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Sample records for cyber-shot dsc-t9 nikon

  1. Nikon Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Nikon FM compact has simplification feature derived from cameras designed for easy, yet accurate use in a weightless environment. Innovation is a plastic-cushioned advance lever which advances the film and simultaneously switches on a built in light meter. With a turn of the lens aperture ring, a glowing signal in viewfinder confirms correct exposure.

  2. STS-70 Launch - Nikon E-2 Digital Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This test image was taken with a Nikon E-2 Digital Imaging System camera and are provided courtesy of Nikon (GIF 450x450 JPEG 1280x1000): The second Shuttle launch in 16 days hurtles off the pad into a sweltering summer sky. The unstable weather typical to Florida in the summertime didn't have a chance to coalesce and impact this morning's launch window, and the Space Shuttle Discovery began its planned seven-day, 22-hour flight on Mission STS-70 from Launch Pad 39B at 9:41:55.078 a.m. EDT, just seconds off schedule. On board for Discovery's 21st spaceflight are a crew of five: Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks; Pilot Kevin R. Kregel; and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie, Donald A. Thomas and Mary Ellen Weber. The crew's primary objective during the 70th Shuttle flight is to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-G), which will join a constellation of other TDRS spacecraft already on orbit. TDRS-G is destined to become an on- orbit, fully operational 'ready reserve' satellite, available along with one other ready reserve TDRS spacecraft to back up the two primary TDRS satellites positions, TDRS East over the Atlantic Ocean and TDRS West over the Pacific. Assured capability of the TDRS communications network is essential for linking Earth-orbiting spacecraft such as the Shuttle and the Hubble Space Telescope with the ground.

  3. STS-70 Launch - Nikon E-2 Digital Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This test images was taken with a Nikon E-2 Digital Imaging System camera and are provided courtesy of Nikon (GIF 450x450 JPEG 1280x1000): The second Shuttle launch in 16 days hurtles off the pad into a sweltering summer sky. The unstable weather typical to Florida in the summertime didn't have a chance to coalesce and impact this morning's launch window, and the Space Shuttle Discovery began its planned seven-day, 22-hour flight on Mission STS-70 from Launch Pad 39B at 9:41:55.078 a.m. EDT, just seconds off schedule. On board for Discovery's 21st spaceflight are a crew of five: Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks; Pilot Kevin R. Kregel; and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie, Donald A. Thomas and Mary Ellen Weber. The crew's primary objective during the 70th Shuttle flight is to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-G), which will join a constellation of other TDRS spacecraft already on orbit. TDRS-G is destined to become an on- orbit, fully operational 'ready reserve' satellite, available along with one other ready reserve TDRS spacecraft to back up the two primary TDRS satellites positions, TDRS East over the Atlantic Ocean and TDRS West over the Pacific. Assured capability of the TDRS communications network is essential for linking Earth-orbiting spacecraft such as the Shuttle and the Hubble Space Telescope with the ground.

  4. Calibration of the Nikon 200 for Close Range Photogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sheriff, Lassana; /City Coll., N.Y. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The overall objective of this project is to study the stability and reproducibility of the calibration parameters of the Nikon D200 camera with a Nikkor 20 mm lens for close-range photogrammetric surveys. The well known 'central perspective projection' model is used to determine the camera parameters for interior orientation. The Brown model extends it with the introduction of radial distortion and other less critical variables. The calibration process requires a dense network of targets to be photographed at different angles. For faster processing, reflective coded targets are chosen. Two scenarios have been used to check the reproducibility of the parameters. The first one is using a flat 2D wall with 141 coded targets and 12 custom targets that were previously measured with a laser tracker. The second one is a 3D Unistrut structure with a combination of coded targets and 3D reflective spheres. The study has shown that this setup is only stable during a short period of time. In conclusion, this camera is acceptable when calibrated before each use. Future work should include actual field tests and possible mechanical improvements, such as securing the lens to the camera body.

  5. Dynamic active telepathology over National Health Laboratory service network, South Africa: feasibility study using Nikon Coolscope.

    PubMed

    Banach, Lech; Stepien, Andrzej; Schneider, Johann; Wichrzycka-Lancaster, Elizabeth

    2008-07-15

    Telepathology recently entered a new era with the introduction of digital microscopes combined with Internet technology. The microscope allows viewing real time of whole slide (macro) as well as different chosen fields in four different magnifications. Three Nikon Coolscope were installed in NHLS laboratories in Mthatha, East London and Port Elizabeth. All these microscopes are connected to NHLS server allowing real time viewing of the full slide at any time of the day using Internet browser. Viewing is possible from any PC connected to NHLS Intranet. The challenge was to be able to view slides from other than NHLS computers due to NHLS IT Department network security measures. This was solved by installing NHLS Virtual Private Network server. About 60 cases were viewed by pathologists in Cape Town (Stellenbosh University) and Pretoria (MEDUNSA). All users assessed the system as a helpful tool allowing easy access to cases needing consultation or second opinion. The quality of images was very good. Our experience with Nikon Coolscope is positive. It is an excellent tool for remote small histopathology departments lacking specialists in such areas as dermatopathology, oncology, and haematopathology. Further studies are needed especially in the scope of full utilization of the microscopes installed and impact on laboratory services.

  6. A series of flexible design adaptations to the Nikon E-C1 and E-C2 confocal microscope systems for UV, multiphoton and FLIM imaging.

    PubMed

    Botchway, Stanley W; Scherer, Kathrin M; Hook, Steve; Stubbs, Christopher D; Weston, Eleanor; Bisby, Roger H; Parker, Anthony W

    2015-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is widely employed in the life sciences using extrinsic fluorescence of low- and high-molecular weight labels with excitation and emission spectra in the visible and near infrared regions. For imaging of intrinsic and extrinsic fluorophores with excitation spectra in the ultraviolet region, multiphoton excitation with one- or two-colour lasers avoids the need for ultraviolet-transmitting excitation optics and has advantages in terms of optical penetration in the sample and reduced phototoxicity. Excitation and detection of ultraviolet emission around 300 nm and below in a typical inverted confocal microscope is more difficult and requires the use of expensive quartz optics including the objective. In this technical note we describe the adaptation of a commercial confocal microscope (Nikon, Japan E-C1 or E-C2) for versatile use with Ti-sapphire and OPO laser sources and the addition of a second detection channel that enables detection of ultraviolet fluorescence and increases detection sensitivity in a typical fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy experiment. Results from some experiments with this setup illustrate the resulting capabilities. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Automated Digital Image Analysis of Islet Cell Mass Using Nikon's Inverted Eclipse Ti Microscope and Software to Improve Engraftment may Help to Advance the Therapeutic Efficacy and Accessibility of Islet Transplantation across Centers.

    PubMed

    Gmyr, Valery; Bonner, Caroline; Lukowiak, Bruno; Pawlowski, Valerie; Dellaleau, Nathalie; Belaich, Sandrine; Aluka, Isanga; Moermann, Ericka; Thevenet, Julien; Ezzouaoui, Rimed; Queniat, Gurvan; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Reliable assessment of islet viability, mass, and purity must be met prior to transplanting an islet preparation into patients with type 1 diabetes. The standard method for quantifying human islet preparations is by direct microscopic analysis of dithizone-stained islet samples, but this technique may be susceptible to inter-/intraobserver variability, which may induce false positive/negative islet counts. Here we describe a simple, reliable, automated digital image analysis (ADIA) technique for accurately quantifying islets into total islet number, islet equivalent number (IEQ), and islet purity before islet transplantation. Islets were isolated and purified from n = 42 human pancreata according to the automated method of Ricordi et al. For each preparation, three islet samples were stained with dithizone and expressed as IEQ number. Islets were analyzed manually by microscopy or automatically quantified using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope with built-in NIS-Elements Advanced Research (AR) software. The AIDA method significantly enhanced the number of islet preparations eligible for engraftment compared to the standard manual method ( p < 0.001). Comparisons of individual methods showed good correlations between mean values of IEQ number ( r(2) = 0.91) and total islet number ( r(2) = 0.88) and thus increased to r(2) = 0.93 when islet surface area was estimated comparatively with IEQ number. The ADIA method showed very high intraobserver reproducibility compared to the standard manual method ( p < 0.001). However, islet purity was routinely estimated as significantly higher with the manual method versus the ADIA method ( p < 0.001). The ADIA method also detected small islets between 10 and 50 μm in size. Automated digital image analysis utilizing the Nikon Instruments software is an unbiased, simple, and reliable teaching tool to comprehensively assess the individual size of each islet cell preparation prior to transplantation. Implementation of this

  8. Automated digital image analysis of islet cell mass using Nikon's inverted eclipse Ti microscope and software to improve engraftment may help to advance the therapeutic efficacy and accessibility of islet transplantation across centers.

    PubMed

    Gmyr, Valery; Bonner, Caroline; Lukowiak, Bruno; Pawlowski, Valerie; Dellaleau, Nathalie; Belaich, Sandrine; Aluka, Isanga; Moermann, Ericka; Thevenet, Julien; Ezzouaoui, Rimed; Queniat, Gurvan; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Reliable assessment of islet viability, mass, and purity must be met prior to transplanting an islet preparation into patients with type 1 diabetes. The standard method for quantifying human islet preparations is by direct microscopic analysis of dithizone-stained islet samples, but this technique may be susceptible to inter-/intraobserver variability, which may induce false positive/negative islet counts. Here we describe a simple, reliable, automated digital image analysis (ADIA) technique for accurately quantifying islets into total islet number, islet equivalent number (IEQ), and islet purity before islet transplantation. Islets were isolated and purified from n = 42 human pancreata according to the automated method of Ricordi et al. For each preparation, three islet samples were stained with dithizone and expressed as IEQ number. Islets were analyzed manually by microscopy or automatically quantified using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope with built-in NIS-Elements Advanced Research (AR) software. The AIDA method significantly enhanced the number of islet preparations eligible for engraftment compared to the standard manual method (p < 0.001). Comparisons of individual methods showed good correlations between mean values of IEQ number (r(2) = 0.91) and total islet number (r(2) = 0.88) and thus increased to r(2) = 0.93 when islet surface area was estimated comparatively with IEQ number. The ADIA method showed very high intraobserver reproducibility compared to the standard manual method (p < 0.001). However, islet purity was routinely estimated as significantly higher with the manual method versus the ADIA method (p < 0.001). The ADIA method also detected small islets between 10 and 50 µm in size. Automated digital image analysis utilizing the Nikon Instruments software is an unbiased, simple, and reliable teaching tool to comprehensively assess the individual size of each islet cell preparation prior to transplantation. Implementation of this

  9. IMAX and Nikon Camera Sensor Cleaning

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-25

    ISS042E182382 (01/25/2015) ---US astronaut Barry "Butch" Wilmore inspects one the cameras aboard the International Space Station Jan. 25, 2015, in preparation for another photo session of station experiments. Barry is the Commander of Expedition 42.

  10. Source mask optimization study based on latest Nikon immersion scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fang; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Chenming; Zhang, Wei; Nishinaga, Hisashi; El-Sewefy, Omar; Gao, Gen-Sheng; Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Zhang, Recoo; Zhu, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    The 2x nm logic foundry node has many challenges since critical levels are pushed close to the limits of low k1 ArF water immersion lithography. For these levels, improvements in lithographic performance can translate to decreased rework and increased yield. Source Mask Optimization (SMO) is one such route to realize these image fidelity improvements. During SMO, critical layout constructs are intensively optimized in both the mask and source domain, resulting in a solution for maximum lithographic entitlement. From the hardware side, advances in source technology have enabled free-form illumination. The approach allows highly customized illumination, enabling the practical application of SMO sources. The customized illumination sources can be adjusted for maximum versatility. In this paper, we present a study on a critical layer of an advanced foundry logic node using the latest ILT based SMO software, paired with state-of-the-art scanner hardware and intelligent illuminator. Performance of the layer's existing POR source is compared with the ideal SMO result and the installed source as realized on the intelligent illuminator of an NSR-S630D scanner. Both simulation and on-silicon measurements are used to confirm that the performance of the studied layer meets established specifications.

  11. Physical Modelling of Nikon Coolpix Camera RGB Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, Frank

    2013-04-01

    This contribution describes computer aided leaf digital image analysis based on reflectance imagery at leaf level. It is based on a fast, non-destructive measurement technique of leaf chlorophyll content imaging based on measurements of leaf reflectance. The validity of the method is demonstrated by a direct comparison of conventional chlorophyll extraction of both leaf chlorophyll pigments a and b with chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll estimates based on leaf reflectance imagery. The leaves of the species selected for this paper are characterized by heterogeneous chlorophyll distributions. The application of the software developed for image analysis at the leaf spatial level allows revealing the morphological structures at the origin of the spatial variation of leaf chlorophylls. Keywords: Physical modelling, leaf chlorophyll imaging, spatial analysis, RGB camera.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA launches its second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, aboard a Delta II launch vehicle. The bright glare briefly illuminated Florida Space Coast beaches. Opportunity’s dash to Mars began with liftoff at 11:18:15 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. The spacecraft separated successfully from the Delta's third stage 83 minutes later, after it had been boosted out of Earth orbit and onto a course toward Mars. [Photo courtesy of Ray Yost and Scott Andrews/NIKON

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA launches its second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, aboard a Delta II launch vehicle. The bright glare briefly illuminated Florida Space Coast beaches. Opportunity’s dash to Mars began with liftoff at 11:18:15 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. The spacecraft separated successfully from the Delta's third stage 83 minutes later, after it had been boosted out of Earth orbit and onto a course toward Mars. [Photo courtesy of Ray Yost and Scott Andrews/NIKON

  13. DOF enhancement for contact holes by using Nikon's CDP option and its introduction into production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armellin, Louis-Pierre; Dureuil, Virginie; Nuel, Laurent; Salvetat, Vincent; Meier, Winfried; Kraft, Andreas

    2006-03-01

    Historically the primary methods used to achieve the industries ever-tightening resolution requirements were reduction of exposure wavelength and increased projection lens NA. Today however, photo engineers are pushing optical lithography well beyond the realm of what was once considered practical. Specific scanner exposure tool features have to be implemented to achieve the aggressive imaging objectives. One such example is to use focus drilling to expand the depth of focus for contact layers. This paper describes the implementation of focus drilling through the Continuous DOF expansion Procedure (CDP). In CDP, the wafer is tilted along the scanning direction, while the wafer stage continuously moves upward or downward during exposure. CDP technology provides an enhanced process window with initial data showing a 30% improvement in DOF for 250-nm contact holes. It also eliminates the need for double exposures and therefore maintains high throughput, comparable to standard wafer exposure.

  14. 75 FR 11919 - Qimonda 200 MM Facility, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Tokyo Electron America, Nikon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... North America Corporation, Qimonda Richmond, a Subsidiary of Qimonda AG Sandston, VA; Amended... Qimonda AG, Sandston, Virginia, who became totally or partially separated from employment on or after...

  15. Stereoscopic determination of all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based Nikon DSLR cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, R.; Miyoshi, Y.; Shigematsu, K.; Hampton, D.; Mori, Y.; Kubo, T.; Yamashita, A.; Tanaka, M.; Takahei, T.; Nakai, T.; Miyahara, H.; Shiokawa, K.

    2013-09-01

    A new stereoscopic measurement technique is developed to obtain an all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. Two identical full-color all-sky cameras were set with an 8 km separation across the Chatanika area in Alaska (Poker Flat Research Range and Aurora Borealis Lodge) to find localized emission height with the maximum correlation of the apparent patterns in the localized pixels applying a method of the geographical coordinate transform. It is found that a typical ray structure of discrete aurora shows the broad altitude distribution above 100 km, while a typical patchy structure of pulsating aurora shows the narrow altitude distribution of less than 100 km. Because of its portability and low cost of the DSLR camera systems, the new technique may open a unique opportunity not only for scientists but also for night-sky photographers to complementarily attend the aurora science to potentially form a dense observation network.

  16. 75 FR 3249 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Leased Workers from Tokyo Electron America and Nikon Precision, Inc., Qimonda North America Corporation... Electron America, Nikon Precision, Inc., Ebara Technologies, Inc., Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., PSI... leased workers from Tokyo Electron America, Nikon Precision, Inc., Ebara Technologies, Inc., Air...

  17. Correction of deflection under mask's own weight by bending mask technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagami, Takashi; Kambayashi, Takashi; Azumi, Minako

    2016-10-01

    It is known that the photomask substrate deflects when the mask is set on the frame and the deflection is an obstacle to light exposure. In this study, we introduce "the bending mask" to cancel out the deflection. The surface of the bending mask has the height distribution in advance to cancel out the deflection, owing to Nikon's accurate polishing technology and Nikon's accurate measurement machine.

  18. Multiphoton adaptation of a commercial low-cost confocal microscope for live tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, James J; Larson, Adam M; Wensel, Theodore G; Saggau, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Nikon C1 confocal laser scanning microscope is a relatively inexpensive and user-friendly instrument. We describe a straightforward method to convert the C1 for multiphoton microscopy utilizing direct coupling of a femtosecond near-infrared laser into the scan head and fiber optic transmission of emission light to the three-channel detector box. Our adapted system can be rapidly switched between confocal and multiphoton mode, requires no modification to the original system, and uses only a few custom-made parts. The entire system, including scan mirrors and detector box, remain under the control of the user-friendly Nikon EZ-C1 software without modification.

  19. A rare variation of the digastric muscle

    PubMed Central

    KALNIEV, MANOL; KRASTEV, DIMO; KRASTEV, NIKOLAY; VIDINOV, KALIN; VELTCHEV, LUDMIL; APOSTOLOV, ALEXANDER; MILEVA, MILKA

    2013-01-01

    The digastric muscle is composed by two muscle bellies: an anterior and a posterior, joined by an intermediate tendon. This muscle is situated in the anterior region of the neck. The region between the hyoid bone and the mandible is divided by an anterior belly into two triangles: the submandibular situated laterally and the submental triangle which is located medially. We found that the anatomical variations described in the literature relate mainly to the anterior belly and consist of differences in shape and attachment of the muscle. During routine dissection in February 2013 in the section hall of the Department of Anatomy and Histology in Medical University – Sofia we came across a very interesting variation of the digastric muscle. The digastric muscles that presented anatomical variations were photographed using a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T1 camera, with a Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar lens. We found out bilateral variation of the digastric muscle in one cadaver. The anterior bellies were very thin and insert to the hyoid bone. Two anterior bellies connect each other and thus they formed a loop. The anatomical variations observed of our study related only to the anterior belly, as previously described by other authors. It is very important to consider the occurrence of the above mentioned variations in the digastric muscle when surgical procedures are performed on the anterior region of the neck. PMID:26527971

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  1. Pilot Hauck and Mission Specialist (MS) Fabian on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Hauck (with mustache) holds canvas stowage bag in one hand and steadies himself with the other hand on open forward modular locker single tray assembly (ASSY) as Mission Specialist (MS) Fabian looks on. Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR) apparatus container appears in forward locker position and sleep restraints appear in background on starboard wall. NIKON camera is visible between the two astronauts.

  2. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  3. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  4. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemo-luminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  5. Preparation of a Low-Cost Digital Camera System for Remote Sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Off-the-shelf consumer digital cameras are convenient and user-friendly. However, the use of these cameras in remote sensing is limited because convenient methods for concurrently determining visible and near-infrared (NIR) radiation have not been developed. Two Nikon COOLPIX 4300 digital cameras ...

  6. Pilot Hauck and Mission Specialist (MS) Fabian on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Hauck (with mustache) holds canvas stowage bag in one hand and steadies himself with the other hand on open forward modular locker single tray assembly (ASSY) as Mission Specialist (MS) Fabian looks on. Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR) apparatus container appears in forward locker position and sleep restraints appear in background on starboard wall. NIKON camera is visible between the two astronauts.

  7. Evaluation of a glassless photographic film scanner for high-gradient radiochromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    De Puysseleyr, A; Srivastava, R P; Paelinck, L; De Neve, W; De Wagter, C

    2012-01-07

    This study evaluates the performance of the Nikon Coolscan 9000 ED film scanner for high-gradient radiochromic film dosimetry. As a reference for comparison, analogue experiments were performed on the Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner. Based on these results, a dosimetric protocol was established for the Nikon scanner and its overall performance for high-gradient dosimetry was evaluated. The Nikon scanner demonstrated a high sensitivity for radiochromic film dosimetry, resulting in more contrast in the digitized image. The scanner's optics also demonstrated excellent stability and did not necessitate warm-up scans prior to data acquisition. Moreover, negative effects of temperature changes of the film inside the scanner were shown to be limited. None of the digitized images showed significant disturbances by moiré-patterns, by virtue of the absence of a glass plate for film positioning. However, scanner response was found to vary considerably across the reading area, requiring an optical density-dependent correction procedure to be incorporated into the scanning protocol. The main limitation of the Nikon Coolscan 9000 ED transmission scanner remains its film size restriction to 6.2 × 20 cm2. Nevertheless, its excellent characteristics render it the preferential tool for high-gradient radiochromic film dosimetry in applications limited to small film sizes, such as dosimetry in the build-up region.

  8. Visual Servoing for Optimization of Anticancer Drug Uptake in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    allow relatively small numbers of tumor cells harvested from fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) to be passaged and expanded in culture (Li et al., 1998...strip washer, PCR thermocycler ( Crocodile II), gel electrophoresis apparatus, Nikon inverted phase microscope, Coulter counter, balances, water baths

  9. KSC-06pd1383

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Discovery remains on Launch Pad 39B after the countdown was halted for the launch of mission STS-121. The launch was scrubbed due to the presence of anvil clouds and thunderstorms within 20 miles of the launch site and postponed for 24 hours. Photo credit: Nikon/Scott Andrews

  10. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  11. Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) classically involves shin and ankles and is characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques and nodules. Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic neurodermatitis that presents with intensely pruritic nodules. Histopathology of HLP and PN demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and compact hyperkeratosis. The dermis shows vertically arranged collagen fibers and an increased number of fibroblasts and capillaries in both conditions. Moreover, basal cell degeneration is confined to the tips of rete ridges, and band-like infiltration is conspicuously absent in HLP. Therefore, both conditions mimic each other clinically, which makes diagnosis difficult. Hence, there is a need for a diagnostic technique to differentiate both conditions. Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in HLP and PN and to study these patterns histopathologically. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College in Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. A Dermlite 3 dermoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA) attached to a Sony Cyber Shot camera DSC-W800 (Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA) was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: There were 10 patients each with HLP and PN. HLP was seen in 8 males and 2 females. PN was observed in 7 females and 3 males. Dermoscopy of HLP demonstrated pearly white areas and peripheral striations (100%), gray-blue globules (60%), comedo-like openings (30%), red dots (40%), red globules (10%), brownish-black globules (30%), and yellowish structures (90%). In PN, red dots (70%), red globules (60%), and pearly white areas with peripheral striations (100%) were observed under dermoscopy. Conclusion: Both HLP and PN demonstrated specific dermoscopic patterns which can be demonstrated on histopathologic findings. The authors propose that these patterns are hallmarks of each

  12. Stability of 35-mm scanners as used in ophthalmologic research.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karl; Lee, Kristine E; Knudtson, Michael D; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K

    2010-01-01

    To assess the consistency of digitization of 35-mm slides as practiced in ophthalmologic research and estimate the impact of variation on semi-automated retinal vessel width measurements. A single retina slide was repeatedly digitized under various conditions on three scanner models. Average color levels were extracted from the resulting images, from which vessel widths were graded. The color channel level variations and possible correlation with width were analyzed. The Nikon 5000 scanner (Nikon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) had average coefficients of variation of 0.4, 2.3, and 0.5 for the red, green, and blue channel levels across all runs. The P values of the correlation between the red, green, and blue color channel levels and the width of the large retinal arteriole were .89, .27, and .58, respectively. The results suggest that the tested scanners digitize the 35-mm slides in a reliable manner without biasing the retinal vessel measurements. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Astronaut Alan Bean reads data from book while holding teleprinter tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, reads data from book in his right hand while holding teleprinter tape in his left hand, in the ward room of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  14. Microtubules for Nonlinear Optical Limiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-03

    microtubule alignment and centering was accomplished by attaching a l-mL glass syringe and 26 gauge needle to one or both ends of a glass capillary prefilled ...with liquid crystal or a microtubule/K24 mixture. The capillary ends were epoxy sealed to the syringe needles and then pressure or vacuum was applied...to the capillary by pushing or pulling the syringe plungers. All photographs were taken using a Wild MPS 11 35 mm camera attached to Nikon Optiphot

  15. Model-Scale Experiment of the Seakeeping Performance for R/V Melville, Model 5720

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Global Positioning System ( iGPS ). The theory of operation and components of the onboard sensors and tracking system are described in the...A 11050101 Aft Tracker Sensor Top NA Y None in Receiver Nikon Metrology Laser Detector Mini Vector Bar 0102706-A 11050101 IGPS ...System ( iGPS ) system was used to track both the model and carriage location in the basin. This system consists of seven shore-based transmitters

  16. Recent developments in space shuttle remote sensing, using hand-held film cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on the advantages and disadvantages of a number of camera systems which are currently employed for space shuttle remote sensing operations. Systems discussed include the modified Hasselbad, the Rolleiflex 6008, the Linkof 5-inch format system, and the Nikon F3/F4 systems. Film/filter combinations (color positive films, color infrared films, color negative films and polarization filters) are presented.

  17. Acquisition of Robotized Metallographic Equipment with Automated Laue Pattern Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-23

    precision polishing system $ 20,577.86 • Microfocus x - ray source with focusing optics and associated metrology $ 169,331.00 • Machine shop charges...lens coupled Gemstar-2 intensified x - ray Laue imaging camera $ 86,200.00 • Nikon flat top stage for Laue diffractometer $ 15,313.23 • Multiprep...final design for the x - ray Laue diffrac- tomcter system could begin. Components for this system, which was designed in collaboration with Dr. Daniel

  18. Selenium Potentiates Chemotherapeutic Selectivity: Improving Efficacy and Reducing Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    immunoassay in which genomic DNA from UV-irradiated bone marrow cells, at 0, 4, 8, or 16 hrs after UV-irradiation, was fixed to 96-well microtiter plates...at 10 ng per well. An antibody to 6-4 photoproducts (Trevigen Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) was used to detect removal of lesions. Immunoassays were...Slides were visualized by a Nikon HB -10101AF fluorescence microscope using a 100X objective. Digital photographs were captured. Colony-forming assays

  19. Platelet-Associated CD40/CD154 Mediates Remote Tissue Damage After Mesenteric Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    contribute to the severity of the disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus patients [10]. In a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis platelets...plasmacytoid dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus . Sci Transl Med 2: 47ra63. 11. Andoh A, Yoshida T, Yagi Y, Bamba S, Hata K, et al. (2006...captured using Nikon Eclipse 80i microscope and adjusted using the adjustment feature in the RGB channel using Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems , San

  20. Earth observations taken by the STS-59 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-14

    STS059-306-034 (9-20 April 1994) --- The radiating transportation pattern of this 20th-Century urban plan is nicely displayed in this high-resolution photograph. Light-toned spots in the desert mark oil well sites; along the south edge of the scene, some dark residue remains from the fires set during the recent Gulf War. Blown sand has nearly hidden the soot and thick oil that were deposited on the surface. Nikon photograph, 300mm lens.

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean reads data from book while holding teleprinter tape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-08

    SL3-111-1514 (July-September 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, reads data from book in his right hand while holding teleprinter tape in his left hand, in the ward room of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Impact of a Novel, Anti-microbial Dressing on In Vivo, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Wound Biofilm: Quantitative Comparative Analysis using a Rabbit Ear Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China, and 3. Microbiology Branch, US Army Dental and...planktonic S. aureus within the wounds. Dressing materials Wounds were subject to one of three dressings during the study (Table 1). Telfa AMD was...quantification of epithelial and granulation gaps, and total epithelial and granulation areas, using a digital analysis system (NIS-Elements Basic Research, Nikon

  3. ISS nocturnal images as a scientic tool against Light Pollution: Flux calibration and colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pascual, S.; López Cayuela, M.; Ocaña, F.; Challupner, P.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Fernández-Renau, A.; Gómez, J. A.; de Miguel, E.

    2013-05-01

    The potential of the pictures of the Earth taken at night from the International Space Station (ISS) with a Nikon D3s digital camera to fight against light pollution is shown. We show that RAW pictures should be used to obtain fluxes. We have developed a method to perform absolute photometric calibration measuring fluxes of the stars recorded in the pictures and also calibrated sources at earth.

  4. Evaluation of proximal caries in images resulting from different modes of radiographic digitalization.

    PubMed

    Xavier, C R G; Araujo-Pires, Ana Claudia; Poleti, M L; Rubira-Bullen, I R F; Ferreira, O; Capelozza, A L A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of observers in diagnosing proximal caries in digital images obtained from digital bitewing radiographs using two scanners and four digital cameras in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) and tagged image file format (TIFF) files, and comparing them with the original conventional radiographs. In total, 56 extracted teeth were radiographed with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) in a Kaycor Yoshida X-ray device (Kaycor X-707; Yoshida Dental Manufacturing Co., Tokyo, Japan) operating at 70 kV and 7 mA with an exposure time of 0.40 s. The radiographs were obtained and scanned by CanonScan D646U (Canon USA Inc., Newport News, VA) and Genius ColorPage HR7X (KYE Systems Corp. America, Doral, FL) scanners, and by Canon Powershot G2 (Canon USA Inc.), Canon RebelXT (Canon USA Inc.), Nikon Coolpix 8700 (Nikon Inc., Melville, NY), and Nikon D70s (Nikon Inc.) digital cameras in JPEG and TIFF formats. Three observers evaluated the images. The teeth were then observed under the microscope in polarized light for the verification of the presence and depth of the carious lesions. The probability of no diagnosis ranged from 1.34% (Insight film) to 52.83% (CanonScan/JPEG). The sensitivity ranged from 0.24 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.53 (Insight film), the specificity ranged from 0.93 (Nikon Coolpix/JPEG, Canon Powershot/TIFF, Canon RebelXT/JPEG and TIFF) to 0.97 (CanonScan/TIFF and JPEG) and the accuracy ranged from 0.82 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.91 (CanonScan/JPEG). The carious lesion diagnosis did not change in either of the file formats (JPEG and TIFF) in which the images were saved for any of the equipment used. Only the CanonScan scanner did not have adequate performance in radiography digitalization for caries diagnosis and it is not recommended for this purpose.

