber security challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy.

    PubMed

    Elmaghraby, Adel S; Losavio, Michael M

    2014-07-01

    The world is experiencing an evolution of Smart Cities. These emerge from innovations in information technology that, while they create new economic and social opportunities, pose challenges to our security and expectations of privacy. Humans are already interconnected via smart phones and gadgets. Smart energy meters, security devices and smart appliances are being used in many cities. Homes, cars, public venues and other social systems are now on their path to the full connectivity known as the "Internet of Things." Standards are evolving for all of these potentially connected systems. They will lead to unprecedented improvements in the quality of life. To benefit from them, city infrastructures and services are changing with new interconnected systems for monitoring, control and automation. Intelligent transportation, public and private, will access a web of interconnected data from GPS location to weather and traffic updates. Integrated systems will aid public safety, emergency responders and in disaster recovery. We examine two important and entangled challenges: security and privacy. Security includes illegal access to information and attacks causing physical disruptions in service availability. As digital citizens are more and more instrumented with data available about their location and activities, privacy seems to disappear. Privacy protecting systems that gather data and trigger emergency response when needed are technological challenges that go hand-in-hand with the continuous security challenges. Their implementation is essential for a Smart City in which we would wish to live. We also present a model representing the interactions between person, servers and things. Those are the major element in the Smart City and their interactions are what we need to protect.

  13. Cyber Science and Security - An R&D Partnership at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J; Henson, V

    2011-03-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has established a mechanism for partnership that integrates the high-performance computing capabilities of the National Labs, the network and cyber technology expertise of leading information technology companies, and the long-term research vision of leading academic cyber programs. The Cyber Science and Security Center is designed to be a working partnership among Laboratory, Industrial, and Academic institutions, and provides all three with a shared R&D environment, technical information sharing, sophisticated high-performance computing facilities, and data resources for the partner institutions and sponsors. The CSSC model is an institution where partner organizations can work singly or in groups on the most pressing problems of cyber security, where shared vision and mutual leveraging of expertise and facilities can produce results and tools at the cutting edge of cyber science.

  14. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... in the safety and security industries, including Information Communications Technology (ICT..., skills and resources from the United States to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the areas of critical... communication systems, electronic detection equipment, cyber intrusion detection and prevention, perimeter...

  15. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  16. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  17. Situational Awareness as a Measure of Performance in Cyber Security Collaborative Work

    SciTech Connect

    Malviya, Ashish; Fink, Glenn A.; Sego, Landon H.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2011-04-11

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge in turn could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. We conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the Pacific-rim Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (PRCCDC) and analyzed it to study the behavior of cyber defenders. We propose that situational awareness predicts performance of cyber security professionals, and in this paper we focus on our collection and analysis of competition data to determine whether it supports our hypothesis. In addition to normal cyber data, we collected situational awareness and workload data and compared it against the performance of cyber defenders as indicated by their competition score. We conclude that there is a weak correlation between our measure of situational awareness and performance that we hope to exploit in further studies.

  18. A developmental approach to learning causal models for cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugan, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    To keep pace with our adversaries, we must expand the scope of machine learning and reasoning to address the breadth of possible attacks. One approach is to employ an algorithm to learn a set of causal models that describes the entire cyber network and each host end node. Such a learning algorithm would run continuously on the system and monitor activity in real time. With a set of causal models, the algorithm could anticipate novel attacks, take actions to thwart them, and predict the second-order effects flood of information, and the algorithm would have to determine which streams of that flood were relevant in which situations. This paper will present the results of efforts toward the application of a developmental learning algorithm to the problem of cyber security. The algorithm is modeled on the principles of human developmental learning and is designed to allow an agent to learn about the computer system in which it resides through active exploration. Children are flexible learners who acquire knowledge by actively exploring their environment and making predictions about what they will find,1, 2 and our algorithm is inspired by the work of the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget.3 Piaget described how children construct knowledge in stages and learn new concepts on top of those they already know. Developmental learning allows our algorithm to focus on subsets of the environment that are most helpful for learning given its current knowledge. In experiments, the algorithm was able to learn the conditions for file exfiltration and use that knowledge to protect sensitive files.

  19. Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures: Application of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic in Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-08-01

    Resiliency and cyber security of modern critical infrastructures is becoming increasingly important with the growing number of threats in the cyber-environment. This paper proposes an extension to a previously developed fuzzy logic based anomaly detection network security cyber sensor via incorporating Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (T2 FL). In general, fuzzy logic provides a framework for system modeling in linguistic form capable of coping with imprecise and vague meanings of words. T2 FL is an extension of Type-1 FL which proved to be successful in modeling and minimizing the effects of various kinds of dynamic uncertainties. In this paper, T2 FL provides a basis for robust anomaly detection and cyber security state awareness. In addition, the proposed algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental cyber-security test-bed.

  20. 21st Century Cyber Security: Legal Authorities and Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Cyber warfare has risen to the level of strategic effect. Exigent threats in cyberspace are a critical U.S. strategic vulnerability for which U.S...operations cross many sections of United States Code. But, they have not yielded a genuine whole-of-government approach. This SRP argues that cyber warfare has

  1. Towards the cyber security paradigm of ehealth: Resilience and design aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamäki, Jyri; Pirinen, Rauno

    2017-06-01

    Digital technologies have significantly changed the role of healthcare clients in seeking and receiving medical help, as well as brought up more cooperative policy issues in healthcare cross-border services. Citizens continue to take a more co-creative role in decisions about their own healthcare, and new technologies can enable and facilitate this emergent trend. In this study, healthcare services have been intended as a critical societal sector and therefore healthcare systems are focused on as critical infrastructures that ought to be protected from all types of fears, including cyber security threats and attacks. Despite continual progress in the systemic risk management of cyber domain, it is clear that anticipation and prevention of all possible types of attack and malfunction are not achievable for current or future cyber infrastructures. This study focuses on the investigation of a cyber security paradigm, adaptive systems and sense of resilience in a healthcare critical information infrastructure.

  2. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  3. A preliminary cyber-physical security assessment of the Robot Operating System (ROS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClean, Jarrod; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the course of the last few years, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has become a highly popular software framework for robotics research. ROS has a very active developer community and is widely used for robotics research in both academia and government labs. The prevalence and modularity of ROS cause many people to ask the question: "What prevents ROS from being used in commercial or government applications?" One of the main problems that is preventing this increased use of ROS in these applications is the question of characterizing its security (or lack thereof). In the summer of 2012, a crowd sourced cyber-physical security contest was launched at the cyber security conference DEF CON 20 to begin the process of characterizing the security of ROS. A small-scale, car-like robot was configured as a cyber-physical security "honeypot" running ROS. DEFFCON-20 attendees were invited to find exploits and vulnerabilities in the robot while network traffic was collected. The results of this experiment provided some interesting insights and opened up many security questions pertaining to deployed robotic systems. The Federal Aviation Administration is tasked with opening up the civil airspace to commercial drones by September 2015 and driverless cars are already legal for research purposes in a number of states. Given the integration of these robotic devices into our daily lives, the authors pose the following question: "What security exploits can a motivated person with little-to-no experience in cyber security execute, given the wide availability of free cyber security penetration testing tools such as Metasploit?" This research focuses on applying common, low-cost, low-overhead, cyber-attacks on a robot featuring ROS. This work documents the effectiveness of those attacks.

  4. Cyber-Physical Security Assessment (CyPSA) Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Luis; Patapanchala, Panini; Zonouz, Saman; Davis, Kate; Davis, Matt; Berthier, Robin; Bamba, Mouna; Soubigou, Olivier; Rayala, Vishnu Priya; Weaver, Gabe; Rogers, Edmond; Bobba, Rakesh; Nicol, David; Sauer, Pete

    2016-08-31

    CyPSA seeks to organize and gain insight into the diverse sets of data that a critical infrastructure provider must manage. Specifically CyPSA inventories, manages, and analyzes assets and relations among those assets. A variety of interfaces are provided. CyPSA inventories assets (both cyber and physical). This may include the cataloging of assets through a common interface. Data sources used to generate a catalogue of assets include PowerWorld, NPView, NMap Scans, and device configurations. Depending upon the role of the person using the tool the types of assets accessed as well as the data sources through which asset information is accessed may vary. CyPSA allows practitioners to catalogue relations among assets and these may either be manually or programmatically generated. For example, some common relations among assets include the following: Topological Network Data: Which devices and assets are connected and how? Data sources for this kind of information include NMap scans, NPView topologies (via Firewall rule analysis). Security Metrics Outputs: The output of various security metrics such as overall exposure. Configure Assets:CyPSA may eventually include the ability to configure assets including relays and switches. For example, a system administrator would be able to configure and alter the state of a relay via the CyPSA interface. Annotate Assets: CyPSA also allows practitioners to manually and programmatically annotate assets. Sources of information with which to annotate assets include provenance metadata regarding the data source from which the asset was loaded, vulnerability information from vulnerability databases, configuration information, and the output of an analysis in general.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Based Anomaly Detection for Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jason Wright; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Resiliency and security in critical infrastructure control systems in the modern world of cyber terrorism constitute a relevant concern. Developing a network security system specifically tailored to the requirements of such critical assets is of a primary importance. This paper proposes a novel learning algorithm for anomaly based network security cyber sensor together with its hardware implementation. The presented learning algorithm constructs a fuzzy logic rule based model of normal network behavior. Individual fuzzy rules are extracted directly from the stream of incoming packets using an online clustering algorithm. This learning algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental test-bed mimicking the environment of a critical infrastructure control system.

  6. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of... Technology (NIST) is seeking information relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC). NIST is...

  7. Good Things in Small Packages: Micro Worlds and Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    David I Gertman

    2013-11-01

    Cyber events, as perpetrated by terrorists and nation states, have become commonplace as evidenced in national and international news media. Cyber attacks affect day-to-day activities of end users through exploitation of social networks, businesses such as banking and stock exchanges, and government entities including Departments of Defense. They are becoming more frequent and sophisticated. Currently, efforts are directed to understanding the methods employed by attackers and towards dissecting the planning and activities of the perpetrator, including review of psychosocial factors.

  8. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  9. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  10. Cyber Security Indications and Warning System (SV): CRADA 1573.94 Project Accomplishments Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Tan Chang; Robinson, David G.

    2011-09-08

    As the national focus on cyber security increases, there is an evolving need for a capability to provide for high-speed sensing of events, correlation of events, and decision-making based on the adverse events seen across multiple independent large-scale network environments. The purpose of this Shared Vision project, Cyber Security Indications and Warning System, was to combine both Sandia's and LMC's expertise to discover new solutions to the challenge of protecting our nation's infrastructure assets. The objectives and scope of the proposal was limited to algorithm and High Performance Computing (HPC) model assessment in the unclassified environment within funding and schedule constraints. The interest is the identification, scalability assessment, and applicability of current utilized cyber security algorithms as applied in an HPC environment.

  11. T3: Secure, Scalable, Distributed Data Movement and Remote System Control for Enterprise Level Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Gregory S.; Nickless, William K.; Thiede, David R.; Gorton, Ian; Pitre, Bill J.; Christy, Jason E.; Faultersack, Elizabeth M.; Mauth, Jeffery A.

    2009-07-20

    Enterprise level cyber security requires the deployment, operation, and monitoring of many sensors across geographically dispersed sites. Communicating with the sensors to gather data and control behavior is a challenging task when the number of sensors is rapidly growing. This paper describes the system requirements, design, and implementation of T3, the third generation of our transport software that performs this task. T3 relies on open source software and open Internet standards. Data is encoded in MIME format messages and transported via NNTP, which provides scalability. OpenSSL and public key cryptography are used to secure the data. Robustness and ease of development are increased by defining an internal cryptographic API, implemented by modules in C, Perl, and Python. We are currently using T3 in a production environment. It is freely available to download and use for other projects.

  12. Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords

    PubMed Central

    Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  13. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger [corrected] people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns.

  14. Modeling and simulation for cyber-physical system security research, development and applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Chavez, Adrian R.; Urrea, Jorge Mario; Pattengale, Nicholas; McDonald, Michael James; Cassidy, Regis H.; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Mulder, John C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid modeling and simulation architecture developed at Sandia for understanding and developing protections against and mitigations for cyber threats upon control systems. It first outlines the challenges to PCS security that can be addressed using these technologies. The paper then describes Virtual Control System Environments (VCSE) that use this approach and briefly discusses security research that Sandia has performed using VCSE. It closes with recommendations to the control systems security community for applying this valuable technology.

  15. Security Hardened Cyber Components for Nuclear Power Plants: Phase I SBIR Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franusich, Michael D.

    2016-03-18

    SpiralGen, Inc. built a proof-of-concept toolkit for enhancing the cyber security of nuclear power plants and other critical infrastructure with high-assurance instrumentation and control code. The toolkit is based on technology from the DARPA High-Assurance Cyber Military Systems (HACMS) program, which has focused on applying the science of formal methods to the formidable set of problems involved in securing cyber physical systems. The primary challenges beyond HACMS in developing this toolkit were to make the new technology usable by control system engineers and compatible with the regulatory and commercial constraints of the nuclear power industry. The toolkit, packaged as a Simulink add-on, allows a system designer to assemble a high-assurance component from formally specified and proven blocks and generate provably correct control and monitor code for that subsystem.

  16. Combining Traditional Cyber Security Audit Data with Psychosocial Data: Towards Predictive Modeling for Insider Threat Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to motivate the combination of traditional cyber security audit data with psychosocial data, so as to move from an insider threat detection stance to one that enables prediction of potential insider presence. Two distinctive aspects of the approach are the objective of predicting or anticipating potential risks and the use of organizational data in addition to cyber data to support the analysis. The chapter describes the challenges of this endeavor and progress in defining a usable set of predictive indicators, developing a framework for integrating the analysis of organizational and cyber security data to yield predictions about possible insider exploits, and developing the knowledge base and reasoning capability of the system. We also outline the types of errors that one expects in a predictive system versus a detection system and discuss how those errors can affect the usefulness of the results.

  17. Main control computer security model of closed network systems protection against cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymen, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    The model that brings the data input/output under control in closed network systems, that maintains the system securely, and that controls the flow of information through the Main Control Computer which also brings the network traffic under control against cyber-attacks. The network, which can be controlled single-handedly thanks to the system designed to enable the network users to make data entry into the system or to extract data from the system securely, intends to minimize the security gaps. Moreover, data input/output record can be kept by means of the user account assigned for each user, and it is also possible to carry out retroactive tracking, if requested. Because the measures that need to be taken for each computer on the network regarding cyber security, do require high cost; it has been intended to provide a cost-effective working environment with this model, only if the Main Control Computer has the updated hardware.

  18. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  19. Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    attribution 1.1 Authentication, Authorization, and Trust Management Definition Authentication is the process of verifying the identity or authority of a...November 2005, for elaboration). Functional Cyber Security 33 1.2 Access Control and Privilege Management Definition Access control and privilege...management and real-time queuing theory. 5.11 Integrated, Enterprise-Wide Security Monitoring and Management Definition An enterprise consists of one or

  20. Cyber security with radio frequency interferences mitigation study for satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Genshe; Tian, Xin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Nguyen, Tien M.; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite systems including the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the satellite communications (SATCOM) system provide great convenience and utility to human life including emergency response, wide area efficient communications, and effective transportation. Elements of satellite systems incorporate technologies such as navigation with the global positioning system (GPS), satellite digital video broadcasting, and information transmission with a very small aperture terminal (VSAT), etc. The satellite systems importance is growing in prominence with end users' requirement for globally high data rate transmissions; the cost reduction of launching satellites; development of smaller sized satellites including cubesat, nanosat, picosat, and femtosat; and integrating internet services with satellite networks. However, with the promising benefits, challenges remain to fully develop secure and robust satellite systems with pervasive computing and communications. In this paper, we investigate both cyber security and radio frequency (RF) interferences mitigation for satellite systems, and demonstrate that they are not isolated. The action space for both cyber security and RF interferences are firstly summarized for satellite systems, based on which the mitigation schemes for both cyber security and RF interferences are given. A multi-layered satellite systems structure is provided with cross-layer design considering multi-path routing and channel coding, to provide great security and diversity gains for secure and robust satellite systems.

  1. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  2. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  3. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  4. GridStat – Cyber Security and Regional Deployment Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-02-18

    GridStat is a developing communication technology to provide real-time data delivery services to the electric power grid. It is being developed in a collaborative effort between the Electrical Power Engineering and Distributed Computing Science Departments at Washington State University. Improving the cyber security of GridStat was the principle focus of this project. A regional network was established to test GridStat’s cyber security mechanisms in a realistic environment. The network consists of nodes at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Washington State University. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was tasked with performing the security assessment, the results of which detailed a number or easily resolvable and previously unknown issues, as well as a number of difficult and previously known issues. Going forward we recommend additional development prior to commercialization of GridStat. The development plan is structured into three domains: Core Development, Cyber Security and Pilot Projects. Each domain contains a number of phased subtasks that build upon each other to increase the robustness and maturity of GridStat.

  5. 75 FR 18819 - Second DRAFT NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628, Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) seeks comments on the second draft of NISTIR 7628, Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and Requirements. This second draft has been updated to address the comments submitted. In addition, the privacy, vulnerability categories, bottom-up analysis, individual logical interface diagrams, and the cyber security strategy sections have all been updated and expanded and the requirements section has been revised to include requirements for the entire Smart Grid. Finally, there are new sections on research and development, standards assessment, and an overall logical functional architecture. This is the second draft of NISTIR 7628; the final version is scheduled to be posted in the spring of 2010.

  6. Performance Analysis of Cyber Security Awareness Delivery Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    In order to decrease information security threats caused by human-related vulnerabilities, an increased concentration on information security awareness and training is necessary. There are numerous information security awareness training delivery methods. The purpose of this study was to determine what delivery method is most successful in providing security awareness training. We conducted security awareness training using various delivery methods such as text based, game based and a short video presentation with the aim of determining user preference delivery methods. Our study suggests that a combined delvery methods are better than individual secrity awareness delivery method.

  7. Defining and Computing a Value Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In past work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities\\; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  8. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  9. Applications for cyber security - System and application monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    Standard network security measures are adequate for defense against external attacks. However, many experts agree that the greater threat is from internal sources. Insiders with malicious intentions can change controller instructions, change alarm thresholds, and issue commands to equipment which can damage equipment and compromise control system integrity. In addition to strict physical security the state of the system must be continually monitored. System and application monitoring goes beyond the capabilities of network security appliances. It will include active processes, operating system services, files, network adapters and IP addresses. The generation of alarms is a crucial feature of system and application monitoring. The alarms should be integrated to avoid the burden on operators of checking multiple locations for security violations. Tools for system and application monitoring include commercial software, free software, and ad-hoc tools that can be easily created. System and application monitoring is part of a 'defense-in-depth' approach to a control network security plan. Layered security measures prevent an individual security measure failure from being exploited into a successful security breach. Alarming of individual failures is essential for rapid isolation and correction of single failures. System and application monitoring is the innermost layer of this defense strategy. (authors)

  10. Analyzing Cyber Security Threats on Cyber-Physical Systems Using Model-Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhner, Aleksandr; Pomerantz, Marc; Tan, Kymie; Campuzano, Brian; Dinkel, Kevin; Pecharich, Jeremy; Nguyen, Viet; Steele, Robert; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The spectre of cyber attacks on aerospace systems can no longer be ignored given that many of the components and vulnerabilities that have been successfully exploited by the adversary on other infrastructures are the same as those deployed and used within the aerospace environment. An important consideration with respect to the mission/safety critical infrastructure supporting space operations is that an appropriate defensive response to an attack invariably involves the need for high precision and accuracy, because an incorrect response can trigger unacceptable losses involving lives and/or significant financial damage. A highly precise defensive response, considering the typical complexity of aerospace environments, requires a detailed and well-founded understanding of the underlying system where the goal of the defensive response is to preserve critical mission objectives in the presence of adversarial activity. In this paper, a structured approach for modeling aerospace systems is described. The approach includes physical elements, network topology, software applications, system functions, and usage scenarios. We leverage Model-Based Systems Engineering methodology by utilizing the Object Management Group's Systems Modeling Language to represent the system being analyzed and also utilize model transformations to change relevant aspects of the model into specialized analyses. A novel visualization approach is utilized to visualize the entire model as a three-dimensional graph, allowing easier interaction with subject matter experts. The model provides a unifying structure for analyzing the impact of a particular attack or a particular type of attack. Two different example analysis types are demonstrated in this paper: a graph-based propagation analysis based on edge labels, and a graph-based propagation analysis based on node labels.

  11. Sandia Cyber Omni Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Peterson, Todd Bruner

    2014-07-02

    SCOT cyber security team enhancement tool that coordinates activities, captures knowledge, and serves as a platform to automate time-consuming tasks that a cyber security team needs to perform in its daily operations.

  12. LESSONS LEARNED FROM CYBER SECURITY ASSESSMENTS OF SCADA AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Fink

    2006-10-01

    The results from ten cyber security vulnerability assessments of process control, SCADA and energy management systems, or components of those systems were reviewed to identify common problem areas. The common vulnerabilities ranged from conventional IT security issues to specific weaknesses in control system protocols. In each vulnerability category, relative measures were assigned to the severity of the vulnerability and ease with which an attacker could exploit the vulnerability. Suggested mitigations are identified in each category. Recommended mitigations having the highest impact on reducing vulnerability are listed for asset owners and system vendors.

  13. Towards a Relation Extraction Framework for Cyber-Security Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Corinne L; Bridges, Robert A; Huffer, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2015-01-01

    In order to assist security analysts in obtaining information pertaining to their network, such as novel vulnerabilities, exploits, or patches, information retrieval methods tailored to the security domain are needed. As labeled text data is scarce and expensive, we follow developments in semi-supervised NLP and implement a bootstrapping algorithm for extracting security entities and their relationships from text. The algorithm requires little input data, specifically, a few relations or patterns (heuristics for identifying relations), and incorporates an active learning component which queries the user on the most important decisions to prevent drifting the desired relations. Preliminary testing on a small corpus shows promising results, obtaining precision of .82.