  5. Evaluation of proximal caries in images resulting from different modes of radiographic digitalization

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, CRG; Araujo-Pires, AC; Poleti, ML; Rubira-Bullen, IRF; Ferreira, O; Capelozza, ALA

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of observers in diagnosing proximal caries in digital images obtained from digital bitewing radiographs using two scanners and four digital cameras in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) and tagged image file format (TIFF) files, and comparing them with the original conventional radiographs. Method In total, 56 extracted teeth were radiographed with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) in a Kaycor Yoshida X-ray device (Kaycor X-707; Yoshida Dental Manufacturing Co., Tokyo, Japan) operating at 70 kV and 7 mA with an exposure time of 0.40 s. The radiographs were obtained and scanned by CanonScan D646U (Canon USA Inc., Newport News, VA) and Genius ColorPage HR7X (KYE Systems Corp. America, Doral, FL) scanners, and by Canon Powershot G2 (Canon USA Inc.), Canon RebelXT (Canon USA Inc.), Nikon Coolpix 8700 (Nikon Inc., Melville, NY), and Nikon D70s (Nikon Inc.) digital cameras in JPEG and TIFF formats. Three observers evaluated the images. The teeth were then observed under the microscope in polarized light for the verification of the presence and depth of the carious lesions. Results The probability of no diagnosis ranged from 1.34% (Insight film) to 52.83% (CanonScan/JPEG). The sensitivity ranged from 0.24 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.53 (Insight film), the specificity ranged from 0.93 (Nikon Coolpix/JPEG, Canon Powershot/TIFF, Canon RebelXT/JPEG and TIFF) to 0.97 (CanonScan/TIFF and JPEG) and the accuracy ranged from 0.82 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.91 (CanonScan/JPEG). Conclusion The carious lesion diagnosis did not change in either of the file formats (JPEG and TIFF) in which the images were saved for any of the equipment used. Only the CanonScan scanner did not have adequate performance in radiography digitalization for caries diagnosis and it is not recommended for this purpose. PMID:21831972

  6. Performance Evaluation of Thermographic Cameras for Photogrammetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastikli, N.; Guler, E.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was modelled efficiently

  7. Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta in skin of color: new observations by dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ankad, Balachandra S; Beergouder, Savitha L

    2017-01-01

    Pityriasis lichenoides is an uncommon skin disease that presents in three different forms: pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA), pityriasis lichenoides chronica (PLC) and febrile ulceronecrotic-Mucha-Habermann disease. These represent a spectrum of a disease. PLEVA presents as skin eruption of multiple, small, red papules that develop into polymorphic lesions with periods of varying remissions, as well as possible sequels of hyper/hypopigmentation and varicella-like scars. Diagnosis of this condition is mainly clinical, and sometimes clinical differentiation from other conditions may be a difficult task that often requires histological analysis. In this study, PLEVA lesions were examined by dermoscopy, and the significance of specific dermoscopic findings was investigated in order to facilitate their differentiation from other inflammatory conditions. To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in PLEVA and to correlate these patterns with histopathology. The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study and patients were selected randomly. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained. PLEVA lesions in early and late phases were evaluated. A manual DermLite 3 (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA) dermoscope attached to a Sony (Cyber Shot DSC-W800, Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA, digital, 14 mega pixels) camera was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Data was collected and analyzed. Results were statistically described in terms of frequencies and types of dermoscopic patterns. There was a total of 14 patients; 8 males and 6 females. Mean age of patients was 19 years. Mean duration of disease was 7 months. Dermoscopy in early-phase lesions revealed amorphous brownish areas around the hair follicles, dotted vessels, and scaling. Dermoscopy in late-phase lesions showed whitish-structureless areas and central white crust within whitish-structureless rim with

  8. Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta in skin of color: new observations by dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pityriasis lichenoides is an uncommon skin disease that presents in three different forms: pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA), pityriasis lichenoides chronica (PLC) and febrile ulceronecrotic-Mucha-Habermann disease. These represent a spectrum of a disease. PLEVA presents as skin eruption of multiple, small, red papules that develop into polymorphic lesions with periods of varying remissions, as well as possible sequels of hyper/hypopigmentation and varicella-like scars. Diagnosis of this condition is mainly clinical, and sometimes clinical differentiation from other conditions may be a difficult task that often requires histological analysis. In this study, PLEVA lesions were examined by dermoscopy, and the significance of specific dermoscopic findings was investigated in order to facilitate their differentiation from other inflammatory conditions. Objectives To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in PLEVA and to correlate these patterns with histopathology. Materials and methods The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study and patients were selected randomly. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained. PLEVA lesions in early and late phases were evaluated. A manual DermLite 3 (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA) dermoscope attached to a Sony (Cyber Shot DSC-W800, Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA, digital, 14 mega pixels) camera was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Data was collected and analyzed. Results were statistically described in terms of frequencies and types of dermoscopic patterns. Results There was a total of 14 patients; 8 males and 6 females. Mean age of patients was 19 years. Mean duration of disease was 7 months. Dermoscopy in early-phase lesions revealed amorphous brownish areas around the hair follicles, dotted vessels, and scaling. Dermoscopy in late-phase lesions showed whitish-structureless areas and

  9. Comparison of 10 digital SLR cameras for orthodontic photography.

    PubMed

    Bister, D; Mordarai, F; Aveling, R M

    2006-09-01

    Digital photography is now widely used to document orthodontic patients. High quality intra-oral photography depends on a satisfactory 'depth of field' focus and good illumination. Automatic 'through the lens' (TTL) metering is ideal to achieve both the above aims. Ten current digital single lens reflex (SLR) cameras were tested for use in intra- and extra-oral photography as used in orthodontics. The manufacturers' recommended macro-lens and macro-flash were used with each camera. Handling characteristics, colour-reproducibility, quality of the viewfinder and flash recharge time were investigated. No camera took acceptable images in factory default setting or 'automatic' mode: this mode was not present for some cameras (Nikon, Fujifilm); led to overexposure (Olympus) or poor depth of field (Canon, Konica-Minolta, Pentax), particularly for intra-oral views. Once adjusted, only Olympus cameras were able to take intra- and extra-oral photographs without the need to change settings, and were therefore the easiest to use. All other cameras needed adjustments of aperture (Canon, Konica-Minolta, Pentax), or aperture and flash (Fujifilm, Nikon), making the latter the most complex to use. However, all cameras produced high quality intra- and extra-oral images, once appropriately adjusted. The resolution of the images is more than satisfactory for all cameras. There were significant differences relating to the quality of colour reproduction, size and brightness of the viewfinders. The Nikon D100 and Fujifilm S 3 Pro consistently scored best for colour fidelity. Pentax and Konica-Minolta had the largest and brightest viewfinders.

  10. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-19

    SL3-108-1292 (19 Aug. 1973) --- Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this onboard photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) in Earth orbit. Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot, took this picture with a 35mm Nikon camera. Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair. The crew of the second manned Skylab flight went on to successfully complete 59 days aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Film annotation system for a space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, W. R.; Johnson, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    This microprocessor system was designed to control and annotate a Nikon 35 mm camera for the purpose of obtaining photographs and data at predefined time intervals. The single STD BUSS interface card was designed in such a way as to allow it to be used in either a stand alone application with minimum features or installed in a STD BUSS computer allowing for maximum features. This control system also allows the exposure of twenty eight alpha/numeric characters across the bottom of each photograph. The data contains such information as camera identification, frame count, user defined text, and time to .01 second.

  12. Terahertz real-time imaging for nondestructive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

    2008-03-01

    We present a real time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

  13. Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

    2008-03-01

    We present a real-time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false-color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real-time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

  14. KSC-00padig028

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-12

    A Russian 3-stage Proton rocket blasts into the sky at 12:56 a.m. EDT with the Russian-built Zvezda module in a successful launch from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Zvezda is the primary Russian contribution to the International Space Station, serving as the early Station living quarters. It will also provide early propulsive attitude control and reboost capabilities and be the main docking port for Russian Progress cargo resupply vehicles. The third Station component, Zvezda will dock by remote control with the already orbiting Zarya and Unity modules at an altitude of about 245 by 230 statute miles. (Image taken with Nikon D1 digital camera.)

  15. Evaluation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Luminance Mapping Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Inanici, Mehlika; Galvin, Jim

    2004-12-30

    The potential, limitations, and applicability of the High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique is evaluated as a luminance mapping tool. Multiple exposure photographs of static scenes are taken with a Nikon 5400 digital camera to capture the wide luminance variation within the scenes. The camera response function is computationally derived using the Photosphere software, and is used to fuse the multiple photographs into HDR images. The vignetting effect and point spread function of the camera and lens system is determined. Laboratory and field studies have shown that the pixel values in the HDR photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  16. SKYLAB III - EARTH VIEWS (HAWAII)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-10-05

    S73-34857 (July-September 1973) --- A composite of two photographs of the Island of Oahu, County of Honolulu, State of Hawaii, taken by one of the Skylab 3 crewmen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The two pictures (SL3-128-3009 and SL3-128-3010) were taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera, a 55/300mm lens and so-368 medium-speed Ektacrome film. Pearl Harbor is clearly visible. The city of Honolulu is located next to the triangle-shaped seaplane runway. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Throughput of commercial photographic camera lenses for use in astronomical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, D. Q.; Mondrik, N.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Schmidt, L.; Hill, B.; Turner, L.; Rheault, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We present measurements of the spectral response function of commercially-available Nikon 35mm photographic camera lenses for use in astronomical instrumentation. Our motivation for this work stems from the fact that several astronomical imaging systems have been deployed or proposed using this type of commercial lens. We have performed measurements of the relative and absolute spectral response function of five commercially-available photographic lenses. These measurements show that these lenses generally have >50% throughput across the entire optical window of 400nm < λ < 800nm.

  18. Image processing and data reduction of Apollo low light level photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvord, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of the lens induced vignetting from a selected sample of the Apollo low light level photographs is discussed. The methods used were developed earlier. A study of the effect of noise on vignetting removal and the comparability of the Apollo 35mm Nikon lens vignetting was also undertaken. The vignetting removal was successful to about 10% photometry, and noise has a severe effect on the useful photometric output data. Separate vignetting functions must be used for different flights since the vignetting function varies from camera to camera in size and shape.

  19. Astronaut Owen Garriott reconstitutes pre-packaged container of food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, reconstitutes a pre-packaged container of food at the crew quarters ward room table of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster. This picture was taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera. Note the knife and fork on the food tray and the utensil with which Garriott stirs the food mixed with water. Skylab is the first manned space program by NASA which affords the crewmen an opportunity to eat with the same type utensils used on Earth.

  20. [Morphology of the eggs of Triatoma circummaculata and Triatoma rubrovaria (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)].

    PubMed

    da Rosa, J A; Barata, J M; Santos, J L; Cilense, M

    2000-10-01

    To study morphologically the eggs of T. circummaculata and T. rubrovaria. Forty eggs of the two species were measured through Nikon model 6C profile projector. Student test was utilized for the statistical analysis and scanning electron microscopy for the morphological study of the eggs. The statistical analysis shows that the T. rubrovaria eggs are larger that those of T. circummaculata. Microscopical observations revealed that the chorial rim and the spermatic groove are less evident in T. circummaculata than in T. rubrovaria. Both species, the majority of exochorion cells are hexagonal. It was also observed the embryo eclosion and details of the embryonic molt.

  1. Effect of disinfectant agents on dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Adabo, G L; Zanarotti, E; Fonseca, R G; Cruz, C A

    1999-05-01

    Difficulties in sterilizing impressions by traditional methods have led to chemical disinfection as an alternative, and some studies have shown that disinfectants may adversely affect impressions. This study investigated the effect of disinfection methods on the dimensional stability of 6 elastomeric materials. Impression materials were submitted to the following treatments: immersion in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 minutes, immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde solution for 30 minutes, and no immersion (control). After treatments, impressions were poured, and respective stone casts were measured with a Nikon Profile projector and compared with the master model. The elastomeric materials had different reproduction capacities, and the disinfecting treatments did not differ from the control.

  2. SL3-108-01288

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-07-01

    SL3-108-1288 (July-Sept. 1973) --- Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot of the Skylab 3 mission, is stationed at the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) console in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) of the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture was taken with a handheld 35mm Nikon camera. Astronauts Garriott, Alan L. Bean and Jack R. Lousma remained with the Skylab space station cluster in orbit for 59 days conducting numerous medical, scientific and technological experiments. In orbit the MDA functions as a major experiment control center for solar observations. From this console the astronauts actively control the ATM solar physics telescopes. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Manned observations technology development, FY 1992 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Steven

    1992-01-01

    This project evaluated the suitability of the NASA/JSC developed electronic still camera (ESC) digital image data for Earth observations from the Space Shuttle, as a first step to aid planning for Space Station Freedom. Specifically, image resolution achieved from the Space Shuttle using the current ESC system, which is configured with a Loral 15 mm x 15 mm (1024 x 1024 pixel array) CCD chip on the focal plane of a Nikon F4 camera, was compared to that of current handheld 70 mm Hasselblad 500 EL/M film cameras.

  4. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, G. A.

    2013-01-30

    The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX®1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku®2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon®3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information.

  5. Endeavors in micro-imaging spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.M.

    1995-10-19

    The goal of this apparatus is to better enable characterization of tissue samples both on a microscopic scale and across the visible spectrum. The set-up consists of a phase-contrast inverted Nikon microscope, a single-grating imaging spectrometer, a CCD camera, and a computer potentially controlling all three of the previous devices, The computer uses an object-oriented program development environment called LabVIEW to run the three devices. This apparatus will hopefully enable better, less invasive surgical procedures, as well as permitting higher-resolution, more up-close observation of cellular dynamics.

  6. KSC-06pd1458

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Under clear blue skies, the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-121 kicks off the fireworks for the U.S. holiday in its third launch attempt in four days. Liftoff was on-time at 2:38 p.m. EDT. During the 12-day mission, the STS-121 crew of seven will test new equipment and procedures to improve shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies and make repairs to the International Space Station. Landing is scheduled for July 17 at Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  7. Immune Cells, If Rendered Insensitive to Transforming Growth Factor-Beta, Can Cure Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Lunde, O.C., Holter , J. & Bjorgsvik, D. Lymphoid infiltration and prognosis in colorectal carcinoma. Br J Cancer 49, 375-377 (1984). 8. Whiteside, T.L...TE2000-U fluorescent microscopy (Nikon Co., Tokyo, Japan). Images were digitized by Photoshop 7.0 software . Expression of TGF-P Receptors in CD8+ T Cells...significant. The Tumors in animals of the other two groups showed little or no CD8’ SPSS 10.0.7 software package (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for T

  8. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-27

    SL3-107-1215 (27 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. One of his fellow crewmen took this photograph with a 35mm Nikon camera. Bean is strapped into the back mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Preservation of Mexican ancient Codices: color reproduction from spectral attributes estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Jorge; Uchiyama, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Haneishi, Hideaki; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2003-11-01

    Mexican Codices are an ancient reading and writing system, part of this cultural legacy date from the 16th and 17th century. For preservation reasons, the collection known as "Collection of Original Mexican Codices" under the custody of the National Library of Anthropology and History in Mexico City is kept under limited access and controlled illumination conditions. It is presented an accurate color reproduction of Codices under simulated average daylight based on spectral reflectance estimation from statistical spectral data using the Wiener estimator, removing the original capture environment illumination. We compare the achieved results between both, a 16 bands multispectral camera and a RGB Nikon D1 camera.

  10. The risk of exposure to parasitic mites and insects occurring on pets in Southern Poland

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Olga; Pająk, Celina; Solarz, Krzysztof

    Companion animals, including pets, can be infested by many species of parasitic mites and insects, which can pose a threat to the health of both animals and humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of exposure of companion animals to various species of external parasites which can be transferred to humans and cause many skin diseases. External parasites were collected in 2012–2014 from the patients of veterinary clinics in the provinces of Silesia and Malopolska (Southern Poland). Parasitic mites and insects were collected using preparation needles. Parasites were classified to species and life stage under a Stemi 2000-C stereomicroscope (Zeiss) or an ECLIPSE E-200 optical microscope (Nikon). They were then analysed by an Optika Vision Pro system (Nikon). In total, 77 samples were taken: 62 from the Malopolska and 15 from Silesia. A total of 999 specimens of parasitic mites and 225 specimens of parasitic insects were isolated from the samples. The dominant mite species was Otodectes cynotis var. cati (Astigmatina, Psoroptidae) with 855 isolated specimens (85.6% of the total number of isolated mites). Polyplax spinulosa was the predominant parasitic insect species: 209 specimens were identified, constituting 92.9% of all examined insects. Our findings indicate that companion animals and their owners have a high risk of exposure to ectoparasites.

  11. Development of the Brican TD100 Small Uas and Payload Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, B.; McLuckie, B.; Koski, W. R.; Bird, D.; Patterson, C.; Bohdanov, D.; Liu, H.; Mathews, T.; Gamage, G.

    2015-08-01

    The Brican TD100 is a high performance, small UAS designed and made in Brampton Ontario Canada. The concept was defined in late 2009 and it is designed for a maximum weight of 25 kg which is now the accepted cut-off defining small civil UASs. A very clean tractor propeller layout is used with a lightweight composite structure and a high aspect ratio wing to obtain good range and endurance. The design features and performance of the initial electrically powered version are discussed and progress with developing a multifuel engine version is described. The system includes features enabling operation beyond line of sight (BLOS) and the proving missions are described. The vehicle has been used for aerial photography and low cost mapping using a professional grade Nikon DSLR camera. For forest fire research a FLIR A65 IR camera was used, while for georeferenced mapping a new Applanix AP20 system was calibrated with the Nikon camera. The sorties to be described include forest fire research, wildlife photography of bowhead whales in the Arctic and surveys of endangered caribou in a remote area of Labrador, with all these applications including the DSLR camera.

  12. Basic studies of overlay performance on immersion lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Ken-ichi; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Tanizaki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Yuuki; Kono, Takuya; Nakagawa, Shinichiro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Immersion lithography with ArF light and Ultra Pure Water (UPW) is the most promising technology for semiconductor manufacturing with 65 nm hp design and below. Since Nikon completed the first full-field immersion scanner, the Engineering Evaluation Tool (EET, NA=0.85) at the end of 2004, Toshiba and Nikon have investigated overlay accuracy with the EET which uses the local fill nozzle. EET successfully demonstrated immersion tools are comparable in single machine overlay accuracy to dry tools, and immersion-dry matching has the same level overlay matching accuracy as dry-dry matching. EET also made it clear that overlay accuracy is independent of scanning speed, and both solvent-soluble topcoats, as well as developer-soluble topcoats can be used without degradation of overlay accuracy. We investigated the impact of the thermal environment on overlay accuracy also, assuming that a key technology of overlay with immersion tools must achieve thermal stabilities similar to dry tools. It was found that the temperature of supply water and loading wafer are stable enough to keep the overlay accuracy good. As for evaporation heat, water droplets on the backside of the wafer lead to overlay degradation. We have decided to equip the wafer holder of S609B, the first immersion production model, with an advanced watertight structure.

  13. Does the contact time of alginate with plaster cast influence its properties?

    PubMed

    Marquezan, Mariana; Jurach, Estela Maris; Guimarães, Vanessa Domingues; Valentim, Raquel Gomes Almeida; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the time of contact between alginate and gypsum after the modeling procedure on the properties of the plaster cast, such as surface detail, dimensional stability and microhardness. Thirty cylindrical specimens of orthodontic gypsum Type III were made by means of impressions of a stainless steel master model which had five reference lines in the upper surface. The samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1) - with time of contact of 1 hour; and Group 2 (G2) - 12 hours of contact. All the specimens were stored up to 48 hours until they underwent laboratory testing. Surface detail and dimensional stability were tested by one calibrated examiner using a visual analysis and a profilometer (Profile Projector Nikon model 6C, Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), respectively, to evaluate the quality of reproduction of the lines and the distances between them. The microhardness was determined for each sample by making six indentations with a Vickers diamond pyramid indenter (Buehler, Lake Bluff, USA) under a load of 100 gF for 15 s. The results showed significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between groups in two of the three properties examined: surface detail and microhardness, which decreased as the time of contact rose. The 12-hour time of contact between alginate and the plaster cast is not recommended because it influences the quality of the plaster cast.

  14. The organization of the brainstem nuclei associated with the vagus nerve in the Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). A neurohistological study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C M; Odekunle, A

    2011-01-01

    A total of six adult animals were used for the study. Following anaesthesia via intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamin and bombazine in ratio 2:1, thoracotomy was performed to exteriorize the heart for intracardial perfusion. The perfusion canular was inserted into the left ventricle and animal perfused sequentially with normal saline and 10% formal saline. Following perfusion, craniotomy was performed to remove the entire brain along with the upper segments of the spinal cord. The brain specimen was then dehydrated, cleared and infiltrated with paraffin wax. The specimen was then cut in 15 micron thick serial sections. The sections were then processed for neurohistological analyses using a Nikon microscope to which was attached Nikon camera. Analyses of the sections revealed bilateral representation of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve in the medulla oblongata. The nucleus ambiguus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, hypoglossal nucleus and the area postrema were also identified in the medulla oblongata. The implications of our findings are discussed in the text of the article.

  15. Indicator Species Population Monitoring in Antarctica with Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmarz, A.; Korczak-Abshire, M.; Storvold, R.; Rodzewicz, M.; Kędzierska, I.

    2015-08-01

    A program to monitor bird and pinniped species in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica, has been conducted over the past 38 years. Annual monitoring of these indicator species includes estimations of breeding population sizes of three Pygoscelis penguin species: Adélie, gentoo and chinstrap. Six penguin colonies situated on the western shores of two bays: Admiralty and King George are investigated. To study changes in penguin populations Unmanned Aerial Vehicles were used for the first time in the 2014/15 austral summer season. During photogrammetric flights the high-resolution images of eight penguin breeding colonies were taken. Obtained high resolution images were used for estimation of breeding population size and compared with the results of measurements taken at the same time from the ground. During this Antarctic expedition eight successful photogrammetry missions (total distance 1500 km) were performed. Images were taken with digital SLR Canon 700D, Nikon D5300, Nikon D5100 with a 35mm objective lens. Flights altitude at 350 - 400 AGL, allowed images to be taken with a resolution GSD (ground sample distance) less than 5 cm. The Image J software analysis method was tested to provide automatic population estimates from obtained images. The use of UAV for monitoring of indicator species, enabled data acquisition from areas inaccessible by ground methods.

  16. Adapting a compact confocal microscope system to a two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging architecture.

    PubMed

    Diaspro, A; Corosu, M; Ramoino, P; Robello, M

    1999-11-01

    Within the framework of a national National Institute of Physics of Matter (INFM) project, we have realised a two-photon excitation (TPE) fluorescence microscope based on a new generation commercial confocal scanning head. The core of the architecture is a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser (Tsunami 3960, Spectra Physics Inc., Mountain View, CA) pumped by a high-power (5 W, 532 nm) laser (Millennia V, Spectra Physics Inc.) and an ultracompact confocal scanning head, Nikon PCM2000 (Nikon Instruments, Florence, Italy) using a single-pinhole design. Three-dimensional point-spread function has been measured to define spatial resolution performances. The TPE microscope has been used with a wide range of excitable fluorescent molecules (DAPI, Fura-2, Indo-1, DiOC(6)(3), fluoresceine, Texas red) covering a single photon spectral range from UV to green. An example is reported on 3D imaging of the helical structure of the sperm head of the Octopus Eledone cirrhosa labelled with an UV excitable dye, i.e., DAPI. The system can be easily switched for operating both in conventional and two-photon mode.

  17. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder degrees of TH disruption on adult neurogenesis following hypothyroidism induced during development, in adulthood, or both. Pregnant dams were administered the TH synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU, 0 or 3ppm in drinking water) from gestational day 6 and pups were weaned to control water on postnatal day (PN)2 I. On PN6O, offspring from control or PTU dams were either re-exposed to PTU (3ppm) for I month or maintained on control. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU 50 mg/kg, ip, twice daily) was administered to all animals on the last 5 days of the re-exposure period, and animals sacrificed 28 d later. Animals were perfused intracardially, the brains were removed, embedded in a MultiBrain (NSA) array and freeze sectioned. Every 8th section throughout the hippocampus was stained with an antibody against BrdU to mark actively dividing cells. The volume of the DO and the number of BrdUpositive cells were assessed from images captured on a Nikon microscope (200X) and Nikon Elements software. Preliminary findings indicate that developmental exposure to PTU produced a persistent reduction in the volume of the adult DO. BrdU cell counts were reduced similarly in all P11J-exposed groups. These data

  18. A comparison of dense matching algorithms for scaled surface reconstruction using stereo camera rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadabadian, Ali Hosseininaveh; Robson, Stuart; Boehm, Jan; Shortis, Mark; Wenzel, Konrad; Fritsch, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Photogrammetric methods for dense 3D surface reconstruction are increasingly available to both professional and amateur users who have requirements that span a wide variety of applications. One of the key concerns in choosing an appropriate method is to understand the achievable accuracy and how choices made within the workflow can alter that outcome. In this paper we consider accuracy in two components: the ability to generate a correctly scaled 3D model; and the ability to automatically deliver a high quality data set that provides good agreement to a reference surface. The determination of scale information is particularly important, since a network of images usually only provides angle measurements and thus leads to unscaled geometry. A solution is the introduction of known distances in object space, such as base lines between camera stations or distances between control points. In order to avoid using known object distances, the method presented in this paper exploits a calibrated stereo camera utilizing the calibrated base line information from the camera pair as an observational based geometric constraint. The method provides distance information throughout the object volume by orbiting the object. In order to test the performance of this approach, four topical surface matching methods have been investigated to determine their ability to produce accurate, dense point clouds. The methods include two versions of Semi-Global Matching as well as MicMac and Patch-based Multi-View Stereo (PMVS). These methods are implemented on a set of stereo images captured from four carefully selected objects by using (1) an off-the-shelf low cost 3D camera and (2) a pair of Nikon D700 DSLR cameras rigidly mounted in close proximity to each other. Inter-comparisons demonstrate the subtle differences between each of these permutations. The point clouds are also compared to a dataset obtained with a Nikon MMD laser scanner. Finally, the established process of achieving accurate

  19. View of Arabella, one of two Skylab spiders and her web

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-16

    SL3-108-1307 (July-September 1973) --- A close-up view of Arabella, one of the two Skylab 3 common cross spiders "Araneus diadematus," and the web it had spun in the zero-gravity of space aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. This picture was taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera. During the 59-day Skylab 3 mission the two spiders, Arabella and Anita, were housed in an enclosure onto which a motion picture and a still camera were attempts to build a web in the weightless environment. The spider experiment (ED52) was one of 25 experiments selected for Skylab by NASA from more than 3,400 experiment proposals submitted by high school students throughout the nation. ED52 was submitted by 17-year-old Judith S. Miles of Lexington, Massachusetts. Anita died during the last week of the mission. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using Space Shuttle and aerial polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Steven A.; Holly, Mark H.; Whitehead, Victor S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes to relationship of polarimetric observations from orbital and aerial platforms and the determination optimum sun-target-sensor geometry. Polarimetric observations were evaluated for feature discrimination. The Space Shuttle experiment was performed using two boresighted Hasselblad 70 mm cameras with identical settings with linear polarizing filters aligned orthogonally about the optic axis. The aerial experiment was performed using a single 35 mm Nikon FE2 and rotating the linear polarizing filter 90 deg to acquire both minimum and maximum photographs. Characteristic curves were created by covertype and waveband for both aerial and Space Shuttle imagery. Though significant differences existed between the two datasets, the observed polarimetric signatures were unique and separable.

  1. View of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An excellent view of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light, in the Southern Hemisphere, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The space station was moving into the sunlight when this picture was taken. This view is near the edge of the aurora cap. The surface of the Earth is in the foreground. The permanent aurora over the South Pole is in the background. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, took this photograph with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera, with a four-second exposure at f/1.2, using high speed Ektachrome film. Because auroras are caused by solar activity, they occur at the same time in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  2. A perfect night-time launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery rises above the lighting mast on the Fixed Service Structure as it hurtles into the night sky on mission STS-92. Discovery launched on time at 7:17 p.m. EDT. Discovery carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT. [Photo taken with Nikon D1 camera.

  3. A perfect night-time launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery hurtles into the night sky, trailing a tail of fire from the solid rocket boosters, after a perfect on- time launch at 7:17 p.m. EDT. The launch of mission STS-92 carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT. [Photo taken with Nikon D1 camera.

  4. KSC-06pd1442

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into Florida's blue sky over the blue Atlantic Ocean, kicking off Fourth of July fireworks with its own fiery display. History was made with the first ever launch on Independence Day. It was the third launch attempt in four days; the others were scrubbed due to weather concerns. Liftoff on mission STS-121 was on-time at 2:38 p.m. EDT. During the 12-day mission, the STS-121 crew of seven will test new equipment and procedures to improve shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies and make repairs to the International Space Station. Landing is scheduled for July 16 or 17 at Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  5. KSC-06pd1441

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Shooting like a roman candle into Florida's blue sky from Launch Pad 39B, Space Shuttle Discovery kicks off the Fourth of July fireworks with its own fiery display, reflected as well in the nearby water. History was made with the first ever launch on Independence Day. It was the third launch attempt in four days; the others were scrubbed due to weather concerns. Liftoff on mission STS-121 was on-time at 2:38 p.m. EDT. During the 12-day mission, the STS-121 crew of seven will test new equipment and procedures to improve shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies and make repairs to the International Space Station. Landing is scheduled for July 16 or 17 at Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  6. STS-53 Discovery, OV-103, DOD Hercules digital electronic imagery equipment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-22

    STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Department of Defense (DOD) mission Hand-held Earth-oriented Real-time Cooperative, User-friendly, Location, targeting, and Environmental System (Hercules) spaceborne experiment equipment is documented in this table top view. HERCULES is a joint NAVY-NASA-ARMY payload designed to provide real-time high resolution digital electronic imagery and geolocation (latitude and longitude determination) of earth surface targets of interest. HERCULES system consists of (from left to right): a specially modified GRID Systems portable computer mounted atop NASA developed Playback-Downlink Unit (PDU) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) developed HERCULES Attitude Processor (HAP); the NASA-developed Electronic Still Camera (ESC) Electronics Box (ESCEB) including removable imagery data storage disks and various connecting cables; the ESC (a NASA modified Nikon F-4 camera) mounted atop the NRL HERCULES Inertial Measurement Unit (HIMU) containing the three-axis ring-laser gyro.

  7. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Solids Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Gary A.; Pestovich, John A.; Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-05-29

    This report presents the results for solid phase characterization (SPC) of solid samples removed from tank 241-C-108 (C-108) on August 12-13,2012, using the off-riser sampler. Samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory on August 13 and were described and photographed. The SPC analyses that were performed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX(R)l scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku(R) 2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon(R) 3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information. Gary A. Cooke conducted the SEM analysis, John A. Pestovich performed the XRD analysis, and Dr. Heinz J. Huber performed the PLM examination. The results of these analyses are presented here.

  8. KSC-07pd1441

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Clouds of smoke and steam roll across Launch Pad 39A as Space Shuttle Atlantis races toward the heavens and its rendezvous with the International Space Station on mission STS-117. Liftoff was on-time at 7:38:04 p.m. EDT. The shuttle is delivering a new segment to the starboard side of the International Space Station's backbone, known as the truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install the S3/S4 truss segment, deploy a set of solar arrays and prepare them for operation. STS-117 is the 118th space shuttle flight, the 21st flight to the station, the 28th flight for Atlantis and the first of four flights planned for 2007. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  9. Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Manoj; Santos, Susana I C O; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    In this work we propose and build a multimodal optical workstation that extends a commercially available confocal microscope (Nikon Confocal C1-Si) to include nonlinear/multiphoton microscopy and optical manipulation/stimulation tools such as nanosurgery. The setup allows both subsystems (confocal and nonlinear) to work independently and simultaneously. The workstation enables, for instance, nanosurgery along with simultaneous confocal and brightfield imaging. The nonlinear microscopy capabilities are added around the commercial confocal microscope by exploiting all the flexibility offered by this microscope and without need for any mechanical or electronic modification of the confocal microscope systems. As an example, the standard differential interference contrast condenser and diascopic detector in the confocal microscope are readily used as a forward detection mount for second harmonic generation imaging. The various capabilities of this workstation, as applied directly to biology, are demonstrated using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.

  10. Tests and developments of the PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzelmüller, E.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-04-01

    The PANDA experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) requires excellent particle identification. Two different DIRC detectors will utilize internally reflected Cherenkov light of charged particles to enable the separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. The Endcap Disc DIRC will be placed in the forward endcap of PANDA's central spectrometer covering polar angles between 5° and 22°. Its final design is based on MCP-PMTs for the photon detection and an optical system made of fused silica. A new prototype has been investigated during a test beam at CERN in May 2015 and first results will be presented. In addition a new synthetic fused silica material by Nikon has been tested and was found to be radiation hard.

  11. Analysis of ocular torsion data from Space Labs D-1 and SL-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    A series of preflight, inflight, and postflight vestibular experiments were conducted on Spacelab missions SL-1 and D-1. Two portions of the investigation, the 'sled' and 'dome' functional objectives, involved recording the torsional motion of human subject's eyes. In the SL-1 sled and dome experiments, preflight and postflight ocular torsion was recorded on 35 mm film using a Nikon motor driven camera (2.6 frames/sec). The film was to be analyzed by measuring the motion of contact lens landmarks using a Hermes senior film scanner. However, an inflight failure of the dome experiment camera flash unit led the crew to utilize the Spacelab video camera as an alternative contingency method for imaging the eye in this FO. A suitable method for analysis of the video data was developed. Results of the analysis are presented.

  12. KSC-07pd2971

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-23

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Moments after liftoff on mission STS-120, space shuttle Discovery's solid rocket boosters spew columns of fire, creating clouds of smoke and steam below on Launch Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. At right is the 300,000-gallon water tower that provides water for the sound suppression system during liftoff, which occurred on time at 11:38:19 a.m. EDT. Discovery carries the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, called Harmony. During the 14-day STS-120 mission, the crew will install Harmony and move the P6 solar arrays to their permanent position and deploy them. Discovery is expected to complete its mission and return home at 4:47 a.m. EST on Nov. 6. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  13. KSC-07pd2975

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-23

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Atop twin columns of fire, space shuttle Discovery passes the lightning rod atop the fixed service structure at left on Launch Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Smoke and steam from liftoff billow across the pad. AT right is the 300-gallon water tower that provides water for sound suppression. Liftoff was on time at 11:38:19 a.m. EDT. Discovery carries the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, called Harmony. During the 14-day STS-120 mission, the crew will install Harmony and move the P6 solar arrays to their permanent position and deploy them. Discovery is expected to complete its mission and return home at 4:47 a.m. EST on Nov. 6. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Study of a Numerical Aperture for Multimode PCS Fiber Optics Using an Imaging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saman, Q. Mawlud; Nahlah, Q. Muhamad

    2012-11-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the properties of numerical aperture (NA) of multimode graded-index plastic core silica (PCS) fibers by using an image technique. A He-Ne laser at wavelength 632.8 nm and output power 1 mW is used as the transmitter light source. The output beam images and intensity profiles of an optical fiber are investigated by using an imaging technique. The laser beam profiles captured by a sensitive digital Nikon camera are processed and analyzed by using a Gaussian intensity distribution in a 2D graph. A MathCAD 14 program is used for converting the image of the laser output beam into data. The theoretical and experimental values of the numerical aperture for the used optical fiber in this study are found to be 0.5 and 0.4924, respectively. The theoretical value of V-number is also calculated to be approximately 2482.

  15. Digital photography: enhancing communication between burn therapists and nurses.

    PubMed

    Van, Lan B; Sicotte, K M; Lassiter, R R; Jablonski, K A; Crean, D A; Jeng, J C; Jordan, M H

    2004-01-01

    Burn rehabilitation therapists rely on nursing staff to follow through with the positioning and splinting programs. To communicate more effectively, a communication tool that consisted of digital photos and written instructions was created. Microsoft Word and Nikon View software were used to design the communication tool. The purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of a communication tool between burn therapists and burn nurses for splinting and positioning. Thirty-two surveys were distributed to burn nursing staff to assess their perception of the communication tool (digital photographs with written instructions) compared with previous methods of instructions (without digital photographs). Seventy-three percent of nurses felt the communication tool with verbal instructions were the best methods of communicating splinting and positioning needs. All respondents felt that the rehabilitation staff should continue to use the communication tool.

  16. Impact of CD and overlay errors on double-patterning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeyre, Céline; Barnola, Sébastien; Servin, Isabelle; Gaugirana, Stéphanie; Salvetat, Vincent; Magome, Nobutaka; Hazelton, Andrew J.; McCallum, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Double patterning (DP) is today the main solution to extend immersion lithography to the 32 nm node and beyond. Pitch splitting process with hardmask transfer and spacer process have been developed at CEA-LETI-Minatec. This paper focuses on experimental data using dry ArF lithography with a k1 factor of 0.20 ; the relative impact of each DP step on overlay and CD uniformity budgets is analyzed. In addition, topography issues related to the presence of the patterned hard mask layer during the second imaging step is also investigated. Tool-to-itself overlay, image placement on the reticle and wafer deformation induced by this DP process are evaluated experimentally and resulting errors on CD budget have been determined. CD uniformity error model developed by Nikon describing the relationship between CD and overlay in different DP processes is validated experimentally.

  17. Skylab 4 visual observations project report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaltenbach, J. L.; Lenoir, W. B.; Mcewen, M. C.; Weitenhagen, R. A.; Wilmarth, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab 4 Visual Observations Project was undertaken to determine the ways in which man can contribute to future earth-orbital observational programs. The premission training consisted of 17 hours of lectures by scientists representing 16 disciplines and provided the crewmen information on observational and photographic procedures and the scientific significance of this information. During the Skylab 4 mission, more than 850 observations and 2000 photographs with the 70-millimeter Hasselblad and 35-millimeter Nikon cameras were obtained for many investigative areas. Preliminary results of the project indicate that man can obtain new and unique information to support satellite earth-survey programs because of his inherent capability to make selective observations, to integrate the information, and to record the data by describing and photographing the observational sites.

  18. KSC-06pd2765

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Rising on columns of fire above the smoke and steam below, Space Shuttle Discovery leaps toward the sky past the lightning mast on Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-116. Liftoff occurred on time at 8:47 p.m. EST. This was the second launch attempt for mission STS-116. The first launch attempt on Dec. 7 was postponed due a low cloud ceiling over Kennedy Space Center. This is Discovery's 33rd mission and the first night launch since 2002. The 20th shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-116 carries another truss segment, P5. It will serve as a spacer, mated to the P4 truss that was attached in September. After installing the P5, the crew will reconfigure and redistribute the power generated by two pairs of U.S. solar arrays. Landing is expected Dec. 21 at KSC. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  19. KSC-07pd2274

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Endeavour leaps free from the clouds of smoke and steam across Launch Pad 39A after liftoff on mission STS-118. The liftoff was on time at 6:36 p.m. EDT. The mission is the 22nd shuttle flight to the International Space Station. It will continue space station construction by delivering a third starboard truss segment, S5, and other payloads such as the SPACEHAB module and the external stowage platform 3. The 11-day mission may be extended to as many as 14 depending on the test of the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System that will allow the docked shuttle to draw electrical power from the station and extend its visits to the orbiting lab. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  20. KSC-07pd2273

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Clouds of smoke and steam roil across Launch Pad 39A as Space Shuttle Endeavour hurtles into the early evening sky on mission STS-118. The liftoff was on time at 6:36 p.m. EDT. The mission is the 22nd shuttle flight to the International Space Station. It will continue space station construction by delivering a third starboard truss segment, S5, and other payloads such as the SPACEHAB module and the external stowage platform 3. The 11-day mission may be extended to as many as 14 depending on the test of the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System that will allow the docked shuttle to draw electrical power from the station and extend its visits to the orbiting lab. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  1. View of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-01

    SL3-130-3131 (July-September 1973) --- An excellent view of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light, in the Southern Hemisphere, as photographed from the Skylab Space Station in Earth orbit. The space station was moving into the sunlight when this picture was taken. This view is near the edge of the aurora cap. The surface of Earth is in the foreground. The permanent aurora over the South Pole is in the background. Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, took this photograph with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera, with a four-second exposure at f/1.2, using high-speed Ektachrome film. Because auroras are caused by solar activity, they occur at the same time in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Photo credit: NASA

  2. View of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-01

    SL3-130-3130 (July-September 1973) --- An excellent view of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamer of light, in the Southern Hemisphere, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The space station was moving into the sunlight when this picture was taken. This view is near the edge of the aurora cap. The surface of the Earth is in the foreground. The permanent aurora over the South Pole is in the background. Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, took this photograph with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera, with a four-second exposure at f/1.2, using high-speed Ektacrome film. Because auroras are caused by solar activity, they occur at the same time in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Photo credit: NASA

  3. A novel method for spatially complex diffraction-limited photoactivation and photobleaching in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Shkryl, Vyacheslav M; Maxwell, Joshua T; Blatter, Lothar A

    2012-01-01

    Photoactivated probes have gained interest as experimental tools to study intracellular signalling pathways all the way to the molecular level. However technical limitations of the means to activate such compounds have put constraints on their use in spatially highly restricted subcellular areas. The Mosaic digital illumination system uses a high-speed array of individually addressable, tiltable micromirrors to direct continuous-wave laser light onto a specimen with diffraction-limited precision. The system, integrated into a Nikon A1R confocal microscope, was used to uncage Ca2+ or IP3 and conduct photobleaching experiments from multiple geometrically complex subcellular regions while simultaneously measuring [Ca2+]i with high-speed confocal imaging. PMID:22183727

  4. Lunar orbital photography of astronomical phenomena.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.; Dunkelman, L.; Ross, C. L.; Worden, A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reports further progress on photography of faint astronomical and geophysical phenomena accomplished during the recent Apollo missions. Command module pilots have been able to photograph such astronomical objects as the solar corona, zodiacal light-corona transition region, lunar libration region, and portions of the Milky Way. The methods utilized for calibration of the film by adaptation of the High Altitude Observatory sensitometer are discussed. Kodak 2485 high-speed recording film was used in both 35-mm and 70-mm formats. The cameras used were Nikon f/1.2 55-mm focal length and Hasselblad f/2.8 80-mm focal length. Preflight and postflight calibration exposures were included on both the flight and control films, corresponding to luminances extending from the inner solar corona to as faint as 1/10 of the luminance of the light of the night sky. The photographs obtained from unique vantage points available during lunar orbit are discussed.

  5. Concrete Slump Classification using GLCM Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andayani, Relly; Madenda, Syarifudin

    2016-05-01

    Digital image processing technologies have been widely applies in analyzing concrete structure because the accuracy and real time result. The aim of this study is to classify concrete slump by using image processing technique. For this purpose, concrete mix design of 30 MPa compression strength designed with slump of 0-10 mm, 10-30 mm, 30-60 mm, and 60-180 mm were analysed. Image acquired by Nikon Camera D-7000 using high resolution was set up. In the first step RGB converted to greyimage than cropped to 1024 x 1024 pixel. With open-source program, cropped images to be analysed to extract GLCM feature. The result shows for the higher slump contrast getting lower, but higher correlation, energy, and homogeneity.

  6. STS-53 Discovery, OV-103, DOD Hercules digital electronic imagery equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Department of Defense (DOD) mission Hand-held Earth-oriented Real-time Cooperative, User-friendly, Location, targeting, and Environmental System (Hercules) spaceborne experiment equipment is documented in this table top view. HERCULES is a joint NAVY-NASA-ARMY payload designed to provide real-time high resolution digital electronic imagery and geolocation (latitude and longitude determination) of earth surface targets of interest. HERCULES system consists of (from left to right): a specially modified GRID Systems portable computer mounted atop NASA developed Playback-Downlink Unit (PDU) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) developed HERCULES Attitude Processor (HAP); the NASA-developed Electronic Still Camera (ESC) Electronics Box (ESCEB) including removable imagery data storage disks and various connecting cables; the ESC (a NASA modified Nikon F-4 camera) mounted atop the NRL HERCULES Inertial Measurement Unit (HIMU) containing the three

  7. Characterization of digital cameras for reflected ultraviolet photography; implications for qualitative and quantitative image analysis during forensic examination.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jair E; Wilksch, Philip A; Spring, Gale; Philp, Peta; Dyer, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Reflected ultraviolet imaging techniques allow for the visualization of evidence normally outside the human visible spectrum. Specialized digital cameras possessing extended sensitivity can be used for recording reflected ultraviolet radiation. Currently, there is a lack of standardized methods for ultraviolet image recording and processing using digital cameras, potentially limiting the implementation and interpretation. A methodology is presented for processing ultraviolet images based on linear responses and the sensitivity of the respective color channels. The methodology is applied to a FujiS3 UVIR camera, and a modified Nikon D70s camera, to reconstruct their respective spectral sensitivity curves between 320 and 400 nm. This method results in images with low noise and high contrast, suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. The application of this methodology is demonstrated in the recording of latent fingerprints. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Decreased immunoreactivity of visfatin in the pancreas and liver of rats with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Ż; Janiuk, I; Lewandowska, A; Kasacka, I

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the major endocrine and metabolic disorders, in which visfatin plays a significant role. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunoreactivity of visfatin in pancreas and liver of “two kidney, one clip” (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the pancreas and liver of rats. After a 6-week period of the renal artery clipping procedure, 2K1C rats developed a stable hypertension. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (for general histological examination) and processed for immunolocalization of visfatin. The intensity of immunohistochemical reaction was measured using Nikon NIS-Elements Advanced Research software. The hypertension significantly weakened the immunohistochemical reaction exhibiting visfatin in the pancreas and liver of hypertensive rats, compared to control animals. The changes induced by hypertension in the visfatin-containing cells in the pancreas and liver of the rats are discussed and needs further study.

  9. Microbeam-integrated multiphoton imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Bigelow, Alan W.; Geard, Charles R.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has been added to the array of imaging techniques at the endstation for the Microbeam II cell irradiator at Columbia University’s Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). This three-dimensional (3D), laser-scanning microscope functions through multiphoton excitation, providing an enhanced imaging routine during radiation experiments with tissuelike samples, such as small living animals and organisms. Studies at RARAF focus on radiation effects; hence, this multiphoton microscope was designed to observe postirradiation cellular dynamics. This multiphoton microscope was custom designed into an existing Nikon Eclipse E600-FN research fluorescence microscope on the irradiation platform. Design details and biology applications using this enhanced 3D-imaging technique at RARAF are reviewed. PMID:19123569

  10. A novel method for spatially complex diffraction-limited photoactivation and photobleaching in living cells.

    PubMed

    Shkryl, Vyacheslav M; Maxwell, Joshua T; Blatter, Lothar A

    2012-03-01

    Photoactivated probes have gained interest as experimental tools to study intracellular signalling pathways all the way to the molecular level. However technical limitations of the means to activate such compounds have put constraints on their use in spatially highly restricted subcellular areas. The Mosaic digital illumination system uses a high-speed array of individually addressable, tiltable micromirrors to direct continuous-wave laser light onto a specimen with diffraction-limited precision. The system, integrated into a Nikon A1R confocal microscope, was used to uncage Ca²⁺ or IP3 and conduct photobleaching experiments from multiple geometrically complex subcellular regions while simultaneously measuring [Ca²⁺]i with high-speed confocal imaging.

  11. Nova Sagittarii 2012 No. 3 = PNV J17522579-2126215

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-07-01

    Nova Sagittarii 2012 No. 3 = PNV J17522579-212621 was discovered independently by: Koichi Itagaki (Yamagata, Japan, reported by Hitoshi Yamaoka, Kyushu University), Yukio Sakurai (Mito, Ibaraki-ken, Japan). Discovery Magnitude: Itagaki (magnitude 10.3 on an unfiltered CCD image taken with a 0.21-m reflector), Sakurai (magnitude 9.9 on four 20-s frames taken with a Fuji FinePix S2 Digital Camera + Nikon 180-mm f/2.8 lens). Discovery date: Itagaki (2012 June 26.5494 UT), Sakurai (2012 June 26.540 UT). Coordinates (2000.0) from Itagaki (R.A. 17 52 25.79 Dec. -21 26 21.5), from Sakurai (R.A. 17 52 25.59 Dec. -21 26 22.9). Spectra confirm the object as a He/N type nova. All details and image URLs are in IAU CBET 3156. Report observations to the AAVSO International Database.

  12. 03pd0517

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-02-19

    File name :DSC_0028.JPG File size :2.8MB(2950833Bytes) Date taken :2002/02/19 09:49:01 Image size :3008 x 2000 Resolution :300 x 300 dpi Number of bits :8bit/channel Protection attribute :Off Hide Attribute :Off Camera ID :N/A Camera :NIKON D100 Quality mode :N/A Metering mode :Matrix Exposure mode :Shutter priority Speed light :Yes Focal length :24 mm Shutter speed :1/60second Aperture :F3.5 Exposure compensation :0 EV White Balance :N/A Lens :N/A Flash sync mode :N/A Exposure difference :N/A Flexible program :N/A Sensitivity :N/A Sharpening :N/A Image Type :Color Color Mode :N/A Hue adjustment :N/A Saturation Control :N/A Tone compensation :N/A Latitude(GPS) :N/A Longitude(GPS) :N/A Altitude(GPS) :N/A

  13. 03pd0676

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-07

    File name :DSC_0749.JPG File size :1.1MB(1174690Bytes) Date taken :2003/03/07 13:51:29 Image size :2000 x 1312 Resolution :300 x 300 dpi Number of bits :8bit/channel Protection attribute :Off Hide Attribute :Off Camera ID :N/A Camera :NIKON D1H Quality mode :FINE Metering mode :Matrix Exposure mode :Shutter priority Speed light :No Focal length :20 mm Shutter speed :1/500second Aperture :F11.0 Exposure compensation :0 EV White Balance :Auto Lens :20 mm F 2.8 Flash sync mode :N/A Exposure difference :0.0 EV Flexible program :No Sensitivity :ISO200 Sharpening :Normal Image Type :Color Color Mode :Mode II(Adobe RGB) Hue adjustment :3 Saturation Control :N/A Tone compensation :Normal Latitude(GPS) :N/A Longitude(GPS) :N/A Altitude(GPS) :N/A

  14. Astronaut Owen Garriott lies in Lower Body Negative Pressure Device

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    SL3-108-1278 (July-September 1973) --- Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot of the Skylab 3 mission, lies in the Lower Body Negative Pressure Device in the work and experiments area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. This picture was taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera. Astronauts Garriott, Alan L. Bean and Jack R. Lousma remained with the Skylab space station in orbit for 59 days conducting numerous medical, scientific and technological experiments. The LBNPD (MO92) Experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight, and to provide in-flight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon return to Earth environment. The bicycle ergometer is in the right foreground. Photo credit: NASA

  15. A 3D imaging and visualization workflow, using confocal microscopy and advanced image processing for brachyuran crab larvae.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S A; Kihara, T C; Ball, A D; Morritt, D; Clark, P F

    2017-06-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy is an excellent tool for nondestructive imaging of arthropods and can provide detailed information on morphology including fine surface detail. A methodology is presented here for the visualization by confocal microscopy of arthropods, using brachyuran crab zoeal stages as examples and postprocessing techniques derived from micro-CT protocols to improve the final images. This protocol is divided into description of the preprocessing steps (cleaning, staining, digesting and mounting), confocal laser scanning microscopy and data visualization using open-source, freeware programs ImageJ and Drishti. The advantages of using ImageJ to standardize stack data and Drishti for surface rendering are discussed. The methodology has been comprehensively tested using data acquired from all four brands of confocal microscope (Leica, Nikon, Olympus and Zeiss). © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. View of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An excellent view of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light, in the Southern Hemisphere, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The space station was moving into the sunlight when this picture was taken. This view is near the edge of the aurora cap. The surface of the Earth is in the foreground. The permanent aurora over the South Pole is in the background. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, took this photograph with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera, with a four-second exposure at f/1.2, using high speed Ektachrome film. Because auroras are caused by solar activity, they occur at the same time in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  17. SL3-111-01519

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    SL3-111-1519 (6 Aug. 1973) --- Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, reconstitutes a pre-packaged container of food at the crew quarters ward room table of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab Space Station cluster. This picture was taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera. Astronauts Garriott, Alan L. Bean and Jack R. Lousma remained with the Skylab Space Station in Earth orbit for a total of 59 days conducting numerous medical, scientific and technological experiments. Note the knife and fork on the food tray and the utensil with which Garriott stirs the food mixed with water. Skylab is the first manned space program by NASA which affords the crew men an opportunity to eat with the same type utensils used on Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  18. SL3-108-01295

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-07-01

    SL3-108-1295 (July-September 1973) --- A close-up view of astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. This picture was taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera. Astronauts Lousma, Alan L. Bean and Owen K. Garriott remained with the Skylab space station in orbit for 59 days conducting numerous medical, scientific and technological experiments. In deploying the shower facility the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Natural Images from the Birthplace of the Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Tkačik, Gašper; Garrigan, Patrick; Ratliff, Charles; Milčinski, Grega; Klein, Jennifer M.; Seyfarth, Lucia H.; Sterling, Peter; Brainard, David H.; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Here we introduce a database of calibrated natural images publicly available through an easy-to-use web interface. Using a Nikon D70 digital SLR camera, we acquired about six-megapixel images of Okavango Delta of Botswana, a tropical savanna habitat similar to where the human eye is thought to have evolved. Some sequences of images were captured unsystematically while following a baboon troop, while others were designed to vary a single parameter such as aperture, object distance, time of day or position on the horizon. Images are available in the raw RGB format and in grayscale. Images are also available in units relevant to the physiology of human cone photoreceptors, where pixel values represent the expected number of photoisomerizations per second for cones sensitive to long (L), medium (M) and short (S) wavelengths. This database is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial Unported license to facilitate research in computer vision, psychophysics of perception, and visual neuroscience. PMID:21698187

  20. KSC-06pd1443

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As the ground fills with smoke and steam, Space Shuttle Discovery creates its own fireworks display, fitting for the first ever launch to be made on Independence Day. It was the third launch attempt in four days; the others were scrubbed due to weather concerns. Liftoff on mission STS-121 was on-time at 2:38 p.m. EDT. During the 12-day mission, the STS-121 crew of seven will test new equipment and procedures to improve shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies and make repairs to the International Space Station. Landing is scheduled for July 16 or 17 at Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  1. KSC-06pd1444

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As smoke and steam billows across the ground, Space Shuttle Discovery leaps free and rockets into the clear blue sky, creating its own fireworks display. History was made with the first ever launch on Independence Day. It was the third launch attempt in four days; the others were scrubbed due to weather concerns. Liftoff was on-time at 2:38 p.m. EDT. During the 12-day mission, the STS-121 crew of seven will test new equipment and procedures to improve shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies and make repairs to the International Space Station. Landing is scheduled for July 16 or 17 at Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  2. Earth-based photography of Comet Kohoutek in sky on December 6, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An earth-based photograph of the Comet Kohoutek in the sky on December 6, 1973, when the celestial phenomenon was more than 70 million miles from the Sun and some 119 million miles from Earth. This picture was taken from a dark mountain top area of Haleakala (Island of Maui) Hawaii, using a 35mm Nikon camera with a 55mm lens, a 300-second exposure at f/1.2 and with Tri-X film. The photographer was Frank Giovane. The indicated visible tail of the comet appears to be about 10 million miles long. Other reports have inferred that the length of the tail is up to 13 million miles. The Skylab 4 crewmen have reported that Kohoutek's tail-length was from 2 to 3 degrees or from 4 to 6 million miles as viewed with the naked eye from the Skylab space station in earth orbit.

  3. KSC-06pd2696

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-116 crew members show their eagerness for launch as they exit the Operations and Checkout Building. From the back are Mission Specialists Robert Curbeam, Sunita Williams, Christer Fuglesang and Nicholas Patrick; Pilot William Oefelein; Mission Specialist Joan Higginbotham; and Commander Mark Polansky. Fuglesang represents the European Space Agency. Williams will replace Expedition 14 crew member Thomas Reiter, who will return to Earth aboard Discovery in her place. This is Discovery's 33rd mission and the first night launch since 2002. The 20th shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-116 carries another truss segment, P5. It will serve as a spacer, mated to the P4 truss that was attached in September. After installing the P5, the crew will reconfigure and redistribute the power generated by two pairs of U.S. solar arrays. Landing is expected Dec. 19 at KSC. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  4. Characterization of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaqueline M; Crispim, Verginia Reis; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; Furtado, Vanessa Rodrigues; Duarte, Rafael Da Silva

    2013-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium shares many characteristics with Corynebacterium and Actinomyces genera, among which the genomic guanine plus cytosine content and the production of long branched-chain fatty acids, known as mycolic acids are enhanced. Growth rate and optimal temperature of mycobacteria are variable. The genus comprises more than 140 known species; however Mycobacterium fortuitum, a fast growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is clinically significant, because it has been associated to several lesions following surgery procedures such as liposuction, silicone breast and pacemaker implants, exposure to prosthetic materials besides sporadic lesions in the skin, soft tissues and rarely lungs. The objective of the present study is to reduce the time necessary for M. fortuitum characterization based on its morphology and the use of the neutron radiography technique substituting the classical biochemical assays. We also aim to confirm the utility of dendrimers as boron carriers. The samples were sterilized through conventional protocols using 10% formaldehyde. In the incubation process, two solutions with different molar ratios (10:1 and 20:1) of sodium borate and PAMAM G4 dendrimer and also pure sodium borate were used. After doping and sterilization procedures, the samples were deposited on CR-39 sheets, irradiated with a 4.6×10(5) n/cm(2)s thermal neutron flux for 30 min, from the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta IEN/CNEN reactor. The images registered in the CR-39 were visualized in a Nikon E400 optical transmission microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix 995 digital camera. Developing the nuclear tracks registered in the CR-39 allowed a 1000× enlargement of mycobacterium images, facilitating their characterization, the use of more sophisticated equipment not being necessary. The use of neutron radiography technique reduced the time necessary for characterization. Doping with PAMAM dendrimer improved the visualization of NTM in neutron radiography

  5. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  6. Multispectral hypercolorimetry and automatic guided pigment identification: some masterpieces case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Marcello; Miccoli, Matteo; Quarta, Donato

    2013-05-01

    A couple of years ago we proposed, in this same session, an extension to the standard colorimetry (CIE '31) that we called Hypercolorimetry. It was based on an even sampling of the 300-1000nm wavelength range, with the definition of 7 hypercolor matching functions optimally shaped to minimize the methamerism. Since then we consolidated the approach through a large number of multispectral analysis and specialized the system to the non invasive diagnosis for paintings and frescos. In this paper we describe the whole process, from the multispectral image acquisition to the final 7 bands computation and we show the results on paintings from Masters of the colour. We describe and propose in this paper a systematic approach to the non invasive diagnosis that is able to change a subjective analysis into a repeatable measure indipendent from the specific lighting conditions and from the specific acquisition system. Along with the Hypercolorimetry and its consolidation in the field of non invasive diagnosis, we developed also a standard spectral reflectance database of pure pigments and pigments painted with different bindings. As we will see, this database could be compared to the reflectances of the painting to help the diagnostician in identifing the proper matter. We used a Nikon D800FR (Full Range) camera. This is a 36megapixel reflex camera modified under a Nikon/Profilocolore common project, to achieve a 300-1000nm range sensitivity. The large amount of data allowed us to perform very accurate pixels comparisions, based on their spectral reflectance. All the original pigments and their binding have been provided by the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Firenze, Italy, while the analyzed masterpieces belong to the collection of the Pinacoteca Nazionale of Bologna, Italy.

  7. A high-resolution multimode digital microscope system.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Edward D; Shaw, Sidney L; Waters, Jennifer C; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Maddox, Paul S; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of a high-resolution, multimode digital imaging system based on a wide-field epifluorescent and transmitted light microscope, and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The three main parts of this imaging system are Nikon FXA microscope, Hamamatsu C4880 cooled CCD camera, and MetaMorph digital imaging system. This chapter presents various design criteria for the instrument and describes the major features of the microscope components-the cooled CCD camera and the MetaMorph digital imaging system. The Nikon FXA upright microscope can produce high resolution images for both epifluorescent and transmitted light illumination without switching the objective or moving the specimen. The functional aspects of the microscope set-up can be considered in terms of the imaging optics, the epi-illumination optics, the transillumination optics, the focus control, and the vibration isolation table. This instrument is somewhat specialized for microtubule and mitosis studies, and it is also applicable to a variety of problems in cellular imaging, including tracking proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in live cells. The instrument is also valuable for correlating the assembly dynamics of individual cytoplasmic microtubules (labeled by conjugating X-rhodamine to tubulin) with the dynamics of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (labeled with DiOC6) and the dynamics of the cell cortex (by differential interference contrast) in migrating vertebrate epithelial cells. This imaging system also plays an important role in the analysis of mitotic mutants in the powerful yeast genetic system Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  8. COMPARATIVE MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS PRODUCED IN FEMURS OF RABBITS REPAIRED WITH BIOPOLYMER GEL CANE SUGAR

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro; dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine; Filho, Nicodemus Pontes; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira; Costa, Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos; de Albuquerque Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro; de Souza Almeida, Tarciana Mendonça; da Silva Santos, Alessandro Henrique; da Silva, Joacil Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits and filled with sugar cane biopolymer gel (SCBG), after 90, 120 and 180 days, and in comparison with a control group. Method: Sixteen adult New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 to 7 months, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg and without locomotor system abnormalities were studied. In all the animals, a defect was made in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees, measuring 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, using a trephine. The animals were divided into two groups: study group formed by the right knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles received implants of SCBG; and control group formed by the left knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles were allowed to heal naturally. The knees were assessed 90, 120 and 180 days after the operation. After the animals had been sacrificed, the anatomical specimens were resected and placed in Bouin's solution. They were then photographed with a Nikon Coolpix 5400® coupled to a Nikon SM2800® stereoscopic loupe, to analyze the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing. Results: The results were evaluated using the chi-square test. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic assessments of healing between the study and control groups. Conclusion: With regard to the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of the defects, the macroscopic appearance of the tissue repaired with SCBG was similar to that of the control group. PMID:27027057

  9. COMPARATIVE MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS PRODUCED IN FEMURS OF RABBITS REPAIRED WITH BIOPOLYMER GEL CANE SUGAR.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro; Dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine; Filho, Nicodemus Pontes; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira; Costa, Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos; de Albuquerque Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro; de Souza Almeida, Tarciana Mendonça; da Silva Santos, Alessandro Henrique; da Silva, Joacil Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To study the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits and filled with sugar cane biopolymer gel (SCBG), after 90, 120 and 180 days, and in comparison with a control group. Sixteen adult New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 to 7 months, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg and without locomotor system abnormalities were studied. In all the animals, a defect was made in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees, measuring 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, using a trephine. The animals were divided into two groups: study group formed by the right knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles received implants of SCBG; and control group formed by the left knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles were allowed to heal naturally. The knees were assessed 90, 120 and 180 days after the operation. After the animals had been sacrificed, the anatomical specimens were resected and placed in Bouin's solution. They were then photographed with a Nikon Coolpix 5400(®) coupled to a Nikon SM2800(®) stereoscopic loupe, to analyze the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing. The results were evaluated using the chi-square test. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic assessments of healing between the study and control groups. With regard to the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of the defects, the macroscopic appearance of the tissue repaired with SCBG was similar to that of the control group.

  10. The lip: a histologic and analytical approach of relevance to esthetic plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Al-Hoqail, Rola Abdullah; Abdel Meguid, Eiman Mohamed

    2009-05-01

    This is a study done for the first time to understand the histologic features of the lip deeply, quantitatively, and analytically and identify the differences between the outer, intermediate, and inner parts of the lips. Previous researchers did not tackle the histologic features of the lip from this point of view. Half lip was obtained from different well-preserved cadavers where the upper lip, lower lip, and lip angle were evaluated by coronal histologic sections. A total of 43 slides were studied and photographed using light and digital microscopes (Nikon COOLSCOPE, Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), respectively. The cadavers (26 men and 17 women) were in the age group of 45 to 65 years old, and older than 65 years. Data were entered on a study pro forma and statistically analyzed. Normal histologic features of the upper lip, intermediate, and the inner lip sections were observed. Fibrous septations that sometimes had muscular components inserting into them could be identified. In between these septations, there were loose areas (chambers). The mean numbers of chambers identified in the upper and lower lips were higher in the red areas, and more septations and chambers were identified in the lower lip. New histologic observations were classified into types 1 to 7. Significant relations were identified between the total number of septations and chambers in relation to age group and sex. Higher means of septations and chambers were detected in the age group older than 65 years, and in women as a whole. In conclusion, the findings detected in this work could explain the congenital lip pits that are familial or syndromic and many post-lip augmentation complications.