  14. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  15. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In earlier works (Ben-Aissa et al. 2010; Abercrombie et al. 2008; Sheldon et al. 2009), we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  16. CS651 Computer Systems Security Foundations 3d Imagination Cyber Security Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Roy S.

    2015-03-02

    3d Imagination is a new company that bases its business on selling and improving 3d open source related hardware. The devices that they sell include 3d imagers, 3d printers, pick and place machines and laser etchers. They have a fast company intranet for ease in sharing, storing and printing large, complex 3d designs. They have an employee set that requires a variety of operating systems including Windows, Mac and a variety of Linux both for running business services as well as design and test machines. There are a wide variety of private networks for testing transfer rates to and from the 3d devices, without interference with other network tra c. They do video conferencing conferencing with customers and other designers. One of their machines is based on the project found at delta.firepick.org(Krassenstein, 2014; Biggs, 2014), which in future, will perform most of those functions. Their devices all include embedded systems, that may have full blown operating systems. Most of their systems are designed to have swappable parts, so when a new technology is born, it can be quickly adopted by people with 3d Imagination hardware. This company is producing a fair number of systems and components, however to get the funding they need to mass produce quality parts, so they are preparing for an IPO to raise the funds they need. They would like to have a cyber-security audit performed so they can give their investors con dence that they are protecting their data, customers information and printers in a proactive manner.

  17. Cyber crimes.

    PubMed

    Nuzback, Kara

    2014-07-01

    Since it began offering cyber liability coverage in December 2011, the Texas Medical Liability Trust has received more than 150 cyber liability claims, most of which involved breaches of electronic protected health information. TMLT's cyber liability insurance will protect practices financially should a breach occur. The insurance covers a breach notification to customers and business partners, expenses for legal counsel, information security and forensic data services, public relations support, call center and website support, credit monitoring, and identity theft restoration services.

  18. Using Discrete Event Simulation to Model Attacker Interactions with Cyber and Physical Security Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Perkins, Casey; Muller, George

    2015-10-08

    The number of connections between physical and cyber security systems is rapidly increasing due to centralized control from automated and remotely connected means. As the number of interfaces between systems continues to grow, the interactions and interdependencies between them cannot be ignored. Historically, physical and cyber vulnerability assessments have been performed independently. This independent evaluation omits important aspects of the integrated system, where the impacts resulting from malicious or opportunistic attacks are not easily known or understood. Here, we describe a discrete event simulation model that uses information about integrated physical and cyber security systems, attacker characteristics and simple responsemore » rules to identify key safeguards that limit an attacker's likelihood of success. Key features of the proposed model include comprehensive data generation to support a variety of sophisticated analyses, and full parameterization of safeguard performance characteristics and attacker behaviours to evaluate a range of scenarios. Lastly, we also describe the core data requirements and the network of networks that serves as the underlying simulation structure.« less

  19. Using Discrete Event Simulation to Model Attacker Interactions with Cyber and Physical Security Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Casey; Muller, George

    2015-10-08

    The number of connections between physical and cyber security systems is rapidly increasing due to centralized control from automated and remotely connected means. As the number of interfaces between systems continues to grow, the interactions and interdependencies between them cannot be ignored. Historically, physical and cyber vulnerability assessments have been performed independently. This independent evaluation omits important aspects of the integrated system, where the impacts resulting from malicious or opportunistic attacks are not easily known or understood. Here, we describe a discrete event simulation model that uses information about integrated physical and cyber security systems, attacker characteristics and simple response rules to identify key safeguards that limit an attacker's likelihood of success. Key features of the proposed model include comprehensive data generation to support a variety of sophisticated analyses, and full parameterization of safeguard performance characteristics and attacker behaviours to evaluate a range of scenarios. Lastly, we also describe the core data requirements and the network of networks that serves as the underlying simulation structure.

  20. Using cyber vulnerability testing techniques to expose undocumented security vulnerabilities in DCS and SCADA equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, J.

    2006-07-01

    This session starts by providing an overview of typical DCS (Distributed Control Systems) and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) architectures, and exposes cyber security vulnerabilities that vendors never admit, but are found through a comprehensive cyber testing process. A complete assessment process involves testing all of the layers and components of a SCADA or DCS environment, from the perimeter firewall all the way down to the end devices controlling the process, including what to look for when conducting a vulnerability assessment of real-time control systems. The following systems are discussed: 1. Perimeter (isolation from corporate IT or other non-critical networks) 2. Remote Access (third Party access into SCADA or DCS networks) 3. Network Architecture (switch, router, firewalls, access controls, network design) 4. Network Traffic Analysis (what is running on the network) 5. Host Operating Systems Hardening 6. Applications (how they communicate with other applications and end devices) 7. End Device Testing (PLCs, RTUs, DCS Controllers, Smart Transmitters) a. System Discovery b. Functional Discovery c. Attack Methodology i. DoS Tests (at what point does the device fail) ii. Malformed Packet Tests (packets that can cause equipment failure) iii. Session Hijacking (do anything that the operator can do) iv. Packet Injection (code and inject your own SCADA commands) v. Protocol Exploitation (Protocol Reverse Engineering / Fuzzing) This paper will provide information compiled from over five years of conducting cyber security testing on control systems hardware, software, and systems. (authors)

  1. Security Analysis of Smart Grid Cyber Physical Infrastructures Using Modeling and Game Theoretic Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2015-01-01

    Cyber physical computing infrastructures typically consist of a number of sites are interconnected. Its operation critically depends both on cyber components and physical components. Both types of components are subject to attacks of different kinds and frequencies, which must be accounted for the initial provisioning and subsequent operation of the infrastructure via information security analysis. Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the electric sector failure scenarios and impact analyses by the NESCOR Working Group Study, From the Section 5 electric sector representative failure scenarios; we extracted the four generic failure scenarios and grouped them into three specific threat categories (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) to the system. These specific failure scenarios serve as a demonstration of our simulation. The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the electric sector functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the cyber physical infrastructure network with respect to CIA.

  2. Cyber Security and Reliability in a Digital Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    and Netflix have demonstrated, commercial cloud computing is a reliable, economical, and highly scalable way to provide video to users. The...Numbers  (ICANN)  Mr. Bill Burns  Netflix   Netflix  Cloud Security  Mr. Edmundo Costa   Catbird  Security and Compliance for  Virtual and Cloud

  3. Strengthening DoD Cyber Security with the Vulnerability Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    DIARMF). While DIARMF addresses many shortcomings, it will be years before the process is fully implemented. Penetration testing, or authorized hacking ...anonymity have a value unto them- selves. By offering a safe and nonattribution environment, security researchers are welcome to hack a government...For example, since 2007 the CanSecWest security conference has hosted the annual Pwn2Own bug challenge, which rewards researchers for hacking into

  4. Towards an integrated defense system for cyber security situation awareness experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an implemented defense system is demonstrated to carry out cyber security situation awareness. The developed system consists of distributed passive and active network sensors designed to effectively capture suspicious information associated with cyber threats, effective detection schemes to accurately distinguish attacks, and network actors to rapidly mitigate attacks. Based on the collected data from network sensors, image-based and signals-based detection schemes are implemented to detect attacks. To further mitigate attacks, deployed dynamic firewalls on hosts dynamically update detection information reported from the detection schemes and block attacks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system. A future plan to design an effective defense system is also discussed based on system theory.

  5. 76 FR 6637 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth Is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...-Depth strategy for cyber security. The workshop will be held March 22, 2011 in the Washington DC area... protection. The Defense-in-Depth strategy was designed to provide multiple layers of security mechanisms... of an attack,'' suggesting ] a new dimension for Defense-in-Depth along the lifecycle of an...

  6. Three tenets for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Jeff; Cybenko, George

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a threat-driven quantitative mathematical framework for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment. Called The Three Tenets, this originally empirical approach has been used by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for secure system research and development. The Tenets were first documented in 2005 as a teachable methodology. The Tenets are motivated by a system threat model that itself consists of three elements which must exist for successful attacks to occur: - system susceptibility; - threat accessibility and; - threat capability. The Three Tenets arise naturally by countering each threat element individually. Specifically, the tenets are: Tenet 1: Focus on What's Critical - systems should include only essential functions (to reduce susceptibility); Tenet 2: Move Key Assets Out-of-Band - make mission essential elements and security controls difficult for attackers to reach logically and physically (to reduce accessibility); Tenet 3: Detect, React, Adapt - confound the attacker by implementing sensing system elements with dynamic response technologies (to counteract the attackers' capabilities). As a design methodology, the Tenets mitigate reverse engineering and subsequent attacks on complex systems. Quantified by a Bayesian analysis and further justified by analytic properties of attack graph models, the Tenets suggest concrete cyber security metrics for system assessment.

  7. Cyber Safety and Security for Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    NASA and the Aviation Industry is looking into reduced crew operations (RCO) that would cut today's required two-person flight crews down to a single pilot with support from ground-based crews. Shared responsibility across air and ground personnel will require highly reliable and secure data communication and supporting automation, which will be safety-critical for passenger and cargo aircraft. This paper looks at the different types and degrees of authority delegation given from the air to the ground and the ramifications of each, including the safety and security hazards introduced, the mitigation mechanisms for these hazards, and other demands on an RCO system architecture which would be highly invasive into (almost) all safety-critical avionics. The adjacent fields of unmanned aerial systems and autonomous ground vehicles are viewed to find problems that RCO may face and related aviation accident scenarios are described. The paper explores possible data communication architectures to meet stringent performance and information security (INFOSEC) requirements of RCO. Subsequently, potential challenges for RCO data communication authentication, encryption and non-repudiation are identified. The approach includes a comprehensive safety-hazard analysis of the RCO system to determine top level INFOSEC requirements for RCO and proposes an option for effective RCO implementation. This paper concludes with questioning the economic viability of RCO in light of the expense of overcoming the operational safety and security hazards it would introduce.

  8. IEC 61850 and IEC 62351 Cyber Security Acceleration Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Manz, David O.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to identify and discuss concerns with the use and adoption of IEC 62351 security standard for IEC 61850 compliant control system products. The industry participants discussed performance, interoperability, adoption, challenges, business cases, and future issues.

  9. Cyber Security: Big Data Think II Working Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas; Shaw, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This presentation focuses on approaches that could be used by a data computation center to identify attacks and ensure malicious code and backdoors are identified if planted in system. The goal is to identify actionable security information from the mountain of data that flows into and out of an organization. The approaches are applicable to big data computational center and some must also use big data techniques to extract the actionable security information from the mountain of data that flows into and out of a data computational center. The briefing covers the detection of malicious delivery sites and techniques for reducing the mountain of data so that intrusion detection information can be useful, and not hidden in a plethora of false alerts. It also looks at the identification of possible unauthorized data exfiltration.

  10. Institutional Foundations for Cyber Security: Current Responses and New Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    N/A WSIS : World Summit on the Information Society Global summit on information security; publishes resolutions and monitors implementation... WSIS , helps to clarify the nature of the intergovernmental eco-system by illustrating the broad differences in institutional and statutory status that...extension of OECD’s core mission and provides a common approach for all member states. WSIS . The World Summit on the Information Society ( WSIS

  11. Cyber Safety and Security for Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.; Roy, Aloke; Ponchak, Denise S.; Downey, Alan N.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and the Aviation Industry is looking into reduced crew operations (RCO) that would cut today's required two-person flight crews down to a single pilot with support from ground-based crews. Shared responsibility across air and ground personnel will require highly reliable and secure data communication and supporting automation, which will be safety-critical for passenger and cargo aircraft. This paper looks at the different types and degrees of authority delegation given from the air to the ground and the ramifications of each, including the safety and security hazards introduced, the mitigation mechanisms for these hazards, and other demands on an RCO system architecture which would be highly invasive into (almost) all safety-critical avionics. The adjacent fields of unmanned aerial systems and autonomous ground vehicles are viewed to find problems that RCO may face and related aviation accident scenarios are described. The paper explores possible data communication architectures to meet stringent performance and information security (INFOSEC) requirements of RCO. Subsequently, potential challenges for RCO data communication authentication, encryption and non-repudiation are identified.

  12. PACE: Pattern Accurate Computationally Efficient Bootstrapping for Timely Discovery of Cyber-Security Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Nikki C; Bridges, Robert A; Iannacone, Michael D; Czejdo, Bogdan; Perez, Nicolas E; Goodall, John R

    2013-01-01

    Public disclosure of important security information, such as knowledge of vulnerabilities or exploits, often occurs in blogs, tweets, mailing lists, and other online sources significantly before proper classification into structured databases. In order to facilitate timely discovery of such knowledge, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning algorithm, PACE, for identifying and classifying relevant entities in text sources. The main contribution of this paper is an enhancement of the traditional bootstrapping method for entity extraction by employing a time-memory trade-off that simultaneously circumvents a costly corpus search while strengthening pattern nomination, which should increase accuracy. An implementation in the cyber-security domain is discussed as well as challenges to Natural Language Processing imposed by the security domain.

  13. Cyber Security for the Spaceport Command and Control System: Vulnerability Management and Compliance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunawan, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, the number of malicious threats to organizations is continually increasing. In June of 2015, the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) had a data breach resulting in the compromise of millions of government employee records. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not exempt from these attacks. Cyber security is becoming a critical facet to the discussion of moving forward with projects. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) aims to develop the launch control system for the next generation launch vehicle in the coming decades. There are many ways to increase the security of the network it uses, from vulnerability management to ensuring operating system images are compliant with securely configured baselines recommended by the United States Government.

  14. Shopping For Danger: E-commerce techniques applied to collaboration in cyber security

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Fink, Glenn A.

    2012-05-24

    Collaboration among cyber security analysts is essential to a successful protection strategy on the Internet today, but it is uncommonly practiced or encouraged in operating environments. Barriers to productive collaboration often include data sensitivity, time and effort to communicate, institutional policy, and protection of domain knowledge. We propose an ambient collaboration framework, Vulcan, designed to remove the barriers of time and effort and mitigate the others. Vulcan automated data collection, collaborative filtering, and asynchronous dissemination, eliminating the effort implied by explicit collaboration among peers. We instrumented two analytic applications and performed a mock analysis session to build a dataset and test the output of the system.

  15. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  16. Scenario-based approach to risk analysis in support of cyber security

    SciTech Connect

    Gertman, D. I.; Folkers, R.; Roberts, J.

    2006-07-01

    The US infrastructure is continually challenged by hostile nation states and others who would do us harm. Cyber vulnerabilities and weaknesses are potential targets and are the result of years of construction and technological improvement in a world less concerned with security than is currently the case. As a result, cyber attack presents a class of challenges for which we are just beginning to prepare. What has been done in the nuclear, chemical and energy sectors as a means of anticipating and preparing for randomly occurring accidents and off-normal events is to develop scenarios as a means by which to prioritize and quantify risk and to take action. However, the number of scenarios risk analysts can develop is almost limitless. How do we ascertain which scenario has the greatest merit? One of the more important contributions of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) has been to quantify the initiating event probability associated with various classes of accidents; and to quantify the occurrence of various conditions, i.e., end-states, as a function of these important accident sequences. Typically, various classes of conditions are represented by scenarios and are quantified in terms of cut sets and binned into end states. For example, the nuclear industry has a well-defined set of initiating events that are studied in assessing risk. The maturation of risk analysis for cyber security from accounting for barriers or looking at conditions statically to one of ascertaining the probability associated with certain events is, in part, dependent upon the adoption of a scenario-based approach. For example, scenarios take into account threats to personnel and public safety; economic damage, and compromises to major operational and safety functions. Scenarios reflect system, equipment, and component configurations as well as key human-system interactions related to event detection, diagnosis, mitigation and restoration of systems. As part of a cyber attack directed toward

  17. Data-Intensive Visual Analysis for Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Best, Daniel M.; Love, Douglas V.; Bohn, Shawn J.

    2013-01-29

    Protecting communications networks against attacks where the aim is to steal information, disrupt order, or harm critical infrastructure can require the collection and analysis of staggering amounts of data. The ability to detect and respond to threats quickly is a paramount concern across sectors, and especially for critical government, utility and financial networks. Yet detecting emerging or incipient threats in immense volumes of network traffic requires new computational and analytic approaches. Network security increasingly requires cooperation between human analysts able to spot suspicious events through means such as data visualization and automated systems that process streaming network data in near real-time to triage events so that human analysts are best able to focus their work.

  18. On detection and visualization techniques for cyber security situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Wei, Shixiao; Shen, Dan; Blowers, Misty; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe; Zhang, Hanlin; Lu, Chao

    2013-05-01

    Networking technologies are exponentially increasing to meet worldwide communication requirements. The rapid growth of network technologies and perversity of communications pose serious security issues. In this paper, we aim to developing an integrated network defense system with situation awareness capabilities to present the useful information for human analysts. In particular, we implement a prototypical system that includes both the distributed passive and active network sensors and traffic visualization features, such as 1D, 2D and 3D based network traffic displays. To effectively detect attacks, we also implement algorithms to transform real-world data of IP addresses into images and study the pattern of attacks and use both the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based scheme and the statistical based scheme to detect attacks. Through an extensive simulation study, our data validate the effectiveness of our implemented defense system.

  19. Cyber-Security Issues in Healthcare Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G

    2017-02-01

    In 1999-2003, SIIM (then SCAR) sponsored the creation of several special topic Primers, one of which was concerned with computer security. About the same time, a multi-society collaboration authored an ACR Guideline with a similar plot; the latter has recently been updated. The motivation for these efforts was the launch of Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). That legislation directed care providers to enable the portability of patient medical records across authorized medical centers, while simultaneously protecting patient confidentiality among unauthorized agents. These policy requirements resulted in the creation of numerous technical solutions which the above documents described. While the mathematical concepts and algorithms in those papers are as valid today as they were then, recent increases in the complexity of computer criminal applications (and defensive countermeasures) and the pervasiveness of Internet connected devices have raised the bar. This work examines how a medical center can adapt to these evolving threats.

  20. Self-Development for Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-10

    Aggressive self-development is a critical task for the cyber warfare professional. No matter the quality, formal training and education programs age...Books and Science Fiction); Technology and Cyber-Related Magazines and Blogs; Specific Cyber Warfare Journal and Magazine Articles; Key Documents on...the strengths and weaknesses of the major donor career fields to the cyber workforce, and a Self-Assessment of Cyber Domain Expertise for readers who wish to assess their own cyber warfare expertise.

  1. Cyber security: a critical examination of information sharing versus data sensitivity issues for organisations at risk of cyber attack.

    PubMed

    Mallinder, Jason; Drabwell, Peter

    Cyber threats are growing and evolving at an unprecedented rate.Consequently, it is becoming vitally important that organisations share information internally and externally before, during and after incidents they encounter so that lessons can be learned, good practice identified and new cyber resilience capabilities developed. Many organisations are reluctant to share such information for fear of divulging sensitive information or because it may be vague or incomplete. This provides organisations with a complex dilemma: how to share information as openly as possibly about cyber incidents, while protecting their confidentiality and focusing on service recovery from such incidents. This paper explores the dilemma of information sharing versus sensitivity and provides a practical overview of considerations every business continuity plan should address to plan effectively for information sharing in the event of a cyber incident.

  2. Comprehensive, Multi-Source Cyber-Security Events Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Alexander D.

    2015-05-21

    This data set represents 58 consecutive days of de-identified event data collected from five sources within Los Alamos National Laboratory’s corporate, internal computer network. The data sources include Windows-based authentication events from both individual computers and centralized Active Directory domain controller servers; process start and stop events from individual Windows computers; Domain Name Service (DNS) lookups as collected on internal DNS servers; network flow data as collected on at several key router locations; and a set of well-defined red teaming events that present bad behavior within the 58 days. In total, the data set is approximately 12 gigabytes compressed across the five data elements and presents 1,648,275,307 events in total for 12,425 users, 17,684 computers, and 62,974 processes. Specific users that are well known system related (SYSTEM, Local Service) were not de-identified though any well-known administrators account were still de-identified. In the network flow data, well-known ports (e.g. 80, 443, etc) were not de-identified. All other users, computers, process, ports, times, and other details were de-identified as a unified set across all the data elements (e.g. U1 is the same U1 in all of the data). The specific timeframe used is not disclosed for security purposes. In addition, no data that allows association outside of LANL’s network is included. All data starts with a time epoch of 1 using a time resolution of 1 second. In the authentication data, failed authentication events are only included for users that had a successful authentication event somewhere within the data set.

  3. Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddi, Ram Mohan

    The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

  4. 76 FR 2151 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Defense-in-Depth is a Smart Investment for Cyber Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... the defense-in-depth strategy for cyber security. The workshop will be held March 22, 2011 in the...-frame computer system protection. The Defense-in-Depth strategy was designed to provide multiple layers... recovering from the effects of an attack'', suggesting a new dimension for Defense-in-depth along...

  5. Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    security. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare , Estonia, Georgia, Russian Federation Cyber Strategy, Convention on Cybercrime, NATO Center...Federation ......................................................................................... 33  X.  The Future of Russian Cyber Warfare ................................................................... 39...Issue 15.09); Binoy Kampmark, Cyber Warfare Between Estonia And Russia, (Contemporary Review: Autumn, 2003), p 288-293; Jaak Aaviksoo, Address by the

  6. An Integrated Approach for Physical and Cyber Security Risk Assessment: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Common Risk Model for Dams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S An Integrated Approach for Physical and Cyber Security Risk Assessment: The U.S. Army Corps... Physical and Cyber Security Risk Assessment: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Common Risk Model for Dams Yazmin Seda-Sanabria James D. Morgeson Jason A...Dechant This page is intentionally blank. Page 1 of 15 An Integrated Approach for Physical and Cyber Security Risk Assessment: The U.S. Army Corps

  7. Mixed-Initiative Cyber Security: Putting humans in the right loop

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; Maiden, Wendy M.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2009-05-11

    In recent years, organizations and their computer infrastructures have grown intertwined in complex relationships through mergers, acquisitions, reorganizations, and cooperative service delivery. Defensive actions and policy changes by one organization may have far-reaching negative consequences on its partner organizations. Human-only or machine-only approaches are insufficient. The former are slow but highly adaptable, while the latter are fast but highly specialized. In either case, humans retain the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their automated systems. Deploying automated defenses does not absolve humans of their inherent responsibility. We believe the solution lies in mixed-initiative defense unifying the complementary qualities of both human- and machine-based approaches. We describe the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID), a new cyber-defense paradigm employing complex-adaptive swarm intelligence, logical rational agents, and human insight to enable collaborative cyber defense among cooperating organizations in an infrastructure setting. CID takes a mixed-initiative approach to infrastructure defense where teams of humans and software agents defend cooperating organizations in tandem, sharing insights and solutions without violating proprietary boundaries. CID will help create security policy via dialogue between humans and agents, foster a collaborative problem-solving environment, and increase human situational awareness and influence through visualization and shared control. CID will provide a foundation for building trust between humans and agents within and between organizations.