  11. The use of digital imaging for colour matching and communication in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jarad, F D; Russell, M D; Moss, B W

    2005-07-09

    To develop a shade matching method based on digital imaging and to compare observers' ability using this method with the conventional one set against a spectrophotometric 'gold standard'. Two Vita Lumin shade guides were used in this study, nine shades being selected from the first Vita Lumin shade guide, A2, A3, A3.5, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2 and C3. A second shade guide was used to match the selected shades. A Nikon Coolpix 990 digital camera with Nikon SB21B ring flash was used to record the digital images of the shade tabs of the two shade guides and the images were processed using Adobe Photoshop software. A total of 27 samples (three replicates of each shade of the nine tabs selected) were matched with a digital shade guide prepared from the digital images of the second shade guide by 10 observers on a computer screen (computerised matching method). The 10 observers also matched the same shade tabs using the conventional matching method simulated in a phantom head. In addition, colour values were obtained from the digital images using Adobe Photoshop and quantified according to an internationally recognised scale as CIELAB colour values, L*,a*,b*. The relationship of the digitally derived CIELAB values to the CIELAB values obtained using a reflectance spectrophotometer was investigated. The cross tabulation statistical analysis showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) between the conventional method and the computer method with a 43% and 61.1% correct match respectively. There was also a statistically significant difference between observers in both methods (p<0.001 and p<0.04 for the conventional and computer methods respectively). A statistically significant high correlation of the CIELAB colour values were found between both colour measurement methods (p<0.001). The observers' shade matching performance was significantly better with the computer method compared with the conventional one. There was a large variation in the observers' matching

  12. Standardizing digital photography: it's not all in the eye of the beholder.

    PubMed

    Galdino, G M; Vogel, J E; Vander Kolk, C A

    2001-10-01

    Advances in digital photography have made it an efficient and economically appealing alternative to conventional photography. Nevertheless, as objective observers and clinical photographers, we must realize that all digital cameras are not created equal. Different digital cameras frequently used in plastic surgery practices (Olympus 600DL, Olympus 2500, Sony DSC-D700, Nikon Coolpix 950, and Nikon D1) were evaluated, using a subject photographed with each camera in the identical lighting conditions, to determine inherent differences in quality, color, and contrast of the resultant photographs. Three different lighting conditions were examined: single soft-box lighting, dual studio flash boxes, and operating room lighting with on-camera flash. The same digital settings (program mode, ISO camera default setting, high quality setting with JPEG compression) were used. Each camera was digitally color balanced using an 18 percent gray card. Raw and color-balanced images were viewed side-by-side. The macro-image capabilities of each camera were also examined. Conventional 35-mm photographs using a 105 macro-lens on Kodachrome and Ektachrome slide film were obtained for comparison. All of the digital cameras performed with noticeable differences, but they maintained consistency in the three different lighting conditions. Digital photographs differed most greatly with respect to quality and contrast, which was especially obvious once color balancing was performed. Marked differences in quality and ability were observed with respect to macro-image capabilities. Inherent differences in features among digital cameras produce dramatically different photographic results with regard to color, contrast, focus, and overall quality. With the increasing use of digital photography in plastic surgery journals and presentations, it must be recognized that digital cameras do not all display photographs of similar quality, especially when used to evaluate skin appearance. To standardize

  13. [Analysis of tongue color under natural daylight based on chromatic aberration correction].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-tuo; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Yan, Zhu-juan; Tu, Li-ping; Lu, Lu-ming; Shi, Mei-yu; Zhu, Feng-lan

    2009-05-01

    To establish an analytical method for tongue image acquisition under natural daylight based on L*a*b* error correction, and to observe the classification rules of tongue color using color error correction. The tongue images in 413 cases were collected under natural indoor daylight by using Nikon D70 digital SLR camera, and then the color error was adjusted by using Nikon Capture NX software correction according to Kodak Q-13 grey card. The classification and quantitative analysis of the tongue color after software correction was carried out depending on L*a*b* color space. The software correction method had good effects in adjusting the tongue color image error. The L* values of light red, deep red and cyanosis tongues decreased as compared with that of light white tongue (P<0.01), while the a* values of light red, deep red and cyanosis tongues increased as compared with light white tongue (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in L* value between deep red tongue and cyanosis tongue, and there was also no significant difference in a* value between light red tongue and cyanosis tongue. The b* values of light red and deep red tongues increased as compared with that of light white tongue (P<0.01), while the b* value of cyanosis tongue decreased as compared with light red and deep red tongues (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in b* value between light white tongue and cyanosis tongue, and there was also no significant difference in b* value between light red tongue and deep red tongue. The a* value of white fur was higher than that of yellow fur (P<0.01), while the b* value of white fur was lower than that of yellow fur (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in L* value between white fur and yellow fur. The analytical method for tongue image acquisition under natural daylight based on L*a*b* error correction is accurate in color restoration and feasible to operate.

  14. Design of a bioresorbable polymeric scaffold for osteoblast culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditaranto, Vincent M., Jr.

    Bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds were designed for the purpose of growing rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS 17/2.8) using the compression molding method. The material used in the construction of the scaffolds was a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), Hydroxyapatite (HA), Glycerin (GL) and salt (NaCl) for porosity. The concentration of the several materials utilized, was determined by volume. Past research at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) has successfully utilized the compression molding method for the construction of scaffolds, but was unable to accomplish the goal of long term cell survival and complete cellular proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. This research investigated various concentrations of the materials and molding temperatures used for the manufacture of scaffolds in order to improve the scaffold design and address those issues. The design of the scaffold using the compression molding process is detailed in the Method and Materials section of this thesis. The porogen (salt) used for porosity was suspected as a possible source of contamination causing cell apoptosis in past studies. This research addressed the issues for cell survival and proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. The leaching of the salt was one major design modification. This research successfully used ultrasonic leaching in addition to the passive method. Prior to cell culture, the scaffolds were irradiated to 2.75 Mrad, with cobalt-60 gamma radionuclide. The tissue culture consisted of two trials: (1) cell culture in scaffolds cleaned with passive leaching; (2) cell culture with scaffolds cleaned with ultrasonic leaching. Cell survival and proliferation was accomplished only with the addition of ultrasonic leaching of the scaffolds. Analysis of the scaffolds included Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Nikon light microscopy and x-ray mapping of the calcium, sodium and chloride ion distribution. The cells were analyzed by Environmental Scanning

  15. Multi-temporal Reconstruction of a 35km reach of the Dart River Valley, New Zealand with the Structure-from-Motion pipeline (SfM).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Joe; Brasington, James; Cook, Simon; Cox, Simon; Lotsari, Eliisa; McColl, Sam; Lehane, Niall; Williams, Richard; Vericat, Damia

    2016-04-01

    Two discrete surveys, May 2014 and May 2015, were undertaken to capture the topography of a 35km reach of the Dart River, immediately downstream of a significant landslide that initially dammed the river in January 2014. Repeat surveys provide the opportunity to broadly quantify morphological response in terms of elevation change through Dem-of-Differencing. Such an approach requires the generation of consistent surfaces devoid of systematic bias across each epoch that are accurately geo-referenced and of a research specific, minimum accuracy. For this study, the highly automated cost effective method of SfM has been used to generate catchment models at a x, y resolution of 0.5m. This was achieved through the helicopter mounted capture of ~2,000 nadir only images, using a Nikon D90 (2014) and ~10,000 convergent images using two Nikon D750'S (2015) at a height of 350m above ground at a flight speed of 85 knots. Both surveys were geo-referenced by 100 Ground Control Points (GCP) measured with Real-Time-Kinetic (RTK) GPS, with additional control in the form of a series of TLS scans across the length of the catchment. Initial results from 2014 show prevalent systematic errors from both inadequate camera network geometry and ground control. The following survey from 2015 makes use of a convergent network with increased ground control to theoretically provide catchment topography with minimal bias. In the absence of a convergent network, results from 2014 may be improved via additional ground control to extend the 3-dimensional radius of control, beyond which, results are often inferred. In this instance the 2015 data set has been used to provide additional reference through the identification of concurrent features which are unlikely to have moved between surveys, such as town buildings. The final reconstructions from both 2014 and 2015 are sufficiently accurate to provide us with the opportunity to perform detailed analysis to answer a range of geomorphological

  16. Role of morphometry in the cytological differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Pallavi; Choudhury, Monisha; Jain, Manjula; Thomas, Shaji

    2017-01-01

    Context: Thyroid nodules represent a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 4–7%. Although fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been accepted as a first line diagnostic test, the rate of false negative reports of malignancy is still high. Nuclear morphometry is the measurement of nuclear parameters by image analysis. Image analysis can merge the advantages of morphologic interpretation with those of quantitative data. Aims: To evaluate the nuclear morphometric parameters in fine needle aspirates of thyroid lesions and to study its role in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Material and Methods: The study included 19 benign and 16 malignant thyroid lesions. Image analysis was performed on Giemsa-stained FNAC slides by Nikon NIS-Elements Advanced Research software (Version 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included nuclear size, shape, texture, and density parameters. Statistical Analysis: Normally distributed continuous variables were compared using the unpaired t-test for two groups and analysis of variance was used for three or more groups. Tukey or Tamhane's T2 multiple comparison test was used to assess the differences between the individual groups. Categorical variables were analyzed using the chi square test. Results and Conclusion: Five out of the six nuclear size parameters as well as all the texture and density parameters studied were significant in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid lesions (P < 0.05). Cut-off values were derived to differentiate between benign and malignant cases. PMID:28182069

  17. Logic gate scanner focus control in high-volume manufacturing using scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Richard J.; Swain, Bryan; Laughery, Michael

    2004-05-01

    Tool matching and optimal process control are critical requirements for success in semiconductor manufacturing. It is imperative that a tool"s operating conditions are understood and controlled in order to create a process that is repeatable and produces devices within specifications. Likewise, it is important where possible to match multiple systems using some methodology, so that regardless of which tool is used the process remains in control. Agere Systems is currently using Timbre Technologies" Optical Digital Profilometry (ODP) scatterometry for controlling Nikon scanner focus at the most critical lithography layer; logic gate. By adjusting focus settings and verifying the resultant changes in resist profile shape using ODP, it becomes possible to actively control scanner focus to achieve a desired resist profile. Since many critical lithography processes are designed to produce slightly re-entrant resist profiles, this type of focus control is not possible via Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscopy (CDSEM) where reentrant profiles cannot be accurately determined. Additionally, the high throughput and non-destructive nature of this measurement technique saves both cycle time and wafer costs compared to cross-section SEM. By implementing an ODP daily process check and after any maintenance on a scanner, Agere successfully enabled focus drift control, i.e. making necessary focus or equipment changes in order to maintain a desired resist profile.

  18. COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, September 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William; Reginald, Nelson; Streander, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The COR1 Engineering Test Unit (ETU), which had been previously tested at the NCAR/HAO and NRL test facilities, was modified into an instrument capable of observing the Sun. It was then taken to the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory to observe the corona. The changes made to observe the Sun were as follows: 1. The plate scale was changed to accommodate the smaller Apogee camera. This change had already been made for the NRL tests. 2. The previous Oriel polarizer was replaced with a commercial Polarcor polarizer from Newport to be more flight-like. However, because of cost and availability considerations, this polarizer was smaller than those which will be used for flight. 3. A structure was placed around the back section of the instrument, to protect it from stray light. 4. A pointing spar borrowed from HAO was used to track the Sun. A few days into the test, it became evident that some artifacts were appearing in the data, and these artifacts were changing as the polarizer was rotated. It was decided to test two other polarizers, the Oriel polarizer which had been used in the previous tests at HAO and NRL, and a Nikon polarizer which was borrowed from a camera belonging to one of the observatory staff members. These three polarizers had much different qualities are shown.

  19. Web conferencing systems: Skype and MSN in telepathology

    PubMed Central

    Klock, Clóvis; Gomes, Regina de Paula Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Virtual pathology is a very important tool that can be used in several ways, including interconsultations with specialists in many areas and for frozen sections. We considered in this work the use of Windows Live Messenger and Skype for image transmission. The conference was made through wide broad internet using Nikon E 200 microscope and Digital Samsung Colour SCC-131 camera. Internet speed for transmission varied from 400 Kb to 2.0 Mb. Both programs allow voice transmission concomitant to image, so the communication between the involved pathologists was possible using microphones and speakers. Alive image could be seen by the receptor pathologist who was able to ask for moving the field or increase/diminish the augmentation. No phone call or typing required. The programs MSN and Skype can be used in many ways and with different operational systems installed in the computer. The capture system is simple and relatively cheap, what proves the viability of the system to be used in developing countries and in cities where do not exist pathologists. With the improvement of software and the improvement of digital image quality, associated to the use of the high speed broad band Internet this will be able to become a new modality in surgical pathology. PMID:18673501

  20. Investigation of absorption spectra of Gafchromic EBT2 film's components and their impact on UVR dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydarous, Abdulkadir

    2016-05-01

    The absorption spectra of the EBT2 film's components were investigated in conjunction with its use for UVA dosimetry. The polyester (topside) and adhesive layers of the EBT2 film have been gently removed. Gafchromic™ EBT2 films with and without the protected layers (polyester and adhesive) were exposed to UVR of 365 nm for different durations. Thereafter, the UV-visible spectra were measured using a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Model Spectro Dual Split Beam, UVS-2700). Films were digitized using a Nikon CanoScan 9000F Mark II flatbed scanner. The dosimetric characteristics including film's uniformity, reproducibility and post-irradiation development were investigated. The color development of EBT2 and new modified EBT2 (EBT2-M) films irradiated with UVA was relatively stable (less than 1%) immediately after exposure. Based on this study, the sensitivity of EBT2 to UVR with wavelength between ~350 nm and ~390 nm can significantly be enhanced if the adhesive layer (~25 μm) is removed. The polyester layer plays almost no part on absorbing UVR with wavelength between ~320 nm and ~390 nm. Furthermore, various sensitivities for the EBT2-M film has been established depending on the wavelength of analysis.

  1. Effect of sintering temperatures and screen printing types on TiO2 layers in DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanto, Agus; Furqoni, Lutfi; Nurosyid, Fahru; Hidayat, Jojo; Suryana, Risa

    2016-03-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a candidate solar cell, which has a big potential in the future due to its eco-friendly material. This research is conducted to study the effect of sintering temperature and the type of screen-printing toward the characteristics of TiO2 layer as a working electrode in DSSC. TiO2 layers were fabricated using a screen-printing method with a mesh size of T-49, T-55, and T-61. TiO2 layers were sintered at temperatures of 600°C and 650°C for 60 min. DSSC structure was composed of TiO2 as semiconductors, ruthenium complex as dyes, and carbon as counter electrodes. The morphology of TiO2 layer was observed by using Nikon E2 Digital Camera Microscopy. The efficiencies of DSSC were calculated from the I-V curves. The highest efficiency is 0.015% at TiO2 layer fabricated with screen type T-61 and at a sintering temperature of 650°C.

  2. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrence, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect vacuum vessel internal structures in both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diameter fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5/sup 0/, 20/sup 0/, and 60/sup 0/ field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35 mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16 mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented.

  3. Postdevelopment defect evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Osamu; Kiba, Yukio; Ono, Yuko

    2001-08-01

    Reduction of defects after development is a critical issue in photolithography. A special category of post development defects is the satellite defect which is located in large exposed areas generally in proximity to large unexposed regions of photoresist. We have investigated the formation of this defect type on ESCAP and ACETAL DUV resists with and without underlying organic BARCs, In this paper, we will present AFM and elemental analysis data to determine the origin of the satellite defect. Imaging was done on a full-field Nikon 248nm stepper and resist processing was completed on a TEL CLEAN TRACK ACT 8 track. Defect inspection and review were performed on a KLA-Tencor and Hitachi SEM respectively. Results indicate that the satellite defect is generated on both BARC and resist films and defect counts are dependent on the dark erosion. Elemental analysis indicates that the defects are composed of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. We suspect that the defect is formed as a result of a reaction between PAG, quencher and TMAH. This defect type is removed after a DIW re-rinse.

  4. High-speed Telescopic Imaging of a Sprite Streamer Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanmae, T.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sprites start with downward moving streamer heads and the similarity between sprite streamers and streamers observed in the laboratory has been noted by many researchers. We present here high-speed optical observations of a downward propagating sprite streamer head showing remarkable similarity with a laboratory streamer head recorded by Nudnova and Starikovski (J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41, doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/23/234003, 2008). The sprite event was recorded at 07:06:09 UT on 15 July 2010 from the Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico. The camera used was an intensified Phantom 7.3 high-speed camera with a 500 mm Takahashi Sky 9 lens giving a field-of-view of 1.3x0.6 degrees. Another similar high-speed camera with an 85 mm Nikon lens, co-aligned with the telescopic camera, had a 7.3x3.7 degree field-of-view. The two cameras were operated at 16,000 fps with 20 μs exposures and 10,000 fps with 100 μs exposures respectively. The two sets of observations offer an opportunity to investigate the scaling laws between high altitude sprite streamers and those observed under ground-based laboratory conditions.

  5. Simultaneous optimization of dose and focus controls in advanced ArF immersion scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, Tsuyoshi; Izikson, Pavel; Kosugi, Junichi; Sakasai, Naruo; Saotome, Keiko; Suzuki, Kazuaki; Kandel, Daniel; Robinson, John C.; Koyanagi, Yuji

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a new scheme of process control combining a CD metrology system and an exposure tool. A new model based on Neural Networks has been created in KLA-Tencor's "KT Analyzer" which calculates the dose and focus errors simultaneously from CD parameters, such as mid CD and height information, measured by a scatterometry (OCD) measurement tool. The accuracy of this new model was confirmed by experiment. Nikon's "CDU master" then calculated the control parameters for dose and focus per each field from the dose and focus error data of a reference wafer provided by KT Analyzer. Using the corrected parameters for dose and focus from CDU master, we exposed wafers on an NSR-S610C (ArF immersion scanner), and measured the CDU on a KLA SCD100 (OCD tool). As a result, we confirmed that CDU in the entire wafer can be improved more than 60% (from 3.36nm (3σ) to 1.28nm (3σ)).

  6. The HSP expression of passive repetitive plyometric trained skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Huang, Mao-Shung; Chen, Chuan-Show; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang; Wang, Chiou-Huey; Chen, Tzuping; Su, Borcherng

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of ten-week passive repetitive plyometric (PRP) training on human skeletal muscle and the application of PRP training for performance. Vastus lateralis of nine candidates were aspirated before (pre) and after (post) PRP training. Histochemical approaches with regular hematoxylene-eosin (HE) and Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH) stains were used to demonstrate the changes of muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical studies with heat shock protein (anti-hsp72, Stressgen, Canada) were employed to display cellular activities. Each set of slides was quantitatively analyzed by using a modified morphometric method (Russ and Dehoff, 1999) on a Nikon ECLIPSE 80i microscope, equipped with an Evolution VF COOLED color video camera, and the Image-Pro Plus software (5.0 for Win; Media Cybernetics, USA). Finally, hsp72 mRNAs of both pre-PRP and post-PRP specimens were amplified through RT-PCR. Signal intensities were read by a densitometer and analyzed through the SPSS (11.0 for Win) statistically. Post-PRP muscle cells demonstrated hypertrophic change with increased cellular content and a narrowed inter-cellular space according to both HE and PTAH profiles. Post-PRP cellular hsp72 proteins were higher by up to five percent, as measured by a gray-scale reading. Further, after a training period of 10 weeks, hsp72 mRNA expression was several times higher.

  7. Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, culture in closed hatchery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, Hidayah; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Kasan, Nor Azman; Suratman, Suhaimi; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2017-09-01

    Study on the microscopic composition of biofloc in closed hatchery culture system was carried out to determine the interaction between the aggregation flocs in the bioremediation process for the decomposition and degradation of organic matter loaded in the shrimp culture tanks. The study was done for 105 days of culture period in zero water exchange. All of the organic loaded in the culture tanks identified comes from the shrimp feces, uneaten fed, and the decomposed macro- and microorganisms died in the culture tanks. All of the microscopic organisms in the biofloc were identified using Advance microscopes Nikon 80i. From the present study, there were abundances and high varieties of phytoplankton, zooplankton, protozoa, nematodes and algae species identified as aggregates together in the flocs accumulation. All of these microscopic organisms identified implemented the symbiotic process together for food supply, become the algae grazer, act as natural water stabilizer in regulating the nutrients in culture tank and serve as decomposer for dead organic matter in the water environment. Heterotrophic bacteria identified from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas family consumed the organic matter loaded at the bottom of culture tank and converted items through chemical process as useful protein food to be consumed back by the shrimp. Overall it can be concluded that the biofloc organisms identified really contributed as natural bioremediation agents in zero water exchange culture system to ensure the water quality in the optimal condition until the end of culture period.

  8. Investigation of the application of phase contrast imaging using a point X-ray source to industrial non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuaki; Haig, Ian

    2014-03-06

    X-Tek Systems, a division of Nikon Metrology UK, designs, develops and manufactures microfocus X-ray radiography and computed tomography systems for industrial non-destructive testing. The range of X-ray acceleration voltages of its current standard products is 130-450 kV. It is widely known that X-ray images can be created using phase contrast formed by the natural propagation of X-rays. Simulation of the natural propagation of X-rays through a cylindrical test sample predicted a small contrast peak at the boundary between the cylinder material and air. Comparison data were obtained using an X-ray source with acceleration voltage above 100 kV. The simulation results correlated well with the experimental data. A further practical example (a 'magic mirror' amulet from an old Japanese shrine) is introduced and discussed. In this specimen, we detected intensity variation including the effect of phase contrast in the operating region above 100 kV. In summary, natural propagation phase contrast was observed in radiographic images from a standard point X-ray source with acceleration voltages exceeding 100 kV.

  9. Metrics and statistics of frequency of occurrence of metamerism in consumer cameras for natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Dilip K; Wenhe, Looi

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents metrics and statistics of frequency of occurrence of metamerism in three consumer cameras, viz., Canon 1D Mark III, Nikon D40, and Sony α7, using spectral and RGB images of natural scenes. Both sensor metamerism and observer metamerism of the cameras' sensors are studied. We use the concept of dissimilarity of two spectral power distributions in the spectral domain and the RGB domain for studying the occurrence sensor metamerism. Specifically, we use angular difference and digital equivalence approaches for this purpose. For studying the occurrence observer metamerism, we use the weighted Nimeroff's index for dissimilarity in the spectral domain with respect to the CIE color space along with the conventionally used CIE LAB color difference for dissimilarity in the CIE color space. The statistics of the frequency of occurrence of metamerism are generated on a dataset of 423 spectral images of indoor scenes in 5 illumination conditions and outdoor scenes in natural illumination conditions. Experiments show that about 18%-22% of the pixels in the images are metameric in the sense of angular difference. It is also observed that 1%-4% of the colors that would have appeared similar to human eyes are reproduced as distinct colors in the cameras. Dataset and details can be found at https://sites.google.com/site/dilipprasad/source-codes.

  10. Optical Extinction Measurements of Laser Side-Scatter During Tropical Storm Colin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, John; Kasparis, Takis; Michaelides, Silas

    2017-04-01

    A side-scatter imaging (SSI) technique using a 447 nm 500 W laser and a Nikon D80 camera was tested at Kennedy Space Center, Florida during the passing of a rain band associated with Tropical Storm Colin. The June 6, 2016, 22:00 UTC rain event was intense but short-lived owing to the strong west-to-east advection of the rain band. An effort to validate the optical extinction measurement was made by setting up a line of three tipping rain gauges along an 80 m east-west path and below the laser beam. Differences between tipping bucket measurements were correlated to the extinction coefficient profile along the laser's path, as determined by the SSI measurement. In order to compare the tipping bucket to the optical extinction data, an exponential drop size distribution (DSD) model was assumed. Since this was a daytime event, the laser beam was difficult to detect in the camera images, pointing out an important limitation of SSI measurements: the practical limit of DSD density that can be effectively detected and analyzed under daylight conditions using this laser and camera, corresponds to a fairly moderate rainfall rate on the order of 30 mm/h (night measurements achieve a much improved sensitivity). The SSI analysis model under test produced promising results, but in order to use the SSI method for routine meteorological studies, improvements to the math model may be required.

  11. Symmetry of external auditive meatus. A pilot study on human skulls.

    PubMed

    Mizgiryte, Simona; Vaitelis, Julius; Barkus, Arunas; Zaleckas, Linas; Pletkus, Rolandas; Auskalnis, Adomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the perpendicularity of the line connecting external auditive meatus to the midsagital plane and the palatal suture as a midsagittal symmetry reference line. Setting and Sample Population - 62 randomly chosen human skulls from osteological collection (Vilnius University). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The skulls were photographed (Nikon 40 D, Nikkor lens 50 mm) from basal, frontobasal and frontal views. Photos were analysed with Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe). The first line connected frontal points of external auditive meatus and the angle to the midsagittal plane was measured. The second line (the palatal suture) was compared to the median sagittal plane. Data was analysed with SPSS 17 (IBM). RESULTS. The mean value for the angles of the line between the external auditive meatus and the midsagittal plane in basal views was 90.12° (SD=1.48°) and in frontobasal 90.36° (SD=2.25°). No statistically significant differences were found between groups of age and sex. The inter-rater agreement for evaluation of the adequacy of palatal suture with the midsagital plane was high (Cohen's Kappa 0.702 (p<0.05)) as well as the coincidence of both lines in basal and frontobasal views (90.3% and 85.5% respectively). CONCLUSION. Considering the limits of this study the angle between external auditive meatus and midsagital skull plane has a characteristic fluctuating asymmetry. The congruence of palatal suture and midsagital plane is debatable.

  12. Cultural Heritage: An example of graphical documentation with automated photogrammetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    In the field of Cultural Heritage, the use of automated photogrammetric systems, based on Structure from Motion techniques (SfM), is widely used, in particular for the study and for the documentation of the ancient ruins. This work has been carried out during the PhD cycle that was produced the "Carta Archeologica del territorio intorno al monte Massico". The study suggests the archeological documentation of the mausoleum "Torre del Ballerino" placed in the south-west area of Falciano del Massico, along the Via Appia. The graphic documentation has been achieved by using photogrammetric system (Image Based Modeling) and by the classical survey with total station, Nikon Nivo C. The data acquisition was carried out through digital camera Canon EOS 5D Mark II with Canon EF 17-40 mm f/4L USM @ 20 mm with images snapped in RAW and corrected in Adobe Lightroom. During the data processing, the camera calibration and orientation was carried out by the software Agisoft Photoscans and the final result has allowed to achieve a scaled 3D model of the monument, imported in software MeshLab for the different view. Three orthophotos in jpg format were extracted by the model, and then were imported in AutoCAD obtaining façade's surveys.

  13. Dgnss/ins Van Project For Road Survey In The Cei Countries: The Problem of Digital Cameras Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deruda, G.; Falchi, E.; Sanna, G.; Vacca, G.

    In order to assess the influence of distortion of objective lens on digital photocameras and videocameras a series of experiments, using a digital photocamera by Nikon, a videocamera by Samsung and a webcam by Creative have been performed with the aim to test the possibility to enhance camera images by means of resampling tech- niques. For this purpose a network of fiducial points has been materialized on two walls of a building in the Faculty of Engineering of Cagliari. Points coordinate have been obtained by means of a topographic survey. Images and video sequences of the fronts have been taken at several distances and different focal lens, obtaining an esti- mate of the lens behaviour, on the basis of witch a regular grid of the displacement of points on the photo has been generated for each camera. The grid has been used in a resampling procedure to remove distortion influence by the images. The improvement of accuracy has been estimated between about 30 and 50%.

  14. Point Cloud Derived Fromvideo Frames: Accuracy Assessment in Relation to Terrestrial Laser Scanningand Digital Camera Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delis, P.; Zacharek, M.; Wierzbicki, D.; Grochala, A.

    2017-02-01

    The use of image sequences in the form of video frames recorded on data storage is very useful in especially when working with large and complex structures. Two cameras were used in this study: Sony NEX-5N (for the test object) and Sony NEX-VG10 E (for the historic building). In both cases, a Sony α f = 16 mm fixed focus wide-angle lens was used. Single frames with sufficient overlap were selected from the video sequence using an equation for automatic frame selection. In order to improve the quality of the generated point clouds, each video frame underwent histogram equalization and image sharpening. Point clouds were generated from the video frames using the SGM-like image matching algorithm. The accuracy assessment was based on two reference point clouds: the first from terrestrial laser scanning and the second generated based on images acquired using a high resolution camera, the NIKON D800. The performed research has shown, that highest accuracies are obtained for point clouds generated from video frames, for which a high pass filtration and histogram equalization had been performed. Studies have shown that to obtain a point cloud density comparable to TLS, an overlap between subsequent video frames must be 85 % or more. Based on the point cloud generated from video data, a parametric 3D model can be generated. This type of the 3D model can be used in HBIM construction.

  15. 193-nm immersion lithography for high volume manufacturing using novel immersion exposure tool and coater/developer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamizu, Shinya; Kyouda, Hideharu; Nakano, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Tomoharu

    2008-11-01

    The demand for more highly integrated semiconductor devices is driving efforts to reduce pattern dimensions in semiconductor lithography. It has been found that 193-nm immersion lithography can achieve smaller patterns without having to modify the infrastructure used for existing state-of-the-art 193-nm dry lithography. As a result, 193-nm immersion lithography is a promising technology for use in mass production processes. Recently, the scanning speed of the exposure stage has been increasing in order to achieve high throughput for mass production. Currently, the topcoat process is one of the promising candidates for this high speed scanning process. On the other hand, the non topcoat resist process is being tested from a C.O.O. (cost of ownership) point of view. However, there are some important points that become apparent, such as specific defect countermeasures and wafer bevel control. Nikon and TEL developed the novel immersion exposure tool and coater/developer system application technology in order to solve these immersion specific issues. In this paper, we examine the process performance using novel immersion exposure tool and coater/developer system.

  16. Intact corneal stroma visualization of GFP mouse revealed by multiphoton imaging.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wen; Teng, Shu-Wen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Kim, Ki Hean; Chen, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chen, Yang-Fan; So, Peter T C; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that multiphoton microscopy is a preferred technique to investigate intact cornea structure without slicing and staining. At the micron resolution, multiphoton imaging can provide both large morphological features and detailed structure of epithelium, corneal collagen fibril bundles and keratocytes. A large area multiphoton cross-section across an intact eye excised from a GFP mouse was obtained by a homebuilt multiphoton microscope. The broadband multiphoton fluorescence (435-700 nm) and second harmonic generation (SHG, 360-400 nm) signals were generated by the 760 nm output of a femtosecond titanium-sapphire laser. A water immersion objective (Fluor, 40X, NA 0.8; Nikon) was used to facilitate imaging the curve ocular surface. The multiphoton image over entire cornea provides morphological information of epithelial cells, keratocytes, and global collagen orientation. Specifically, our planar, large area multiphoton image reveals a concentric pattern of the stroma collagen, indicative of the laminar collagen organization throughout the stroma. In addition, the green fluorescence protein (GFP) labeling contributed to fluorescence contrast of cellular area and facilitated visualizing of inactive keratocytes. Our results show that multiphoton imaging of GFP labeled mouse cornea manifests both morphological significance and structural details. The second harmonic generation imaging reveals the collagen orientation, while the multiphoton fluorescence imaging indicates morphology and distribution of cells in cornea. Our results support that multiphoton microscopy is an appropriate technology for further in vivo investigation and diagnosis of cornea. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. COMET - ASTRONOMY (KOHOUTEK)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-14

    S73-38390 (6 Dec. 1973) --- An Earth-based photograph of the Comet Kohoutek in the sky on Dec. 6, 1973, when the celestial phenomenon was more than 70 million miles from the sun and some 119 million miles from Earth. This picture was taken from a dark mountain top area of Haleakala (Island of Maui) Hawaii, using a 35mm Nikon camera with a 55mm lens, a 300-second exposure at f/1.2 and with Tri-X film. The photographer was Frank Giovane. The indicated visible tail of the comet appears to be about 10 million miles long. Other reports have inferred that the length of the tail is up to 13 million miles. The Skylab 4 crewmen have reported that Kohoutek's tail-length was from two to three degrees or from four to six million miles as viewed with the naked eye from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Photo credit: NASA/Frank Giovane

  18. Investigation of UFO defect on DUV CAR and BARC process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yet, Siew Ing; Ko, Bong Sang; Lee, Soo Man; May, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Photo process defect reduction is one of the most important factors to improve the process stability and yield in sub-0.18um DUV process. In this paper, a new approach to minimize the Deep-UV (DUV) Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) and Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) induced defect known as UFO (UnidentiFied Object) defect will be introduced. These defects have mild surface topography difference on BARC; it only exists on the wide exposed area where there is no photoresist pattern. In this test, Nikon KrF Stepper & Scanner and TEL Clean track were used. Investigation was carried out on the defect formulation on both Acetal and ESCAP type of photoresist while elemental analysis was done by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) & Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Result indicated that both BARC and photoresist induce this UFO defect; total defect quantity is related with Post Exposure Bake (PEB) condition. Based on the elemental analysis and process-split test, we can conclude that this defect is caused by lack of acid amount and low diffusivity which is related to PAG (Photo Acid Generator) and TAG (Thermal Acid Generator) in KrF photoresist and BARC material. By optimizing photoresist bake condition, this UFO defect as well as other related defect such as Satellite defect could be eliminated.