  8. Secure estimation, control and optimization of uncertain cyber-physical systems with applications to power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Ahmad Fayez

    Transportation networks, wearable devices, energy systems, and the book you are reading now are all ubiquitous cyber-physical systems (CPS). These inherently uncertain systems combine physical phenomena with communication, data processing, control and optimization. Many CPSs are controlled and monitored by real-time control systems that use communication networks to transmit and receive data from systems modeled by physical processes. Existing studies have addressed a breadth of challenges related to the design of CPSs. However, there is a lack of studies on uncertain CPSs subject to dynamic unknown inputs and cyber-attacks---an artifact of the insertion of communication networks and the growing complexity of CPSs. The objective of this dissertation is to create secure, computational foundations for uncertain CPSs by establishing a framework to control, estimate and optimize the operation of these systems. With major emphasis on power networks, the dissertation deals with the design of secure computational methods for uncertain CPSs, focusing on three crucial issues---(1) cyber-security and risk-mitigation, (2) network-induced time-delays and perturbations and (3) the encompassed extreme time-scales. The dissertation consists of four parts. In the first part, we investigate dynamic state estimation (DSE) methods and rigorously examine the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed routines under dynamic attack-vectors and unknown inputs. In the second part, and utilizing high-frequency measurements in smart grids and the developed DSE methods in the first part, we present a risk mitigation strategy that minimizes the encountered threat levels, while ensuring the continual observability of the system through available, safe measurements. The developed methods in the first two parts rely on the assumption that the uncertain CPS is not experiencing time-delays, an assumption that might fail under certain conditions. To overcome this challenge, networked unknown input

  9. NERSC Cyber Security Challenges That Require DOE Development andSupport

    SciTech Connect

    Draney, Brent; Campbell, Scott; Walter, Howard

    2007-01-16

    Traditional security approaches do not adequately addressall the requirements of open, scientific computing facilities. Many ofthe methods used for more restricted environments, including almost allcorporate/commercial systems, do not meet the needs of today's science.Use of only the available "state of the practice" commercial methods willhave adverse impact on the ability of DOE to accomplish its sciencegoals, and impacts the productivity of the DOE Science community. Inparticular, NERSC and other high performance computing (HPC) centers havespecial security challenges that are unlikely to be met unless DOE fundsdevelopment and support of reliable and effective tools designed to meetthe cyber security needs of High Performance Science. The securitychallenges facing NERSC can be collected into three basic problem sets:network performance and dynamics, application complexity and diversity,and a complex user community that can have transient affiliations withactual institutions. To address these problems, NERSC proposes thefollowing four general solutions: auditing user and system activityacross sites; firewall port configuration in real time;cross-site/virtual organization identity management and access control;and detecting security issues in application middleware. Solutions arealsoproposed for three general long term issues: data volume,application complexity, and information integration.

  10. Secure Fusion Estimation for Bandwidth Constrained Cyber-Physical Systems Under Replay Attacks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ho, Daniel W C; Hu, Guoqiang; Yu, Li

    2017-07-03

    State estimation plays an essential role in the monitoring and supervision of cyber-physical systems (CPSs), and its importance has made the security and estimation performance a major concern. In this case, multisensor information fusion estimation (MIFE) provides an attractive alternative to study secure estimation problems because MIFE can potentially improve estimation accuracy and enhance reliability and robustness against attacks. From the perspective of the defender, the secure distributed Kalman fusion estimation problem is investigated in this paper for a class of CPSs under replay attacks, where each local estimate obtained by the sink node is transmitted to a remote fusion center through bandwidth constrained communication channels. A new mathematical model with compensation strategy is proposed to characterize the replay attacks and bandwidth constrains, and then a recursive distributed Kalman fusion estimator (DKFE) is designed in the linear minimum variance sense. According to different communication frameworks, two classes of data compression and compensation algorithms are developed such that the DKFEs can achieve the desired performance. Several attack-dependent and bandwidth-dependent conditions are derived such that the DKFEs are secure under replay attacks. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  11. A macro-economic framework for evaluation of cyber security risks related to protection of intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Andrijcic, Eva; Horowitz, Barry

    2006-08-01

    The article is based on the premise that, from a macro-economic viewpoint, cyber attacks with long-lasting effects are the most economically significant, and as a result require more attention than attacks with short-lasting effects that have historically been more represented in literature. In particular, the article deals with evaluation of cyber security risks related to one type of attack with long-lasting effects, namely, theft of intellectual property (IP) by foreign perpetrators. An International Consequence Analysis Framework is presented to determine (1) the potential macro-economic consequences of cyber attacks that result in stolen IP from companies in the United States, and (2) the likely sources of such attacks. The framework presented focuses on IP theft that enables foreign companies to make economic gains that would have otherwise benefited the U.S. economy. Initial results are presented.

  12. Quantifying Availability in SCADA Environments Using the Cyber Security Metric MFC

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Rabai, Latifa Ben Arfa; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are distributed networks dispersed over large geographic areas that aim to monitor and control industrial processes from remote areas and/or a centralized location. They are used in the management of critical infrastructures such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution, water and sewage, manufacturing/industrial manufacturing as well as oil and gas production. The availability of SCADA systems is tantamount to assuring safety, security and profitability. SCADA systems are the backbone of the national cyber-physical critical infrastructure. Herein, we explore the definition and quantification of an econometric measure of availability, as it applies to SCADA systems; our metric is a specialization of the generic measure of mean failure cost.

  13. Current and potential cyber attacks on medical journals; guidelines for improving security.

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, Mehdi; Seno, Seyed Amin Hosseini; Borchardt, Glenn

    2017-03-01

    At the moment, scholarly publishing is faced with much academic misconduct and threats such as predatory journals, hijacked journals, phishing, and other scams. In response, we have been discussing this misconduct and trying to increase the awareness of researchers, but it seems that there is a lack of research that presents guidelines for editors to help them protect themselves against these threats. It seems that information security is missing in some parts of scholarly publishing that particularly involves medical journals. In this paper, we explain different types of cyber-attacks that especially threaten editors and academic journals. We then explain the details involved in each type of attack. Finally, we present general guidelines for detection and prevention of the attacks. In some cases, we use small experiments to show that our claim is true. Finally, we conclude the paper with a prioritization of these attacks. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combining Traditional Cyber Security Audit Data with Psychosocial Data: Towards Predictive Modeling for Insider Threat Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    The purpose of this chapter is to motivate the combination of traditional cyber security audit data with psychosocial data, to support a move from an insider threat detection stance to one that enables prediction of potential insider presence. Twodistinctiveaspects of the approach are the objectiveof predicting or anticipating potential risksandthe useoforganizational datain additiontocyber datato support the analysis. The chapter describes the challenges of this endeavor and reports on progressin definingausablesetof predictiveindicators,developingaframeworkfor integratingthe analysisoforganizationalandcyber securitydatatoyield predictions about possible insider exploits, and developing the knowledge base and reasoning capabilityof the system.We also outline the typesof errors that oneexpectsina predictive system versus a detection system and discuss how those errors can affect the usefulness of the results.

  15. Quantifying and measuring cyber resiliency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cybenko, George

    2016-05-01

    Cyber resliency has become an increasingly attractive research and operational concept in cyber security. While several metrics have been proposed for quantifying cyber resiliency, a considerable gap remains between those metrics and operationally measurable and meaningful concepts that can be empirically determined in a scientific manner. This paper describes a concrete notion of cyber resiliency that can be tailored to meet specific needs of organizations that seek to introduce resiliency into their assessment of their cyber security posture.

  16. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-18

    to secure network assets and assure the capabilities they enable will pose a fundamental risk to any defense mission. The impact of a cyber attack is...Science Advisory Board Report on Defending and Operating in a Contested Cyber Domain [3] that “The full range of possible mission effects of cyber attacks ...is not well understood by warfighters.” Ironically, a cyber attack frequently actuates a far greater mission impact than the attacker’s direct intent

  17. Introducing cyber.

    PubMed

    Hult, Fredrik; Sivanesan, Giri

    In January 2012, the World Economic Forum made cyber attacks its fourth top global risk. In the 2013 risk report, cyber attacks were noted to be an even higher risk in absolute terms. The reliance of critical infrastructure on cyber working has never been higher; the frequency, intensity, impact and sophistication of attacks is growing. This trend looks likely to continue. It can be argued that it is no longer a question whether an organisation will be successfully hacked, but how long it will take to detect. In the ever-changing cyber environment, traditional protection techniques and reliance on preventive controls are not enough. A more agile approach is required to give assurance of a sufficiently secure digital society. Are we faced with a paradigm shift or a storm in a digital teacup? This paper offers an introduction to why cyber is important, a wider taxonomy on the topic and some historical context on how the discipline of cyber security has evolved, and an interpretation on what this means in the new normal of today.

  18. Cyber Space Security: Dispelling the Myth of Computer Network Defense by True Red Teaming the Marine Corps and Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-05

    Cyber Space Security: Dispelling the myth of Computer Network Defense by true Red Teaming the Marine Corps and Navy Captain...act, and operate like the multi-faceted adversaries we face in cyberspace. These teams, called Red Teams , continue to work hard to show where our...Barack Obama, 29 May 20091 WHAT IS A RED TEAM ? . The recent nation state-level network attacks in Estonia (2002) and Georgia and the hacking of the

  19. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool AGENCY...- assessment tool. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) announces that the TSA Maritime Self-Assessment Risk Module (TMSARM), developed to support the United States Coast Guard's (USCG...

  20. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-05-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, an established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices.

  1. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-05-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, anmore » established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices.« less

  2. Improving Student Engagement in the Study of Professional Ethics: Concepts and an Example in Cyber Security.

    PubMed

    Bustard, John D

    2017-04-11

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of professional ethics, technical students often show little enthusiasm for studying the subject. This paper considers how such engagement might be improved. Four guiding principles for promoting engagement are identified: (1) aligning teaching content with student interests; (2) taking a pragmatic rather than a philosophical approach to issue resolution; (3) addressing the full complexity of real-world case studies; and (4) covering content in a way that students find entertaining. The use of these principles is then discussed with respect to the specific experience of developing and presenting a master's module in Ethical and Legal Issues in Cyber Security at Queens University Belfast. One significant aspect of the resulting design is that it encourages students to see ethical issues in systemic terms rather than from an individual perspective, with issues emerging from a conflict between different groups with different vested interests. Case studies are used to examine how personal and business priorities create conflicts that can lead to negative press, fines and punitive legal action. The module explores the reasons why organisations may be unaware of the risks associated with their actions and how an inappropriate response to an ethical issue can significantly aggravate a situation. The module has been delivered in three successive years since 2014 and been well received on each occasion. The paper describes the design of the module and the experience of delivering it, concluding with a discussion of the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Information Assurance Cyber Ecology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Javascript in web pages (e.g., pop - up ads) Cyber predator (replicating) – no examples Nonintimate, lethal agents were discussed above. They use... Vulnerabilities , Mitigation of Cyber Attack. 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT UNCLASSIFIED 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...143 5.10.1 Vulnerability assessment to terrorist

  4. Enhancing the cyber-security of smart grids with applications to synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Seemita

    In the power grids, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are used as part of the Energy Management System (EMS) for enabling grid monitoring, control and protection. In recent times, with the ongoing installation of thousands of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), system operators are becoming increasingly reliant on PMU-generated synchrophasor measurements for executing wide-area monitoring and real-time control. The availability of PMU data facilitates dynamic state estimation of the system, thus improving the efficiency and resiliency of the grid. Since the SCADA and PMU data are used to make critical control decisions including actuation of physical systems, the timely availability and integrity of this networked data is of paramount importance. Absence or wrong control actions can potentially lead to disruption of operations, monetary loss, damage to equipments or surroundings or even blackout. This has posed new challenges to information security especially in this age of ever-increasing cyber-attacks. In this thesis, potential cyber-attacks on smart grids are presented and effective and implementable schemes are proposed for detecting them. The focus is mainly on three kinds of cyber-attacks and their detection: (i) gray-hole attacks on synchrophasor systems, (ii) PMU data manipulation attacks and (iii) data integrity attacks on SCADA systems. In the case of gray-hole attacks, also known as packet-drop attacks, the adversary may arbitrarily drop PMU data packets as they traverse the network, resulting in unavailability of time-sensitive data for the various critical power system applications. The fundamental challenge is to distinguish packets dropped by the adversary from those that occur naturally due to network congestion.The proposed gray-hole attack detection technique is based on exploiting the inherent timing information in the GPS time-stamped PMU data packets and using the temporal trends of the latencies to classify the cause of

  5. Infotech. Cyber security. Health care learns to share scares and solutions.

    PubMed

    Colias, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Health care information technology leaders and others are coming together to share scary experiences and develop best practices to guard against crippling computer viruses, scheming hackers and other cyber threats.

  6. National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-22

    Component; cyber domain; Unified land operations; cyber threats; cyber mission forces; Cyber Protection Team; Computer Network Defense Team...Guard C/TAA Coordinate, Train, Advise, and Assist CMF Cyber Mission Force CND-T Computer Network Defense Teams CPT Cyber Protection...Team DHS Department of Homeland Security DoD Department of Defense DoDIN Department of Defense Information Networks DSCA Defense

  7. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was selected from the list of standards identified

  8. Cyber Operational Architecture Training System Cyber for All

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-30

    Architecture Training System – Cyber for All Dr. David “Fuzzy” Wells, IPA, CMSP Derek Bryan USPACOM J81 / Cyber War Innovation Center USPACOM J81...securely synchronize and deliver realistic cyber effects to the entire battlestaff – cyber for all . In doing so COATS provides an integrated and contested...training environment where operators plan, execute and experience realistic cyberspace operations and conditions in all domains. This paper describes

  9. Rapid Acquisition and Fielding for Information Assurance and Cyber Security in the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Both the DSB and the Secretary of Defense have advocated continuous and auto - matic IT testing, which requires dedicated facilities (OSD, 2010, p. 10... money ” issues are also problematic for rapid acquisition programs. These 26 Rapid Acquisition and Fielding for Information Assurance and Cyber... money needs to be moved. There has been pushback from traditional stakeholders when funding is redirected to fulfill urgent needs (i.e., “robbing

  10. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    longer adequate to rely solely on the now traditional defense-in-depth strategy. We must recognize that we are engaged in a form of warfare, cyber warfare , and... warfare . This causes security devices to be used ineffectively and responses to be untimely. Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the... cyber warfare strategy and tactics requires a cyber warfare command and control system. Responses to cyber attacks do not require offensive measures

  11. Cyber warfare: Armageddon in a Teacup?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    Security concerns over the growing capability of Cyber Warfare are in the forefront of national policy and security discussions. In order to enable a...realistic discussion of the topic this thesis seeks to analyze demonstrated Cyber Warfare capability and its ability to achieve strategic political...objectives. This study examines Cyber Warfare conducted against Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Israel in 2008. In all three cases Cyber Warfare did

  12. Cyber Warfare: China’s Strategy to Dominate in Cyber Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    CYBER WARFARE : CHINA‘S STRATEGY TO DOMINATE IN CYBER SPACE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...warfare supports the use of cyber warfare in future conflict. The IW militia unit organization provides each Chinese military region commander with...China, Strategy, Cyber Warfare , Cyber Space, Information Warfare, Electronic Warfare 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  13. An inter-realm, cyber-security infrastructure for virtual supercomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Muhtadi, J.; Feng, W. C.; Fisk, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Virtual supercomputing, (ise ., high-performance grid computing), is poised to revolutionize the way we think about and use computing. However, the security of the links interconnecting the nodes within such an environment will be its Achilles heel, particularly when secure communication is required to tunnel through heterogeneous domains. In this paper we examine existing security mechanisms, show their inadequacy, and design a comprehensive cybersecurity infrastructure that meets the security requirements of virtual supercomputing. Keywords Security, virtual supercomputing, grid computing, high-performance computing, GSS-API, SSL, IPsec, component-based software, dynamic reconfiguration.

  14. Mean-Field-Game Model for Botnet Defense in Cyber-Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsov, V. N.; Bensoussan, A.

    2016-12-15

    We initiate the analysis of the response of computer owners to various offers of defence systems against a cyber-hacker (for instance, a botnet attack), as a stochastic game of a large number of interacting agents. We introduce a simple mean-field game that models their behavior. It takes into account both the random process of the propagation of the infection (controlled by the botner herder) and the decision making process of customers. Its stationary version turns out to be exactly solvable (but not at all trivial) under an additional natural assumption that the execution time of the decisions of the customers (say, switch on or out the defence system) is much faster that the infection rates.

  15. Cyber-Argus: Modeling C2 Impacts of Cyber Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    12.665288. [22] JAKOBSON , G. Extending Situation Modeling with Inference of Plausible Future Cyber Situations. In: Cognitive Methods in Situation...Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2011. p. 48-55. [23] JAKOBSON , G. Mission Cyber Security Situation Assessment Using Impact Dependency Graphs. In...2011. p. 1-8. 19th ICCRTS - # 096 Page 22 of 24 [24] LEWIS, L.; JAKOBSON , G.; BUFORD, J. Enabling Cyber Situation Awareness, Impact Assessment, and

  16. Cyber Defense Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    increase averaging more than 30 percent from the previous year.2 This mayreduce “ papering over” the security problem.Within DoD, the standup of United...acrossthe services, especially the Navy.3 The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) CyberGrand Challenge has created a number of...role in developing these models. Some promising research in the DSB TASK FORCE ON CYBER DEFENSE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 17 Office of the Deputy Assistant

  17. Cyber Adversary Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    demonstrate capabilities for modeling and exploiting the coevolution of offensive and defensive cyber behavior. We are calling such capabilities Cyber...defense coevolution of wormbots such as Conficker, and US border security. The data show that the “success rates” in these different domains...35 Exploits per $B Retail e- Commerce Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 7 harnessing the realities of such dynamic coevolution

  18. US Cyber Challenge Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    Cyber Challenge, CCX Platform , NICE Program, USCC 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF... platform for social interaction with the cybersecurity competition participants with themselves and with future employers. The impact of the USCC is...being measured against the participation in this platform called, CyberCompEx.org (CCX) as well as our future participation with employers to

  19. Coalition Game-Based Secure and Effective Clustering Communication in Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yan; Dong, Wei; Qian, Jin; Jing, Tao

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the low efficiency of cluster-based communication for the crossroad scenario in the Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS), which is due to the overload of the cluster head resulting from a large number of transmission bandwidth requirements. After formulating the issue as a coalition formation game, a coalition-based clustering strategy is proposed, which could converge into a Nash-stable partition to accomplish the clustering formation process. In the proposed strategy, the coalition utility is formulated by the relative velocity, relative position and the bandwidth availability ratio of vehicles among the cluster. Employing the coalition utility, the vehicles are denoted as the nodes that make the decision whether to switch to a new coalition or stay in the current coalition. Based on this, we can make full use of the bandwidth provided by cluster head under the requirement of clustering stability. Nevertheless, there exist selfish nodes during the clustering formation, so as to intend to benefit from networks. This behavior may degrade the communication quality and even destroy the cluster. Thus, we also present a reputation-based incentive and penalty mechanism to stop the selfish nodes from entering clusters. Numerical simulation results show that our strategy, CG-SECC, takes on a better performance for the tradeoff between the stability and efficiency of clustering communication. Besides, a case study demonstrates that the proposed incentive and penalty mechanism can play an important role in discovering and removing malicious nodes. PMID:28264469

  20. Coalition Game-Based Secure and Effective Clustering Communication in Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS).

    PubMed

    Huo, Yan; Dong, Wei; Qian, Jin; Jing, Tao

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, we address the low efficiency of cluster-based communication for the crossroad scenario in the Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS), which is due to the overload of the cluster head resulting from a large number of transmission bandwidth requirements. After formulating the issue as a coalition formation game, a coalition-based clustering strategy is proposed, which could converge into a Nash-stable partition to accomplish the clustering formation process. In the proposed strategy, the coalition utility is formulated by the relative velocity, relative position and the bandwidth availability ratio of vehicles among the cluster. Employing the coalition utility, the vehicles are denoted as the nodes that make the decision whether to switch to a new coalition or stay in the current coalition. Based on this, we can make full use of the bandwidth provided by cluster head under the requirement of clustering stability. Nevertheless, there exist selfish nodes duringtheclusteringformation,soastointendtobenefitfromnetworks. Thisbehaviormaydegrade the communication quality and even destroy the cluster. Thus, we also present a reputation-based incentive and penalty mechanism to stop the selfish nodes from entering clusters. Numerical simulation results show that our strategy, CG-SECC, takes on a better performance for the tradeoff between the stability and efficiency of clustering communication. Besides, a case study demonstrates that the proposed incentive and penalty mechanism can play an important role in discovering and removing malicious nodes.

  1. A Three-Stage Colonel Blotto Game with Applications to Cyber-Physical Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-15

    infrastructures is [13]. Another interesting experimental paper is [14] where the authors study social interactions using a Facebook ap- plication called “Project...other for securing the servers. The hacker observes the security level of each network and decides on the amount of resource it deploys to hack each of...resource the hacker will allocate to hack the servers in each network. In particular, if the hacker has very little resource as compared to the network

  2. Cyber Infrastructure Protection. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    1 Tarek Saadawi, Louis H. Jordan, Jr., and Vincent Boudreau PART I: ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF CYBER...Kilger PART II: LAW AND CYBERCRIME ........................83 4. Changing the Game: Social and Justice Models for Enhanced Cyber Security...what social or political actors or sys- tems directed these attacks, mattered little. Up-to-date anti-virus software and other protective technology

  3. Physical security and IT convergence: Managing the cyber-related risks.

    PubMed

    McCreight, Tim; Leece, Doug

    The convergence of physical security devices into the corporate network is increasing, due to the perceived economic benefits and efficiencies gained from using one enterprise network. Bringing these two networks together is not without risk. Physical devices like closed circuit television cameras (CCTV), card access readers, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning controllers (HVAC) are typically not secured to the standards we expect for corporate computer networks. These devices can pose significant risks to the corporate network by creating new avenues to exploit vulnerabilities in less-than-secure implementations of physical systems. The ASIS Information Technology Security Council (ITSC) developed a white paper describing steps organisations can take to reduce the risks this convergence can pose, and presented these concepts at the 2015 ASIS/ISC2 Congress in Anaheim, California.(1) This paper expands upon the six characteristics described by ITSC, and provides business continuity planners with information on how to apply these recommendations to physical security devices that use the corporate network.

  4. Cyber-Security Holism: A System of Solutions for a Distributed Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    SUBTITLE CYCBER-SECURITY HOLISM: A SYSTEM OF SOLUTIONS FOR A DISTRIBUTED PROBLEM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Simple Dynamic Programing Example .....................................................................18...organism of the parts. Facing this complexity, I turned to holism, to systems theory, and to dynamic programming used to understand complexity in

  5. Mediating Cyber and Physical Threat Propagation in Security Smart Grid Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, Clifford; Tan, Kymie

    2011-10-01

    The power grid is a federated system. Regions of the system are controlled by different organizations and security of the grid is imposed from above through regulation of the security techniques used by the federants. This approach will be less effective as we move to a smart grid, where control of some elements of the grid rests in the customer’s home through technologies that enable remote access to appliances. These regions of the smart grid are less trusted, yet they interact in various ways with other parts of the grid. This paper demonstrates threat propagation in the smart grid from such regions, and discusses architectural approaches to mediating the impact of such flows.

  6. Cyber Culture and Personnel Security: Report 2 - Ethnographic Analysis of Second Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    security concern. For example, while Guideline A: Allegiance to the United States is given little space compared to Guideline D: Sexual Behavior, it simply...to be separate categories because Second Life provides little emotional involvement and the activities are not real. Others become emotionally... liars deceive for their own gain, and allow others to believe that this information is true. The anonymous nature of the environment of lack of

  7. Department of Homeland Security

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Cybersecurity Awareness Month 1 October is National Cyber Security Awareness Month. HP - SCF 2017 Hurricanes HP - SCF ... theme is, “Inclusion Drives Innovation.” Oct 10 Blog Cyber Security Awareness Month Is Here You do not have ...

  8. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the...alternative form of conflict, reviews the traditional principles of warfare and why they may or may not apply to cyber warfare , and proposes new principles of...warfare that may be needed to conduct cyber warfare . Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2

  9. Cyber Infrastructure Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    45.6 million card numbers, it’s the biggest ever,” Computerworld, March 29, 2007. 8. J. Vijayan, “Hannaford says malware planted on its store servers...veillance cam , high-tech doors, and other technologies improve the data center’s physical security. However, on the other hand, data center cyber security...development of large mainframe and communication systems. He also worked with the C4 (command, control, communication, computers) organization at

  10. The cyber threat, trophy information and the fortress mentality.

    PubMed

    Scully, Tim

    2011-10-01

    'It won't happen to me' is a prevalent mindset among senior executives in the private and public sectors when considering targeted cyber intrusions. This is exacerbated by the long-term adoption of a 'fortress mentality' towards cyber security, and by the attitude of many of our cyber-security professionals, who speak a different language when it comes to communicating cyber-security events to senior executives. The prevailing approaches to cyber security have clearly failed. Almost every week another serious, targeted cyber intrusion is reported, but reported intrusions are only the tip of the iceberg. Why have we got it so wrong? It must be acknowledged that cyber security is no longer the domain of cyber-security experts alone. Many more of us at various levels of leadership must understand, and be more deeply engaged in, the cyber-security challenge if we are to deal with the threat holistically and effectively. Governments cannot combat the cyber threat alone, particularly the so-called advanced persistent threat; they must work closely with industry as trusted partners. Industry will be the 'boots on the ground' in cyber security, but there are challenges to building this relationship, which must be based on sound principles.

  11. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  12. Self Assessment for Socializing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Socializing is an integral part of human relations and auger well for the human development. Defined as "the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgments about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards", self assessment by its nature teaches students how to…

  13. Adapting an Agent-Based Model of Socio-Technical Systems to Analyze Security Failures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-17

    tory since 2013. He works on the research and development of high-fidelity traffic generators, as well as on methodology for cyber security assessments...Smart Grid Interoperability Panel - Cyber Security Working Group, “Guidelines for smart grid cyber security : Vol. 1, Smart grid cyber security strategy...CyberSecurity. ACM, 2014. [6] J. Blythe, A. Botello, J. Sutton, D. Mazzocco, J. Lin, M. Spraragen, and M. Zyda, “Testing cyber security with simulated humans

  14. Cyber security risk management: public policy implications of correlated risk, imperfect ability to prove loss, and observability of self-protection.

    PubMed

    Oğüt, Hulisi; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Menon, Nirup

    2011-03-01

    The correlated nature of security breach risks, the imperfect ability to prove loss from a breach to an insurer, and the inability of insurers and external agents to observe firms' self-protection efforts have posed significant challenges to cyber security risk management. Our analysis finds that a firm invests less than the social optimal levels in self-protection and in insurance when risks are correlated and the ability to prove loss is imperfect. We find that the appropriate social intervention policy to induce a firm to invest at socially optimal levels depends on whether insurers can verify a firm's self-protection levels. If self-protection of a firm is observable to an insurer so that it can design a contract that is contingent on the self-protection level, then self-protection and insurance behave as complements. In this case, a social planner can induce a firm to choose the socially optimal self-protection and insurance levels by offering a subsidy on self-protection. We also find that providing a subsidy on insurance does not provide a similar inducement to a firm. If self-protection of a firm is not observable to an insurer, then self-protection and insurance behave as substitutes. In this case, a social planner should tax the insurance premium to achieve socially optimal results. The results of our analysis hold regardless of whether the insurance market is perfectly competitive or not, implying that solely reforming the currently imperfect insurance market is insufficient to achieve the efficient outcome in cyber security risk management. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Cyber Insurance - Managing Cyber Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    regulations with respect to data breaches. The Health Insur - ance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) Breach Notification Rule 45 CFR §§ 164.400...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Cyber Insurance – Managing Cyber Risk Laura A. Odell, Project Leader...license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. Cyber Insurance – Managing Cyber Risk Data breaches involving

  16. Grid Cyber Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2011-07-11

    Senate - 07/11/2011 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 101. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Securing Cyber Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    SCADA ) systems as well as other types of in- dustrial control systems. Inherent vulnerabilities, and therefore risks, are associated with SCADA ...systems that have saturated the infrastructure management industry throughout the world. Although SCADA systems are prevalent, industry profession- als...knowledge of those tasked with managing the systems. The predominant point of view for many years appears to have been that SCADA systems can be ignored

  18. Cost Computations for Cyber Fighter Associate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Ground, MD 21005 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TN-0674 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR...cost analysis with a minimum of effort. 15. SUBJECT TERMS cyber security, software patch management, tactical networks, cyber modeling, cyber...associate. Aberdeen Proving Ground ( MD ): Army Research Laboratory (US); in press. 2 Harman D, Brown S, Henz B, Marvel LM. A communication protocol

  19. Management self assessment plan

    SciTech Connect

    Debban, B.L.

    1998-01-30

    Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc., Spent Nuclear Fuel Project is responsible for the operation of fuel storage facilities. The SNF project mission includes the safe removal, processing and transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel from 100 K Area fuel storage basins to a new Storage facility in the Hanford 200 East Area. Its mission is the modification of the 100 K area fuel storage facilities and the construction of two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building. The management self assessment plan described in this document is scheduled to begin in April of 1999 and be complete in May of 1999. The management self assessment plan describes line management preparations for declaring that line management is ready to commence operations.

  20. 7 Key Challenges for Visualization in Cyber Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Endert, Alexander; Kidwell, Dan

    2014-12-02

    In this paper we present seven challenges, informed by two user studies, to be considered when developing a visualization for cyber security purposes. Cyber security visualizations must go beyond isolated solutions and “pretty picture” visualizations in order to make impact to users. We provide an example prototype that addresses the challenges with a description of how they are met. Our aim is to assist in increasing utility and adoption rates for visualization capabilities in cyber security.

  1. Self-Assessment of Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlaska, Andrea; Krekeler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    It is generally assumed that second language (L2) learners find it difficult to self-assess their pronunciation skills. In view of the benefits of self-assessment for the language learning process and the need to monitor one's pronunciation in independent learning environments, we investigated the reliability of self-assessments of pronunciation…

  2. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  3. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  4. Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public. The

  5. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  6. Using agility to combat cyber attacks.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kerry

    2017-06-01

    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  7. CYBER DETERRENCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-11

    Achievement Medal, and various unit and service awards. iv Abstract This essay will present a current review of writings on the viability of Cyber...between cyber deterrence and nuclear deterrence writing , “The threat of assured mutual self-destruction of cyberspace assets and approaches that...weighty interests.”23 Press described the best way to make threats credible writing , “Wielding enough power to carry out the threats successfully at

  8. CyberTerrorism: Cyber Prevention vs Cyber Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CYBERTERRORISM...CYBER PREVENTION VS CYBER RECOVERY by Jeffrey R. DiBiasi December 2007 Thesis Advisor: Letitia Lawson Second Reader: Daniel Moran THIS...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CyberTerrorism: Cyber Prevention Vs Cyber Recovery 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey R. DiBiasi 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7

  9. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  10. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  11. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    PubMed

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  12. Cyber Vigilance: The Human Factor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-21

    cyber- security extends well beyond military operations, but its centrality to national defense provides some idea of the importance of the domain...Given that importance , it is critical to maintain cyberspace security to prevent intrusion by fo reign state actors, non-state actors (e.g...employed here in and to the participants’ awareness of the importance of the task they were perfom1ing for A ir Force operations. As described by

  13. 78 FR 29375 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... critical infrastructure information not customarily in the public domain and related to the security of... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self- Assessment Questionnaire AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure...

  14. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  15. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  16. Toward improved software security training using a cyber warfare opposing force (CW OPFOR): the knowledge base design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2005-03-01

    "Train the way you will fight" has been a guiding principle for military training and has served the warfighter well as evidenced by numerous successful operations over the last decade. This need for realistic training for all combatants has been recognized and proven by the warfighter and continues to guide military training. However, to date, this key training principle has not been applied fully in the arena of cyberwarfare due to the lack of realistic, cost effective, reasonable, and formidable cyberwarfare opponents. Recent technological advances, improvements in the capability of computer-generated forces (CGFs) to emulate human behavior, and current results in research in information assurance and software protection, coupled with increasing dependence upon information superiority, indicate that the cyberbattlespace will be a key aspect of future conflict and that it is time to address the cyberwarfare training shortfall. To address the need for a cyberwarfare training and defensive testing capability, we propose research and development to yield a prototype computerized, semi-autonomous (SAF) red team capability. We term this capability the Cyber Warfare Opposing Force (CW OPFOR). There are several technologies that are now mature enough to enable, for the first time, the development of this powerful, effective, high fidelity CW OPFOR. These include improved knowledge about cyberwarfare attack and defense, improved techniques for assembling CGFs, improved techniques for capturing and expressing knowledge, software technologies that permit effective rapid prototyping to be effectively used on large projects, and the capability for effective hybrid reasoning systems. Our development approach for the CW OPFOR lays out several phases in order to address these requirements in an orderly manner and to enable us to test the capabilities of the CW OPFOR and exploit them as they are developed. We have completed the first phase of the research project, which

  17. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Cyber Defense Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    informing system resilience, to different kinds and levels of cyber-attack. The study also discusses methods to understand relationships between DoD...study also developed approaches for assessing system resilience to different kinds and levels of cyber attack. The report also provides insight into...determining the DoD systems and networks most at risk from cyber-attack and those that are relatively secure. The study’s charter also asked for a

  18. Federated Access to Cyber Observables for Detection of Targeted Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    phones, and more. This paper describes the design of Gestalt , a next-generation cyber information management platform that simplifies access to cyber...event data stored in the nooks and crannies of a distributed enterprise. The ready and secure access to cyber information provided by Gestalt is a key...level observables. Gestalt provides innovations in (1) automati- cally discovering devices and useful data sources in the enterprise (beyond simple

  19. Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    January–February 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 44 FeatureCyber Focus Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought Maj Sean C. Butler, USAF In September 2007...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought 5a...2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 45 Butler Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought FeatureCyber Focus characterized by the use of electronics and the

  20. Cyber attack analysis on cyber-physical systems: Detectability, severity, and attenuation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Cheolhyeon

    Security of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) against malicious cyber attacks is an important yet challenging problem. Since most cyber attacks happen in erratic ways, it is usually intractable to describe and diagnose them systematically. Motivated by such difficulties, this thesis presents a set of theories and algorithms for a cyber-secure architecture of the CPS within the control theoretic perspective. Here, instead of identifying a specific cyber attack model, we are focused on analyzing the system's response during cyber attacks. Firstly, we investigate the detectability of the cyber attacks from the system's behavior under cyber attacks. Specifically, we conduct a study on the vulnerabilities in the CPS's monitoring system against the stealthy cyber attack that is carefully designed to avoid being detected by its detection scheme. After classifying three kinds of cyber attacks according to the attacker's ability to compromise the system, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions under which such stealthy cyber attacks can be designed to cause the unbounded estimation error while not being detected. Then, the analytical design method of the optimal stealthy cyber attack that maximizes the estimation error is developed. The proposed stealthy cyber attack analysis is demonstrated with illustrative examples on Air Traffic Control (ATC) system and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation system applications. Secondly, in an attempt to study the CPSs' vulnerabilities in more detail, we further discuss a methodology to identify potential cyber threats inherent in the given CPSs and quantify the attack severity accordingly. We then develop an analytical algorithm to test the behavior of the CPS under various cyber attack combinations. Compared to a numerical approach, the analytical algorithm enables the prediction of the most effective cyber attack combinations without computing the severity of all possible attack combinations, thereby greatly reducing the

  1. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  2. 76 FR 4123 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... homeland security, results of a cyber security exercise, sharing information with others, and Southwest... would be a road map to those who wish to attack our cyber security, and hence, would certainly frustrate... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of partially...

  3. Physical security and cyber security issues and human error prevention for 3D printed objects: detecting the use of an incorrect printing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    A wide variety of characteristics of 3D printed objects have been linked to impaired structural integrity and use-efficacy. The printing material can also have a significant impact on the quality, utility and safety characteristics of a 3D printed object. Material issues can be created by vendor issues, physical security issues and human error. This paper presents and evaluates a system that can be used to detect incorrect material use in a 3D printer, using visible light imaging. Specifically, it assesses the ability to ascertain the difference between materials of different color and different types of material with similar coloration.

  4. At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare: Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare : Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force by Craig Stallard, Squadron leader, Royal...in the conduct of cyber warfare . The 2009 Defence White Paper provided some clarity by indentifying cyber warfare as critical to the maintenance...of national security, but left open the most important issue: should cyber warfare be a joint engagement or a service oriented fight? The RAAF

  5. Making Strategic Sense of Cyber Power: Why the Sky is Not Falling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    strategic”) cyber attacks are not persuasive. The United States should expect its cyber assets to be harmed in conflict, but, if they are disrupted...6 Unfriendly cyber ac- tivity there has been and is in abundance, but state- to-state computer network attacks there have not been. Espionage, yes...for the security and well being of the world’s leading eco- nomic powers, the issue of catastrophic cyber attacks is only now emerging, even though we

  6. Seeking Balance in Cyber Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    which necessarily reaches beyond the traditional computing fields. There are of course many legal, social, and ethical aspects of cyber security not...social, ethical , and legal aspects of insider leaks like the Man- ning and Snowden incidents, as well as the societal perception of government...would be remiss to omit topics like social engineering and activist hacking [15], or “hacktivism.” CrossTalk—January/February 2015 17 SOFTWARE EDUCATION

  7. Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    s c h o o l o f S Y S T E M S a n d L O G I S T I C S education service research Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare Maj...DATE MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare 5a...AFIT Cyber 200/300 Courses Cyber Warfare IDE Program 34 Special Emphasis On… Enterprise Integration (Active Directory, PKI) Security

  8. What good cyber resilience looks like.

    PubMed

    Hult, Fredrik; Sivanesan, Giri

    In January 2012, the World Economic Forum made cyber attacks its fourth top global risk. In the 2013 risk report, cyber attacks were noted to be an even higher risk in absolute terms. The reliance of critical infrastructure on cyber working has never been higher; the frequency, intensity, impact and sophistication of attacks is growing. This trend looks likely to continue. It can be argued that it is no longer a question whether an organisation will be successfully hacked, but how long it will take to detect. In the ever-changing cyber environment, traditional protection techniques and reliance on preventive controls are not enough. A more agile approach is required to give assurance of a sufficiently secure digital society. Are we faced with a paradigm shift or a storm in a digital teacup? This paper offers an introduction to why cyber is important, a wider taxonomy on the topic and some historical context on how the discipline of cyber security has evolved, and an interpretation on what this means in the new normal of today.

  9. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  10. Self Assessment and Discovery Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Discovery learning in higher education has been reported to be effective in assisting learners to understand difficult concepts and retain long term information. This paper seeks to illustrate how one self assessment model may be used to demonstrate discovery learning in a collaborative atmosphere of students sharing and getting to know each…

  11. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory 1995 self assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Safeguards and Security (S and S) Assurance Program (AP) is designed to ensure the adequacy and effectiveness of the LANL S and S program. The Assurance Program provides a mechanism for discovering deficiencies, determining causes, conducting risk assessments, implementing corrective actions, and documenting the assessment process. Selection of organizations for self assessments is based on the criteria established in the LANL S and S Assurance Program. For FY 1995, 12 organizations were selected for self assessments, these organizations are identified fin the schedule at Appendix A. The S and S topical areas selected for review in each organization varied depending on their security interests and included: Program Planning and Management (PPM); Protection Program Operations (PPO); Material Control and Accountability (MC and A); Computer and Communications Security (COMPSEC and COMSEC); Information Security (INFOSEC); Personnel Security (PERSEC); and Operational Security (OPSEC). The objective was to ascertain the effectiveness of S and S programs in each organization, its formality of operations, and its integration with the overall Laboratory S and S program. The goal was to meet both the DOE self-assessment requirements and the UC performance criteria and document the results.

  13. Cyber Exercise Playbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The......provides an overview of the cyber exercise process from inception to reporting. It introduces the terminology and life cycle of a cyber exercise and then

  14. Gaining Cyber Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Individual Training (FedVTE) Collective Monthly Exercises (STEP) ELITE MERCURY Capstone Event 6 GCD Overview January 2015 © 2014 Carnegie... MERCURY Culminating Training Exercise CMF Training Cyber Flag STEP Platform Cyber Guard US Army Regional Cyber Centers Theater Signal Command

  15. CYBER-205 Devectorizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakeotes, Christopher D.

    1990-01-01

    DEVECT (CYBER-205 Devectorizer) is CYBER-205 FORTRAN source-language-preprocessor computer program reducing vector statements to standard FORTRAN. In addition, DEVECT has many other standard and optional features simplifying conversion of vector-processor programs for CYBER 200 to other computers. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  16. CYBER-205 Devectorizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakeotes, Christopher D.

    1990-01-01

    DEVECT (CYBER-205 Devectorizer) is CYBER-205 FORTRAN source-language-preprocessor computer program reducing vector statements to standard FORTRAN. In addition, DEVECT has many other standard and optional features simplifying conversion of vector-processor programs for CYBER 200 to other computers. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  17. 76 FR 81516 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...) Frequent Traveler Program; examine evolving threats in cyber security; and provide information on the... (EMP) Threat--Lessons Learned and Areas of Vulnerability, and Evolving Threats in Cyber Security. Basis... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Closed Federal...

  18. 77 FR 55218 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... violent extremism domestically; the current threat environment; evolving threats in cyber security... receive a briefing on evolving threats in cyber security. This will include lessons learned and potential... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of partially...

  19. Finding Effective Responses Against Cyber Attacks for Divided Nations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    against South Korean government sites from 2008 to 2012 (Chae, 2013). Among these, significant attacks such as a malware infection on government...symptoms in domestic cyberspace and malware interdiction. For cyber security in the public sector, each central agency operates segmental security...out the detection of malware , implementing responses against DDoS attacks by establishing cyber shelters and zombie PC treatment systems, and

  20. 76 FR 17158 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... group that coordinates cyber security research activities in support of national security systems, is...: There is a strong and often repeated call for research to provide novel cyber security solutions. The... capable, and that re-examining cyber security solutions in the context of these assumptions will result in...