  19. A simple and cost-effective solid-phase protein nano-assay using polyacrylamide-coated glass plates.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Wladyslaw A

    2015-02-01

    A new solid-phase protein nano-assay is suggested for simple and sensitive estimation of protein content in sample buffers (a 1-μl sample is sufficient for analysis). The assay is different from conventional "on-filter" assays in that it uses inexpensive fully transparent polyacrylamide gel (PAAG)-coated glass plates as solid support and, thus, combines the convenience of "on-membrane" staining with the sensitivity and ease of documentation of "in-gel" staining (and, therefore, is especially suited for standard lab gel documentation systems). The PAAG plates assay is compatible with all dyes for in-gel protein staining. Depending on the sensitivity of the staining protocol, the assay can be used in macro-, micro-, and nano-assay formats. We also describe a low-cost two-component colloidal Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 (CBB G-250) staining protocol for fast quantitative visualization of proteins spotted on a PAAG plate (the detection limit is up to 2 ng of proteins even when using a Nikon CoolPix digital camera and white light transilluminator instead of a gel scanner). The suggested colloidal CBB G-250 protocol could also be used for visualizing nano-amounts of proteins in polyacrylamide gels. The PAAG plate assay could be useful for proteomic applications and, in general, for all cases where a fast, sensitive, and easily documentable cost-effective solid-phase protein assay is required.

  20. International innovations in optical finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-10-01

    Every few years new polishing technologies attempt to make the transition from the research laboratory into the commercial sector. Success awaits any process that is well controlled and predictable (e.g., deterministic), rapid, capable of smoothing to sub-nm rms roughness levels while removing damage from grinding, affordable, and easily implemented. Applicability to different optical materials and a variety of part sizes and shapes is extremely important, but may not be required for a new technology to succeed in a niche market. This paper reviews six innovations in polishing of precision optics: Canon"s Super-Smooth Polisher (CSSP) that uses a sub-aperture pitch lap - a relatively mature but important base-line technology; Nikon / Osaka University"s RF Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining (CVM); Epion"s Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) Process; the IOM University of Leipzig / NTGL Ion Beam Finishing (IBF) Technology; Zeeko"s "Precessions" Process with a sub-aperture section of an inflatable pad; and QED Technology"s Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with a magnetic fluid ribbon. The removal mechanism and some recent achievements for each process are discussed.

  1. Utility of an open field Shack-Hartmann aberrometer for measurement of refractive error in infants and young children

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the utility of an open-field Shack-Hartmann aberrometer for measurement of refractive error without cycloplegia in infants and young children. METHOD Data included 2698 subject encounters with Native American infants and children aged 6 months to <8 years. We attempted right eye measurements without cycloplegia using the pediatric wavefront evaluator (PeWE) on all participants while they viewed near (50 cm) and distant (2 m) fixation targets. Cycloplegic autorefraction (Rmax [Nikon Retinomax K-plus2]) measurements were obtained for children aged ≥3 years. RESULTS The success rates of noncycloplegic PeWE measurement for near (70%) and distant targets (56%) significantly improved with age. Significant differences in mean spherical equivalent (M) across near versus distant fixation target conditions were consistent with the difference in accommodative demand. Differences in astigmatism measurements for near versus distant target conditions were not clinically significant. Noncycloplegic PeWE and cycloplegic Rmax measurements of M and astigmatism were strongly correlated. Mean noncycloplegic PeWE M was significantly more myopic or less hyperopic and astigmatism measurements tended to be greater in magnitude compared with cycloplegic Rmax. CONCLUSIONS The PeWE tended to overestimate myopia and underestimate hyperopia when cycloplegia was not used. The PeWE is useful for measuring accommodation and astigmatism. PMID:24160970

  2. Preliminary evaluation of tin plating for extracoronal restorations: evaluation of marginal quality and retention.

    PubMed

    Ayad, M F; Rosenstiel, S F

    1998-01-01

    The influence of tin plating on marginal seating and retention of complete cast crowns was evaluated. Thirty-six standardized gold-alloy complete crowns were made on extracted human molar teeth prepared with a modified milling machine using conventional laboratory techniques. The crowns were randomly assigned to two groups according to the treatment of the fitting surface (air abraded with 50-micron aluminum oxide for 10 seconds, or tin plated with a microtin system for 3 seconds), and luted with adhesive resin cement (Panavia-EX, J. Morita). Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the variables for the cast alloy. Retention was measured with an instron testing machine after thermocycling (1,500 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with 1 minute dwell times). Marginal adaptation was measured with a Nikon microscope before and after cementation. Results were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and Student's t test. Retention was significantly different (P < 0.001); the highest retention (367 N) was reported in tin-plated crowns. Differences for marginal seating were not statistically significant. Tin plating after air abrasion was found to be a predictable and simple technique to roughen the casting surface, increase the surface area for bonding, and significantly improve the retention of cast crowns in vivo.

  3. The implications of free 3D scanning in the conservation state assessment of old wood painted icon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Marius; Sandu, Ion

    2016-06-01

    The present paper presents the conservation state and the making of a 3D model of a XVIII-th century orthodox icon on wood support, using free available software and cloud computing. In order to create the 3D model of the painting layer of the icon a number of 70 pictures were taken using a Nikon DSLR D3300, 24.2 MP in setup with a Hama Star 75 photo tripod, in loops 360° around the painting, at three different angles. The pictures were processed with Autodesk I23D Catch, which automatically finds and matches common features among all of the uploaded photographs in order to create the 3D scene, using the power and speed of cloud computing. The obtained 3D model was afterwards analyzed and processed in order to obtain a final version, which can now be use to better identify, to map and to prioritize the future conservation processes and finally can be shared online as an animation.

  4. Heterogeneity of spine density in pyramidal neurons of isocortex of mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1818).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, U C; Singh, Sippy; Chauhan, Prashant

    2013-08-01

    The characteristics of pyramidal neurons within six layers of Indian gray mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) isocortex have been investigated using Golgi and Cresyl-Violet methods. Pyramidal neurons and the cytoarchitecture of isocortex of mongoose were photographed with the help of computer aided Nikon eclipse 80i microscope whereas the lucida drawings were made by simple light microscope equipped with camera lucida. The cortical neurons exhibit marked regional differences in phenotype. The differences occur in morphology and distribution of spines within the cortical neurons not only among different species but also within an animal's brain. The present investigation aims at studying the features of pyramidal neurons and to find out the differences if any in distribution of spines in different layers (II-VI) as well as regions (Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, and Occipital) of isocortex of mongoose, which will provide information regarding importance of different layer and region. This piece of work embarks the findings that spine density shows inter-regional as well as interlaminar variations within isocortex of mongoose indicating that pyramidal cells present in varied layer and region are not equally functional and there do exists differences in activity among layers and regions. Among regions, the Temporal region possessing highest spine density contributes more toward functioning of mongoose isocortex and might play significant role in predatory nature of mongoose because this region in mammals is associated with auditory, visual perception, and object recognition.

  5. iPhone 4s and iPhone 5s Imaging of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Maaz; Ferenczy, Sandor R.; Shields, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the technical feasibility of a consumer-grade cellular iPhone camera as an ocular imaging device compared to existing ophthalmic imaging equipment for documentation purposes. Methods A comparison of iPhone 4s and 5s images was made with external facial images (macrophotography) using Nikon cameras, slit-lamp images (microphotography) using Zeiss photo slit-lamp camera, and fundus images (fundus photography) using RetCam II. Results In an analysis of six consecutive patients with ophthalmic conditions, both iPhones achieved documentation of external findings (macrophotography) using standard camera modality, tap to focus, and built-in flash. Both iPhones achieved documentation of anterior segment findings (microphotography) during slit-lamp examination through oculars. Both iPhones achieved fundus imaging using standard video modality with continuous iPhone illumination through an ophthalmic lens. Comparison to standard ophthalmic cameras, macrophotography and microphotography were excellent. In comparison to RetCam fundus photography, iPhone fundus photography revealed smaller field and was technically more difficult to obtain, but the quality was nearly similar to RetCam. Conclusions iPhone versions 4s and 5s can provide excellent ophthalmic macrophotography and microphotography and adequate fundus photography. We believe that iPhone imaging could be most useful in settings where expensive, complicated, and cumbersome imaging equipment is unavailable. PMID:28275604

  6. Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

  7. Live confocal imaging of intrashell cytoplasm and calcification process in a symbiotic large benthic foraminifer Amphisorus kudakajimensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Fuita, Kazuhiko; Toyofuku, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Algal symbiont-bearing large benthic foraminifers are primary and carbonate producers as well as paleoenvironmental indicators in tropical and subtropical reef environments. Despite their importance, their cellular physiology is not well known. In this study, we have developed methods to observe in vivo images of a living symbiotic porcelaneous large foraminifer, Amphisorus kudakajimensis. Nikon A1 confocal laser scanning microscope with Calcein-AM as a fluorescent indicator was used to visualize morphology and streaming of cytoplasm in living A. kudakajimensis. The observation showed that in the marginal part of intrashell cytoplasm, cytoplasm gradually became highly branched and vacuolated. We also succeeded in observing elevated pH (pH 9.0) and lowered pH (pH 6.0) vesicles in reticulopodia-like cytoplasms, using a cell membrane-impermeable fluorescent pH indicator with low toxicity (HPTS). This study demonstrate the use of confocal microscopy in studying cytoplasmic dynamics and initial calcification process such as seawater endocytosis and alkalization of seawater vacuoles.

  8. Effect of sintering temperatures and screen printing types on TiO{sub 2} layers in DSSC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Supriyanto, Agus; Furqoni, Lutfi; Nurosyid, Fahru Suryana, Risa; Hidayat, Jojo

    2016-03-29

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a candidate solar cell, which has a big potential in the future due to its eco-friendly material. This research is conducted to study the effect of sintering temperature and the type of screen-printing toward the characteristics of TiO{sub 2} layer as a working electrode in DSSC. TiO{sub 2} layers were fabricated using a screen-printing method with a mesh size of T-49, T-55, and T-61. TiO{sub 2} layers were sintered at temperatures of 600°C and 650°C for 60 min. DSSC structure was composed of TiO{sub 2} as semiconductors, ruthenium complex as dyes, and carbon as counter electrodes. The morphology of TiO{sub 2} layer was observed by using Nikon E2 Digital Camera Microscopy. The efficiencies of DSSC were calculated from the I-V curves. The highest efficiency is 0.015% at TiO{sub 2} layer fabricated with screen type T-61 and at a sintering temperature of 650°C.

  9. KSC-06pd2130

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Smoke and steam billow across Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Atlantis hurtles into the sky for its rendezvous with the International Space Station on mission STS-115. Liftoff was on-time at 11:14:55 a.m. EDT. After several earlier launch attempts were scrubbed due to weather and technical concerns, this launch was executed perfectly. Mission STS-115 is the 116th space shuttle flight, the 27th flight for orbiter Atlantis, and the 19th U.S. flight to the International Space Station. During the mission, Atlantis' astronauts will deliver and install the 17.5-ton, bus-sized P3/P4 integrated truss segment on the station. The girder-like truss includes a set of giant solar arrays, batteries and associated electronics and will provide one-fourth of the total power-generation capability for the completed station. STS-115 is scheduled to last 11 days with a planned landing at KSC. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  10. KSC-06pd2128

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis leaps off the launch pad as smoke and steam billow behind it. Atlantis is heading for space and its rendezvous with the International Space Station on mission STS-115. Liftoff was on-time at 11:14:55 a.m. EDT. After several earlier launch attempts were scrubbed due to weather and technical concerns, this launch was executed perfectly. Mission STS-115 is the 116th space shuttle flight, the 27th flight for orbiter Atlantis, and the 19th U.S. flight to the International Space Station. During the mission, Atlantis' astronauts will deliver and install the 17.5-ton, bus-sized P3/P4 integrated truss segment on the station. The girder-like truss includes a set of giant solar arrays, batteries and associated electronics and will provide one-fourth of the total power-generation capability for the completed station. STS-115 is scheduled to last 11 days with a planned landing at KSC. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  11. KSC-06pd2129

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Smoke and steam billow across Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Atlantis hurtles into the sky for its rendezvous with the International Space Station on mission STS-115. Liftoff was on-time at 11:14:55 a.m. EDT. After several earlier launch attempts were scrubbed due to weather and technical concerns, this launch was executed perfectly. Mission STS-115 is the 116th space shuttle flight, the 27th flight for orbiter Atlantis, and the 19th U.S. flight to the International Space Station. During the mission, Atlantis' astronauts will deliver and install the 17.5-ton, bus-sized P3/P4 integrated truss segment on the station. The girder-like truss includes a set of giant solar arrays, batteries and associated electronics and will provide one-fourth of the total power-generation capability for the completed station. STS-115 is scheduled to last 11 days with a planned landing at KSC. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  12. KSC-06pd2127

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Tree limbs frame the brilliant launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis as it flees the smoke and steam below, heading for a rendezvous with the International Space Station on mission STS-115. Liftoff was on-time at 11:14:55 a.m. EDT. After launch attempts were scrubbed Aug. 27 and 29 and Sept. 3 and 8 due to weather and technical concerns, this launch was executed perfectly. Mission STS-115 is the 116th space shuttle flight, the 27th flight for orbiter Atlantis, and the 19th U.S. flight to the International Space Station. During the mission, Atlantis' astronauts will deliver and install the 17.5-ton, bus-sized P3/P4 integrated truss segment on the station. The girder-like truss includes a set of giant solar arrays, batteries and associated electronics and will provide one-fourth of the total power-generation capability for the completed station. STS-115 is scheduled to last 11 days with a planned landing at KSC. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  13. KSC-06pd2763

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Looking like a shooting star, Space Shuttle Discovery roars into the night sky on mission STS-116. The trailing blaze lighted the sky and nearby water, while clouds of smoke and steam billowed across the launch pad. Liftoff occurred on time at 8:47 p.m. EST. This was the second launch attempt for mission STS-116. The first launch attempt on Dec. 7 was postponed due a low cloud ceiling over Kennedy Space Center. This is Discovery's 33rd mission and the first night launch since 2002. The 20th shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-116 carries another truss segment, P5. It will serve as a spacer, mated to the P4 truss that was attached in September. After installing the P5, the crew will reconfigure and redistribute the power generated by two pairs of U.S. solar arrays. Landing is expected Dec. 21 at KSC. Photo courtesy of Nikon/Scott Andrews

  14. Progress on EUV mask fabrication for 32-nm technology node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guojing; Yan, Pei-Yang; Liang, Ted; Park, Seh-jin; Sanchez, Peter; Shu, Emily Y.; Ultanir, Erdem A.; Henrichs, Sven; Stivers, Alan; Vandentop, Gilroy; Lieberman, Barry; Qu, Ping

    2007-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool development achieved a big milestone last year as two full-field Alpha Demo Tools (ADT) were shipped to customers by ASML. In the future horizon, a full field "EUV1" exposure tool from Nikon will be available by the end of 20071 and the pre-production EUV exposure tools from ASML are targeted for 20092. It is essential that high quality EUVL masks can be made and delivered to the EUVL tool users to support the technology development. In the past year, we have demonstrated mask fabrication with low stress absorber deposition and good etch process control yielding a vertical etch profile and a mask CD control of 5.7 nm for 32 nm (1x) space and 7.4 nm for 32 nm (1x) lines. Mask pattern resolution of 15 nm (1x) dense lines was achieved. Full field reflective mask die-to-die inspection at a 125nm pixel size was demonstrated after low defect multilayer blanks became available. In this paper, we will present details of the Intel EUVL Mask Pilot Line progress in EUVL mask defect reduction, pattern CD performance, program defect mask design and inspection, in-house absorber film development and its performance, and EUVL metrology tool development. We will demonstrate an overall improvement in EUV mask manufacturing readiness due to our Pilot Line activities.

  15. The Solar Corona and a CME at the 2010 Total Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Rusin, V.; Druckmüllerová, H.; Saniga, M.; Lu, M.; Malamut, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Golub, L.; Engell, A. J.; Hill, S. W.; Lucas, R.

    2011-05-01

    The 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse was observed on the ground from French Polynesia and, 83 minutes later, from Easter Island, and near-simultaneous images were made with spacecraft instruments including AIA/SDO, HMI/SDO, EUVI/STEREO, SWAP/PROBA2, EIT/SOHO, and LASCO/SOHO. We report on changes in the corona detectable with high-resolution image processing of the ground-based eclipse coronal imaging, including two CME's that were seen to evolve. We compare with the spacecraft images to give a complete depiction of coronal structure at the time of the eclipse, which corresponded to a low but rising phase of the solar-activity cycle. We acknowledge the support of NASA's MSFC NNX10AK47A, NSF REU AST-1005024 with DoD ASSURE, VEGA 2/0098/10 of the Slovak Acad. Sci, 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation, PRODEX C90345 of ESA/BELSPO, FP7/2007-2013/218816 SOTERIA, Lockheed Martin; for equipment: Nikon Professional Services, ASTELCO Systems GmbH (Germany), and National Geographic Society's Photographic Division; and colleagues Y.-M. Wang (NRL), S. Habbal (U. Hawaii), H. Lanteires (Tatakoto), and J. Kern (Carnegie Obs.).

  16. Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for directly detecting nucleic acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Fang, Xueen; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-06-15

    Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (FRET) is gaining great interest in detecting macro-biological molecule. It is difficult to achieve conveniently and fast detection for macro-biological molecule. Herein, a graphene oxide (GO)-based paper chip (glass fiber) integrated with fluorescence labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for fast, inexpensive and direct detection of biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) has been developed. In this paper, we employed the Cy3/FAM-labeled ssDNA as the reporter and the GO as quencher and the original glass fiber paper as data acquisition substrates. The chip which was designed and fabricated by a cutting machine is a miniature biosensor that monitors fluorescence recovery from resonance energy transfer. The hybridization assays and fluorescence detection were all simplified, and the surface of the chip did not require immobilization or washing. A Nikon Eclipse was employed as excited resource and a commercial digital camera was employed for capturing digital images. This paper-based microfluidics chip has been applied in the detection of proteins and nucleic acids. The biosensing capability meets many potential requirements for disease diagnosis and biological analysis.

  17. Glycine uptake by lamprey spinal neurons demonstrated by light microscopic autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.H.; Youngs, L.J.; Krieger, N.R.; Selzer, M.E.

    1984-02-20

    We have mapped the neuronal uptake of 3H-glycine in the spinal cords of large larval sea lampreys: Petromyzon marinus. Spinal cords were incubated in 10(-6) M 3H-glycine for 15 minutes. They were rinsed in lamprey solution, fixed in phosphate-buffered 2% glutaraldehyde, and washed in phosphate buffer. They were then sectioned with a cryostat at 16-m thickness or dehydrated, embedded in Epon, and sectioned at 1-4 micron. Sections were coated with a photographic emulsion and maintained at 4 degrees C for 1-7 days. By sectioning horizontally, it was possible to obtain complete serial reconstructions of up to 1.5-mm lengths of cord in 100-150 sections. The outlines of labelled cells were traced with a Nikon drawing attachment. For one Epon-embedded spinal cord sectioned at 4 micron, tracings were superimposed to form complete maps for 0.6-1.5-mm lengths in three representative regions of cord: rostral (gill region), caudal (dorsal fin region), and midsection. The labelled neurons were small (5-10-micron diameter) cells distributed throughout the central gray columns. They numbered 22 cells per hemisegment in the rostral region, 33 in the midsection, and 43 in the caudal region. None of the previously identified cell types were labelled, including lateral interneurons, edge cells, giant interneurons, dorsal cells, and Mueller and Mauthner axons.

  18. Orthogonal Double View Digital Holographic Diagnostics for Random Motion of Micro Polymer Jet by Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaiho; Sallam, Khaled

    2008-11-01

    An experimental investigation of three-dimensional random behavior of polymer micro jet generated by electrospinning is described. Two frequency doubled Nd:YAG lasers were used as the light source and a commercial grade CCD sensor (Nikon D-70) was used for holograms recording. The two lasers could be fired with a pulse separation as small as 100 ns, and the two laser beams were aligned with three polarized beam splitter cubes. Orthogonal double-view and double-pulses were recorded on the same camera frame. The camera frame was split into two, and both of the halves of the frame were used for each view. Two objective lenses (M 5x) and two spatial filters (Pinhole ˜ 5μm) were used to generate expanding laser beams in the digital microscopic holography (DMH) optical setup. As the electric field (˜20 kV) was intensified, the polymer solution formed a charged filament (or multiple filaments) from the tip of the Taylor cone. As the filament was accelerated toward the collector, its diameter was shrunk and axisymmetric disturbances grew further away from the exit. The polymer was randomly deposited on the collector as non woven microfiber.

  19. The effect of exposure on MaxRGB color constancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funt, Brian; Shi, Lilong

    2010-02-01

    The performance of the MaxRGB illumination-estimation method for color constancy and automatic white balancing has been reported in the literature as being mediocre at best; however, MaxRGB has usually been tested on images of only 8-bits per channel. The question arises as to whether the method itself is inadequate, or rather whether it has simply been tested on data of inadequate dynamic range. To address this question, a database of sets of exposure-bracketed images was created. The image sets include exposures ranging from very underexposed to slightly overexposed. The color of the scene illumination was determined by taking an extra image of the scene containing 4 Gretag Macbeth mini Colorcheckers placed at an angle to one another. MaxRGB was then run on the images of increasing exposure. The results clearly show that its performance drops dramatically when the 14-bit exposure range of the Nikon D700 camera is exceeded, thereby resulting in clipping of high values. For those images exposed such that no clipping occurs, the median error in MaxRGB's estimate of the color of the scene illumination is found to be relatively small.

  20. Nematode parasite, Auchenacantha spp of flying lemur, Cynocephalus variegatus (Audebert, 1799) from Indonesia: Morphological study with SEM.

    PubMed

    Purwaningsih, Endang

    2011-12-01

    To observe morphology of Auchenacantha galeopteri (A. galeopteri), Auchenacantha spinosa (A. spinosa) and Auchenacantha parva (A. parva) from Sukabumi and Ujung Kulon, Indonesia using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with warm 70% alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Drawings were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to a Nikon compound microscope. Specimens for SEM examination were processed according to Bozzola. Measurements were given in micrometers (µm) as the average of findings, followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. The measurements of Auchenacantha spp are same with those of previously described. The striations of male and female A. galeopteri are widen towards outside and wavy. The mouth of female with 6 lips, each of them is wider at base than distal end in A. galeopteri and rectangular in A. spinosa. Both species have dentiform protrusion from inner surface of lips, such structure absent in A. parva, but the lips with transverse festoon like pattern at anterior end of each lip. Using SEM, the lip and the striation pattern of three species of Auchenacantha can be clearly distinguished. Sukabumi and Ujung Kulon are new locality of A. galeopteri and A. spinosa, and A. parva is the new record in Indonesia.

  1. Middle ear pathology in ancient and modern populations: incudal osteoma.

    PubMed

    Arensburg, Baruch; Belkin, Victor; Wolf, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Osteomas of the incus were found in surprisingly high numbers in ancient and modern populations. The coexistence of osteoma formation and unique vascularization on the medial surface of the incus alludes to a relationship between the two findings. Osteomas involving the middle ear ossicles are rare. The aim of this study was to compare the incudal pathology of ancient and recent periods using the recent literature. Pathologies encountered in 1170 human incudes belonging to different populations from ancient and recent periods were studied. Most of the ossicles were found in the middle ear of dry skulls or during dissection. The observations were done with a binocular microscope and a Nikon Profile Projector. A total of 47 incudes (4.01%) presented with a variety of pathologies, osteomas being found in 19 cases (1.62%). The osteomas were noted only on the medial surface of the incus. Other findings, including prominent erosions, multiple nutrient foramina and pitting, were also found on the medial side of the incus. The incidence of osteoma was found to be more common in ancient populations (1.88%) and most prevalent among Bedouins (4.55%).

  2. Distortions in indexing methods and investing media for soldering and remount procedures.

    PubMed

    Harper, R J; Nicholls, J I

    1979-08-01

    A three-dimensional distortion analysis was made of seven indexing-investment systems and six indexing-remount systems. Measurements were made to within +/- 0.005 mm with a Nikon Profile Projector and a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT); distortions (linear and rotational) were calculated by means of a PDP 11/40 computer system. Mean vector displacements, square root deltaX2 + deltaY2 + deltaZ2, were calculated, and a statistical evaluation of the data was completed. The results of the study indicate: 1. The zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) indexing-investment system produced a narrower range and a significantly smaller mean distortion than the other six indexing-investment systems. 2. The ZOE-stone remount technique showed significantly less distortion than the ZOE-low-fusing metal or the ZOE-acrylic resin techniques. 3. The polyether-stone remount technique demonstrated significantly less distortion than either the polyether-low-fusing metal or the polyether-acrylic resin system. 4. The polyether-stone remount system was not significantly different from the ZOE-low-fusing metal system. 5. The ZOE-stone remount technique demonstrated a smaller range of distortions, but those distortions were not significantly different from those of the polyether-stone remount technique.

  3. Mouthguards: difference in longitudinal dimensional stability between single- and double-laminated fabrication techniques.

    PubMed

    Miura, Jiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Machi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Though the use of mouthguards (MGs) has increased with the increase in sporting activities, little is known about the influence of their fabrication methods on longitudinal dimensional stability. The objective of this study was to compare the difference in the longitudinal dimensional stability between single and laminated MGs. Single-layer MGs were made from a 4.0 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheet and laminated MGs were made from two 2.0 mm thick sheets of EVA. MGs were kept in a 37 degrees C water bath for 60 h, equivalent to the time period of 3-months inter-oral use. MG deformation was analyzed by measuring designated points on the MG border using a profile projector (J-12, Nikon Inc., Tokyo, Japan) before and after the water immersion. A finite-element model was also created to examine the time course of stress accumulation during the sheet forming process using Finite Element software. Longitudinal deformation was smaller in the laminated MGs than in the single-layer MGs in the anterior area (P < 0.05). Finite element method (FEM) analysis also showed the largest stress accumulation in the anterior incisal area where deformations were mainly observed. Laminated double layer MGs have advantages over single-layer MGs in terms of longitudinal stability due to lower stress accumulation during the fabrication process.

  4. Osteointegration of KrF laser diamondlike carbon films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Himmlova, Lucia

    1996-04-01

    The aim of present study was to experimentally evaluate osteointegration of the KrF laser diamond-like carbon coated titanium alloy Ti6Al4V cylindrical implants in a preliminary study in vivo. The films were created on cylindrical titanium substrates. Substrates were heated to 70 degree(s)C or 100 degree(s)C by resistively heated holder positioned 17 mm from sample. Target substrate distance was 5 cm, energy density of KrF laser beam on the target was 15 Jcm-2. Deposition chamber was evacuated to 10-2 Pa. Film various thickness were created. Control group contained the two samples of Ti6Al4V and two samples from sapphire. Ten rats Wistar were used in this investigation. The cylindrical implants were placed horizontally into the host bone. The position of implant in femur was controlled with radiograph. The implants were retrieved for 6 weeks. 70-nm thick sections (from 2 to 4 sections from each implant) were cut. The section were viewed using a polarized light photomicroscope Nikon. The percentage of bone/implant contact were determined. The level of osteointegration of the host bone were observed. The bone-implant femur and control femur were measured. Total or partial osteointegration was seen and measured depending on deposition conditions.

  5. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  6. Comparing the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner in measuring forest inventory variables to enhance better decision making for potential fire hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Suman; Xystrakis, Fotios; Koutsias, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    Forest inventory variables are essential in accessing the potential of wildfire hazard, obtaining above ground biomass and carbon sequestration which helps developing strategies for sustainable management of forests. Effective management of forest resources relies on the accuracy of such inventory variables. This study aims to compare the accuracy in obtaining the forest inventory variables like diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height from Terrestrial Laser Scanner (Faro Focus 3D X 330) with that from the traditional forest inventory techniques in the Mediterranean forests of Greece. The data acquisition was carried out on an area of 9,539.8 m2 with six plots each of radius 6 m. Computree algorithm was applied for automatic detection of DBH from terrestrial laser scanner data. Similarly, tree height was estimated manually using CloudCompare software for the terrestrial laser scanner data. The field estimates of DBH and tree height was carried out using calipers and Nikon Forestry 550 Laser Rangefinder. The comparison of DBH measured between field estimates and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), resulted in R squared values ranging from 0.75 to 0.96 at the plot level. An average R2 and RMSE value of 0.80 and 1.07 m respectively was obtained when comparing the tree height between TLS and field data. Our results confirm that terrestrial laser scanner can provide nondestructive, high-resolution, and precise determination of forest inventory for better decision making in sustainable forest management and assessing potential of forest fire hazards.

  7. A new miniature hydrostatic pressure chamber for microscopy. Strain- free optical glass windows facilitate phase-contrast and polarized- light microscopy of living cells. Optional fixture permits simultaneous control of pressure and temperature

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a miniature, temperature- controlled, stainless steel pressure chamber which uses strain-free optical glass for windows. It is directly adaptable to standard phase- contrast and polarized-light microscopes and requires a minimum amount of equipment to generate and measure pressure. Birefringence retardation (BR) og 0.1 nm up to 3,000 psi, 0.4 nm up to 5,000 psi and 1.0 nm up to 10,000 psi can be detected over a 0.75-mm central field with two strain-free Leitz 20 times UM objectives, one used as a condenser. In phase-contrast studies a Nikon DML 40 times phase objective and Zeiss model IS long working-distance phase condenser were used, with little deterioration of image quality or contrast at pressures as high as 12,000 psi. The actual design process required a synthesis of various criteria which may be categorized under four main areas of consideration: (a) specimen physiology; (b) constraints imposed by available optical equipment and standard microscope systems; (c) mechanical strength and methods for generating pressure; and (d) optical requirements of the chamber windows. Procedures for using the chambers, as well as methods for shifting and controlling the temperature within the chamber, are included. PMID:1094021

  8. Tracking protein dynamics with photoconvertible Dendra2 on spinning disk confocal systems.

    PubMed

    Woods, Elena; Courtney, Jane; Scholz, Dimitri; Hall, William W; Gautier, Virginie W

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the dynamic properties of cellular proteins in live cells and in real time is essential to delineate their function. In this context, we introduce the Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching-Photoactivation unit (Andor) combined with the Nikon Eclipse Ti E Spinning Disk (Andor) confocal microscope as an advantageous and robust platform to exploit the properties of the Dendra2 photoconvertible fluorescent protein (Evrogen) and analyse protein subcellular trafficking in living cells. A major advantage of the spinning disk confocal is the rapid acquisition speed, enabling high temporal resolution of cellular processes. Furthermore, photoconversion and imaging are less invasive on the spinning disk confocal as the cell exposition to illumination power is reduced, thereby minimizing photobleaching and increasing cell viability. We have tested this commercially available platform using experimental settings adapted to track the migration of fast trafficking proteins such as UBC9, Fibrillarin and have successfully characterized their differential motion between subnuclear structures. We describe here step-by-step procedures, with emphasis on cellular imaging parameters, to successfully perform the dynamic imaging and photoconversion of Dendra2-fused proteins at high spatial and temporal resolutions necessary to characterize the trafficking pathways of proteins. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Improved Method for Analysis of Airborne Asbestos Fibers Using Phase Contrast Microscopy and FTIR Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Mansour R.; Yazdian, Asil; Souri, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheila; Peirovi, Habibalalah; Panahi, Davod; Kazempour, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, some studies have tried to improve Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) for counting asbestos fibers. Due to the lack of a universally accepted alternative method, this study aimed to improve PCM for better counting of asbestos fibers. Materials and Methods Confirmed asbestos standards were applied using a dust generator for sampling. Sampling from the dust generator was carried out according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ID-160 method and 95 samples with diverse densities were prepared to be counted using conventional and modern PCM. All samples were counted single blindly by a co-author of this study and the obtained data were analyzed by paired t-test, correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Duplicate samples were prepared for qualitative analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X ray. Results Asbestos densities on filters were in the range of less than 100 to 600 fibers/mm2. Statistically, significant differences were observed for the count density of the 95 samples counted by the two phase contrast microscopes (P<0.001). Nikon microscope demonstrated higher counts compared to conventional microscope and had a lower coefficient of variation. Samples were analyzed qualitatively using FT-IR and SEM, and the presence of asbestos fibers was confirmed. Conclusion The improved PCM and FT-IR methods presented in this study demonstrated more precise and accurate determination of personal exposure to airborne asbestos fibers and subsequent risk assessment. PMID:25713590

  10. How to improve microscopic images obtained with consumer-type digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Regitnig, P; van Paasen, R; Tsybrovskyy, O

    2003-05-01

    Digital imaging is useful in conventional photography because it immediately provides images, and the image quality can be improved afterwards by the use of computer programs. The major disadvantages of consumer-type digital cameras mounted on microscopes are (i) unequal illumination through the image, and (ii) a coloured background. A computer program was specifically adapted and refined to improve images obtained with consumer-type digital cameras mounted on microscopes. An approach using a division operation between the specimen image and a background image leads to homogeneous illumination throughout the image, with automatically corrected brightness and white background. The correct colour spectrum is preserved by correction of the histogram. This approach was obtained from the freeware computer program 'Image Arithmetic'. In a test, three different consumer-type digital cameras (Sony, Nikon, Olympus) on different microscopes were used to obtain images of different types of histological specimens (cervical smear, bone marrow biopsy, and colonic biopsy). The computer program dramatically improved the quality of images obtained with all tested cameras. Using this approach, even low-cost digital cameras mounted on microscopes produce brilliant images with homogeneous illumination and a white background, the image quality being comparable with expensive cameras especially designed for microscopes.