  1. A Case Study on the Development and Implementation of Cyber Capabilities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Marquetta

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of U.S. cyber-capabilities can have a serious effect on the cyber-security stance of the US and significantly impact how well U.S. critical infrastructures are protected. The problem is that the state of the U.S. cyber-security could be negatively impacted by the dependency that the US displays in its use of defensive…

  2. A Case Study on the Development and Implementation of Cyber Capabilities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Marquetta

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of U.S. cyber-capabilities can have a serious effect on the cyber-security stance of the US and significantly impact how well U.S. critical infrastructures are protected. The problem is that the state of the U.S. cyber-security could be negatively impacted by the dependency that the US displays in its use of defensive…

  3. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-12-19

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a month’s worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin® for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a month’s worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

  4. Science of Cyber-Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    generally recognized made it impossible to stop the virus from spreading (see the discussion at http://ccied.sysnet. ucsd.edu/ tutorial ). One result...alloy.mit.edu). These are free tools with excellent web sites in- cluding tutorials and many examples. Yet tools like this seem to be used mostly by...are virtual machines ( HTML5 , 33 Javascript, etc.) whose behavior is for the most part based on standards. They are still malleable, but the backwards

  5. Maritime Cyber Security University Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    traffic so vital to the global economy . The vulnerabilities associated with reliance on digital systems in the maritime environment must be continuously...Impacts: What framework should be employed for impact analysis for the MTS? What are the cascading consequences to the nation and economy of a

  6. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    House - 01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Economic Analysis of Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    calculated and require a good deal of guesswork ( Lemos , 2002). 2.2.3 Mi2g The British firm Mi2g has published numerous economic impact estimates...policy, has fallen out of favor. Users who are forced to periodically change their password are more likely to write it down or reuse a password used...Post. Lemos , Robert. January 21, 2002. “Data on Internet Threats Still Out Cold.” Available at <http://news.com.com/Data+on+Internet+threats+still

  8. Hardware Acceleration for Cyber Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    adapters from Napatech [23]. Platforms provided by research comunity are COMBO cards [4] from CESNET and NetFPGA [24] cards from Stanford. Endace and...allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an audio stream. The lower cost and greater flexibility helped to increase number of

  9. Cyber Crime Protection Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2012-02-15

    02/16/2012 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 324. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Cyber Crime Protection Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2012-02-15

    Senate - 02/16/2012 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 324. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Cyber Crime Protection Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2012-02-15

    02/16/2012 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 324. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Using Self-Assessments in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Gary; Holbrook, Teri; Meyers, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    Self-assessments can play a powerful role in developing a child's motivation and achievement. Self-assessments require students to think carefully about what they have learned and how they learn and to develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Students who engage in the productive practice of self-assessment, inevitably strengthen…

  15. Conceptual Architecture for Obtaining Cyber Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Rio de Janeiro. Nov. 2011. [13] LEEUWEN , V. et al. Cyber Security Analysis Testbed: combining real, emulation, and simulation. In: INTERNATIONAL...networks.com>. Accessed: 16 jun. 2012. • [12] DECATRON. Executive project. Cyberwar operation simulator. Rio de Janeiro. Nov. 2011. • [13] LEEUWEN

  16. Chinese Cyber Economic Espionage: Motivations And Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    company reports, Congressional hearing transcripts, and official (and semi-official) pronouncements. Despite the apparent recognition of a problem, the...Puntney, 55 pages Alleged Chinese cyber economic espionage periodically fills headlines, Internet security company reports, Congressional hearing...existence less to consistency and more to lost opportunity. Had the Obama Administration done more between May 2009 and May 2011, presumably staff

  17. Offense-Defense Theory Analysis of Russian Cyber Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Federal Security Service GGE group of governmental experts GRU Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces ICT...Investigative Activities SVR Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation TDS traffic direction system Tor The Onion Router... intelligence and security agencies charged with cyber missions— Federal Security Service (FSB), Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), and the military’s

  18. Contract 98 Self-Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of LBL`s Self-Assessment required by Appendix F to Contract DE ACOO3765F00098. This self assessment covers the performance measures set forth in Appendix F except those requiring an external audit. The performance measures for LBL are in the areas of ES&H Finance, Human Services and Procurement and Property. LBL is a multi-program laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for DOE. The mission of LBL includes performing research in energy, general, and life sciences. LBL facilities include the main site on 130 acres located in the cities of Berkeley and Oakland; laboratories and offices located in buildings on the UC Berkeley Campus; and three leased buildings in the cities of Berkeley and Emeryville. 1. Involvement of Line Management in the assessment process to provide awareness and ownership. 2. Using existing assessments, audits and appraisals in lieu of a new assessment wherever possible. 3. Conduct of the assessments by individuals with functional responsibility and knowledge of the areas being assessed. 4. Interaction with individuals performing assessments at other Laboratories to enhance our learning process. As anticipated, a number of findings will require corrective action. General corrective actions are identified for key findings in this report. In early May 1993, this Laboratory will begin the development of detailed formal corrective action plans which will be entered into a laboratory automated corrective action tracking system.

  19. Multinational Experiment 7. Outcome 3 - Cyber Domain. Objective 3.3: Concept Framework Version 3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-03

    document contains color images . 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17...on its actions to prevent cyber attacks in general. Cyber attacks are extremely difficult for States to detect prior to the commission of a specific...identifying three main cyber crime categories: i) traditional forms of crime such as fraud and forgery , although in a cyber context; ii) the publication of

  20. 77 FR 59627 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Cyber Skills Task Force. DATES: The HSAC conference call will take place from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. EDT on... matters related to homeland security. The HSAC will meet to review and deliberate on the Cyber Skills Task... (202) 447-3135. HSAC conference call details and the Cyber Skills Task Force report will be provided to...

  1. Toward a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    2010-04-01

    Cyberspace is an indispensable part of the economy and society, but has been "polluted" with many compromised computers that can be abused to launch further attacks against the others. Since it is likely that there always are compromised computers, it is important to be aware of the (dynamic) cyber security-related situation, which is however challenging because cyberspace is an extremely large-scale complex system. Our project aims to investigate a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing. With the perspective of treating cyberspace as a large-scale complex system, the core question we aim to address is: What would be a competent theoretical (mathematical and algorithmic) framework for designing, analyzing, deploying, managing, and adapting cyber sensor systems so as to provide trustworthy information or input to the higher layer of cyber situation-awareness management, even in the presence of sophisticated malicious attacks against the cyber sensor systems?

  2. ARMY CYBER STRUCTURE ALIGNMENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    Meade , Maryland. USCYBERCOM also has operational command relationships with each of the services’ cyber components that include: Army Cyber Command...domains and deny the same to adversarial forces.36 Lt. Gen. George Flynn, the deputy commandant commanding the Marine Corps Combat Development Command at...www.arcyber.army.mil/Organization/ARCYBERHistory . 12 US Army Cyber Command, “ARCYBER the Next Battlefield,” briefing slides, Ft. Meade , MD, December 10, 2013

  3. An analytic approach to cyber adversarial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Cybenko, George

    2012-06-01

    To date, cyber security investment by both the government and commercial sectors has been largely driven by the myopic best response of players to the actions of their adversaries and their perception of the adversarial environment. However, current work in applying traditional game theory to cyber operations typically assumes that games exist with prescribed moves, strategies, and payos. This paper presents an analytic approach to characterizing the more realistic cyber adversarial metagame that we believe is being played. Examples show that understanding the dynamic metagame provides opportunities to exploit an adversary's anticipated attack strategy. A dynamic version of a graph-based attack-defend game is introduced, and a simulation shows how an optimal strategy can be selected for success in the dynamic environment.

  4. Impact modeling and prediction of attacks on cyber targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Aram; Michalk, Brian; Alford, Lee; Henney, Chris; Gilbert, Logan

    2010-04-01

    In most organizations, IT (information technology) infrastructure exists to support the organization's mission. The threat of cyber attacks poses risks to this mission. Current network security research focuses on the threat of cyber attacks to the organization's IT infrastructure; however, the risks to the overall mission are rarely analyzed or formalized. This connection of IT infrastructure to the organization's mission is often neglected or carried out ad-hoc. Our work bridges this gap and introduces analyses and formalisms to help organizations understand the mission risks they face from cyber attacks. Modeling an organization's mission vulnerability to cyber attacks requires a description of the IT infrastructure (network model), the organization mission (business model), and how the mission relies on IT resources (correlation model). With this information, proper analysis can show which cyber resources are of tactical importance in a cyber attack, i.e., controlling them enables a large range of cyber attacks. Such analysis also reveals which IT resources contribute most to the organization's mission, i.e., lack of control over them gravely affects the mission. These results can then be used to formulate IT security strategies and explore their trade-offs, which leads to better incident response. This paper presents our methodology for encoding IT infrastructure, organization mission and correlations, our analysis framework, as well as initial experimental results and conclusions.

  5. A cognitive and economic decision theory for examining cyber defense strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Cyber attacks pose a major threat to modern organizations. Little is known about the social aspects of decision making among organizations that face cyber threats, nor do we have empirically-grounded models of the dynamics of cooperative behavior among vulnerable organizations. The effectiveness of cyber defense can likely be enhanced if information and resources are shared among organizations that face similar threats. Three models were created to begin to understand the cognitive and social aspects of cyber cooperation. The first simulated a cooperative cyber security program between two organizations. The second focused on a cyber security training program in which participants interact (and potentially cooperate) to solve problems. The third built upon the first two models and simulates cooperation between organizations in an information-sharing program.

  6. Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-15

    terrorists are able to communicate in a secure environment. Using steganography , they hide instructions, plans and pictures for their attacks in...local prayer leaders, audio -video cassettes and CDs promoting their cause; terrorist groups also use their own websites to recruit new members. This...spyware as well because it invariably includes components for tracking and reporting user information. steganography : The process of hiding

  7. Effective Cyber Situation Awareness (CSA) Assessment and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    myths and facts behind cyber security risks for industrial control systems. Proceedings of the VDE Kongress, 116. Champion, M., Rajivan, P., Cooke, N...Structured interviews were conducted of two leaders of cyber operations in two different organizations ( industry and military). They were interviewed by...of information assurance analysts. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting - 2005, 2005, 229–233. Garrison, C

  8. Active Learning with the CyberCIEGE Video Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    also includes a dozen animated tutorial videos that cover security topics such as malicious software, assurance and PKI. The CyberCIEGE...example, a traditional computer vulnerability ( hacking ) lab can show students how to use a Trojan horse to get around ACLs. CyberCIEGE brings added...are included within lab manuals and instructor notes. The simulation of PKI and VPN mechanisms has been described previously [7]. 5.1 Tutorial

  9. Modeling the Effects of Cyber Operations on Kinetic Battles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    arrows , and the flow in dt is represented near arrows . 33 In the two-sided Cyber Epidemic Combat model, although attrition rates associated with...expression for worm -scanning strategies. International Journal of Security and Networks, 4(3), 135–144. Cigital. 2013. President Obama Acknowledges Cyber...R. Kooij. 2009. Virus spread in networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 17(1), 1‒14. Vojnovic, M., A. J. Ganesh. 2008. On the race of worms

  10. Student Self-Assessment: Processes and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Maddalena

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research signals that self-assessment is an important factor supporting and engaging students with learning. Despite this, there has been no explicit comparison or evaluation of recent models used across educational sectors or within them. To the uninitiated, self-assessment often appears as an amorphous, unique process. This paper…

  11. Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment" is designed to help school systems evaluate their current Professional Growth & Support strategy. The self-assessment is organized around the "Eight Principles of Strategic Professional Growth & Support." Each section allows school leaders to identify the…

  12. Cyber in the Cloud -- Lessons Learned from INL's Cloud E-Mail Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand; Daniel Jones

    2012-12-01

    As we look at the cyber security ecosystem, are we planning to fight the battle as we did yesterday, with firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS), or are we sensing a change in how security is evolving and planning accordingly? With the technology enablement and possible financial benefits of cloud computing, the traditional tools for establishing and maintaining our cyber security ecosystems are being dramatically altered.

  13. Design of Hack-Resistant Diabetes Devices and Disclosure of Their Cyber Safety.

    PubMed

    Sackner-Bernstein, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    The focus of the medical device industry and regulatory bodies on cyber security parallels that in other industries, primarily on risk assessment and user education as well as the recognition and response to infiltration. However, transparency of the safety of marketed devices is lacking and developers are not embracing optimal design practices with new devices. Achieving cyber safe diabetes devices: To improve understanding of cyber safety by clinicians and patients, and inform decision making on use practices of medical devices requires disclosure by device manufacturers of the results of their cyber security testing. Furthermore, developers should immediately shift their design processes to deliver better cyber safety, exemplified by use of state of the art encryption, secure operating systems, and memory protections from malware.

  14. Timing of cyber conflict

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-01

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran’s nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide. PMID:24474752

  15. Timing of cyber conflict.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  16. Towards a Research Agenda for Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.

    2009-11-18

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, degradation of skills due to continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situation awareness, and lack of training and discipline in offensive/defense response selection. While these problems are typically addressed in R&D focusing on traditional ground-based combat, there is also an emerging need for improving situation awareness and decision making on defensive/offensive response options in the cyber defense arena, where a mistaken response to an actual or perceived cyber attack could lead to destruction or compromise of friendly cyber assets. The purpose of this report is to examine cognitive factors that may affect cyber situation awareness and describe possible research needs to reduce the likelihood and effects of "friendly cyber fire" on cyber defenses, information infrastructures, and data. The approach is to examine concepts and methods that have been described in research applied to the more traditional problem of mitigating the occurrence of combat identification and fratricide. Application domains of interest include cyber security defense against external or internal (insider) threats.

  17. Cyber Threat Assessment of Uplink and Commanding System for Mission Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Tan, Kymie M. C.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner; Faris, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Most of today's Mission Operations Systems (MOS) rely on Ground Data System (GDS) segment to mitigate cyber security risks. Unfortunately, IT security design is done separately from the design of GDS' mission operational capabilities. This incoherent practice leaves many security vulnerabilities in the system without any notice. This paper describes a new way to system engineering MOS, to include cyber threat risk assessments throughout the MOS development cycle, without this, it is impossible to design a dependable and reliable MOS to meet today's rapid changing cyber threat environment.

  18. Cyber Threat Assessment of Uplink and Commanding System for Mission Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Tan, Kymie M. C.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner; Faris, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Most of today's Mission Operations Systems (MOS) rely on Ground Data System (GDS) segment to mitigate cyber security risks. Unfortunately, IT security design is done separately from the design of GDS' mission operational capabilities. This incoherent practice leaves many security vulnerabilities in the system without any notice. This paper describes a new way to system engineering MOS, to include cyber threat risk assessments throughout the MOS development cycle, without this, it is impossible to design a dependable and reliable MOS to meet today's rapid changing cyber threat environment.

  19. Quantifying Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Saha, Sudip

    2015-04-15

    Representation and propagation of uncertainty in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect of security games. Past research has primarily focused on representing the defender’s beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and intervals. Within cyber-settings, continuous probability distributions may still be appropriate for addressing statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume that the attacker’s payoffs differ over time. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information about the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as probability boxes with intervals. In this study, we explore the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties.

  20. The Cyber Dimensions of the Syrian Civil War: Implications for Future Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    conflicts. 15. SUBJECT TERMS cyber, Syria, social media , Syrian electronic army, civil war, cyber operations, United States, internet 16. SECURITY...1 The Role of Social Media ...fighters is causing the United States to rethink its policy on that support.7 The Role of Social Media The Assad regime expelled all journalists

  1. Constructing a Cyber Preparedness Framework (CPF): The Lockheed Martin Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    The protection of sensitive data and technologies is critical in preserving United States (U.S.) national security and minimizing economic losses. However, during a cyber attack, the operational capability to constrain the exfiltrations of sensitive data and technologies may not be available. A cyber preparedness methodology (CPM) can improve…

  2. Constructing a Cyber Preparedness Framework (CPF): The Lockheed Martin Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    The protection of sensitive data and technologies is critical in preserving United States (U.S.) national security and minimizing economic losses. However, during a cyber attack, the operational capability to constrain the exfiltrations of sensitive data and technologies may not be available. A cyber preparedness methodology (CPM) can improve…

  3. A Systematic Comprehensive Computational Model for Stake Estimation in Mission Assurance: Applying Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Grimaila, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security breakdowns. In this paper, we discuss how this infrastructure can be used in the subject domain of mission assurance as defined as the full life-cycle engineering process to identify and mitigate design, production, test, and field support deficiencies of mission success. We address the opportunity to apply the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Carnegie Mellon University and Software Engineering Institute s Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP) in this context.

  4. CyberPetri at CDX 2016: Real-time Network Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, Dustin L.; Best, Daniel M.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Paul, Celeste

    2016-10-24

    CyberPetri is a novel visualization technique that provides a flexible map of the network based on available characteristics, such as IP address, operating system, or service. Previous work introduced CyberPetri as a visualization feature in Ocelot, a network defense tool that helped security analysts understand and respond to an active defense scenario. In this paper we present a case study in which we use the CyberPetri visualization technique to support real-time situation awareness during the 2016 Cyber Defense Exercise.

  5. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, Jonathan T.; Silva, Austin Ray; Avina, Glory Emmanuel; Forsythe, James C.

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  6. 78 FR 14101 - Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee (HSSTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... systems engineering, cyber-security, knowledge management and how best to leverage related technologies... Security and the evolution of the Cyber Security Division of DHS S&T. The committee will review the... SECURITY Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee (HSSTAC) AGENCY: Science and...

  7. Self-assessment for maintenance of certification.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Jennifer; Laszakovits, David; Hattery, Robert R

    2007-01-01

    Self-assessment is paired with continuing medical education in the "lifelong learning " component of the American Board of Radiology's (ABR) Maintenance of Certification program. The literature on the use of self-assessment in higher education and the professions is instructive with regard to the distinctiveness of this form of adult learning. This article reviews pertinent literature, summarizes the findings, and applies the principles to the creation and use of "self-assessment modules" (SAMs) for the maintenance of certification. Data on the use of ABR-qualified SAMs are reported. On completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the nature, role, and best practices of self-assessment; apply these concepts to the creation or use of a SAM; and identify future opportunities for SAM development and use that will enhance the lifelong learning of radiologists.

  8. CYBER 200 Applications Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, J. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Applications suited for the CYBER 200 digital computer are discussed. Various areas of application including meteorology, algorithms, fluid dynamics, monte carlo methods, petroleum, electronic circuit simulation, biochemistry, lattice gauge theory, economics and ray tracing are discussed.

  9. Taxonomies of Cyber Adversaries and Attacks: A Survey of Incidents and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we construct taxonomies of cyber adversaries and methods of attack, drawing from a survey of the literature in the area of cyber crime. We begin by addressing the scope of cyber crime, noting its prevalence and effects on the US economy. We then survey the literature on cyber adversaries, presenting a taxonomy of the different types of adversaries and their corresponding methods, motivations, maliciousness, and skill levels. Subsequently we survey the literature on cyber attacks, giving a taxonomy of the different classes of attacks, subtypes, and threat descriptions. The goal of this paper is to inform future studies of cyber security on the shape and characteristics of the risk space and its associated adversaries.

  10. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  11. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... received must include the words ``Department of Homeland Security'' and the docket ] number for this...

  12. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Information Collection Request, 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... words ``Department of Homeland Security'' and the docket number for this action. Comments received...

  13. Establishing a Cyber Warrior Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Cyber Warfare is widely touted to be the next generation of warfare. As America’s reliance on automated systems and information technology increases...so too does the potential vulnerability to cyber attack. Nation and non-nation states are developing the capability to wage cyber warfare . Historically

  14. Responding to Cyber Attacks and the Applicability of Existing International Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    cyber attacks is the Defense Industrial Base Cyber Security / Information Assurance Program , or DIB CS/IA. Defense Industrial Base networks, or DIB... Information Security Management Act, or FISMA , to formalize DHS’s roles and responsibilities to protect United States networks.35 The newest of the...in cyberspace intended access, disrupt or attack the information , the enabling physical infrastructures or to cause effects in the physical world

  15. Uncertainty and Risk Management in Cyber Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason; Ou, Xinming; Rajagopalan, Raj

    Handling cyber threats unavoidably needs to deal with both uncertain and imprecise information. What we can observe as potential malicious activities can seldom give us 100% confidence on important questions we care about, e.g. what machines are compromised and what damage has been incurred. In security planning, we need information on how likely a vulnerability can lead to a successful compromise to better balance security and functionality, performance, and ease of use. These information are at best qualitative and are often vague and imprecise. In cyber situational awareness, we have to rely on such imperfect information to detect real attacks and to prevent an attack from happening through appropriate risk management. This chapter surveys existing technologies in handling uncertainty and risk management in cyber situational awareness.

  16. What is the current state of the science of Cyber defense?

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J.

    2015-10-09

    My overall sense of the cyber defense field is one of an adolescent discipline currently bogged down in a cloud of issues, the most iconic of which is the great diversity of approaches that are being aggregated to form a coherent field. Because my own expertise is complex systems and materials physics research, I have limited direct experience in cyber security sciences except as a user of secure networks and computing resources. However, in producing this report, I have found with certainty that there exists no calculus for cyber risk assessment, mitigation, and response, although some hopeful precepts toward this end are emerging.

  17. Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-09

    Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation Prepared for The US-China Economic and...the People?s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation 2 US-China Economic and Security Review

  18. A Dynamic Three-Dimensional Network Visualization Program for Integration into CyberCIEGE and Other Network Visualization Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    analyzers and intrusion detection systems can provide this additional information . In particular, game-based trainers, such as CyberCIEGE, have been...protocol analyzers and intrusion detection systems can provide this additional information . In particular, game-based trainers, such as CyberCIEGE...assurance training tool CyberCIEGE. This is a computer game-based trainer developed by collaboration between The Center for Information Systems Security

  19. Data Diodes in Support of Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure and Net-Centric Cyber Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Okhravi, Hamed; Sheldon, Frederick T.; Haines, Joshua

    2013-11-02

    Data diodes provide protection of critical cyber assets by the means of physically enforcing traffic direction on the network. In order to deploy data diodes effectively, it is imperative to understand the protection they provide, the protection they do not provide, their limitations, and their place in the larger security infrastructure. In this work, we study data diodes, their functionalities and limitations. We then propose two critical infrastructure systems that can benefit from the additional protection offered by data diodes: process control networks and net-centric cyber decision support systems. We review the security requirements of these systems, describe the architectures, and study the trade-offs. Finally, the architectures are evaluated against different attack patterns.