  11. Optical Testing Using Portable Laser Coordinate Measuring Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khreishi, Manal; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mclean, Kyle F.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    High precision, portable coordinate measuring instruments (CMI) such as laser radars (LR) and laser trackers (LT) have been used for optical system alignment and integration. The LR's ability to perform a non-contact scan of surfaces was previously utilized to characterize large spherical and aspheric mirrors. In this paper, we explore the use of a CMI as an accurate, fast, robust, and non-contact tool for prescription characterization of powered optical surfaces. Using Nikon's MV-224/350 LR and Leica's Absolute Tracker AT401/402 instruments, proof of concept measurements were performed to characterize a variety of optical components by measuring the actual and apparent, or equivalently the "direct and through" (D&T), coordinates of calibrated metrology targets. Custom macros in metrology software and other data reduction code were developed to compute surface-ray intercepts and surface slopes from the D&T shots. The calculated data is fit to an aspheric surface formula to obtain the optimum prescription. The results were compared to the nominal parameters and were crosschecked using LR scans or other approaches. We discuss potential applications across the fields of optical component fabrication and system alignment and testing.

  12. Optical Testing Using Portable Laser Coordinate Measuring Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khreishi, M.; Ohl, R.; Mclean, K.; Hadjimichael, T.; Hayden, J.

    2017-01-01

    High precision, portable coordinate measuring instruments (CMI) such as laser radars (LR) and laser trackers (LT) have been used for optical system alignment and integration. The LRs ability to perform a non-contact scan of surfaces was previously utilized to characterize large spherical and aspheric mirrors. In this paper, we explore the use of a CMI as an accurate, fast, robust, and non-contact tool for prescription characterization of powered optical surfaces. Using Nikons MV-224350 LR and Leicas Absolute Tracker AT401402 instruments, proof of concept measurements were performed to characterize a variety of optical components by measuring the actual and apparent, or equivalently the direct and through (DT), coordinates of calibrated metrology targets. Custom macros in metrology software and other data reduction code were developed to compute surface-ray intercepts and surface slopes from the DT shots. The calculated data is fit to an aspheric surface formula to obtain the optimum prescription. The results were compared to the nominal parameters and were crosschecked using LR scans or other approaches. We discuss potential applications across the fields of optical component fabrication and system alignment and testing.

  13. STS-92 Crew Walkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-92 crew eagerly walk out of the Operations and Checkout Building for the second time for their trip to Launch Pad 39A. On the left side, from front to back, are Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao and Koichi Wakata of Japan. On the right side, front to back, are Commander Brian Duffy and Mission Specialists Peter J.K . Wisoff, William S. McArthur Jr. and Michael E. Lopez-Alegria. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. This launch is the fourth for Duffy and Wisoff, the third for Chiao and McArthur, second for Wakata and Lopez-Alegria, and first for Melroy. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT. [Photo taken with a Nikon D1 camera.

  14. The STS-92 crew exits O&C on way to Launch Pad 39A for the second time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-92 crew eagerly walk out of the Operations and Checkout Building for the second time for their trip to Launch Pad 39A. On the left side, from front to back, are Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao and Koichi Wakata of Japan. On the right side, front to back, are Commander Brian Duffy and Mission Specialists Peter J.K. '''Jeff''' Wisoff, William S. McArthur Jr. and Michael E. Lopez-Alegria. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. This launch is the fourth for Duffy and Wisoff, the third for Chiao and McArthur, second for Wakata and Lopez-Alegria, and first for Melroy. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT. [Photo taken with a Nikon D1 camera.

  15. Terrestrial scanning or digital images in inventory of monumental objects? - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Zawieska, D.

    2014-06-01

    Cultural heritage is the evidence of the past; monumental objects create the important part of the cultural heritage. Selection of a method to be applied depends on many factors, which include: the objectives of inventory, the object's volume, sumptuousness of architectural design, accessibility to the object, required terms and accuracy of works. The paper presents research and experimental works, which have been performed in the course of development of architectural documentation of elements of the external facades and interiors of the Wilanów Palace Museum in Warszawa. Point clouds, acquired from terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5003h) and digital images taken with Nikon D3X and Hasselblad H4D cameras were used. Advantages and disadvantages of utilisation of these technologies of measurements have been analysed with consideration of the influence of the structure and reflectance of investigated monumental surfaces on the quality of generation of photogrammetric products. The geometric quality of surfaces obtained from terrestrial laser scanning data and from point clouds resulting from digital images, have been compared.

  16. Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, culture in closed hatchery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, Hidayah; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Kasan, Nor Azman; Suratman, Suhaimi; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2016-06-01

    Study on the microscopic composition of biofloc in closed hatchery culture system was carried out to determine the interaction between the aggregation flocs in the bioremediation process for the decomposition and degradation of organic matter loaded in the shrimp culture tanks. The study was done for 105 days of culture period in zero water exchange. All of the organic loaded in the culture tanks identified comes from the shrimp feces, uneaten fed, and the decomposed macro- and microorganisms died in the culture tanks. All of the microscopic organisms in the biofloc were identified using Advance microscopes Nikon 80i. From the present study, there were abundances and high varieties of phytoplankton, zooplankton, protozoa, nematodes and algae species identified as aggregates together in the flocs accumulation. All of these microscopic organisms identified implemented the symbiotic process together for food supply, become the algae grazer, act as natural water stabilizer in regulating the nutrients in culture tank and serve as decomposer for dead organic matter in the water environment. Heterotrophic bacteria identified from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas family consumed the organic matter loaded at the bottom of culture tank and converted items through chemical process as useful protein food to be consumed back by the shrimp. Overall it can be concluded that the biofloc organisms identified really contributed as natural bioremediation agents in zero water exchange culture system to ensure the water quality in the optimal condition until the end of culture period.

  17. Robot Kinematics Identification: KUKA LWR4+ Redundant Manipulator Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolyubin, Sergey; Paramonov, Leonid; Shiriaev, Anton

    2015-11-01

    This work is aimed at a comprehensive discussion of algorithms for the kinematic parameters identification of robotic manipulators. We deal with an open-loop geometric calibration task, when a full 6D robot's end-effector pose is measured. Effective solutions of such a task is of high interest in many practical applications, because it can dramatically improve key robot characteristics. On the first step, we select optimal calibration configurations. A comparative analysis of three different algorithms and two observability indexes used for numerical optimization is provided. Afterwards, using the acquired and pre-processed experimental data we identify modified Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of the manipulator. Estimates are obtained resolving original nonlinear forward kinematics relations. Finally, we compare nominal and calibrated geometric parameters and show how much deviations in these parameters affect robot positioning accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, such integrated efforts are new for the KUKA LWR4+ robot and Nikon K610 optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM), which were used in the study. Discussion of practical issues on how to organise the experiment is an additional contribution of this work. The proposed procedure is highly automated and can be implemented to improve manipulator's performance on a periodic basis.

  18. Common fluorescent proteins for single-molecule localization microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementieva, Natalia V.; Bozhanova, Nina G.; Mishina, Natalie M.; Zagaynova, Elena V.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Mishin, Alexander S.

    2015-07-01

    Super-resolution techniques for breaking the diffraction barrier are spread out over multiple studies nowadays. Single-molecule localization microscopy such as PALM, STORM, GSDIM, etc allow to get super-resolved images of cell ultrastructure by precise localization of individual fluorescent molecules via their temporal isolation. However, these methods are supposed the use of fluorescent dyes and proteins with special characteristics (photoactivation/photoconversion). At the same time, there is a need for retaining high photostability of fluorophores during long-term acquisition. Here, we first showed the potential of common red fluorescent protein for single-molecule localization microscopy based on spontaneous intrinsic blinking. Also, we assessed the effect of different imaging media on photobleaching of these fluorescent proteins. Monomeric orange and red fluorescent proteins were examined for stochastic switching from a dark state to a bright fluorescent state. We studied fusions with cytoskeletal proteins in NIH/3T3 and HeLa cells. Imaging was performed on the Nikon N-STORM system equipped with EMCCD camera. To define the optimal imaging conditions we tested several types of cell culture media and buffers. As a result, high-resolution images of cytoskeleton structure were obtained. Essentially, low-intensity light was sufficient to initiate the switching of tested red fluorescent protein reducing phototoxicity and provide long-term live-cell imaging.

  19. Z-pinch equilibrium and instability analysis with digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Hughes, M. C.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Doty, S.; Kim, B.

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma and fusion reactor conditions. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii ( 1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structures are measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 ×1020 m-2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This work is supported by Grants from the US DoE and NNSA.

  20. Laser welding of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Brudvik, James S; Lee, Seungbum; Croshaw, Steve N; Reimers, Donald L; Reimers, Dave L

    2008-01-01

    To identify and measure distortions inherent in the casting process of a Class III mandibular cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) framework to illustrate the problems faced by the laboratory technician and the clinician and to measure the changes that occur during the correction of the fit discrepancy using laser welding. Five identical castings of a Co-Cr alloy partial denture casting were made and measured between 3 widely separated points using the x, y, and z adjustments of a Nikon Measurescope. The same measurements were made after each of the following clinical and laboratory procedures: sprue removal, sectioning of the casting into 3 parts through the posterior meshwork, fitting the segments to the master cast, picking up the segments using resin, and laser welding of the 3 segments. Measurements of all 5 castings showed a cross-arch decrease after sprue removal, an increase after fitting the segments to the master cast, and a slight decrease after resin pickup and laser welding. Within the limitations of this study, the findings suggest that precise tooth-frame relations can be established by resin pickup and laser welding of segments of Co-Cr removable partial denture frameworks.

  1. Cloud track wind using synergism of backscatter lidar and sky digital picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalesifard, Hamid R.; Abdi, Farhad; Flamant, Pierre H.

    2005-10-01

    Cloud altitude measurements by a 532nm backscatter Lidar and time lapsed digital photography are combined to monitor the cloud velocity profile. The cloud images are recorded in time steps of two seconds by a Nikon D100 digital camera through a 63° solid angle while the Lidar was measuring the cloud altitude. The images are recorded in 8 bits gray scale JPG format in an array of 2240×1488 pixels. To measure the angular displacement of different parts of the cloud, each image is meshed into an array of 44×29 cells, each cell contains 50×50 pixels. The grayscale density cross correlations between similar cells of successive images are computed using a MATLAB code developed by us for this application. The output products are the direction and the amount of displacement of each cell, in pixels. combining the results on cloud displacement with Lidar measurements enable to calculate the velocity vector in each cell. The resolution in velocity is about 1 ms-1 and 2° in direction. The calculation technique also is tested by simulating the cloud motion by moving the image pixels with a computer generated Gaussian velocity distribution.

  2. The Assembled Solar Eclipse Package (ASEP) in Bangka Indonesia during the total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puji Asmoro, Cahyo; Wijaya, Agus Fany Chandra; Dwi Ardi, Nanang; Abdurrohman, Arman; Aria Utama, Judhistira; Sutiadi, Asep; Hikmat; Ramlan Ramalis, Taufik; Suyardi, Bintang

    2016-11-01

    The Assembled Solar Eclipse Package (ASEP) is not only an integrated apparatus constructed to obtain imaging data during solar eclipse, but also it involved sky brightness and live streaming requirement. Main four parts of ASEP are composed by two imaging data recorders, one high definition video streaming camera, and a sky quality meter instrument (SQM) linked by a personal computer and motorized mounting. The parts are common instruments which are used for education or personal use. The first part is used to capture corona and prominence image during totality. For the second part, video is powerful data in order to educate public through web streaming lively. The last part, SQM is used to confirm our imaging data during obscuration. The perfect prominence picture was obtained by one of the data capture using William-Optics F=388mm with Nikon DSLR D3100. In addition, the diamond ring and corona were recorded by the second imaging tool using Sky Watcher F=910mm with Canon DSLR 60D. The third instrument is the Sony HXR MC5 streaming set to be able to broadcast to public domain area via official website. From the SQM, the value of the darkness during totality is quiet similar as a dawn condition. Finally, ASEP was entirely successful and be able to fulfil our competency as educational researcher in university.

  3. 1651-32 V1280 Sco = Nova Scorpii 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2007-02-01

    1651-32 V1280 Sco = Nova Scorpii 2007 was discovered independently by Yuji Nakamura (Kameyama, Mie, Japan) on 2007 February 04.8624 UT at 9.9 on two unfiltered CCD images taken with a 135-mm camera lens, and by Yukio Sakurai (Mito, Ibaraki-ken, Japan) on 2007 February 04.854 UT at 9.4 on two 10-s CCD exposures taken with a Fuji FinePix S2 Digital Camera (+ Nikon 180-mm f/2.8 lens). Nothing was seen at this location to magnitude 11.0 on images taken February 02.8662 UT by Nakamura, or on a CCD frame taken on February 02.8 UT by Sakurai. Spectroscopy (H. Naito and S. Narusawa, Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, February 05.87 UT) suggests V1280 Sco is a classical nova caught near maximum light. Later spectroscopy (M. Fujii, Ibara, Okayama, Japan, February 12.88 and 14.83 UT; H. Naito, February 14.86), show the spectrum has evolved. Data reported to the AAVSO may be found at www.aavso.org.

  4. Overview of Target Fabrication in Support of Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroen, Diana; Breden, Eric; Florio, Joseph; Grine-Jones, Suzi; Holt, Randy; Krych, Wojtek; Metzler, James; Russell, Chris; Stolp, Justin; Streit, Jonathan; Youngblood, Kelly

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has succeeded in making its pulsed power driver, the Z machine, a valuable testbed for a great variety of experiments. These experiments include ICF, weapon physics, Equation of State and astrophysics. There are four main target types: Dynamic Hohlraum, Double Pinch, Fast Igniter and EOS. The target sizes are comparable to projected NIF sizes. For example, capsules up to 5 mm have been fielded. This talk will focus on the assembly challenges and the use of foams to create these targets. For many targets, diagnostics and capsules are embedded in the foams, and foam dopants have been added. It is the 14 mg/cc foam target with an embedded capsule (containing deuterium) that has reproducibly produced thermonuclear neutrons. For all target types, the characterization and documentation has had to develop to ensure understanding of target performance. To achieve the required resolution we are using a Nikon automated microscope and a custom OMEGA/NIF target assembly system. Our drive for quality has lead us develop a management system that been registered to ISO 9001.

  5. 03pd0535

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-02-24

    File name :DSC_0047.JPG File size :2.8MB(2931574Bytes) Date taken :2002/02/24 10:06:57 Image size :3008 x 2000 Resolution :300 x 300 dpi Number of bits :8bit/channel Protection attribute :Off Hide Attribute :Off Camera ID :N/A Camera :NIKON D100 Quality mode :N/A Metering mode :Matrix Exposure mode :Shutter priority Speed light :Yes Focal length :24 mm Shutter speed :1/180second Aperture :F20.0 Exposure compensation :+0.3 EV White Balance :N/A Lens :N/A Flash sync mode :N/A Exposure difference :N/A Flexible program :N/A Sensitivity :N/A Sharpening :N/A Image Type :Color Color Mode :N/A Hue adjustment :N/A Saturation Control :N/A Tone compensation :N/A Latitude(GPS) :N/A Longitude(GPS) :N/A Altitude(GPS) :N/A

  6. Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Alter the Gut-Brain Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ballsmider, L. A.; Vaughn, A. C.; David, M.; Hajnal, A.; Di Lorenzo, P. M.; Czaja, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anatomical integrity of vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) operations. The retrograde tracer fast blue (FB) was injected into the stomach to label vagal neurons originating from nodose ganglion (NG) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Microglia activation was determined by quantifying changes in the fluorescent staining of hindbrain sections against an ionizing calcium adapter binding molecule 1 (Iba1). Reorganization of vagal afferents in the hindbrain was studied by fluorescent staining against isolectin 4 (IB4). The density of Iba1- and IB4-immunoreactivity was analyzed using Nikon Elements software. There was no difference in the number of FB-labeled neurons located in NG and DMV between VSG and VSG-sham rats. RYGB, but not RYGB-sham rats, showed a dramatic reduction in number of FB-labeled neurons located in the NG and DMV. VSG increased, while the RYGB operation decreased, the density of vagal afferents in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). The RYGB operation, but not the VSG procedure, significantly activated microglia in the NTS and DMV. Results of this study show that the RYGB, but not the VSG procedure, triggers microglia activation in vagal structures and remodels gut-brain communication. PMID:25722893

  7. Fundamentals of in Situ Digital Camera Methodology for Water Quality Monitoring of Coast and Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Goddijn-Murphy, Lonneke; Dailloux, Damien; White, Martin; Bowers, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Conventional digital cameras, the Nikon Coolpix885® and the SeaLife ECOshot®, were used as in situ optical instruments for water quality monitoring. Measured response spectra showed that these digital cameras are basically three-band radiometers. The response values in the red, green and blue bands, quantified by RGB values of digital images of the water surface, were comparable to measurements of irradiance levels at red, green and cyan/blue wavelengths of water leaving light. Different systems were deployed to capture upwelling light from below the surface, while eliminating direct surface reflection. Relationships between RGB ratios of water surface images, and water quality parameters were found to be consistent with previous measurements using more traditional narrow-band radiometers. This current paper focuses on the method that was used to acquire digital images, derive RGB values and relate measurements to water quality parameters. Field measurements were obtained in Galway Bay, Ireland, and in the Southern Rockall Trough in the North Atlantic, where both yellow substance and chlorophyll concentrations were successfully assessed using the digital camera method. PMID:22346729

  8. Improved Method for Analysis of Airborne Asbestos Fibers Using Phase Contrast Microscopy and FTIR Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Azari, Mansour R; Yazdian, Asil; Zendehdel, Rezvan; Souri, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheila; Peirovi, Habibalalah; Panahi, Davod; Kazempour, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, some studies have tried to improve Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) for counting asbestos fibers. Due to the lack of a universally accepted alternative method, this study aimed to improve PCM for better counting of asbestos fibers. Confirmed asbestos standards were applied using a dust generator for sampling. Sampling from the dust generator was carried out according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ID-160 method and 95 samples with diverse densities were prepared to be counted using conventional and modern PCM. All samples were counted single blindly by a co-author of this study and the obtained data were analyzed by paired t-test, correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Duplicate samples were prepared for qualitative analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X ray. Asbestos densities on filters were in the range of less than 100 to 600 fibers/mm(2). Statistically, significant differences were observed for the count density of the 95 samples counted by the two phase contrast microscopes (P<0.001). Nikon microscope demonstrated higher counts compared to conventional microscope and had a lower coefficient of variation. Samples were analyzed qualitatively using FT-IR and SEM, and the presence of asbestos fibers was confirmed. The improved PCM and FT-IR methods presented in this study demonstrated more precise and accurate determination of personal exposure to airborne asbestos fibers and subsequent risk assessment.

  9. [Development of telepathology systems between different types of terminals based on the standard for image collaboration command protocol].

    PubMed

    Tofukuji, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Shuji; Suzuki, Akitoshi; Saito, Makoto; Hara, Shigeji; Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Shiraishi, Taizo; Ooshiro, Mariko; Sawai, Takashi; Kaihara, Shigekoto

    2003-01-01

    In Japan telepathology systems have been developed in medical or pathological environment such as a shortage and an uneven distribution of pathologists. More than 100 telepathology terminals are working mainly for intraoperative quick diagnosis. They cannot communicate with different types each other. In March 2000 the Medical Information System Development Center(MEDIS-DC) successfully demonstrated the interconnection between different types of telepathology terminals based on the Standard for Image Collaboration Command Protocol (SICCP). Nikon, NTTdata and Olympus had joined the development. In February 2002 MEDIS-DC examined these systems for pathological consultations in the fields of Okinawa-Kyoto, Kyoto-Mie and Mie-Okinawa. These successful examinations let us know that telepathology systems need new observation methodologies for telecytology and teleconsultation in addition to the flow for intraoperative quick diagnosis, new GUI guidelines for telepathology terminal design and, education and support for users of their smooth operation. Outcomes of MEDIS-DC activities encourageed us to challenge the next generation telepathology. We found some new trends in telepathology or pathology informatics such as virtual slide technologies and the internet applications in US and Europe. In order to keep Japanese priority, MEDIS-DC telepathology comittee has started investigations to construct a strategy for development of Japanese next generation telepathology.

  10. Web conferencing systems: Skype and MSN in telepathology.

    PubMed

    Klock, Clóvis; Gomes, Regina de Paula Xavier

    2008-07-15

    Virtual pathology is a very important tool that can be used in several ways, including interconsultations with specialists in many areas and for frozen sections. We considered in this work the use of Windows Live Messenger and Skype for image transmission. The conference was made through wide broad internet using Nikon E 200 microscope and Digital Samsung Colour SCC-131 camera. Internet speed for transmission varied from 400 Kb to 2.0 Mb. Both programs allow voice transmission concomitant to image, so the communication between the involved pathologists was possible using microphones and speakers. A live image could be seen by the receptor pathologist who was able to ask for moving the field or increase/diminish the augmentation. No phone call or typing required. The programs MSN and Skype can be used in many ways and with different operational systems installed in the computer. The capture system is simple and relatively cheap, what proves the viability of the system to be used in developing countries and in cities where do not exist pathologists. With the improvement of software and the improvement of digital image quality, associated to the use of the high speed broad band Internet this will be able to become a new modality in surgical pathology.

  11. iPhone 4s and iPhone 5s Imaging of the Eye.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Maaz; Ferenczy, Sandor R; Shields, Carol L

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility of a consumer-grade cellular iPhone camera as an ocular imaging device compared to existing ophthalmic imaging equipment for documentation purposes. A comparison of iPhone 4s and 5s images was made with external facial images (macrophotography) using Nikon cameras, slit-lamp images (microphotography) using Zeiss photo slit-lamp camera, and fundus images (fundus photography) using RetCam II. In an analysis of six consecutive patients with ophthalmic conditions, both iPhones achieved documentation of external findings (macrophotography) using standard camera modality, tap to focus, and built-in flash. Both iPhones achieved documentation of anterior segment findings (microphotography) during slit-lamp examination through oculars. Both iPhones achieved fundus imaging using standard video modality with continuous iPhone illumination through an ophthalmic lens. Comparison to standard ophthalmic cameras, macrophotography and microphotography were excellent. In comparison to RetCam fundus photography, iPhone fundus photography revealed smaller field and was technically more difficult to obtain, but the quality was nearly similar to RetCam. iPhone versions 4s and 5s can provide excellent ophthalmic macrophotography and microphotography and adequate fundus photography. We believe that iPhone imaging could be most useful in settings where expensive, complicated, and cumbersome imaging equipment is unavailable.

  12. Biomechanical strain of goldsmiths.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Paula Emanuela Fernandes; Teixeira, Juliana Vieira Schmidt; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira; Gontijo, Leila Amaral

    2012-01-01

    The work of the goldsmiths consists in the manufacture of jewelry. The piece, be it an earring, bracelet or necklace, is hand-assembled. This task requires precision, skill, kindness and patience. In this work, we make use of tools such as cuticle clippers and rounded tip, beads or precious stones and also pieces of metal. This type of activity requires a biomechanical stress of hands and wrists. In order to quantify the biomechanical stress, we performed a case study to measure the movements performed by an assembly of pieces of jewelry. As method for research, filming was done during assembly of parts to a paste, using a Nikon digital camera, for 1 (one) hour. The film was edited by Kinovea software, and the task was divided into cycles, each cycle corresponds to a complete object. In one cycle, there are four two movements of supination and pronation movements of the forearm. The cycle lasts approximately sixteen seconds, totaling 1800 cycles in eight hours. Despite the effort required of the wrists, the activity shows no complaints from the employees, but this fact does not mischaracterizes the ability of employees to acquire repetitive strain injuries and work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  13. Reconstructing 3D coastal cliffs from airborne oblique photographs without ground control points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, T. J. B.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal cliff collapse hazard assessment requires measuring cliff face topography at regular intervals. Terrestrial laser scanner techniques have proven useful so far but are expensive to use either through purchasing the equipment or through survey subcontracting. In addition, terrestrial laser surveys take time which is sometimes incompatible with the time during with the beach is accessible at low-tide. By comparison, structure from motion techniques (SFM) are much less costly to implement, and if airborne, acquisition of several kilometers of coastline can be done in a matter of minutes. In this paper, the potential of GPS-tagged oblique airborne photographs and SFM techniques is examined to reconstruct chalk cliff dense 3D point clouds without Ground Control Points (GCP). The focus is put on comparing the relative 3D point of views reconstructed by Visual SFM with their synchronous Solmeta Geotagger Pro2 GPS locations using robust estimators. With a set of 568 oblique photos, shot from the open door of an airplane with a triplet of synchronized Nikon D7000, GPS and SFM-determined view point coordinates converge to X: ±31.5 m; Y: ±39.7 m; Z: ±13.0 m (LE66). Uncertainty in GPS position affects the model scale, angular attitude of the reference frame (the shoreline ends up tilted by 2°) and absolute positioning. Ground Control Points cannot be avoided to orient such models.

  14. Uav-Based Automatic Tree Growth Measurement for Biomass Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpina, M.; Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Tymków, P.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  15. Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Mauro; Davis, Gustave L.; Warner, Frederick J.; Geshwind, Frank B.; Coppi, Andreas C.; DeVerse, Richard A.; Coifman, Ronald R.

    2006-02-01

    We apply a unique micro-optoelectromechanical tuned light source and new algorithms to the hyper-spectral microscopic analysis of human colon biopsies. The tuned light prototype (Plain Sight Systems Inc.) transmits any combination of light frequencies, range 440nm 700nm, trans-illuminating H and E stained tissue sections of normal (N), benign adenoma (B) and malignant carcinoma (M) colon biopsies, through a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral photomicrographs, randomly collected 400X magnication, are obtained with a CCD camera (Sensovation) from 59 different patient biopsies (20 N, 19 B, 20 M) mounted as a microarray on a single glass slide. The spectra of each pixel are normalized and analyzed to discriminate among tissue features: gland nuclei, gland cytoplasm and lamina propria/lumens. Spectral features permit the automatic extraction of 3298 nuclei with classification as N, B or M. When nuclei are extracted from each of the 59 biopsies the average classification among N, B and M nuclei is 97.1%; classification of the biopsies, based on the average nuclei classification, is 100%. However, when the nuclei are extracted from a subset of biopsies, and the prediction is made on nuclei in the remaining biopsies, there is a marked decrement in performance to 60% across the 3 classes. Similarly the biopsy classification drops to 54%. In spite of these classification differences, which we believe are due to instrument and biopsy normalization issues, hyper-spectral analysis has the potential to achieve diagnostic efficiency needed for objective microscopic diagnosis.

  16. Process variation monitoring (PVM) by wafer inspection tool as a complementary method to CD-SEM for mapping LER and defect density on production wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabtay, Saar; Blumberg, Yuval; Levi, Shimon; Greenberg, Gadi; Harel, Daniel; Conley, Amiad; Meshulach, Doron; Kan, Kobi; Dolev, Ido; Kumar, Surender; Mendel, Kalia; Goto, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Naoaki; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Shinichi; Nagaoka, Shirou; Sekito, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) constitute a higher percentage of the line-width and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include: scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, lithography stack thickness and composition variations, exposure variations, etc. These process variations in advanced VLSI manufacturing processes, specifically in memory devices where CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations, are well known to significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time and cover only a small fraction of the wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials® and Nikon Corporation®, on the implementation of a complementary method to the CD-SEM and OCD tools, to monitor post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM), is based on measuring variations in the light reflected from periodic structures, under optimized illumination and collection conditions, and is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV brightfield (BF) wafer inspection tool. It will be shown that full polarization control in illumination and collection paths of the wafer inspection tool is critical to enable to set an optimized Process Variation Monitoring recipe.

  17. The Annular Two-phase Flow on Rod Bundle: The Effects of Spacers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Tomoaki; Pham, Son; Kawara, Zensaku; Yokomine, Takehiko

    2013-11-01

    The annular two-phase flow on rod bundle keeps an important role in many heat exchange systems but our knowledge about it, especially the interaction between the liquid film flowing on the rods' surfaces and the spacers is very limited. This study is aimed to the investigation of how the spacer affects the disturbance waves of the flow in a 3 × 3 simulating BWR fuel rod bundle test section. Firstly, the characteristics of the disturbance waves at both upstream and downstream locations of the spacer were obtained by using reflected light arrangement with a high speed camera Phantom V7.1 (Vision Research Inc.) and a Nikon macro lens 105mm f/2.8. The data showed that the parameters such as frequency and circumferential coherence of the disturbance waves are strongly modified when they go through the spacer. Then, the observations at the locations right before and after the spacer were performed by using the back light arrangement with the same high speed camera and a Cassegrain optical system (Seika Cooperation). The obtained images at micro-scale of time and space provided the descriptions of the wavy interface behaviors right before and after the spacer as well as different droplets creation processes caused by the presence of this spacer.

  18. Changes in immunohistochemical distribution of cytochrome MC-P-448 in the rat liver during acclimation to cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Motohashi, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Kishi, Kiyozo; Takano, Takehito

    1993-12-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of cytochrome MC-P-448 (form of cytochrome P-450 induced by methylcholanthrene) in rat hepatic lobule and the changes in their distribution pattern in response to cold exposure at 4°C were investigated. The distribution of hepatocytes expressing immunoreactivity to cytochrome MC-P-448 was demonstrated with rabbit anti-MC-P-448 serum using a microphotomeasurement system P1 (Nikon). A duration of cold exposure for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks at 4°C was applied to study the effect of cold adaptation of cytochrome MC-P-448. In control rats housed at 24°C, hepatocytes showing high immunoreactivity to cytochrome MC-P-448 were located in the centrilobular areas of the hepatic lobules, whereas they disappeared markedly in the 4-week cold-exposed rats. In 1-week and 2-week cold-exposed rats, only a slight decrease in the expression of MC-P-448 positive hepatocytes was observed. These changes were clearly seen by visual inspection of the distribution topography as determined by a microphotomeasurement technique. In conclusion, cytochrome MC-P-448 forms which were predominantly located in centrilobular areas in the hepatic lobule decreased in 4-week cold-exposed rats. This was in contrast to our early report which showed an increasing tendency of cytochrome PB-P-450 forms in 4-week cold-exposed rats.