  20. Case study examples using self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Garstecki, D; Hutton, C L; Nerbonne, M A; Newman, C W; Smoski, W J

    1990-10-01

    The following case studies demonstrate the application of self-assessment techniques. The selection of procedures reported here is not meant to imply necessarily that these procedures are more or less effective or more widely used than other available self-assessment tests, but rather to illustrate the various purposes for which self-assessment tools may be employed. Case 1 illustrates the contribution of data obtained from the Hearing Performance Inventory (Giolas, Owens, Lamb, & Shubert, 1979) in the management and counseling of a severely hearing impaired adult. Case 2 involves the use of the Hearing Problem Inventory developed by Hutton in Atlanta (HPI-A, Hutton, 1987). Application of the Self-Assessment of Communication (SAC) and Significant Other Assessment of Communication (SOAC) (Schow and Nerbonne, 1982) is shown in Case 3, whereas Case 4 demonstrates the usefulness of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE, Ventry and Weinstein, 1982). Both the SAC/SOAC and HHIE batteries involve problem cases associated with hearing aid fitting and assessment of benefit. The final illustration (Case 5) is a report on the Children's Auditory Processing Performance Scale (CHAPPS), a new questionnaire developed by Smoski, Brunt, and Tannahill/ISHA (1987) for assessing parent's judgment of children's listening abilities (Appendix). The versatility of self-assessment applications across a broad assortment of impairment levels, age groups, and clinical settings is demonstrated in these cases. Hopefully the reader will see more clearly the application and value of these and other non-audiometric techniques and will be motivated to increase the use of self-assessment tools in the individual work setting.

  1. Self-assessing target with automatic feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, Stephen W.; Kramer, Robert L.

    2004-03-02

    A self assessing target with four quadrants and a method of use thereof. Each quadrant containing possible causes for why shots are going into that particular quadrant rather than the center mass of the target. Each possible cause is followed by a solution intended to help the marksman correct the problem causing the marksman to shoot in that particular area. In addition, the self assessing target contains possible causes for general shooting errors and solutions to the causes of the general shooting error. The automatic feedback with instant suggestions and corrections enables the shooter to improve their marksmanship.

  2. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  3. Lemnos Interoperable Security Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, John; Halbgewachs, Ron; Chavez, Adrian; Smith, Rhett; Teumim, David

    2012-01-31

    The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or tunnels , to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock

  4. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  5. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  6. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  7. Cyber threats to health information systems: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Luna, Raul; Rhine, Emily; Myhra, Matthew; Sullivan, Ross; Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2016-01-01

    Recent legislation empowering providers to embrace the electronic exchange of health information leaves the healthcare industry increasingly vulnerable to cybercrime. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the biggest threats to healthcare via cybercrime. The rationale behind this systematic review is to provide a framework for future research by identifying themes and trends of cybercrime in the healthcare industry. The authors conducted a systematic search through the CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases to gather literature relative to cyber threats in healthcare. All authors reviewed the articles collected and excluded literature that did not focus on the objective. Researchers selected and examined 19 articles for common themes. The most prevalent cyber-criminal activity in healthcare is identity theft through data breach. Other concepts identified are internal threats, external threats, cyber-squatting, and cyberterrorism. The industry has now come to rely heavily on digital technologies, which increase risks such as denial of service and data breaches. Current healthcare cyber-security systems do not rival the capabilities of cyber criminals. Security of information is a costly resource and therefore many HCOs may hesitate to invest what is required to protect sensitive information.

  8. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  9. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  10. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  11. Rationale and Criteria for Self Assessment Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Kenneth B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-assessment inventories set a proper tone for the adult learning process not only because the impetus for learning resides in the individual but also because there is immediate feedback. Implications for continuing education in veterinary medicine are discussed briefly. (Author/LBH)

  12. Self Assessment and Student-Centred Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to show how self assessment facilitates student-centred learning (SCL) and fills a gap in the literature. Two groups of students were selected from a single class in a tertiary educational institution. The control group of 25 was selected randomly by the tossing of an unbiased coin (heads = control group). They were trained in the…

  13. Self Assessment of a Sign Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The CIPP (Context Input Process Product) Evaluation Model is recommended for use in self-assessment of sign language programs. Five areas should be assessed: personnel selection, curriculum, student placement, media utilization, and supervision. For each area, a checklist is offered to determine whether existing goals and objectives require…

  14. Self-assessment procedure using fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimi, Fotini

    2000-10-01

    Self-Assessment processes, initiated by a company itself and carried out by its own people, are considered to be the starting point for a regular strategic or operative planning process to ensure a continuous quality improvement. Their importance has increased by the growing relevance and acceptance of international quality awards such as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the European Quality Award and the Deming Prize. Especially award winners use the instrument of a systematic and regular Self-Assessment and not only because they have to verify their quality and business results for at least three years. The Total Quality Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), used for the European Quality Award, is the basis for Self-Assessment in Europe. This paper presents a self-assessment supporting method based on a methodology of fuzzy control systems providing an effective means of converting the linguistic approximation into an automatic control strategy. In particular, the elements of the Quality Model mentioned above are interpreted as linguistic variables. The LR-type of a fuzzy interval is used for their representation. The input data has a qualitative character based on empirical investigation and expert knowledge and therefore the base- variables are ordinal scaled. The aggregation process takes place on the basis of a hierarchical structure. Finally, in order to render the use of the method more practical a software system on PC basis is developed and implemented.

  15. Teachers' Self-Assessed Level of Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least…

  16. Rapid Training System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A systematic self-assessment mirrors quality system and certification models, thus making a strong argument for high-quality design, control, and management of the training function. Accomplished for the ongoing betterment of the function, not as a summative judgment of conformance, it discovers strengths and weaknesses and results in a common…

  17. Rapid Training System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A systematic self-assessment mirrors quality system and certification models, thus making a strong argument for high-quality design, control, and management of the training function. Accomplished for the ongoing betterment of the function, not as a summative judgment of conformance, it discovers strengths and weaknesses and results in a common…

  18. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  19. Security Self-Assessment Guide for Information Technology Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    activities found in the General Accounting Office’s (GAO) Federal Information System Control Audit Manual ( FISCAM ). FISCAM is the document GAO...auditors and agency inspector generals use when auditing an agency. When FISCAM is referenced in the questionnaire, the major category initials along with...the control activity number are provided, e.g., FISCAM SP-3.1. The cross mapping of the two documents will form a road map between the control

  20. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  1. CyberEconomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Describes CyberEconomics, a complete, free, two-semester principles of economics textbook available on the World Wide Web. Contains chapters, sections, a table of contents, a set of learning objectives, and links to chapter introductions and sections. Offers a CD-ROM version available for a fee that contains interactive review questions. (JEH)

  2. CyFall: A Cyber-Network Game Scenario

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    results. This report examines the development of a conceptual game ( gamification ) that would aid nonexperts in identifying with their role and the...user study, gamification 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 36 19a...threshold activity alerts. 1.2 Visualization in Cyber Security Visualization has a history of being nondeployable, ineffective, and obfuscating—especially

  3. Scenario Selection and Student Assessment Modules for CyberCIEGE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    effective implementation plan to further this, it is important to promote awareness of security issues to a wide spectrum of users. Information systems...explored within the scope of this thesis. Futher, [Irvine 2003] has also indicated that this is planned for a future iteration of CyberCIEGE’s...REFERENCES [Anderson 1972] James Anderson. “Computer Security Technology Planning Study”. Technical report ESD-TR-73-5, vol II, USAF Electronics

  4. Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Muller, George; Perkins, Casey J.; Lancaster, Mary J.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Patrick, Scott W.; Key, Bradley Robert

    2015-07-28

    Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one aspect, a computer-implemented security evaluation method includes accessing information regarding a physical architecture and a cyber architecture of a facility, building a model of the facility comprising a plurality of physical areas of the physical architecture, a plurality of cyber areas of the cyber architecture, and a plurality of pathways between the physical areas and the cyber areas, identifying a target within the facility, executing the model a plurality of times to simulate a plurality of attacks against the target by an adversary traversing at least one of the areas in the physical domain and at least one of the areas in the cyber domain, and using results of the executing, providing information regarding a security risk of the facility with respect to the target.

  5. Autonomic Intelligent Cyber Sensor (AICS) Version 1.0.1

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    The Autonomic Intelligent Cyber Sensor (AICS) provides cyber security and industrial network state awareness for Ethernet based control network implementations. The AICS utilizes collaborative mechanisms based on Autonomic Research and a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to: 1) identify anomalous network traffic; 2) discover network entity information; 3) deploy deceptive virtual hosts; and 4) implement self-configuring modules. AICS achieves these goals by dynamically reacting to the industrial human-digital ecosystem in which it resides. Information is transported internally and externally on a standards based, flexible two-level communication structure.

  6. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  7. Risk assessment for physical and cyber attacks on critical infrastructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Bryan J.; Sholander, Peter E.; Phelan, James M.; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2005-08-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies. Existing risk assessment methodologies consider physical security and cyber security separately. As such, they do not accurately model attacks that involve defeating both physical protection and cyber protection elements (e.g., hackers turning off alarm systems prior to forced entry). This paper presents a risk assessment methodology that accounts for both physical and cyber security. It also preserves the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay and respond, while accounting for the possibility that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the results of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology provides a means for ranking those assets most at risk from malevolent attacks. Because the methodology is automated the analyst can also play 'what if with mitigation measures to gain a better understanding of how to best expend resources towards securing the facilities. It is simple enough to be applied to large infrastructure facilities without developing highly complicated models. Finally, it is applicable to facilities with extensive security as well as those that are less well-protected.

  8. Integrated situational awareness for cyber attack detection, analysis, and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Sagduyu, Yalin; Deng, Julia; Li, Jason; Liu, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Real-time cyberspace situational awareness is critical for securing and protecting today's enterprise networks from various cyber threats. When a security incident occurs, network administrators and security analysts need to know what exactly has happened in the network, why it happened, and what actions or countermeasures should be taken to quickly mitigate the potential impacts. In this paper, we propose an integrated cyberspace situational awareness system for efficient cyber attack detection, analysis and mitigation in large-scale enterprise networks. Essentially, a cyberspace common operational picture will be developed, which is a multi-layer graphical model and can efficiently capture and represent the statuses, relationships, and interdependencies of various entities and elements within and among different levels of a network. Once shared among authorized users, this cyberspace common operational picture can provide an integrated view of the logical, physical, and cyber domains, and a unique visualization of disparate data sets to support decision makers. In addition, advanced analyses, such as Bayesian Network analysis, will be explored to address the information uncertainty, dynamic and complex cyber attack detection, and optimal impact mitigation issues. All the developed technologies will be further integrated into an automatic software toolkit to achieve near real-time cyberspace situational awareness and impact mitigation in large-scale computer networks.

  9. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  10. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  11. Electronic Warfare for Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    This research paper provides complete course content for the AFIT EENG 509, Electronic Warfare class. It is intended as a replacement for the existing course and designed for Intermediate Developmental Education (IDE) students in the Cyber Warfare degree program. This course provides relevant academic courseware and study material to give cyber warriors an academic and operational perspective on electronic warfare and its integration in the cyber domain.

  12. Cyber Early Warning System (CEWAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2006-103 Final Technical Report March 2006 CYBER EARLY WARNING SYSTEM (CEWAS) Telcordia Technologies...ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE MARCH 2006 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Aug 04 – Dec 06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CYBER EARLY WARNING ...that are in their initial stages or in progress. 4 The Enhanced InFilter system has the capability to provide early notification of cyber

  13. Building An Adaptive Cyber Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AU/ACSC/SMITH, FI/AY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY BUILDING AN ADAPTIVE CYBER STRATEGY by...AY16 Abstract Due to the complexity of cyberspace and the diversity of threats that operate in the new domain, current US cyber strategy has not...proven effective. This paper dissects the cyber threat landscape and how advanced threats operate in order to devise an effective, adaptive strategy

  14. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Cyber Testbed Considerations – Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Gray; Robert Anderson; Julio G. Rodriguez; Cheol-Kwon Lee

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: Identifying and understanding digital instrumentation and control (I&C) cyber vulnerabilities within nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, is critical if nation states desire to operate nuclear facilities safely, reliably, and securely. In order to demonstrate objective evidence that cyber vulnerabilities have been adequately identified and mitigated, a testbed representing a facility’s critical nuclear equipment must be replicated. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has built and operated similar testbeds for common critical infrastructure I&C for over ten years. This experience developing, operating, and maintaining an I&C testbed in support of research identifying cyber vulnerabilities has led the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute of the Republic of Korea to solicit the experiences of INL to help mitigate problems early in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of a similar testbed. The following information will discuss I&C testbed lessons learned and the impact of these experiences to KAERI.

  15. Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Analysis of the U.S. Electric Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, Colleen; Sterbentz, Dane; Wright, Aaron

    2016-12-20

    With utilities in the U.S. and around the world increasingly moving toward smart grid technology and other upgrades with inherent cyber vulnerabilities, correlative threats from malicious cyber attacks on the North American electric grid continue to grow in frequency and sophistication. The potential for malicious actors to access and adversely affect physical electricity assets of U.S. electricity generation, transmission, or distribution systems via cyber means is a primary concern for utilities contributing to the bulk electric system. This paper seeks to illustrate the current cyber-physical landscape of the U.S. electric sector in the context of its vulnerabilities to cyber attacks, the likelihood of cyber attacks, and the impacts cyber events and threat actors can achieve on the power grid. In addition, this paper highlights utility perspectives, perceived challenges, and requests for assistance in addressing cyber threats to the electric sector. There have been no reported targeted cyber attacks carried out against utilities in the U.S. that have resulted in permanent or long term damage to power system operations thus far, yet electric utilities throughout the U.S. have seen a steady rise in cyber and physical security related events that continue to raise concern. Asset owners and operators understand that the effects of a coordinated cyber and physical attack on a utility’s operations would threaten electric system reliability–and potentially result in large scale power outages. Utilities are routinely faced with new challenges for dealing with these cyber threats to the grid and consequently maintain a set of best practices to keep systems secure and up to date. Among the greatest challenges is a lack of knowledge or strategy to mitigate new risks that emerge as a result of an exponential rise in complexity of modern control systems. This paper compiles an open-source analysis of cyber threats and risks to the electric grid, utility best practices

  16. Cyber Asynchronous versus Blended Cyber Approach in Distance English Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Zi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to compare the single cyber asynchronous learning approach with the blended cyber learning approach in distance English education. Two classes of 70 students participated in this study, which lasted one semester of about four months, with one class using the blended approach for their English study and the other only using the…

  17. Cyber Asynchronous versus Blended Cyber Approach in Distance English Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Zi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to compare the single cyber asynchronous learning approach with the blended cyber learning approach in distance English education. Two classes of 70 students participated in this study, which lasted one semester of about four months, with one class using the blended approach for their English study and the other only using the…

  18. Cyber Workforce Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Retention 25 Congressional Concerns about Cyber Retention 25 Contemporary Civilian Labor Market Study Findings on Retention Best Practices 26...occupational categories in the labor markets in the United States and around the world in the coming years. This demand is increasing based on the rising...professionals collides with a world labor market already experi- encing a dramatic deficit in individuals with these skills. At the same time, the United

  19. 78 FR 66984 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB); Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., nonproliferation, political- military affairs, international security, and related aspects of public diplomacy. The.... policy and issues regarding arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, cyber stability, energy security, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive...

  20. 78 FR 35295 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cybersecurity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI). In response to increased cyber threats across the Nation, the... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cybersecurity...-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, Cybersecurity Education Office, will submit the...

  1. 78 FR 57643 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cybersecurity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... increased cyber threats across the Nation, the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cybersecurity...-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, Cybersecurity Education Office, DHS will submit the...

  2. 75 FR 39920 - Announcing a Meeting of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... next 2-3 years for NIST in cyber security. -- Threat Vector Initiative. -- Fedramp. -- Cyber... National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcing a Meeting of the Information Security and Privacy... Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board (ISPAB) will meet Wednesday, August 4, 2010, from 9 a.m. until...

  3. Student Responses to Criteria-Referenced Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Heidi; Du, Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of undergraduate students' experiences with criteria-referenced self-assessment. Fourteen students who had taken a course involving self-assessment were interviewed in focus groups segregated by gender. The findings suggest that students had positive attitudes toward self-assessment after extended practice; felt they…

  4. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  5. 32 CFR 701.124 - PA self assessments/inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personnel who work with privacy records/information. A PA self-assessment evaluation form is provided at... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PA self assessments/inspections. 701.124 Section... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.124 PA self assessments...

  6. Out-Learning Attackers: A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Out-Learning Attackers: A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Defense FA9550-09-1-0049 Musacchio, John Frazier , Greg Kreidl, Pat Regents of University of...Security Program Final Report Project Period: 2/1/09 - 11/30/12 John Musacchio, UC Santa Cruz; Greg Frazier and Pat Kreidl BAE Systems 1 Introduction This...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0172 Out-Learning Attackers: A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Defense John Musacchio Regents of

  7. Deterring Iran’s Use of Offensive Cyber: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    hacking standards—mainly DDoS attacks with botnets and DNS hijackings and recursions. More recent activities by Iranian cyber forces and their proxies...government accountable for the actions of its proxies in cyberspace. o Recognize that Tehran has legitimate cyber security concerns and include an...deterrence—one that does not take into account the unique features of individual adversaries—is unlikely to be effective. 2 This paper

  8. Cyber Power in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Cyber Warfare .................................................................86 V. Conclusions and Recommendations...40 2 – Asymmetric Effects of Cyber Warfare ........................................................................41 1 CYBER POWER... cyber warfare capabilities with other elements of national power, as evidenced by the concept of “informationization” (xinxihua) put forward in

  9. Cyber Warfare: Protecting Military Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Software is a key component in nearly every critical system used by the Department of Defense. Attacking the software in a system- cyber warfare - is a...revolutionary method of pursuing war. This article describes various cyber warfare approaches and suggests methods to counter them.

  10. Methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable critical infrastructure equipment and mitigation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Lon Andrew; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NSCD), Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), contracted Sandia National Laboratories to develop a generic methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable, critical infrastructure assets and the development of mitigation strategies for their loss or compromise. The initial project has been divided into three discrete deliverables: (1) A generic methodology report suitable to all Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) Sectors (this report); (2) a sector-specific report for Electrical Power Distribution; and (3) a sector-specific report for the water sector, including generation, water treatment, and wastewater systems. Specific reports for the water and electric sectors are available from Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. Teachers' self-assessed level of preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan

    2013-03-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least adequately prepared with respect to their science knowledge in other areas and the applications of physics to everyday experience. However, only two-thirds feel adequately or well prepared in recent developments in physics.

  12. Network systems security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  13. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  14. Cyber Risk Management for Critical Infrastructure: A Risk Analysis Model and Three Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Paté-Cornell, M-Elisabeth; Kuypers, Marshall; Smith, Matthew; Keller, Philip

    2017-07-05

    Managing cyber security in an organization involves allocating the protection budget across a spectrum of possible options. This requires assessing the benefits and the costs of these options. The risk analyses presented here are statistical when relevant data are available, and system-based for high-consequence events that have not happened yet. This article presents, first, a general probabilistic risk analysis framework for cyber security in an organization to be specified. It then describes three examples of forward-looking analyses motivated by recent cyber attacks. The first one is the statistical analysis of an actual database, extended at the upper end of the loss distribution by a Bayesian analysis of possible, high-consequence attack scenarios that may happen in the future. The second is a systems analysis of cyber risks for a smart, connected electric grid, showing that there is an optimal level of connectivity. The third is an analysis of sequential decisions to upgrade the software of an existing cyber security system or to adopt a new one to stay ahead of adversaries trying to find their way in. The results are distributions of losses to cyber attacks, with and without some considered countermeasures in support of risk management decisions based both on past data and anticipated incidents. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Cyber-Warfare: Jus Post Bellum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    ability to contain and reverse cyberattacks. This thesis proposes a cyber-warfare jus post bellum framework, with emphasis on prevention and cyber...thesis proposes a cyber-warfare jus post bellum framework, with emphasis on prevention and cyber weapons control, proposes cyberattack relief-effort...can cause civilian entities to end up being collateral damage. The damage cyber weapons can cause these various organizations can be just as

  16. CYBER THREAT AWARENESS FOR THE WARFIGHTER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CYBER THREAT AWARENESS FOR THE WARFIGHTER by Jason R. Settle, Lt Col, USAF A Research Report...be targeted or are vulnerable to cyber threats, then operators should be aware of these threats. This paper explores to what extent cyber threat...that are susceptible to cyber threats.3 If aircraft are vulnerable to cyber threats, then operators should be aware of these potential threats

  17. Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The Fog of Cyber War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding...secure and efficient regathering of information in a fashion that would support formation of situational awareness appropriate to the time, place, and...cyber resilience, secret sharing, obfuscation, deception, fog computing, situational awareness 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  18. Women's self-assessed personal health resources.

    PubMed

    Malterud, K; Hollnagel, H

    1997-12-01

    To contribute to the development of a resource-oriented medical language by identifying self-assessed personal health resources in women. Key questions were developed to invite the patient to tell the general practitioner about such resources. Patients' answers were audiotaped and analysed qualitatively according to Giorgi's phenomenological approach. The theoretical frame of reference included salutogenesis, patient-centredness, and gender perspectives. Two female general practitioners and their consultations. 37 consecutive female patients aged 24-85 years. Common aspects of personal qualities and strategies considered by women as their health resources. The material unveiled health resources related to 1) internal strength mobilized by external strain, 2) interactive networks within and outside the family, 3) lifestyle practices, 4) physical and social activity, 5) acceptance and facilitation of the natural course of Disease, and 6) constitution. Female patients have explicit and intelligible ideas about their self-assessed personal health resources, which can be identified and mobilized by the general practitioner and form part of potentially empowering strategies in medical practice.

  19. 75 FR 26171 - Cyber Security Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... core Internet mechanism. Further, there recently has been an exponential growth in malware being reported. PandaLabs reports that in 2009 it detected more new malware than in any of the previous twenty years. It also reports that in 2009, the total number of individual malware samples in its...

  20. Cyber Security: A Crisis of Prioritization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    University David A. Patterson, Ph.D. Professor and E.H. and M.E. Pardee Chair of Computer Science University of California, Berkeley Alice G...plants, dams , the North American power grid, air traffic control systems, food and energy distribution, and the financial system, to name only some. The

  1. Cyber Security Research at Lincoln Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-15

    wearable  devices  that  contain...U.S.  missions  assured  at  modest  cost.   Lincoln  Laboratory  has  been  developing   technology  in  support  of...and  the   scalability  of  resource  usage.  Lincoln  Laboratory  is  developing   technology  that  will

  2. Cyber-Security Curricula for Basic Users

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    NAEYC), ―[G]ood teaching begins with knowing the learners – what they are like developmentally, individually, and culturally‖ [30]. The NAEYC is the...all learners , provide teachers with clear ideas for curriculum development and daily planning, and are regularly reviewed to be certain that they are... kinesthetic game-like exercises. Each activity prescribed is accomplished with only a limited number of easily accessible materials. Classroom

  3. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

    2008-08-01

    Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these

  4. Personality and Self-Assessed Intelligence: Can Gender and Personality Distort Self-Assessed Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which self-assessed intelligence (SAI) may be a function of personality traits, gender, and "actual" intellectual ability (as measured through psychometric g) in a sample of 188 (119 female) UK university students. Participants completed three cognitive ability tests and the "Big Five"…

  5. Personality and Self-Assessed Intelligence: Can Gender and Personality Distort Self-Assessed Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which self-assessed intelligence (SAI) may be a function of personality traits, gender, and "actual" intellectual ability (as measured through psychometric g) in a sample of 188 (119 female) UK university students. Participants completed three cognitive ability tests and the "Big Five"…

  6. Self-Assessment of Self-Assessment in a Process of Co-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolffensperger, Yochie; Patkin, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    The present paper engages in a qualitative research of self-assessment of two lecturers and their students within the framework of a mathematics teaching seminar course (a course during which students submit a research final work) at a teachers' training college in Israel. Two lecturers co-teach in the course - one of them in the discipline of…

  7. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  8. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  9. Students' perspectives on cyber bullying.

    PubMed

    Agatston, Patricia W; Kowalski, Robin; Limber, Susan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of cyber bullying on students and the possible need for prevention messages targeting students, educators, and parents. A total of 148 middle and high school students were interviewed during focus groups held at two middle and two high schools in a public school district. The focus groups were approximately 45 minutes in length. Students were divided by gender and asked a series of scripted questions by a same-gender student assistance counselor. We found that students' comments during the focus groups suggest that students-particularly females-view cyber bullying as a problem, but one rarely discussed at school, and that students do not see the school district personnel as helpful resources when dealing with cyber bullying. Students are currently experiencing the majority of cyber bullying instances outside of the school day; however there is some impact at school. Students were able to suggest some basic strategies for dealing with cyber bullying, but were less likely to be aware of strategies to request the removal of objectionable websites, as well as how to respond as a helpful bystander when witnessing cruel online behavior. We conclude that school districts should address cyber bullying through a combination of policies and information that are shared with students and parents. Schools should include cyber bullying as part of their bullying prevention strategies and include classroom lessons that address reporting and bystander behavior.

  10. ES&H self-assessment and improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, K.; Campisi, J.; Kelly, B.M.

    1997-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) self-assessment and improvement process at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). It also suggests further developments for self-assessment and improvement. Section 1 explains the many purposes of the self-assessment and improvement program. Section 2 is a description of ES&H self-assessment and improvement and includes information on performance objectives and performance indicators, self-assessment of work areas and activities, reporting of self-assessment results, improvements and corrective actions, and records retention. The sub-section on self-assessment of work areas and activities includes detailed descriptions of organizational self-assessment, ES&H functional program self-assessments, internal independent ES&H assessment, Lockheed Martin Corporate ES&H assessments, and ES&H self-assessment information analysis and integration. Section 3 defines the roles and responsibilities of the ES&H Assessment Department, ES&H Center, SNL management, SNL employees, and contractors, SNL {open_quotes}Line{close_quotes} organizations, and ES&H functional program owners. Section 4 references associated manuals, policies, and companion documents. The appendix is a glossary of terms used in ES&H assessments.

  11. Data Diodes in Support of Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Okhravi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Interconnections between process control networks and en- terprise networks has resulted in the proliferation of stan- dard communication protocols in industrial control systems which exposes instrumentation, control systems, and the critical infrastructure components they operate to a variety of cyber attacks. Various standards and technologies have been proposed to protect industrial control systems against cyber attacks and to provide them with confidentiality, in- tegrity, and availability. Among these technologies, data diodes provide protection of critical systems by the means of physically enforcing traffic direction on the network. In order to deploy data diodes effectively, it is imperative to un- derstand the protection they provide, the protection they do not provide, their limitations, and their place in the larger security infrastructure. In this work, we briefly review the security challenges in an industrial control system, study data diodes, their functionalities and limitations, and pro- pose a scheme for their effective deployment in trusted pro- cess control networks (TPCNs.)

  12. Federation of UML models for cyber physical use cases

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-05

    This method employs the concept of federation, which is defined as the use of existing models that represent aspects of a system in specific domains (such as physical and cyber security domains) and building interfaces to link all of domain models. Federation seeks to build on existing bodies of work. Some examples include the Common Information Models (CIM) maintained by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 57 (IEC TC 57) for the electric power industry. Another relevant model is the CIM maintained by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)? this CIM defines a representation of the managed elements in an Information Technology (IT) environment. The power system is an example of a cyber-physical system, where the cyber systems, consisting of computing infrastructure such as networks and devices, play a critical role in the operation of the underlying physical electricity delivery system. Measurements from remote field devices are relayed to control centers through computer networks, and the data is processed to determine suitable control actions. Control decisions are then relayed back to field devices. It has been observed that threat actors may be able to successfully compromise this cyber layer in order to impact power system operation. Therefore, future control center applications must be wary of potentially compromised measurements coming from field devices. In order to ensure the integrity of the field measurements, these applications could make use of compromise indicators from alternate sources of information such as cyber security. Thus, modern control applications may require access to data from sources that are not defined in the local information model. In such cases, software application interfaces will require integration of data objects from cross-domain data models. When incorporating or federating different domains, it is important to have subject matter experts work together, recognizing that not everyone has the

  13. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  14. How is cyber threat evolving and what do organisations need to consider?

    PubMed

    Borrett, Martin; Carter, Roger; Wespi, Andreas

    Organisations and members of the public are becoming accustomed to the increasing velocity, frequency and variety of cyber-attacks that they have been facing over the last few years. In response to this challenge, it is important to explore what can be done to offer commercial and private users a reliable and functioning environment. This paper discusses how cyber threats might evolve in the future and seeks to explore these threats more fully. Attention is paid to the changing nature of cyber-attackers and their motivations and what this means for organisations. Finally, useful and actionable steps are provided, which practitioners can use to understand how they can start to address the future challenges of cyber security.

  15. Cyberspace security system

    DOEpatents

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ferragut, Erik M

    2014-06-24

    A system evaluates reliability, performance and/or safety by automatically assessing the targeted system's requirements. A cost metric quantifies the impact of failures as a function of failure cost per unit of time. The metrics or measurements may render real-time (or near real-time) outcomes by initiating active response against one or more high ranked threats. The system may support or may be executed in many domains including physical domains, cyber security domains, cyber-physical domains, infrastructure domains, etc. or any other domains that are subject to a threat or a loss.

  16. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  17. Effective Management of Information Security and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    No university seems immune to cyber attacks. For many universities, such events have served as wake-up calls to develop a comprehensive information security and privacy strategy. This is no simple task, however. It involves balancing a culture of openness with a need for security and privacy. Security and privacy are not the same, and the…

  18. Effective Management of Information Security and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    No university seems immune to cyber attacks. For many universities, such events have served as wake-up calls to develop a comprehensive information security and privacy strategy. This is no simple task, however. It involves balancing a culture of openness with a need for security and privacy. Security and privacy are not the same, and the…

  19. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  20. Using self-assessments to enhance business continuity programmes.

    PubMed

    Trousdale, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Self-assessments have limitations and are no substitute for independent audits of a business continuity programme. Nevertheless, they can be an economical way to identify gaps, enhance the programme and create awareness. Self- assessments can also help prepare the programme and team members for an independent audit. In a resource-constrained environment, self-assessments can provide an opportunity to obtain measurable outputs about current state that can be tracked over time to capture improvement and maturity or identify deficiencies. Self-assessments can have a valuable place in any business continuity programme.

  1. Using self-assessments to enhance business continuity programmes.

    PubMed

    Trousdale, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Self-assessments have limitations and are no substitute for independent audits of a business continuity programme. Nevertheless, they can be an economical way to identify gaps, enhance the programme and create awareness. Self- assessments can also help prepare the programme and team members for an independent audit. In a resource-constrained environment, self-assessments can provide an opportunity to obtain measurable outputs about current state that can be tracked over time to capture improvement and maturity or identify deficiencies. Self-assessments can have a valuable place in any business continuity programme.

  2. Cyber Intelligence Research Consortium (Poster)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-24

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...internal and external to an organization Contact: cyber-intel@sei.cmu.edu twitter: @sei_etc ©2014 Software Engineering Institute Analytical Acumen...guides for navigating key analytical practices and technologies to apply analytical techniques and technologies to a simulated cyber attack Crisis

  3. International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2010-09-01

    This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

  4. Self-assessed bruxism and phobic symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Bellini, M; Marini, I; Checchi, V; Pelliccioni, G A; Gatto, M R

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to compare two samples of patients (identified, from a previous survey carried out in 2007, as self-assessed bruxers and not) on the basis of the presence of anxious/phobic symptoms, general and linked to an oral surgery. Forty-three bruxers and 207 non-bruxers were identified; among these last ones a sub-sample of 89 subjects was randomly selected as control and analyzed. The instruments for data collecting were two self-administered psychological questionnaires: STAI-Y1, Phobia Scale by Marks-Sheehan, and supplementary items on specific dental fear/phobia. No significant differences were observed for age, gender and occupation data but interestingly bruxers are significantly more represented among widows/divorced and graduated in comparisons with non-bruxers. Alcohol consumers were more frequent in bruxers than in non-bruxers (55.8% and 12.4%, respectively; P=0.0001). Global anxiety (P=0.02), agoraphobia, claustrophobia, pathophobia, social phobia (P<0.05), are more frequent in bruxers as also a suffocation feeling (P=0.02). The severity of behaviours that aim to avoid the same situations that causes phobias is low and similar in the two groups. The involuntary habit of clenching is, in our opinion, reported by the patients who control their anxiety/phobias without avoiding behaviours, increasing the muscular activity at a level relevant to bruxism.

  5. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    The advent of cyber warfare has sparked a debate amongst theorists as to whether timeless Clausewitzian principles remain true in the 21st century...Violence, uncertainty, and rationality still accurately depict the nature of cyber warfare , however, its many defining attributes and means by which...this style of warfare is conducted has definitively changed the character of war. Although cyber warfare is contested in the cyber domain, it often

  6. Cyber Warfare as an Operational Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-03

    This paper explores cyber warfare as an option for creating operational fires effects. Initially, cyberspace is defined and explained from the...fires are defined and the advantages of their use are explained. From there, discussion focuses on how cyber warfare fulfills the purposes of...operational fires. Finally, the paper draws conclusions about the viability of cyber warfare as an operational fire and makes recommendations about how to prioritize the activities of the newly approved U.S. Cyber Command.

  7. Lab Note: Training the Cyber Defensive Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-02

    attempted cyber intrusions a day.1 These attacks are also growing in sophistication, primarily because cyber attackers are using combinations of techniques...such as inserting malicious code (malware) or email phishing, and are adding complexity to the attack by involving multiple parties.2 And, cyber ...to defend it, locate any attacks , defeat them, and, finally, redefend the network,” says Douglas Stetson, associate leader of the Laboratory’s Cyber

  8. Cyber and Air Joint Effects Demonstration (CAAJED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Enterprise for Cyber Operations Training ( SECOT ) 5 4.4 Cross Domain Effects between MAP and SECOT 6 4.5 Level 2 and Level 3 Cyber Attacks 8 5. 2007...human, human vs. computer, and computer vs. computer play. 4.3 Simulated Enterprise for Cyber Operations Training ( SECOT ) The SECOT is a combined...traffic generator and score system used to host the cyber component of CAAJED. SECOT simulates an active and demanding enterprise community

  9. Predictors of Self-Assessed Health among Elderly Post Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Elinore; And Others

    Self-assessment of health incorporates both objective and subjective elements into a general state with implications for health-related behavior. To examine the predictors of self-assessed health in an elderly, post-hospitalization population, 73 adults, 65 years of age or older, were asked to assess the status of the condition for which they were…

  10. Preservice Teachers and Self-Assessing Digital Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maderick, Joseph A.; Zhang, Shaoan; Hartley, Kendall; Marchand, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    This study compares matched surveys of subjective self-assessment and objective assessment on seven domains of digital competence for preservice teachers at a large Southwest public university. The results, consistent with earlier studies, confirm that the participating preservice teachers inaccurately self-assessed their digital competence. The…

  11. Living Language: Self-Assessment, Oral Production, and Domestic Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolosic, Haley N.; Brantmeier, Cindy; Strube, Michael; Hogrebe, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    With 24 adolescent students enrolled in a French language summer camp, the present study examines the relationship between self-assessment and oral production in French, interpreting results through a framework of individual learning variables. Participants were surrounded by French inside and outside the classroom. Self-assessment was measured…

  12. Self-Assessment in Professional Programmes within Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Roseanna

    2014-01-01

    Self-assessment at tertiary level is a critical pedagogical and assessment tool to support students in their transition to professional careers where on-going learning and assessment is required. Beyond the safety-net of course content, external assessment and pre-determined criteria, novice professionals need to find ways to self-assess their…

  13. Optional Self-Assessment: Some Tensions and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Self-assessment is promoted as an ideal form of assessment, particularly for adult learners as they need to be able to make judgements about how well they are doing something--whether it is related to learning, work or social interactions. However, there is also opposition to summative self-assessment on the grounds that students cannot validly…

  14. Qualitatively Different Ways of Experiencing Student Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kelvin H. K.

    2008-01-01

    In the literature, student self-assessment as a practice and as a goal in higher education is generally emphasized for academics. This paper reports a study that investigates what academics emphasize in their experiences of student self-assessment. The investigation focused on the different ways academics described their understanding and practise…

  15. Learner Self-Assessment: An Investigation into Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at issues surrounding learner self-assessment and studies into teacher beliefs. It then goes on to present the findings of a study designed to explore teacher attitudes, beliefs, and behaviour with regard to learner self-assessment during the implementation of a revision of assessment procedures for teens aged 14-16 years.…

  16. The Benefits of Guided Facility Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of educational institutions have discovered that a guided self-assessment solution helps them to consistently and cost-effectively obtain facility condition information and make better-informed capital planning decisions. Facility self-assessment employs a consistent, repeatable process for internal staff to quickly assess assets…

  17. 32 CFR 701.124 - PA self assessments/inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PA self assessments/inspections. 701.124 Section 701.124 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.124 PA self assessments...

  18. 32 CFR 701.124 - PA self assessments/inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PA self assessments/inspections. 701.124 Section 701.124 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.124 PA self assessments...

  19. 32 CFR 701.124 - PA self assessments/inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PA self assessments/inspections. 701.124 Section 701.124 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.124 PA self assessments...

  20. Teacher Self-Assessment: A Mechanism for Facilitating Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assessment is a powerful technique for improving achievement. In this article we outline a theory of teacher change that links self-assessment by teachers to their professional growth. This theory provides avenues for peers and change agents to influence teacher practice. We apply the theory to change in mathematics teaching and report an…

  1. Contrasting Case Instruction Can Improve Self-Assessment of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Siegler, Xiaodong; Shaenfield, David; Elder, Anastasia D.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assessment is a process during which students evaluate the quality of their work in a given domain based on explicitly stated criteria. Accurate self-assessments improve students' academic achievement. Yet, students often have difficulties assessing their own work. It is possible that appropriate instructional supports will help students…

  2. The Problem of Self-Assessment in Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Notes nursing education is supposed to facilitate both personal and professional development, but inattention to self-assessment limits the former. Problems with self-assessment include conflicts between student self-ratings and teacher evaluations of students, focus on professional demands instead of the whole person, and differences in…

  3. Self-assessment program implementation plan. Revision A

    SciTech Connect

    Quets, A.L.

    1991-10-23

    This implementation plan identifies and describes the tasks that must be completed in order to successfully implement a Self-Assessment (SA) Program. The purpose of the Self-Assessment Program is to comply with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) directives and orders, Federal, State, and local regulations, operate the Pinellas Plant according to best management practices, and achieve excellence in all operating areas. The Self-Assessment Program will be applied to the Pinellas Plant facility which includes buildings, grounds, equipment, operations, and activities under the control of line management. Furthermore, all applicable disciplines under environmental protection, safety, health and management will be covered by the program. The Self-Assessment Program has been designed to accomplish the following tasks: define the scope of the Self-Assessment Program; assign organizational roles and responsibilities; address EH and S functional elements and management issues; develop a Self-Assessment program charter and policy; identify all applicable EH and S codes, regulations and standards; develop self-assessment procedures and instructions; generate a Self-Assessment Manual; develop a master schedule for facility appraisals and audits; design checklists and report formats for recording appraisal data; implement an assessment tracking and reporting system; implement a root cause analysis and corrective action system; implement a trend analysis and lessons learned system; and establish a formal training program.

  4. Musculoskeletal tumor imaging, biopsy, and therapies: self-assessment module.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Catherine C; Liu, Patrick T; Wenger, Doris E

    2009-12-01

    The educational objectives for this self-assessment module are for the participant to exercise, self-assess, and improve his or her understanding of musculoskeletal tumor imaging, biopsy, and therapies. The solutions in this activity review the imaging characteristics of musculoskeletal tumors, biopsy approaches, and therapies.

  5. eCPD in Action and Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Self-assessment is an integral component in the life of any education and training organisation so as to ensure quality improvement. This publication illustrates an individual self-assessment tool developed by the Learning and Skills Network (LSN) which gives feedback and support to assist staff to enhance their teaching and learning through the…

  6. Team Self-Assessment: Problem Solving for Small Workgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoBue, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Describes team self-assessment, a task force approach involving frontline workers/supervisors in solving problems or improving performance. Provides examples and discusses its theoretical bases: control self-assessment, Belbin's team roles research, and the team climate inventory. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  7. Living Language: Self-Assessment, Oral Production, and Domestic Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolosic, Haley N.; Brantmeier, Cindy; Strube, Michael; Hogrebe, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    With 24 adolescent students enrolled in a French language summer camp, the present study examines the relationship between self-assessment and oral production in French, interpreting results through a framework of individual learning variables. Participants were surrounded by French inside and outside the classroom. Self-assessment was measured…

  8. Promoting Learning and Achievement through Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Heidi; Valtcheva, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Criteria-referenced self-assessment is a process during which students collect information about their own performance or progress; compare it to explicitly stated criteria, goals, or standards; and revise accordingly. The authors argue that self-assessment must be a formative type of assessment, done on drafts of works in progress: It should not…

  9. Cyber Children: What Parents Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents need to be aware of the dangers and the opportunities the cyber world offers. Video games are being used in the classroom. Commerce is increasingly taking place online and computers are indispensable in the workplace. A cyber-oriented child possesses some great advantages. The author urges parents to become experts in the cyber world so…

  10. Discussing Cyber Ethics with Students Is Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Robert

    2003-01-01

    As computers become a larger part of the curriculum, educators everywhere are being asked to take a stand for cyber ethics, the right and wrong of computer and Internet use. Teachers cannot always depend on parents to instill cyber ethics. Parents may not know or follow the rules, either. Once students understand cyber ethics, they may have a…

  11. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  12. Cyber Children: What Parents Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents need to be aware of the dangers and the opportunities the cyber world offers. Video games are being used in the classroom. Commerce is increasingly taking place online and computers are indispensable in the workplace. A cyber-oriented child possesses some great advantages. The author urges parents to become experts in the cyber world so…

  13. Discussing Cyber Ethics with Students Is Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Robert

    2003-01-01

    As computers become a larger part of the curriculum, educators everywhere are being asked to take a stand for cyber ethics, the right and wrong of computer and Internet use. Teachers cannot always depend on parents to instill cyber ethics. Parents may not know or follow the rules, either. Once students understand cyber ethics, they may have a…

  14. Confronting the Pedagogical Challenge of Cyber Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanewald, Ria

    2008-01-01

    Cyber violence and the antidote of cyber safety are fast becoming a global concern for governments, educational authorities, teachers, parents and children alike. Despite substantial funding for information dissemination on preventative strategies and the development of electronic responses to hinder perpetrators, the phenomenon of cyber violence…

  15. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  16. Evaluating the Accuracy of Pharmacy Students' Self-Assessment Skills

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of self-assessment skills of senior-level bachelor of science pharmacy students. Methods A method proposed by Kruger and Dunning involving comparisons of pharmacy students' self-assessment with weighted average assessments of peers, standardized patients, and pharmacist-instructors was used. Results Eighty students participated in the study. Differences between self-assessment and external assessments were found across all performance quartiles. These differences were particularly large and significant in the third and fourth (lowest) quartiles and particularly marked in the areas of empathy, and logic/focus/coherence of interviewing. Conclusions The quality and accuracy of pharmacy students' self-assessment skills were not as strong as expected, particularly given recent efforts to include self-assessment in the curriculum. Further work is necessary to ensure this important practice competency and life skill is at the level expected for professional practice and continuous professional development. PMID:17998986

  17. 77 FR 51817 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... the information sharing efforts of the Coast Guard and DHS. (2) Cyber-Security. The Committee will... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security Advisory...