  19. The place for performance in the digital holographic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Sandford-Richardson, Elizabeth; Bernardo, Luis Miguel; Crespo, Helder

    2014-02-01

    In this series of digital art holograms and lenticulars, we are examining different kinds of movement inside the digital holographic space explored by Elizabeth Sandford-Richardson, a visual performance artist. During the process of capturing the image, we used the HoloCam Portable Light System, equipped with Canon and Nikon cameras positioned at different heights and angles, in order to improve the rendering of the holographic space. Based on the "Performativity of Performance Documentation" a notion introduced by Philip Auslanderi we revisit some authors that have been working in the "theatrical" practise, mainly in photography, adding the possibility of movement in 3D space. We must realise that the movement of the viewer in front of a digital holographic image creates the performance that he/she is looking at. We should consider the physical space, outside the hologram, and this kind of "performance acts", also part of the work. In summary, we propose a reflection on the digital holographic space, time, movement and its place in contemporary art.

  20. The impact of realistic source shape and flexibility on source mask optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hajime; Mizuno, Yasushi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Kita, Naonori; Matsui, Ryota; Izumi, Hirohiko; Tajima, Keiichi; Siebert, Joachim; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    Source mask optimization (SMO) is widely used to make state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in high volume manufacturing. To realize mature SMO solutions in production, the Intelligent Illuminator, which is an illumination system on Nikon scanner, is useful because it can provide generation of freeform sources with high fidelity to the target. Proteus SMO, which employs co-optimization method and an insertion of validation with mask 3D effect and resist properties for an accurate prediction of wafer printing, can take into account the properties of Intelligent Illuminator. We investigate an impact of the source properties on the SMO to pattern of a static-random access memory. Quality of a source made on the scanner compared to the SMO target is evaluated with in-situ measurement and aerial image simulation using its measurement data. Furthermore we discuss an evaluation of a universality of the source to use it in multiple scanners with a validation with estimated value of scanner errors.

  1. A new species of Nemacerota Hampson, [1893] (Lepidoptera, Thyatiridae) from Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao-Hui; Ronkay, Gábor; Ronkay, László; Han, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-13

    The genus Nemacerota Hampson, [1893] includes 14 species worldwide, which are mainly distributed from Pakistan along the main Himalayan chain, the eastern frontier of the Tibetan plateau and the Central Chinese mountains to the northern Pacific regions. Ten species have been recorded from China. Among them, only N. tancrei (Graeser, 1888) occurs in NE China, whereas all other taxa inhabit mountainous areas in Central China, the eastern frontier of the Tibetan plateau or Tibet. N. igorkostjuki Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 is found only in the southern edge of Tibet (Nyalam = Nielamu); N. mandibulata Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. taurina Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. stueningi Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. pectinata (Houlbert, 1921), N. inouei Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 and N. owadai Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 are known from Mt. Taibaishan, Shaanxi Province; N. griseobasalis (Sick, 1941), N. decorata (Sick, 1941) and N. pectinata (Houlbert, 1921) occur in the northwestern parts of Yunnan Province (and, possibly, also in southern Sichuan).        Here we describe a new species from the Linzhi area, Autonomous Region Xizang (Tibet), China. Specimens were dissected and examined using standard methods; adult photographs were photographed with a Nikon D700; genitalic slides were photographed using the Qcapture pro system, and processed in Adobe Photoshop CS5 software.

  2. Moisture content and particle size of dehydrated egg yolk affect lipid and cholesterol extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Froning, G W; Wehling, R L; Cuppett, S; Niemann, L

    1998-11-01

    Egg yolk was spray-dried under conditions to produce a small particle size powder and a large particle size powder. Particle size was determined using a Nikon Optiophot microscope. Spray-dried egg yolk was also adjusted to various moisture levels as follows: control (2 to 4% moisture), 7% moisture, and 12% moisture. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) of each of these moisture treatments at 45 C/306 atm using 30 g CO2/g of sample was completed. For the particle size study, 45 g CO2/g of sample at 45 C/306 atm was utilized. Particle size exhibited a significant effect on cholesterol and lipids extracted using SCE. As moisture content of dried egg yolk increased to 7%, there was a significant increase in lipids extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. Moisture content had no significant effect on cholesterol extraction. After extracting SCE higher moisture spray-dried egg yolk, sponge cake volume was significantly reduced compared to that of the control. The reduced sponge cake volume may be due to protein denaturation.

  3. KSC-99padig054

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-19

    (Nikon camera D1 test)The blazing light of Space Shuttle Discovery's launch turns night into day at Launch Pad 39B. The successful liftoff occurred on time at 7:50:00.069 EST from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-103. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-François Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999

  4. KSC-99padig055

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-19

    (Nikon camera D1 test)The blazing light of Space Shuttle Discovery's launch turns night into day at Launch Pad 39B as billows of smoke and steam rise behind it. The successful liftoff occurred on time at 7:50:00.069 EST from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-103. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-François Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999

  5. KSC-99padig052

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-19

    (Nikon camera D1 test)Amid billows of smoke and steam, Space Shuttle Discovery lights up the clear night sky as it lifts off on time at 7:50:00.069 EST from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-103. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-François Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999

  6. KSC-99padig053

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-19

    (Nikon camera D1 test)With smoke and steam billowing around it, Space Shuttle Discovery hurtles into the clear night sky in a blaze of light. The successful liftoff occurred on time at 7:50:00.069 EST from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-103. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-François Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999

  7. D Model of AL Zubarah Fortress in Qatar - Terrestrial Laser Scanning VS. Dense Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Mechelke, K.; Maziull, L.

    2015-02-01

    In September 2011 the fortress Al Zubarah, built in 1938 as a typical Arabic fortress and restored in 1987 as a museum, was recorded by the HafenCity University Hamburg using terrestrial laser scanning with the IMAGER 5006h and digital photogrammetry for the Qatar Museum Authority within the framework of the Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project. One goal of the object recording was to provide detailed 2D/3D documentation of the fortress. This was used to complete specific detailed restoration work in the recent years. From the registered laser scanning point clouds several cuttings and 2D plans were generated as well as a 3D surface model by triangle meshing. Additionally, point clouds and surface models were automatically generated from digital imagery from a Nikon D70 using the open-source software Bundler/PMVS2, free software VisualSFM, Autodesk Web Service 123D Catch beta, and low-cost software Agisoft PhotoScan. These outputs were compared with the results from terrestrial laser scanning. The point clouds and surface models derived from imagery could not achieve the same quality of geometrical accuracy as laser scanning (i.e. 1-2 cm).

  8. To evaluate the validity of Recurring Esthetic Dental proportion in natural dentition.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shilpa; Pitti, Varun; Satish Babu, Cl; Surendra Kumar, Gp; Jnanadev, Kr

    2011-07-01

    Different proportions are described in the literature for smile designing, such as Golden proportion, Golden percentage, Preston's proportion, and recently, Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) proportion. To evaluate the existence of RED proportion in natural dentition. To determine the relative height of maxillary lateral incisor and canine occurring in natural dentition so that it can be used in any of the above proportions. Fifteen male subjects and 15 female subjects in each of the different age groups of 18-23 years, 24-29 years and 30-35 years were selected for this study (total 90). Photographs of the subjects were taken using Nikon D200 camera with 135 mm lens and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop CS4 extended software. The height and width of maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines were found out using the measuring tool provided in the software. Average width ratio and height ratio of maxillary lateral incisor to central incisor and maxillary canine to lateral incisor were calculated to check the existence of RED proportion in natural dentition. Average lateral incisor to central incisor height ratio for "small"- and "medium"-sized teeth was found to be 88% and for "tall"-sized teeth was found to be 84%. Average canine to lateral incisor height ratio for "small"- and "medium"-sized teeth was found to be 106% and for "tall"-sized teeth was found to be 105%. Within the limitations of the study, RED proportion was not seen in natural dentition.

  9. Spherical photography and virtual tours for presenting crime scenes and forensic evidence in new zealand courtrooms.

    PubMed

    Tung, Nicole D; Barr, Jason; Sheppard, Dion J; Elliot, Douglas A; Tottey, Leah S; Walsh, Kevan A J

    2015-05-01

    The delivery of forensic science evidence in a clear and understandable manner is an important aspect of a forensic scientist's role during expert witness delivery in a courtroom trial. This article describes an Integrated Evidence Platform (IEP) system based on spherical photography which allows the audience to view the crime scene via a virtual tour and view the forensic scientist's evidence and results in context. Equipment and software programmes used in the creation of the IEP include a Nikon DSLR camera, a Seitz Roundshot VR Drive, PTGui Pro, and Tourweaver Professional Edition. The IEP enables a clear visualization of the crime scene, with embedded information such as photographs of items of interest, complex forensic evidence, the results of laboratory analyses, and scientific opinion evidence presented in context. The IEP has resulted in significant improvements to the pretrial disclosure of forensic results, enhanced the delivery of evidence in court, and improved the jury's understanding of the spatial relationship between results. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Current status of water immersion lithography and prospect of higher index method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owa, Soichi; Nakano, Katsushi; Nagasaka, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Hirotaka; Ohmura, Yasuhiro; McCallum, Martin

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we will present the progress that has been made in the area of tool development for ArF Immersion. The local fill nozzle design adopted by Nikon has been implemented in the world's first production Immersion tools, the S609B and S610C, to produce bubble free and low defect imaging. Defect, imaging and overlay results from the S609B are presented showing manufacturing level results. First imaging results from the 1.30 NA S610C are also reported showing the tools capability to image at the 45nm node and beyond. Beyond 1.30 NA it is likely that high index materials will be required. We examine the prospects for taking immersion to lens NA's of around 1.55 with second generation fluids and even 1.70 NA with third generation fluids. However, it cannot be forgotten that this also requires new glass materials for lenses; the status of these will also be discussed. It is likely that high index immersion, if implemented, will not be in time for most customers' roadmaps, in the interim it is likely that Double Patterning (DP) will be used with potential cost penalites. The potential applications of this technique will be briefly discussed.

  11. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Jiang, Mingming; Zia, Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes that have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we identify an optimal objective class and imaging configuration for Fourier microscopy. In addition, the Zemax files for the objectives and setups used in this analysis have been made publicly available as a resource for future studies.

  12. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  13. Construction, figures of merit, and testing of a single-cell fluorescence excitation spectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Laura S.; Richardson, Tammi L.; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Shaw, Timothy J.; Hintz, Christopher J.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Lawrenz, Evelyn; Myrick, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of phytoplankton community composition is critical to understanding the ecology and biogeochemistry of the oceans. One approach to taxonomic characterization takes advantage of differing pigmentation between algal taxa and thus differences in fluorescence excitation spectra. Analyses of bulk water samples, however, may be confounded by interference from chromophoric dissolved organic matter or suspended particulate matter. Here, we describe an instrument that uses a laser trap based on a Nikon TE2000-U microscope to position individual phytoplankton cells for confocal fluorescence excitation spectroscopy, thus avoiding interference from the surrounding medium. Quantitative measurements of optical power give data in the form of photons emitted per photon of exposure for an individual phytoplankton cell. Residence times for individual phytoplankton in the instrument can be as long as several minutes with no substantial change in their fluorescence excitation spectra. The laser trap was found to generate two-photon fluorescence from the organisms so a modification was made to release the trap momentarily during data acquisition. Typical signal levels for an individual cell are in the range of 106 photons∕s of fluorescence using a monochromated 75 W Xe arc lamp excitation source with a 2% transmission neutral density filter. PMID:20113077

  14. Stability of 35 mm Scanners as Used in Ophthalmologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Karl; Lee, Kristine E.; Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective To assess the consistency of digitization of 35mm slides, as practiced in ophthalmologic research and estimate the impact of variation on semi-automated retinal vessel width measurements. Study Design and Methods A single retina slide was repeatedly digitized under various conditions on three scanner models. Average color levels were extracted from the resulting images, from which vessel widths were graded. The color channel level variations and possible correlation with width were analyzed. Results The Nikon 5000 scanner had average coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.4, 2.3, and 0.5 for the red, green, and blue channel levels across all runs. The p-values of the correlation between the red, green, and blue color channel levels, and the width of the large retinal arteriole, were 0.89, 0.27, and 0.58. Conclusion Our results suggest that the tested scanners digitize the 35mm slides in a reliable manner without biasing the retinal vessel measurements. PMID:20128572

  15. EFFECTS OF TEST TEMPERATURE ON FLOW OF METALLIC GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. NOURI; Y. LIU; P. WESSELING; J. LEWANDOWSKI

    2006-04-12

    Micro-hardness experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures using a Nikon QM micro-hardness machine on a number of metallic glass (e.g. Zr-, Fe-, Al-) systems. Although high micro-hardness was exhibited at room temperature, significant hardness reductions were exhibited near the glass transition temperature, T{sub g}. The effects of changes in test temperature on the micro-hardness will be reported. The effects of exposure time on the hardness evolution at a given temperature will also be summarized to illustrate some of the differences in behavior of the systems shown. The extreme softening near T{sub g}, characteristic of bulk metallic glass systems, enables the exploration of novel deformation processing. In order to develop deformation processing windows, the evaluation of bulk metallic glass mechanical properties under quasi-static conditions and the determination of flow properties at different temperatures and strain rates are reported. The use of such information to create layered/composite bulk metallic glasses will be summarized.

  16. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  17. Automated microscopy system for detection and genetic characterization of fetal nucleated red blood cells on slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravkin, Ilya; Temov, Vladimir

    1998-04-01

    The detection and genetic analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood will permit noninvasive prenatal screening for genetic defects. Applied Imaging has developed and is currently evaluating a system for semiautomatic detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells on slides and acquisition of their DNA probe FISH images. The specimens are blood smears from pregnant women (9 - 16 weeks gestation) enriched for nucleated red blood cells (NRBC). The cells are identified by using labeled monoclonal antibodies directed to different types of hemoglobin chains (gamma, epsilon); the nuclei are stained with DAPI. The Applied Imaging system has been implemented with both Olympus BX and Nikon Eclipse series microscopes which were equipped with transmission and fluorescence optics. The system includes the following motorized components: stage, focus, transmission, and fluorescence filter wheels. A video camera with light integration (COHU 4910) permits low light imaging. The software capabilities include scanning, relocation, autofocusing, feature extraction, facilities for operator review, and data analysis. Detection of fetal NRBCs is achieved by employing a combination of brightfield and fluorescence images of nuclear and cytoplasmic markers. The brightfield and fluorescence images are all obtained with a single multi-bandpass dichroic mirror. A Z-stack of DNA probe FISH images is acquired by moving focus and switching excitation filters. This stack is combined to produce an enhanced image for presentation and spot counting.

  18. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate.

  19. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a means to discriminate various tissues types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, Joshua; Favreau, Peter F.; Lopez, Carmen; Lall, Malvika; Weber, David S.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Little is currently known about the fluorescence excitation spectra of disparate tissues and how these spectra change with pathological state. Current imaging diagnostic techniques have limited capacity to investigate fluorescence excitation spectral characteristics. This study utilized excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging to perform a comprehensive assessment of fluorescence spectral signatures of various tissues. Immediately following tissue harvest, a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) were used to acquire hyperspectral image data from each sample. Scans utilized excitation wavelengths from 340 nm to 550 nm in 5 nm increments. Hyperspectral images were analyzed with custom Matlab scripts including linear spectral unmixing (LSU), principal component analysis (PCA), and Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM). Spectra were examined for potential characteristic features such as consistent intensity peaks at specific wavelengths or intensity ratios among significant wavelengths. The resultant spectral features were conserved among tissues of similar molecular composition. Additionally, excitation spectra appear to be a mixture of pure endmembers with commonalities across tissues of varied molecular composition, potentially identifiable through GMM. These results suggest the presence of common autofluorescent molecules in most tissues and that excitationscanning hyperspectral imaging may serve as an approach for characterizing tissue composition as well as pathologic state. Future work will test the feasibility of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a contrast mode for discriminating normal and pathological tissues.

  20. Observations of Leonids 2009 by the Tajikistan Fireball Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovicka, J.; Borovicka, J.

    2011-01-01

    The fireball network in Tajikistan has operated since 2009. Five stations of the network covering the territory of near eleven thousands square kilometers are equipped with all-sky cameras with the Zeiss Distagon "fish-eye" objectives and by digital SLR cameras Nikon with the Nikkor "fish-eye" objectives. Observations of the Leonid activity in 2009 were carried out during November 13-21. In this period, 16 Leonid fireballs have been photographed. As a result of astrometric and photometric reductions, the precise data including atmospheric trajectories, velocities, orbits, light curves, photometric masses and densities were determined for 10 fireballs. The radiant positions during the maximum night suggest that the majority of the fireball activity was caused by the annual stream component with only minor contribution from the 1466 trail. According to the PE criterion, the majority of Leonid fireballs belonged to the most fragile and weak fireball group IIIB. However, one detected Leonid belonged to the fireball group I. This is the first detection of an anomalously strong Leonid individual.

  1. Extended-working-distance multiphoton micromanipulation microscope for deep-penetration imaging in live mice and tissue.

    PubMed

    Makale, Milan; McElroy, Michele; O'Brien, Peter; Hoffman, Robert M; Guo, Sharon; Bouvet, Michael; Barnes, Leo; Ingulli, Elizabeth; Cheresh, David

    2009-01-01

    We constructed a multiphoton (2-P) microscope with space to mount and operate microphysiology hardware, and still acquire high quality 2-P images of tumor cells deep within tissues of live mice. We reconfigured for nondescanned 2-P imaging, a dedicated electrophysiology microscope, the Nikon FN1. This microscope is compact, with retractable objectives, allowing more stage space. The instrument is fitted with long-working-distance objectives (2.5- to 3.5-mm WD) with a narrow bore, high NA, and efficient UV and IR light transmission. The system is driven by a powerful 3.5-W peak power pulsed Ti-sapphire laser with a broad tuning range. This 2-P system images a fluorescent standard to a depth of 750 to 800 microm, acquires images of murine pancreatic tumors in vivo, and also images fluorescently labeled T-cells inside live, externalized mouse lymph nodes. Effective imaging depths range between 100 and 500 microm. This compares favorably with the 100- to 300 microm micron depth attained by many 2-P systems, especially descanned 2-P instruments, and 40-microm-deep imaging with confocal microscopes. The greater depth penetration is attributable to the use of high-NA long-working-distance water-dipping lenses incorporated into a nondescanned instrument with carefully configured laser beam introduction and image-acquisition optics. Thus the new system not only has improved imaging capabilities, but allows micromanipulation and maintenance of tissues and organs.

  2. Information enhancement, metrics, and data fusion in spectral and polarimetric images of natural scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggin, Michael J.; Glass, William R.; Cabot, Elizabeth R.; Bowers, David; Wellems, David; Alsing, Paul

    2007-09-01

    In order to understand the phenomenology of optimum data acquisition and analysis and to develop an understanding of capabilities, field measurements of multiband, polarimetric data can substantially assist in developing a methodology to collect and to exploit feature signatures. In 1999, Duggin showed that images obtained with an 8-bit camera used as a polarimeter could yield additional information to that contained in a radiometric (S 0) image. It should be noted that Walraven and Curran had performed some very fine experiments almost two decades earlier, using photographic film, and North performed careful polarimetric measurements of the skydome using a four-lens polarimetric film camera and convex mirror in 1997. There have been a number of papers dealing with polarimetric field measurements since that time. Recently, commercial color cameras have become available that have 12-bit depth per channel. Here, we perform radiometric and chromatic calibrations and examine the possible use of a Nikon D200 10.2 mega pixel, 3 channel, 12-bit per channel camera fitted with a zoom lens as a potential field imaging polarimeter. We show that there are still difficulties in using off-the-shelf technology for field applications, but list some reasons why we need to address these challenges, in order to understand the phenomenology of data collection and analysis metrics for multiple data streams.

  3. Visualization of removal of trapped air from the apical region of the straight root canal models generating 2-phase intermittent counter flow during ultrasonically activated irrigation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Harry Huiz; Iskandar, Bernard; Suardita, Ketut; Suharto, Djoko

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of irrigant traveling apically and generating 2-phase intermittent counter flow in straight root canal models during activation of the irrigant by ultrasonic means in an endodontic procedure. A high-speed imaging system, with high temporal and spatial resolution (FastCam SA5; Photron, Tokyo, Japan) at a frame rate of 100,000 frames per second using a macro lens (60 mm, f/2.8; Nikon, Tokyo, Japan), was used to visualize, in glass models of root canals, an ultrasonically induced acoustic pressure wave in an EDTA solution environment. A 25-mm stainless steel noncutting file #20 driven by an ultrasonic device (P5 Newtron; Satelec Acteon, Mérignac, France) at power settings of 5 and 7 produced disturbances at the solution-air interface. We found that apically directed travel of the irrigant was caused by disruption of the surface tension at the solution-air interface. This disruption caused by ultrasonic activation energy displaced air in the form of bubbles from the apical region toward the solution. The apical movement of the solution may be attributed to ultrasonically induced wave generation at the solution-air interface, resulting in the removal of trapped air from the root canal and allowing the solution to travel apically in the opposite directions (via a 2-phase intermittent counter flow). Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical Extinction Measurements of Laser Side-Scatter During Tropical Storm Colin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Kasparis, Takis; Metzger, Philip; Michaelides, Silas

    2017-01-01

    A side-scatter imaging (SSI) technique using a 447 nm, 500 mW laser and a Nikon D80 camera was tested at Kennedy Space Center, Florida during the passing of a rain band associated with Tropical Storm Colin. The June 6, 2016, 22:00 GMT rain event was intense but short-lived owing to the strong west-to-east advection of the rain band. An effort to validate the optical extinction measurement was conducted by setting up a line of three tipping rain gauges along an 80 m east-west path and below the laser beam. Differences between tipping bucket measurements were correlated to the extinction coefficient profile along the lasers path, as determined by the SSI measurement. In order to compare the tipping bucket to the optical extinction data, a Marshall-Palmer DSD model was assumed. Since this was a daytime event, the laser beam was difficult to detect in the camera images, pointing out an important limitation of SSI measurements: the practical limit of DSD density that can be effectively detected and analyzed under daylight conditions using this laser and camera, corresponds to a fairly moderate rainfall rate on the order of 20 mmh (night measurements achieve a much improved sensitivity). The SSI analysis model under test produced promising results, but in order to use the SSI method for routine meteorological studies, improvements to the math model will be required.

  5. Application of optical tweezers and excimer laser to study protoplast fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantawang, Titirat; Samipak, Sompid; Limtrakul, Jumras; Chattham, Nattaporn

    2015-07-01

    Protoplast fusion is a physical phenomenon that two protoplasts come in contact and fuse together. Doing so, it is possible to combine specific genes from one protoplast to another during fusion such as drought resistance and disease resistance. There are a few possible methods to induce protoplast fusion, for example, electrofusion and chemical fusion. In this study, chemical fusion was performed with laser applied as an external force to enhance rate of fusion and observed under a microscope. Optical tweezers (1064 nm with 100X objective N.A. 1.3) and excimer laser (308 nm LMU-40X-UVB objective) were set with a Nikon Ti-U inverted microscope. Samples were prepared by soaking in hypertonic solution in order to induce cell plasmolysis. Elodea Canadensis and Allium cepa plasmolysed leaves were cut and observed under microscope. Concentration of solution was varied to induce difference turgor pressures on protoplasts pushing at cell wall. Free protoplasts in solution were trapped by optical tweezers to study the effect of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. PEG was diluted by Ca+ solution during the process to induced protoplast cell contact and fusion. Possibility of protoplast fusion by excimer laser was investigated and found possible. Here we report a novel tool for plant cell fusion using excimer laser. Plant growth after cell fusion is currently conducted.

  6. [Ophthalmologic reading charts : Part 2: Current logarithmically scaled reading charts].

    PubMed

    Radner, W

    2016-12-01

    To analyze currently available reading charts regarding print size, logarithmic print size progression, and the background of test-item standardization. For the present study, the following logarithmically scaled reading charts were investigated using a measuring microscope (iNexis VMA 2520; Nikon, Tokyo): Eschenbach, Zeiss, OCULUS, MNREAD (Minnesota Near Reading Test), Colenbrander, and RADNER. Calculations were made according to EN-ISO 8596 and the International Research Council recommendations. Modern reading charts and cards exhibit a logarithmic progression of print sizes. The RADNER reading charts comprise four different cards with standardized test items (sentence optotypes), a well-defined stop criterion, accurate letter sizes, and a high print quality. Numbers and Landolt rings are also given in the booklet. The OCULUS cards have currently been reissued according to recent standards and also exhibit a high print quality. In addition to letters, numbers, Landolt rings, and examples taken from a timetable and the telephone book, sheet music is also offered. The Colenbrander cards use short sentences of 44 characters, including spaces, and exhibit inaccuracy at smaller letter sizes, as do the MNREAD cards. The MNREAD cards use sentences of 60 characters, including spaces, and have a high print quality. Modern reading charts show that international standards can be achieved with test items similar to optotypes, by using recent technology and developing new concepts of test-item standardization. Accurate print sizes, high print quality, and a logarithmic progression should become the minimum requirements for reading charts and reading cards in ophthalmology.

  7. Utilisation of X-Ray computed microtomography for evaluation of iron sulphide distribution in roofing slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, Kamil; Daněk, Tomáš; Vavro, Martin; Botula, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    Roofing slate represents a traditional natural stone used for centuries for roofing and other construction applications in various types of buildings. Quality roofing slate must be primarily splittable into large, thin and waterproof tiles. In addition, it must be stable in colour and resistant against weathering. The abundance of mineral phases that weather easily or minerals that are long-term unstable has the effect of reducing the durability of slates in exterior conditions. One of the most problematic rock components, which are in a larger or smaller extent present in almost all slates, are iron sulphides, such as pyrite, marcasite or pyrrhotite. Under common atmospheric conditions, these minerals tend to oxidise, which leads to the formation of limonite and sulphuric acid. As a consequence of the origin of red-brown Fe oxyhydroxides, the undesirable colour changes of the slate may occur. But the most serious problem which occurs during this process is the changes in volume. This can cause disintegration of slate depending on the form of the iron sulphide occurrence. The content and size distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate is normally determined using the microscopic analysis in transmitted light, combined with the observation in reflected light. For quantitative determination of iron sulphides in slate, the X-Ray powder diffraction is also often used. The results of the microscopic and X-Ray analyses need to be mutually compared and should not differ fundamentally. This paper is focused on the assessing the possibility of application of the X-Ray computed microtomography (CT) as a new complementary technique enabling the analysis of content and size (volume) distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate. The X-Ray CT study was conducted using an XT H 225 ST industrial micro-tomographic system made by Nikon Metrology NV. Studied samples were reconstructed using the CT Pro 3D software (Nikon Metrology NV). The visualisation and analysis software

  8. The Performance Evaluation of Multi-Image 3d Reconstruction Software with Different Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, V.; Khosravi, M.; Ahmadi, M.; Noori, N.; Naveh, A. Hosseini; Varshosaz, M.

    2015-12-01

    the most popular ones in each category were selected (Arc 3D, Visual SfM, Sure, Agisoft). Also four small objects with distinct geometric properties and especial complexities were chosen and their accurate models as reliable true data was created using ATOS Compact Scan 2M 3D scanner. Images were taken using Fujifilm Real 3D stereo camera, Apple iPhone 5 and Nikon D3200 professional camera and three dimensional models of the objects were obtained using each of the software. Finally, a comprehensive comparison between the detailed reviews of the results on the data set showed that the best combination of software and sensors for generating three-dimensional models is directly related to the object shape as well as the expected accuracy of the final model. Generally better quantitative and qualitative results were obtained by using the Nikon D3200 professional camera, while Fujifilm Real 3D stereo camera and Apple iPhone 5 were the second and third respectively in this comparison. On the other hand, three software of Visual SfM, Sure and Agisoft had a hard competition to achieve the most accurate and complete model of the objects and the best software was different according to the geometric properties of the object.

  9. A Comparative Study of Shaping Ability of four Rotary Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zarzosa, José Ignacio; Pallarés, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study compared the cutting area, instrumentation time, root canal anatomy preservation and non-instrumented areas obtained by F360®, Mtwo®, RaCe® and Hyflex® files with ISO size 35. Material and Methods 120 teeth with a single straight root and root canal were divided into 4 groups. Working length was calculated by using X-rays. The teeth were sectioned with a handpiece and a diamond disc, and the sections were observed with Nikon SMZ-2T stereoscopic microscope and an Intralux 4000-1 light source. The groups were adjusted with a preoperative analysis with AutoCAD. The teeth were reconstructed by a #10 K-File and epoxy glue. Each group was instrumented with one of the four file systems. The instrumentation time was calculated with a 1/100 second chronometer. The area of the thirds and root canal anatomy preservation were analyzed with AutoCAD 2013 and the non-instrumented areas with AutoCAD 2013 and SMZ-2T stereoscopic microscope. The statistical analysis was made with Levene’s Test, ANOVA, Bonferroni Test and Pearson´s Chi-square. Results Equal variances were shown by Levene’s Test (P > 0.05). ANOVA (P > 0.05) showed the absence of significant differences. There were significant differences in the instrumentation time (P < 0.05). For root canal anatomy preservation and non-instrumented areas, there were no significant differences between all systems (P > 0.05). Conclusions The 4 different rotary systems produced similar cutting area, root canal anatomy preservation and non-instrumented areas. Regarding instrumentation time, F360® was the fastest system statistically. PMID:27688412

  10. Digital stereo photogrammetry for grain-scale monitoring of fluvial surfaces: Error evaluation and workflow optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Stephane; Friedrich, Heide; Delmas, Patrice; Chan, Edwin; Gimel'farb, Georgy

    2015-03-01

    Grain-scale monitoring of fluvial morphology is important for the evaluation of river system dynamics. Significant progress in remote sensing and computer performance allows rapid high-resolution data acquisition, however, applications in fluvial environments remain challenging. Even in a controlled environment, such as a laboratory, the extensive acquisition workflow is prone to the propagation of errors in digital elevation models (DEMs). This is valid for both of the common surface recording techniques: digital stereo photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The optimisation of the acquisition process, an effective way to reduce the occurrence of errors, is generally limited by the use of commercial software. Therefore, the removal of evident blunders during post processing is regarded as standard practice, although this may introduce new errors. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of a digital stereo-photogrammetric workflow developed for fluvial hydraulic applications. The introduced workflow is user-friendly and can be adapted to various close-range measurements: imagery is acquired with two Nikon D5100 cameras and processed using non-proprietary "on-the-job" calibration and dense scanline-based stereo matching algorithms. Novel ground truth evaluation studies were designed to identify the DEM errors, which resulted from a combination of calibration errors, inaccurate image rectifications and stereo-matching errors. To ensure optimum DEM quality, we show that systematic DEM errors must be minimised by ensuring a good distribution of control points throughout the image format during calibration. DEM quality is then largely dependent on the imagery utilised. We evaluated the open access multi-scale Retinex algorithm to facilitate the stereo matching, and quantified its influence on DEM quality. Occlusions, inherent to any roughness element, are still a major limiting factor to DEM accuracy. We show that a careful selection of the camera

  11. Quality of DEMs derived from Kite Aerial Photogrammety System: a case study of Dutch coastal environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; Smith, Mike J.; Anders, Niels; Meesuk, Vorawit

    2014-05-01

    Coastal protection is one of the main challenges for the Netherlands, where a large proportion of anthropogenic activity is located below sea level (both residential and economic). The Dutch government is implementing an innovative method of coastal replenishment using natural waves and winds to relocate sand from one side to the other of the country. This requires close monitoring of the spatio-temporal evolution of beaches in order to correctly model the future direction and amount of sand movement. To do so -on the onshore beach- we tested a Kite-Aerial Photography System for monitoring the beach dynamics at Zandmotor (http://www.dezandmotor.nl/en-GB/). The equipment used for data collection were a commercial DSLR camera (Nikon D7000 with a 20mm lens), gyro-levelled rig, Sutton Flowform 16 kite and Leica GNSS Viva GS10, with GSM connection to the Dutch geodetic network. We flew using a 115 m line with an average inclination of 40 to 45°; this gave a camera vertical distance of ~80 m and pixel size of ~20 mm. The methodology follows that of Smith et al. (2009), and of Paron & Smith (2013), applied to a highly dynamic environment with low texture and small relief conditions. Here we present a comparison of the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM) generated from the same dataset using two different systems: Structure from Motion (SfM) using Agisoft Photoscan Pro and traditional photogrammetry using Leica Photograpmmetry Suite. In addition the outputs from the two data processing methods are presented, including both an image mosaic and DEM, and highlighting pros and cons of both methods. References Smith, M. J. et al. 2009. High spatial resolution data acquisition for the geosciences: kite aerial photography. ESPL, 34(1), 155-161. Paron, P., Smith, M.J. 2013. Kite aerial photogrammetry system for monitoring coastal change in the Netherlands. 8th IAG International Conference on Geomorphology, Paris, August.

  12. Development of liquid-jet laser-produced plasma light source for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tamotsu; Suganuma, Takashi; Imai, Yousuke; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Someya, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Hideo; Soumagne, Georg; Komori, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Endo, Akira; Toyoda, Koichi

    2003-06-01

    The Extreme UV Lithography System Development Association (EUVA) was established in Japan in May 2002 and is supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). EUVA started the light soruce development in September 2002. This development is done by the assocaition members Gigaphoton, Ushio, Komatsu, Canon, Nikon, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sciecne and Technology (AIST) and several Japanese universities. The target of the four-year project is the development of a EUV light source with 10W clean focus point power. For the end of the fiscal year 2003 the development of a 4W EUV light source (clean focus point power) is planned. Both, Laser-Produced-Plasma (LPP) and Discharge-Produced-Plasma (DPP) EUV light sources are investigated at first. Our group at the EUVA Hiratsuka R&D Center is working on LPP sources. We are currently focusing on the development of a driver laser and a liquid Xenon plasma target. The laser is a Nd:YAG MOPA (Master Oscillator and Power Amplifier) system oscillating at 1064 nm. Average power, repetition rate and pulse duration of the laser system are 500 Watt, 10 kHa and 30nsec, respectively. The Xenon liquefication system operates at a maximum pressure of 5MPa and a temperature range between 160 K and 190 K. The pressure inside the vacuum chamber is below 0.1Pa during system operation. This paper presents the current status of the EUV system component development as well as first experimental results of generated EUV radiation.

  13. Study of nuclear morphometry on cytology specimens of benign and malignant breast lesions: A study of 122 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Anamika; Jain, Manjula; Shukla, Shailaja; Andley, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer has emerged as a leading site of cancer among women in India. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been routinely applied in assessment of breast lesions. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is subjective with a “gray zone” of 6.9–20%. Quantitative evaluation of nuclear size, shape, texture, and density parameters by morphometry can be of diagnostic help in breast tumor. Aims: To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates and assess its role in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions with derivation of suitable cut-off values between the two groups. Settings and Designs: The present study was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study of nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cases. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 benign breast disease (BBD), 8 atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and 64 carcinoma cases. Image analysis was performed on Papanicolaou-stained FNAC slides by Nikon Imaging Software (NIS)–Elements Advanced Research software (Version 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included 5 nuclear size, 2 shape, 4 texture, and 2 density parameters. Results: Nuclear morphometry could differentiate between benign and malignant aspirates with a gradually increasing nuclear size parameters from BBD to ADH to carcinoma. Cut-off values of 31.93 μm2, 6.325 μm, 5.865 μm, 7.855 μm, and 21.55 μm for mean nuclear area, equivalent diameter, minimum feret, maximum ferret, and perimeter, respectively, were derived between benign and malignant cases, which could correctly classify 7 out of 8 ADH cases. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry is a highly objective tool that could be used to supplement FNAC in differentiating benign from malignant lesions, with an important role in cases with diagnostic dilemma. PMID:28182052

  14. Abnormal attachments between a plantar aponeurosis and calcaneus

    PubMed Central

    KALNIEV, MANOL ANASTASOV; KRASTEV, DIMO; KRASTEV, NIKOLAY; VIDINOV, KALIN; VELTCHEV, LUDMIL; MILEVA, MILKA

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The plantar aponeurosis or fascia is a thick fascial seal located on the lower surface of the sole. It consists of three parts central, lateral, and medial. The central portion is the thickest. It is narrow behind and wider in front. The central portion has two strong vertical intermuscular septa which are directed upward into the foot. The lateral and medial portions are thinner. The medial portion is thinnest. The lateral portion is thin in front and thick behind. The main function of the plantar fascia is to support the longitudinal arch of the foot. In May 2013 during a routine dissection in the section hall of the Department of Anatomy and Histology in Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria we came across a very interesting variation of the plantar aponeurosis. Materials and methods For the present morphological study tissues from a human corpse material were used. This unusual anatomical variation was photographed using a Nikon Coolpix 995 camera with a 3.34 Megapixels. Results We found some fibrous strands which started from the proximal portion of the plantar aponeurosis on the left foot. The fibrous strands resembled the tentacles of an octopus and started from the proximal portion of the aponeurosis. Two of fibrous strands were directed laterally to adipose tissue and one was directed medially and backward. The first lateral fibrous strand was divided into several fascicles. We found very few data in literature about the varieties of the plantar fascia. Conclusion It is very important to consider the occurrence of above mentioned variations in the plantar aponeurosis when surgical procedures are performed on the sole. PMID:26527947

  15. Accuracy combining different brands of implants and abutments

    PubMed Central

    Selva-Otaolaurruchi, Eduardo; Senent-Vicente, Gisela; González-de-Cossio, Inés; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vertical misfit between different brands of dental implants and prosthetic abutments, with or without mechanical torque, and to study their possible combination. Study design: Five different brands of implant were used in the study: Biofit (Castemaggiore, Italy), Bioner S.A. (Barcelona, Spain), 3i Biomet (Palm Beach, U.S.A.), BTI (Alava, Spain) and Nobel Biocare (Göteborg, Sweden), with standard 4.1 mm heads and external hexagons, and their respective machined prosthetic abutments. The implant-to-abutment fit/misfit was evaluated at four points (vestibular, lingual/palatine, mesial and distal) between implants and abutments of the same brand and different brands, with or without mechanical torque, using SEM micrographs at 5000X. Image analysis was performed using NIS-Elements software (Nikon Instruments Europe B.V.). Results: Before applying torque, vertical misfit (microgaps) of the different combinations tested varied between 1.6 and 5.4 microns and after applying torque, between 0.9 and 5.9 microns, an overall average of 3.46±2.96 microns. For manual assembly without the use of mechanical torque, the best results were obtained with the combination of the 3i implant and the BTI abutment. The Nobel implant and Nobel abutment, 3i-3i and BTI-BTI and the combination of 3i implant with BTI or Nobel abutment provided the best vertical fit when mechanical torque was applied. Conclusions: The vertical fits obtained were within the limits considered clinically acceptable. The application of mechanical torque improved outcomes. There is compatibility between implants and abutments of different brand and so their combination is a clinical possibility. Key words:Vertical fit, implant, prosthetic abutment, combination. PMID:23229250

  16. Multi-image acquisition-based distance sensor using agile laser spot beam.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Amin, M Junaid

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel laser-based distance measurement technique that uses multiple-image-based spatial processing to enable distance measurements. Compared with the first-generation distance sensor using spatial processing, the modified sensor is no longer hindered by the classic Rayleigh axial resolution limit for the propagating laser beam at its minimum beam waist location. The proposed high-resolution distance sensor design uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) in combination with an optical imaging device, such as a charged-coupled device (CCD), to produce and capture different laser spot size images on a target with these beam spot sizes different from the minimal spot size possible at this target distance. By exploiting the unique relationship of the target located spot sizes with the varying ECVFL focal length for each target distance, the proposed distance sensor can compute the target distance with a distance measurement resolution better than the axial resolution via the Rayleigh resolution criterion. Using a 30 mW 633 nm He-Ne laser coupled with an electromagnetically actuated liquid ECVFL, along with a 20 cm focal length bias lens, and using five spot images captured per target position by a CCD-based Nikon camera, a proof-of-concept proposed distance sensor is successfully implemented in the laboratory over target ranges from 10 to 100 cm with a demonstrated sub-cm axial resolution, which is better than the axial Rayleigh resolution limit at these target distances. Applications for the proposed potentially cost-effective distance sensor are diverse and include industrial inspection and measurement and 3D object shape mapping and imaging.

  17. Trend of digital camera and interchangeable zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensui, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with interchangeable lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.

  18. Winter sky brightness & cloud cover over Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Moore, A. M.; Fu, J.; Ashley, M.; Cui, X.; Feng, L.; Gong, X.; Hu, Z.; Laurence, J.; LuongVan, D.; Riddle, R. L.; Shang, Z.; Sims, G.; Storey, J.; Tothill, N.; Travouillon, T.; Wang, L.; Yang, H.; Yang, J.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.; Burton, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical Observatories. The Gattini DomeA project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fish-eye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R), however, the absence of tracking systems, together with the ultra large field of view 85 degrees) and strong distortion have driven us to seek a unique way to build our data reduction pipeline. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric B, V, and R band, cloud cover statistics measured during the 2009 winter season and an estimate of the transparency. In addition, we present example light curves for bright targets to emphasize the unprecedented observational window function available from this ground-based location. A ~0.2 magnitude agreement of our simultaneous test at Palomar Observatory with NSBM(National Sky Brightness Monitor), as well as an 0.04 magnitude photometric accuracy for typical 6th magnitude stars limited by the instrument design, indicating we obtained reasonable results based on our ~7mm effective aperture fish-eye lens.

  19. Expression of GFP in tumor cells and fluorescent examination by confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ying; Xing, Da; Xu, Chaoyang

    2002-04-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP), from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria, yields a bright green fluorescence when expressed in either eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells and illuminated by blue or UV light. The characteristic properties of GFP make this protein a good candidate for use as a molecular reporter to monitor patterns of protein localization, gene expression, and intracellular protein trafficking in living cells. In this study, the plasmid EGFP encoding GFP was used to transfect SWO cells (a cancer cell line of nerve gelatinous tissue) mediated by liposome: (1) The plasmid EGFP-C1, purchased from Clontech Co., propagated in suitable E. coli strain (JM 109), was extracted by Concert High Purity Plasmid Miniprep (Gibco). (2) SWO was cultured in RPMI 1640 (10% FCS and 25 mM HEPES), 37 degree(s)C, 5% CO2. Cancer cells were transfected in 6-cm tissue culture dishes by Lipofectin Reagent (Gibco) for 6-12 hr using 2 ug DNA. (3) Then, infected cells were collected in medium containing 800 ug/ml G418, and the resistant clones were harvested and subcloned in fresh culture medium maintaining 800 ug/ml G418. (4) The cells were examined by using Nikon fluorescent microscope (E600) and Bio-Rad confocal microscope (MRC 600). (5) Next step, the cancer cells, stably expressing GFP after in vivo transduction, were implanted by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) in nude mice. Tracking of these cancer cells will become more sensitive and rapid than the traditional procedure of histopathological examination or immunohistochemistry. This method demonstrates external, noninvasive, whole-body, real-time fluorescence optical imaging of internally growing tumors and metastases in transplanted animals.

  20. 3D reconstruction optimization using imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassie, Abby L.; Meacham, Sean; Young, David; Turnage, Gray; Moorhead, Robert J.

    2017-05-01

    Because unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as an indispensable image acquisition platform in precision agriculture, it is vitally important that researchers understand how to optimize UAV camera payloads for analysis of surveyed areas. In this study, imagery captured by a Nikon RGB camera attached to a Precision Hawk Lancaster was used to survey an agricultural field from six different altitudes ranging from 45.72 m (150 ft.) to 121.92 m (400 ft.). After collecting imagery, two different software packages (MeshLab and AgiSoft) were used to measure predetermined reference objects within six three-dimensional (3-D) point clouds (one per altitude scenario). In-silico measurements were then compared to actual reference object measurements, as recorded with a tape measure. Deviations of in-silico measurements from actual measurements were recorded as Δx, Δy, and Δz. The average measurement deviation in each coordinate direction was then calculated for each of the six flight scenarios. Results from MeshLab vs. AgiSoft offered insight into the effectiveness of GPS-defined point cloud scaling in comparison to user-defined point cloud scaling. In three of the six flight scenarios flown, MeshLab's 3D imaging software (user-defined scale) was able to measure object dimensions from 50.8 to 76.2 cm (20-30 inches) with greater than 93% accuracy. The largest average deviation in any flight scenario from actual measurements was 14.77 cm (5.82 in.). Analysis of the point clouds in AgiSoft (GPS-defined scale) yielded even smaller Δx, Δy, and Δz than the MeshLab measurements in over 75% of the flight scenarios. The precisions of these results are satisfactory in a wide variety of precision agriculture applications focused on differentiating and identifying objects using remote imagery.

  1. Application of terrestrial 'structure-from-motion' photogrammetry on a medium-size Arctic valley glacier: potential, accuracy and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, Bernhard; Binder, Daniel; Boffi, Geo; Schöner, Wolfgang; Verhoeven, Geert

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial photogrammetry was the standard method for mapping high mountain terrain in the early days of mountain cartography, until it was replaced by aerial photogrammetry and airborne laser scanning. Modern low-price digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras and highly automatic and cheap digital computer vision software with automatic image matching and multiview-stereo routines suggest the rebirth of terrestrial photogrammetry, especially in remote regions, where airborne surveying methods are expensive due to high flight costs. Terrestrial photogrammetry and modern automated image matching is widely used in geodesy, however, its application in glaciology is still rare, especially for surveying ice bodies at the scale of some km², which is typical for valley glaciers. In August 2013 a terrestrial photogrammetric survey was carried out on Freya Glacier, a 6km² valley glacier next to Zackenberg Research Station in NE-Greenland, where a detailed glacier mass balance monitoring was initiated during the last IPY. Photos with a consumer grade digital camera (Nikon D7100) were taken from the ridges surrounding the glacier. To create a digital elevation model, the photos were processed with the software photoscan. A set of ~100 dGPS surveyed ground control points on the glacier surface was used to georeference and validate the final DEM. Aim of this study was to produce a high resolution and high accuracy DEM of the actual surface topography of the Freya glacier catchment with a novel approach and to explore the potential of modern low-cost terrestrial photogrammetry combined with state-of-the-art automated image matching and multiview-stereo routines for glacier monitoring and to communicate this powerful and cheap method within the environmental research and glacier monitoring community.

  2. Observations of eruption clouds from Sakura-zima volcano, Kyushu, Japan from Skylab 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.D.; Heiken, G.; Randerson, D.; McKay, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    Hasselblad and Nikon stereographic photographs taken from Skylab between 9 June 1973 and 1 February 1974 give synoptic plan views of several entire eruption clouds emanating from Sakura-zima volcano in Kagoshima Bay, Kyushu, Japan. Analytical plots of these stereographic pairs, studied in combination with meteorological data, indicate that the eruption clouds did not penetrate the tropopause and thus did not create a stratospheric dust veil of long residence time. A horizontal eddy diffusivity of the order of 106 cm2 s-1 and a vertical eddy diffusivity of the order of 105 cm2 s-1 were calculated from the observed plume dimensions and from available meteorological data. These observations are the first, direct evidence that explosive eruption at an estimated energy level of about 1018 ergs per paroxysm may be too small under atmospheric conditions similar to those prevailing over Sakura-zima for volcanic effluents to penetrate low-level tropospheric temperature inversions and, consequently, the tropopause over northern middle latitudes. Maximum elevation of the volcanic clouds was determined to be 3.4 km. The cumulative thermal energy release in the rise of volcanic plumes for 385 observed explosive eruptions was estimated to be 1020 to 1021 ergs (1013 to 1014 J), but the entire thermal energy release associated with pyroclastic activity may be of the order of 2.5 ?? 1022 ergs (2.5 ?? 1015 J). Estimation of the kinetic energy component of explosive eruptions via satellite observation and meteorological consideration of eruption clouds is thus useful in volcanology as an alternative technique to confirm the kinetic energy estimates made by ground-based geological and geophysical methods, and to aid in construction of physical models of potential and historical tephra-fallout sectors with implications for volcano-hazard prediction. ?? 1976.

  3. Fast quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quadri-wave interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Bon, Pierre; Savatier, Julien; Monneret, Serge; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the use of polarized spatially coherent illumination to perform linear retardance imaging and measurements of semi-transparent biological samples using a quantitative phase imaging technique [1]. Quantitative phase imaging techniques [2-5] are used in microscopy for the imaging of semi-transparent samples and gives information about the optical path difference (OPD). The strength of those techniques is their non-invasive (the sample is not labelled) and fast approach. However, this high contrast is non-specific and cannot be linked to specific properties of the sample. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use polarized light in combination with QPI. Indeed, anisotropy has been used to reveal ordered fibrous structures in biological samples without any staining or labelling with polarized light microscopy [6-8]. Recent studies have shown polarimetry as a potential diagnostic tool for various dermatological diseases on thick tissue samples [9]. Particularly, specific collagen fibers spatial distribution has been demonstrated to be a signature for the optical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in tissues [10]. In this paper, we describe a technical improvement of our technique based on high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) and liquid crystal retarder to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples. The system combines a set of quantitative phase images with different excitation polarizations to create birefringence images. These give information about the local retardance and orientation of biological anisotropic components. We propose using a commercial QWLSI [11] (SID4Bio, Phasics SA, Saint Aubin, France) directly plugged onto a lateral video port of an inverted microscope (TE2000-U, Nikon, Japan). We are able to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to record dynamic phenomena (living cells study) and make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual

  4. Site-Dependent Reference Point Microindentation Complements Clinical Measures for Improved Fracture Risk Assessment at the Human Femoral Neck.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Thomas; Coutts, Louise V; D'Angelo, Stefania; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Phillipp J

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional approaches to fracture risk assessment using clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD), a new technique, reference point microindentation (RPI), permits direct assessment of bone quality; in vivo tibial RPI measurements appear to discriminate patients with a fragility fracture from controls. However, it is unclear how this relates to the site of the most clinically devastating fracture, the femoral neck, and whether RPI provides information complementary to that from existing assessments. Femoral neck samples were collected at surgery after low-trauma hip fracture (n = 46; 17 male; aged 83 [interquartile range 77-87] years) and compared, using RPI (Biodent Hfc), with 16 cadaveric control samples, free from bone disease (7 male; aged 65 [IQR 61-74] years). A subset of fracture patients returned for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment (Hologic Discovery) and, for the controls, a micro-computed tomography setup (HMX, Nikon) was used to replicate DXA scans. The indentation depth was greater in femoral neck samples from osteoporotic fracture patients than controls (p < 0.001), which persisted with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and height (p < 0.001) but was site-dependent, being less pronounced in the inferomedial region. RPI demonstrated good discrimination between fracture and controls using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79 to 0.89), and a model combining RPI to clinical risk factors or BMD performed better than the individual components (AUC = 0.88 to 0.99). In conclusion, RPI at the femoral neck discriminated fracture cases from controls independent of BMD and traditional risk factors but dependent on location. The clinical RPI device may, therefore, supplement risk assessment and requires testing in prospective cohorts and comparison between the clinically accessible tibia and the femoral neck. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral

  5. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  6. Prediction of thinning of the sheet metal in the program AutoForm and its experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorko, M.; Urbánek, M.; Rund, M.

    2017-02-01

    The manufacture of press-formed parts often involves deep-drawing operations. Deep drawing, however, can be deemed an industrial branch in its own right. Today, many experimental as well as numerical methods are available for designing and optimizing deep drawing operations. The best option, however, is to combine both approaches. The present paper describes one such investigation. Here, measurements and numerical simulation were used for mapping the impact of anisotropy on thickness variation in a spherical-shaped drawn part of DC01 steel. Variation in sheet thickness was measured on spherical-shaped drawn parts of various geometries by means of two cameras, and evaluated with digital image correlation using the ARAMIS software from the company GOM. The forming experiment was carried out on an INOVA 200 kN servohydraulic testing machine in which the force vs. piston displacement curve was recorded. The same experiment was then numerically simulated and analyzed using the AUTOFORM software. Various parameters were monitored, such as thinning, strain magnitude, formability, and others. For the purpose of this simulation, a series of mechanical tests was conducted to obtain descriptions of the experimental material of 1.5 mm thickness. A material model was constructed from the tests data involving the work-hardening curve, the impact of anisotropy, and the forming limit diagram. Specifically, these tests included tensile tests, the Nakajima test, and the stacked test, which were carried out to determine materials data for the model. The actual sheet thickness was measured on a sectioned spherical-shaped drawn part using a NIKON optical microscope. The variations in thickness along defined lines on the sectioned drawn part were compared with the numerical simulations data using digital image correlation. The above-described experimental programme is suitable for calibrating a material model for any computational software and can correctly solve deep-drawing problems.

  7. Pointing, acquisition, and tracking system with omnivision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2005-08-01

    A free space optical (FSO) network consists of many reconfigurable, directional, high data-rate links. Its performance can be optimized by using topology control algorithms, which involve: (1) potential neighbor information collection, (2) an optimization algorithm with given constraints, and (3) a precise pointing procedure. In general, if a sensor at each node can observe a large field of view (FOV), then more potential link targets can be detected. With more possible link choices, the optimization algorithm will have greater degrees of freedom in determining the optimum topology. The intuitive way to acquire a wide spatial acquisition range is to use a camera with a wide FOV. However, for such a wide angle lens/mirror, there are inevitable large aberrations, which cause errors in a pointing procedure based on image analysis. To mitigate these aberrations, a possible solution is to build a correction procedure from the wide FOV lens imaging model to a pinhole imaging model. In this context, a mapping model is proposed, based on analyses of several wide angle lens sets using CodeV. The proposed model also compensates for the effect of deviations between the center lines of the lens and a CCD imaging array. To obtain the optimum parameters of the model, an off-line calibration procedure based on geometrical constraints is introduced. A sensor system consisting of a widely available fisheye converter (Nikon FC-E8) and a high-resolution CCD camera (1392x1040 pixels) has been built for evaluating the model's performance, as part of our pointing, acquisition and tracking (PAT) system.

  8. Digital camera measurements of soot temperature and soot volume fraction in axisymmetric flames.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiqing; Castillo, Jose A; Sunderland, Peter B

    2013-11-20

    New diagnostics are presented that use a digital camera to measure full-field soot temperatures and soot volume fractions in axisymmetric flames. The camera is a Nikon D700 with 12 megapixels and 14 bit depth in each color plane, which was modified by removing the infrared and anti-aliasing filters. The diagnostics were calibrated with a blackbody furnace. The flame considered here was an 88 mm long ethylene/air co-flowing laminar jet diffusion flame on a round 11.1 mm burner. The resolution in the flame plane is estimated at between 0.1 and 0.7 mm. Soot temperatures were measured from soot radiative emissions, using ratio pyrometry at 450, 650, and 900 nm following deconvolution. These had a range of 1600-1850 K, a temporal resolution of 125 ms, and an estimated uncertainty of ±50  K. Soot volume fractions were measured two ways: from soot radiative emissions and from soot laser extinction at 632.8 nm, both following deconvolution. Soot volume fractions determined from emissions had a range of 0.1-10 ppm, temporal resolutions of 125 ms, and an estimated uncertainty of ±30%. Soot volume fractions determined from laser extinction had a range of 0.2-10 ppm, similar temporal resolutions, and an estimated uncertainty of ±10%. The present measurements agree with past measurements in this flame using traversing optics and probes; however, they avoid the long test times and other complications of such traditional methods.

  9. Imaging and Measurements of Flow Phenomena and Impact of Soil Associated Constituents Through Unsaturated Porous Media in a 2D System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, A. R.; Li, B.; Clifford, H.; Edayilam, N.; Montgomery, D.; Dogan, M.; Tharayil, N.; Martinez, N. E.; Moysey, S. M.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    This research aims to build upon past two-dimension (2D) tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media (ASTM silica sand; US Silica, Ottawa, IL, USA) and how exudates effect unstable flow patterns. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital single lens reflex (CMOS DSLR) Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from red-green-blue (RGB) into hue-saturation-intensity (HVI) and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Contact angle and surface tension of the chemical plant exudate solutions was measured using a Kruss EasyDrop FM40Mk2 (Kruss GmbH Germany). The exudates (oxalate, citrate, tannic acid, and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter) had an increased wettability effect compared to control rain water (0.01M NaCl). This resulted in variable finger formation and speed of finger propagation; dependent on exudate type and concentration. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for future works in this study to analyze how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media.

  10. Analyzing the Dynamics and Morphology of Cast-off Pattern at Different Speed Levels Using High-speed Digital Video Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Adamec, Jiri; Grove, Christina

    2017-03-01

    During a bloodstain pattern analysis, one of the essential tasks is to distinguish between different kinds of applied forces as well as to estimate their level of intensity. In this study, high-speed digital imaging has been used to analyze the formation of cast-off patterns generated by a simulated backswing with a blood-bearing object. For this purpose, 0.5 mL blood was applied evenly over the last 5 cm of a blade simulant. Bloodstains were created through the controlled acceleration of a backswing at different speed levels between 1.1 m/sec and 3.8 m/sec. The flight dynamics of blood droplets were captured with an Olympus(®) i-Speed 3 high-speed digital camera with a Nikon(®) AF Nikkor 50 mm f/1.8 D lens and analyzed using the Olympus i-Speed 3 Viewer software. The video analysis showed that, during the backswing, blood droplets would move toward the lower end of the knifepoint and would be tangentially thrown off. These droplets impacted on the horizontal surface according to the arc of the swing. An increase in velocity led to longer cast-off patterns with distinct morphological characteristics. Under laboratory conditions, bloodstain pattern analysis allows certain conclusions about the intensity of a backswing and provides instructions on the position of the offender. However, due to the number of unknown variables at a crime scene, such interpretation of cast-off patterns is extremely limited and should be performed with extreme caution.

  11. MEDEA+ project 2T302 MUSCLE: masks through user's supply chain: leadership by excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsy, Andreas

    2008-04-01

    The rapid evolution of our information society depends on the continuous developments and innovations of semiconductor products. The cost per chip functionality keeps reducing by a factor of 2 every 18 month. However, this performance and success of the semiconductor industry critically depends on the quality of the lithographic photomasks. The need for the high quality of photomask drives lithography costs sensitively, which is a key factor in the manufacture of microelectronics devices. Therefore, the aim is to reduce production costs while overcoming challenges in terms of feature sizes, complexity and cycle times. Consequently, lithography processes must provide highest possible quality at reasonable prices. This way, the leadership in the lithographic area can be maintained and European chipmakers can stay competitive with manufacturers in the Far East and the USA. Under the umbrella of MEDEA+, a project called MUSCLE (<< Masks through User's Supply Chain: Leadership by Excellence >>) has been started among leading semiconductor companies in Europe: ALTIS Semiconductor (Project Leader), ALCATEL Vacuum, ATMEL, CEA/LETI, Entegris, NXP Semiconductors, TOPPAN Photomasks, AMTC, Carl ZEISS SMS, DMS, Infineon Technologies, VISTEC Semiconductor, NIKON Precision, SCHOTT Lithotec, ASML, PHOTRONICS, IMEC, DCE, DNP Photomask, STMicroelectronics, XYALIS and iCADA. MUSCLE focuses particularly on mask data flow, photomask carrier, photomask defect characterization and photomask data handling. In this paper, we will discuss potential solutions like standardization and automation of the photomask data flow based on SEMI P10, the performance and the impact of the supply chain parameter within the photomask process, the standardization of photomask defect characterization and a discussion of the impact of new Reticle Enhancement Technologies (RET) such as mask process correction and finally a generic model to describe the photomasks key performance indicators for prototype

  12. Remote-Raman spectroscopic study of minerals under supercritical CO2 relevant to Venus exploration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Acosta, Tayro E; Bates, David E

    2011-10-01

    The authors have utilized a recently developed compact Raman spectrometer equipped with an 85 mm focal length (f/1.8) Nikon camera lens and a custom mini-ICCD detector at the University of Hawaii for measuring remote Raman spectra of minerals under supercritical CO(2) (Venus chamber, ∼102 atm pressure and 423 K) excited with a pulsed 532 nm laser beam of 6 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz. These experiments demonstrate that by focusing a frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with a 10× beam expander to a 1mm spot on minerals located at 2m inside a Venus chamber, it is possible to measure the remote Raman spectra of anhydrous sulfates, carbonates, and silicate minerals relevant to Venus exploration during daytime or nighttime with 10s integration time. The remote Raman spectra of gypsum, anhydrite, barite, dolomite and siderite contain fingerprint Raman lines along with the Fermi resonance doublet of CO(2). Raman spectra of gypsum revealed dehydration of the mineral with time under supercritical CO(2) at 423 K. Fingerprint Raman lines of olivine, diopside, wollastonite and α-quartz can easily be identified in the spectra of these respective minerals under supercritical CO(2). The results of the present study show that time-resolved remote Raman spectroscopy with a compact Raman spectrometer of moderate resolution equipped with a gated intensified CCD detector and low power laser source could be a potential tool for exploring Venus surface mineralogy both during daytime and nighttime from a lander. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laser selective microablation of sensitized intracellular components within auditory receptor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David M.; Evans, Burt N.; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    1995-05-01

    A laser system can be coupled to a light microscope for laser microbeam ablation and trapping of single cells in vitro. We have extended this technology by sensitization of target structures with vital dyes to provide selective ablation of specific subcellular components. Isolated auditory receptor cells (outer hair cells, OHCs) are known to elongate and contract in response to electrical, chemical and mechanical stimulation. Various intracellular structures are candidate components mediating motility of OHCs, but the exact mechanism(s) is currently unknown. In ongoing studies of OHC motility, we have used the microbeam for selective ablation of lateral wall components and of an axial cytoskeletal core that extends from the nucleus to the cell apex. Both the area beneath the subsurface cistemae of the lateral wall and the core are rich in mitochondria. OHCs isolated from guinea pig cochlea are suspended in L- 15 medium containing 2.0 (mu) M Rhodamine 123, a porphyrin with an affinity for mitochondria. A spark-pumped nitrogen laser pumping a dye cell (Coumarin 500) was aligned on the optical axis of a Nikon Optiphot-2 to produce a 3 ns, 0.5 - 10 micrometers spot (diameter above ablation threshold w/50X water immersion, N.A. 0.8), and energy at the target approximately equals 10 (mu) J/pulse. At short incubation times in Rh123 irradiation caused local blebbing or bulging of cytoplastic membrane and thus loss of the OHC's cylindrical shape. At longer Rh123 incubation times when the central axis of the cell was targeted we observed cytoplasmic clearing, immediate cell elongation (approximately equals 5%) and clumping of core material at nuclear and apical attachments. Experiments are underway to examine the significance of these preliminary observations.

  14. Slitlamp Photography and Videography With High Magnifications.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Mao, Xinjie; Ke, Bilian; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Che; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-11-01

    To demonstrate the use of the slitlamp photography and videography with extremely high magnifications for visualizing structures of the anterior segment of the eye. A Canon 60D digital camera with Movie Crop Function was adapted into a Nikon FS-2 slitlamp to capture still images and video clips of the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Images obtained using the slitlamp were tested for spatial resolution. The cornea of human eyes was imaged with the slitlamp, and the structures were compared with the pictures captured using the ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). The central thickness of the corneal epithelium and total cornea was obtained using the slitlamp, and the results were compared with the thickness obtained using UHR-OCT. High-quality ocular images and higher spatial resolutions were obtained using the slitlamp with extremely high magnifications and Movie Crop Function, rather than the traditional slitlamp. The structures and characteristics of the cornea, such as the normal epithelium, abnormal epithelium of corneal intraepithelial neoplasia, laser in situ keratomileusis interface, and contact lenses, were clearly visualized using this device. These features were confirmed by comparing the obtained images with those acquired using UHR-OCT. Moreover, the tear film debris on the ocular surface and the corneal nerve in the anterior corneal stroma were also visualized. The thicknesses of the corneal epithelium and total cornea were similar to that measured using UHR-OCT (P<0.05). We demonstrated that the slitlamp photography and videography with extremely high magnifications allow better visualization of the anterior segment structures of the eye, especially of the epithelium, when compared with the traditional slitlamp.

  15. Slit-lamp photography and videography with high magnifications

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Mao, Xinjie; Ke, Bilian; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Che; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the use of the slit-lamp photography and videography with extremely high magnifications for visualizing structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Methods A Canon 60D digital camera with Movie Crop Function was adapted into a Nikon FS-2 slit-lamp to capture still images and video clips of the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. Images obtained using the slit-lamp