  18. The Need for Cyber-Informed Engineering Expertise for Nuclear Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Engineering disciplines may not currently understand or fully embrace cyber security aspects as they apply towards analysis, design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear research reactors. Research reactors include a wide range of diverse co-located facilities and designs necessary to meet specific operational research objectives. Because of the nature of research reactors (reduced thermal energy and fission product inventory), hazards and risks may not have received the same scrutiny as normally associated with power reactors. Similarly, security may not have been emphasized either. However, the lack of sound cybersecurity defenses may lead to both safety and security impacts. Risk management methodologies may not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Although most research reactors are old and may not have the same digital footprint as newer facilities, any digital instrument and control function must be considered as a potential attack platform that can lead to sabotage or theft of nuclear material, especially for some research reactors that store highly enriched uranium. This paper will provide a discussion about the need for cyber-informed engineering practices that include the entire engineering lifecycle. Cyber-informed engineering as referenced in this paper is the inclusion of cybersecurity aspects into the engineering process. A discussion will consider several attributes of this process evaluating the long-term goal of developing additional cyber safety basis analysis and trust principles. With a culture of free information sharing exchanges, and potentially a lack of security expertise, new risk analysis and design methodologies need to be developed to address this rapidly evolving (cyber) threatscape.

  19. Some of Indonesian Cyber Law Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machmuddin, D. D.; Pratama, B.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber regulation is very important to control human interaction within the Internet network in cyber space. On the surface, innovation development in science and technology facilitates human activity. But on the inside, innovation was controlled by new business model. In cyber business activities mingle with individual protection. By this condition, the law should keep the balance of the activities. Cyber law problems, were not particular country concern, but its global concern. This is a good opportunity for developing country to catch up with developed country. Beside this opportunity for talented people in law and technology is become necessity. This paper tries to describe cyber law in Indonesia. As a product of a developing country there are some of weakness that can be explained. Terminology and territory of cyber space is become interesting to discuss, because this two problems can give a broad view on cyber law in Indonesia.

  20. Brookhaven National Laboratory's capabilities for advanced analyses of cyber threats

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    BNL has several ongoing, mature, and successful programs and areas of core scientific expertise that readily could be modified to address problems facing national security and efforts by the IC related to securing our nation’s computer networks. In supporting these programs, BNL houses an expansive, scalable infrastructure built exclusively for transporting, storing, and analyzing large disparate data-sets. Our ongoing research projects on various infrastructural issues in computer science undoubtedly would be relevant to national security. Furthermore, BNL frequently partners with researchers in academia and industry worldwide to foster unique and innovative ideas for expanding research opportunities and extending our insights. Because the basic science conducted at BNL is unique, such projects have led to advanced techniques, unlike any others, to support our mission of discovery. Many of them are modular techniques, thus making them ideal for abstraction and retrofitting to other uses including those facing national security, specifically the safety of the nation’s cyber space.

  1. Towards a Cyber Defense Framework for SCADA Systems Based on Power Consumption Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez Jimenez, Jarilyn M; Chen, Qian; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences}; Calhoun, Chelsea; Sykes, Summer

    2017-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is an industrial automation system that remotely monitor, and control critical infrastructures. SCADA systems are major targets for espionage and sabotage attackers. According to the 2015 Dell security annual threat report, the number of cyber-attacks against SCADA systems has doubled in the past year. Cyber-attacks (i.e., buffer overflow, rootkits and code injection) could cause serious financial losses and physical infrastructure damages. Moreover, some specific cyber-attacks against SCADA systems could become a threat to human life. Current commercial off-the-shelf security solutions are insufficient in protecting SCADA systems against sophisticated cyber-attacks. In 2014 a report by Mandiant stated that only 69% of organizations learned about their breaches from third entities, meaning that these companies lack of their own detection system. Furthermore, these breaches are not detected in real-time or fast enough to prevent further damages. The average time between compromise and detection (for those intrusions that were detected) was 205 days. To address this challenge, we propose an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that detects SCADA-specific cyber-attacks by analyzing the power consumption of a SCADA device. Specifically, to validate the proposed approach, we chose to monitor in real-time the power usage of a a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). To this end, we configured the hardware of the tetsbed by installing the required sensors to monitor and collect its power consumption. After that two SCADA-specific cyber-attacks were simulated and TracerDAQ Pro was used to collect the power consumption of the PLC under normal and anomalous scenarios. Results showed that is possible to distinguish between the regular power usage of the PLC and when the PLC was under specific cyber-attacks.

  2. PeerShield: determining control and resilience criticality of collaborative cyber assets in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Hasan

    2012-06-01

    As attackers get more coordinated and advanced in cyber attacks, cyber assets are required to have much more resilience, control effectiveness, and collaboration in networks. Such a requirement makes it essential to take a comprehensive and objective approach for measuring the individual and relative performances of cyber security assets in network nodes. To this end, this paper presents four techniques as to how the relative importance of cyber assets can be measured more comprehensively and objectively by considering together the main variables of risk assessment (e.g., threats, vulnerabilities), multiple attributes (e.g., resilience, control, and influence), network connectivity and controllability among collaborative cyber assets in networks. In the first technique, a Bayesian network is used to include the random variables for control, recovery, and resilience attributes of nodes, in addition to the random variables of threats, vulnerabilities, and risk. The second technique shows how graph matching and coloring can be utilized to form collaborative pairs of nodes to shield together against threats and vulnerabilities. The third technique ranks the security assets of nodes by incorporating multiple weights and thresholds of attributes into a decision-making algorithm. In the fourth technique, the hierarchically well-separated tree is enhanced to first identify critical nodes of a network with respect to their attributes and network connectivity, and then selecting some nodes as driver nodes for network controllability.

  3. U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare: Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment...U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority...Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority The character of

  4. Analysis of the Impact of Data Normalization on Cyber Event Correlation Query Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    to maintain situational awareness of the status of the infrastructure elements (e.g., routers, intrusion detection systems, intrusion prevention...Event Logs and Event Entries There are several types of cyber event logs including, computers, servers, routers, firewalls, and intrusion ...Error, Information Network Security Devices Firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems Allow and Deny Audit, Protocol usage, Traffic Log 2.3

  5. Business continuity strategies for cyber defence: battling time and information overload.

    PubMed

    Streufert, John

    2010-11-01

    Can the same numbers and letters which are the life blood of modern business and government computer systems be harnessed to protect computers from attack against known information security risks? For the past seven years, Foreign Service officers and technicians of the US Government have sought to maintain diplomatic operations in the face of rising cyber attacks and test the hypothesis that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. As eight out of ten attacks leverage known computer security vulnerabilities or configuration setting weaknesses, a pound of cure would seem to be easy to come by. Yet modern security tools present an unusually consequential threat to business continuity - too much rather than too little information on cyber problems is presented, harking back to a phenomenon cited by social scientists in the 1960s called 'information overload'. Experience indicates that the longer the most serious cyber problems go untreated, the wider the attack surface adversaries can find. One technique used at the Department of State, called 'risk scoring', resulted in an 89 per cent overall reduction in measured risk over 12 months for the Department of State's servers and personal computers. Later refinements of risk scoring enabled technicians to correct unique security threats with unprecedented speed. This paper explores how the use of metrics, special care in presenting information to technicians and executives alike, as well as tactical use of organisational incentives can result in stronger cyber defences protecting modern organisations.

  6. Cyber Astronomy: A Cyber University Course for School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, C. W.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Teaching university physics through the internet is not new, but a new course providing the same service for secondary school students is the first of its kind in Hong Kong. Taking advantage of the fast and affordable broadband internet in the region, some university courses have been converted to a cyber curriculum suitable for secondary school…

  7. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  8. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  9. Cyber Astronomy: A Cyber University Course for School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, C. W.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Teaching university physics through the internet is not new, but a new course providing the same service for secondary school students is the first of its kind in Hong Kong. Taking advantage of the fast and affordable broadband internet in the region, some university courses have been converted to a cyber curriculum suitable for secondary school…

  10. 32 CFR 701.124 - PA self assessments/inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECNAVINST 5210.8D). These reports shall be made available to PA program officials and to CNO (DNS-36)/CMC... until the next self-assessment is completed. Make these reports available, upon request, to CNO (DNS-36...

  11. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Self-Assessment Program: Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Self-Assessment Program provides a formal process for assuring quality and regulatory compliance in all facets of Laboratory operations. The program, which integrates the ongoing self-assessment activities of the individual Divisions and Offices in a comprehensive, top-to-bottom process, provides assistance to the US Department of Energy (DOE), the University of California, and Laboratory management in their appraisals of Laboratory performance. This document describes the program goals, scope, responsibilities, elements, and implementation schedule. This document is also the implementation plan for the institutional level self-assessment program. Each Division is also required to develop a self-assessment program that contains the elements described in this document.

  12. Self-Assessment: The Disconnect between Research and Rhetoric

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Physical therapists are expected to engage in self-assessment in order to ensure competent practice and to identify appropriate professional development activities. Summary of Key Points: This paper reviews the current literature on the accuracy and role of self-assessment in physical therapy. Current literature indicating that self-assessment cannot be conducted with any degree of accuracy is discussed, and a proposed reformulation of the concept of self-assessment is presented. Recommendations: Practical strategies are offered for clinicians to improve the potential for obtaining reliable and valid information about their own clinical performance to guide the selection of appropriate professional development activities and to promote the provision of competent patient care. PMID:20145775

  13. Book review: Reptiles and amphibians: Self-assessment color review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, David E.

    2017-01-01

    No abstract available.Book information: Reptiles and Amphibians: Self-Assessment Color Review. 2nd Edition. By Fredric L. Frye. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida USA. 2015. 252 pp. ISBN 9781482257601.

  14. Crisis-management and the Security in the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Izumi

    This paper discusses about the crisis-management and the security in the Internet. The crime that not is so far occurs during widespread to the society of the Internet, and a big social trouble. Moreover, the problem of a new security such as a cyber war and cyber terrorism appeared, too. It is necessary to recognize such a situation, and to do both correspondences corresponding to the environmental transformation by government and the people.

  15. ECTA/DaSy Framework Self-Assessment Comparison Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Self-Assessment Comparison (SAC) Tool is for state Part C and Section 619/Preschool programs to use to assess changes in the implementation of one or more components of the ECTA System Framework and/or subcomponenets of the DaSy Data System Framework. It is a companion to the ECTA/DaSy Framework Self-Assessment. Key features of the SAC are…

  16. ECTA/DaSy Framework Self-Assessment Comparison Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Self-Assessment Comparison (SAC) Tool is for state Part C and Section 619/Preschool programs to use to assess changes in the implementation of one or more components of the ECTA System Framework and/or subcomponenets of the DaSy Data System Framework. It is a companion to the ECTA/DaSy Framework Self-Assessment. Key features of the SAC are…

  17. Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Beatriz U

    2010-09-01

    After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

  18. Development of JSDF Cyber Warfare Defense Critical Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    attack identification capability is essential for a nation to defend her vital infrastructures against offensive cyber warfare . Although the necessity of...cyber-attack identification capability is quite clear, the Japans preparation against cyber warfare is quite limited.

  19. NASA Occupational Health Program FY98 Self-Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisbin, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Functional Management Review process requires that each NASA Center conduct self-assessments of each functional area. Self-Assessments were completed in June 1998 and results were presented during this conference session. During FY 97 NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team activities, a decision was made to refine the NASA Self-Assessment Process. NASA Centers were involved in the ISO registration process at that time and wanted to use the management systems approach to evaluate their occupational health programs. This approach appeared to be more consistent with NASA's management philosophy and would likely confer status needed by Senior Agency Management for the program. During FY 98 the Agency Occupational Health Program Office developed a revised self-assessment methodology based on the Occupational Health and Safety Management System developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association. This process was distributed to NASA Centers in March 1998 and completed in June 1998. The Center Self Assessment data will provide an essential baseline on the status of OHP management processes at NASA Centers. That baseline will be presented to Enterprise Associate Administrators and DASHO on September 22, 1998 and used as a basis for discussion during FY 99 visits to NASA Centers. The process surfaced several key management system elements warranting further support from the Lead Center. Input and feedback from NASA Centers will be essential to defining and refining future self assessment efforts.

  20. NASA Occupational Health Program FY98 Self-Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisbin, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Functional Management Review process requires that each NASA Center conduct self-assessments of each functional area. Self-Assessments were completed in June 1998 and results were presented during this conference session. During FY 97 NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team activities, a decision was made to refine the NASA Self-Assessment Process. NASA Centers were involved in the ISO registration process at that time and wanted to use the management systems approach to evaluate their occupational health programs. This approach appeared to be more consistent with NASA's management philosophy and would likely confer status needed by Senior Agency Management for the program. During FY 98 the Agency Occupational Health Program Office developed a revised self-assessment methodology based on the Occupational Health and Safety Management System developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association. This process was distributed to NASA Centers in March 1998 and completed in June 1998. The Center Self Assessment data will provide an essential baseline on the status of OHP management processes at NASA Centers. That baseline will be presented to Enterprise Associate Administrators and DASHO on September 22, 1998 and used as a basis for discussion during FY 99 visits to NASA Centers. The process surfaced several key management system elements warranting further support from the Lead Center. Input and feedback from NASA Centers will be essential to defining and refining future self assessment efforts.

  1. A Probabilistic Framework for Quantifying Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-12-28

    Quantification and propagation of uncertainties in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect within multiplayer, stochastic security games. These payoffs may represent penalties or rewards associated with player actions and are subject to various sources of uncertainty, including: (1) cyber-system state, (2) attacker type, (3) choice of player actions, and (4) cyber-system state transitions over time. Past research has primarily focused on representing defender beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and mathematical intervals. For cyber-systems, probability distributions may help address statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume inherent variability or randomness in the factors contributing to the attacker payoffs. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information about the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as generalizations of probability boxes. This paper explores the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties. A conditional probabilistic reasoning approach is adopted to organize the dependencies between a cyber-system’s state, attacker type, player actions, and state transitions. This also enables the application of probabilistic theories to propagate various uncertainties in the attacker payoffs. An example implementation of this probabilistic framework and resulting attacker payoff distributions are discussed. A goal of this paper is also to highlight this uncertainty quantification problem space to the cyber security research community and encourage further advancements in this area.

  2. Assessing the Security of Connected Diabetes Devices.

    PubMed

    Out, Dirk-Jan; Tettero, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    This article discusses the assessment of the (cyber)security of wirelessly connected diabetes devices under the DTSEC standard. We discuss the relation between diabetes devices and hackers, provide an overview of the DTSEC standard, and describe the process of security assessment of diabetes devices.

  3. 77 FR 1942 - Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee (HSSTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... as new developments in systems engineering, cyber- security, knowledge management and how best to... SECURITY Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee (HSSTAC) AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION...

  4. 76 FR 41274 - Committee Name: Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee (HSSTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... as new developments in systems engineering, cyber-security, knowledge management and how best to... SECURITY Committee Name: Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee (HSSTAC) ACTION... Homeland Security has determined that the renewal of the charter of the Homeland Security Science and...

  5. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenga, Todd.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  6. Operational Art in Cyber Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-16

    1 5 Disadvantages ...in support of the JFC’s campaign objectives. 3 Five Disadvantages Before discussing how the joint warfighting principles may be applied to the...a campaign plan, cyber defense planners face no less than five inherent disadvantages . They include, but are not limited to, the advantage in

  7. Factors Affecting Teenager Cyber Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…

  8. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  9. A Communication Protocol for CyAMS and the Cyber Fighter Associate Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    throughput • Battery information • State change (agility maneuver, health , etc.) • Patch size • Graphical user interface (GUI) update information...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TN-0673 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...simulation, cyber security, software patch management, tactical networks 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF

  10. Tactical Cyber: Building a Strategy for Cyber Support to Corps and Below

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    the future to enhance current capabilities. Based in part on observations from cyber pilot exercises with embedded cyber personnel, tactical units will...authorities it might gain in the future to enhance current capabilities. Based partly on observations from exercises with embedded cyber personnel...facilitate OCO at tactical levels comes from an unlikely source: Hollywood. In James Cameron’s 1986 film Aliens, a marine private performs a cyber-electronic

  11. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Frederick W. Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  12. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Frederick W.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  13. Propagating Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs: Exploration of Two-Phase Monte Carlo Sampling and Probability Bounds Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-09-16

    Securing cyber-systems on a continual basis against a multitude of adverse events is a challenging undertaking. Game-theoretic approaches, that model actions of strategic decision-makers, are increasingly being applied to address cybersecurity resource allocation challenges. Such game-based models account for multiple player actions and represent cyber attacker payoffs mostly as point utility estimates. Since a cyber-attacker’s payoff generation mechanism is largely unknown, appropriate representation and propagation of uncertainty is a critical task. In this paper we expand on prior work and focus on operationalizing the probabilistic uncertainty quantification framework, for a notional cyber system, through: 1) representation of uncertain attacker and system-related modeling variables as probability distributions and mathematical intervals, and 2) exploration of uncertainty propagation techniques including two-phase Monte Carlo sampling and probability bounds analysis.

  14. Consequence-driven cyber-informed engineering (CCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Sarah G.; St Michel, Curtis; Smith, Robert; Assante, Michael

    2016-10-18

    The Idaho National Lab (INL) is leading a high-impact, national security-level initiative to reprioritize the way the nation looks at high-consequence risk within the industrial control systems (ICS) environment of the country’s most critical infrastructure and other national assets. The Consequence-driven Cyber-informed Engineering (CCE) effort provides both private and public organizations with the steps required to examine their own environments for high-impact events/risks; identify implementation of key devices and components that facilitate that risk; illuminate specific, plausible cyber attack paths to manipulate these devices; and develop concrete mitigations, protections, and tripwires to address the high-consequence risk. The ultimate goal of the CCE effort is to help organizations take the steps necessary to thwart cyber attacks from even top-tier, highly resourced adversaries that would result in a catastrophic physical effect. CCE participants are encouraged to work collaboratively with each other and with key U.S. Government (USG) contributors to establish a coalition, maximizing the positive effect of lessons-learned and further contributing to the protection of critical infrastructure and other national assets.

  15. A cyber infrastructure for the SKA Telescope Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Domingos; Barraca, João. P.; Carvalho, Bruno; Maia, Dalmiro; Gupta, Yashwant; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Le Roux, Gerhard; Swart, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The Square Kilometre Array Telescope Manager (SKA TM) will be responsible for assisting the SKA Operations and Observation Management, carrying out System diagnosis and collecting Monitoring and Control data from the SKA subsystems and components. To provide adequate compute resources, scalability, operation continuity and high availability, as well as strict Quality of Service, the TM cyber-infrastructure (embodied in the Local Infrastructure - LINFRA) consists of COTS hardware and infrastructural software (for example: server monitoring software, host operating system, virtualization software, device firmware), providing a specially tailored Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS) solution. The TM infrastructure provides services in the form of computational power, software defined networking, power, storage abstractions, and high level, state of the art IaaS and PaaS management interfaces. This cyber platform will be tailored to each of the two SKA Phase 1 telescopes (SKA_MID in South Africa and SKA_LOW in Australia) instances, each presenting different computational and storage infrastructures and conditioned by location. This cyber platform will provide a compute model enabling TM to manage the deployment and execution of its multiple components (observation scheduler, proposal submission tools, MandC components, Forensic tools and several Databases, etc). In this sense, the TM LINFRA is primarily focused towards the provision of isolated instances, mostly resorting to virtualization technologies, while defaulting to bare hardware if specifically required due to performance, security, availability, or other requirement.

  16. Measuring Cyber Operations Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    are advanced firewalls capable of taking limited action to block malicious traffic or hacking attempts. Their capabilities vary widely and must be...vulnerabilities have been categorized testers can move into the exploitation phase and try to “ hack ” the system by bypassing the security restrictions put in

  17. "Making Kind Cool": Parents' Suggestions for Preventing Cyber Bullying and Fostering Cyber Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Wanda; Brown, Karen; Jackson, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Cyber bullying among youth is rapidly becoming a global phenomenon, as educators, parents and policymakers grapple with trying to curtail this negative and sometimes devastating behavior. Since most cyber bullying emanates from the home computer, parents can play an important role in preventing cyber bullying and in fostering a kinder online…

  18. "Making Kind Cool": Parents' Suggestions for Preventing Cyber Bullying and Fostering Cyber Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Wanda; Brown, Karen; Jackson, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Cyber bullying among youth is rapidly becoming a global phenomenon, as educators, parents and policymakers grapple with trying to curtail this negative and sometimes devastating behavior. Since most cyber bullying emanates from the home computer, parents can play an important role in preventing cyber bullying and in fostering a kinder online…

  19. Dental Hygiene Students' Self-Assessment of Ergonomics Utilizing Photography.

    PubMed

    Partido, Brian B

    2017-10-01

    Due to postural demands, dental professionals are at high risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Dental clinicians' lack of ergonomic awareness may impede the clinical application of recommendations to improve their posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve dental hygiene students' ergonomic scores and accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. The study involved a randomized control design and used a convenience sample of all 32 junior-year dental hygiene students enrolled in the autumn 2016 term in The Ohio State University baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Sixteen students were randomly assigned to each of two groups (control and training). At weeks one and four, all participants were photographed and completed ergonomic self-evaluations using the Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks two and three, participants in the training group were photographed again and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were given ergonomic scores by three raters. Students' self-assessments in the control group and faculty evaluations of the training group showed significant improvement in scores over time (F(1,60)=4.25, p<0.05). In addition, the accuracy of self-assessment significantly improved for students in the training group (F(1,30)=8.29, p<0.01). In this study, dental hygiene students' self-assessments using photographs resulted in improvements in their ergonomic scores and increased accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. Any improvement in ergonomic score or awareness can help reduce the risks for WMSDs, especially among dental clinicians.

  20. RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    RTO-MP-IST-091 P4 - 1 RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare Mikko Kiviharju P.O.Box 10 FIN-11311 Riihimaki FINLAND mikko.kiviharju@mil.fi...auditing existing systems and planning new establishments. 1 INTRODUCTION Cyber warfare , especially computer network operations (CNO) have a deep...SUBTITLE RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK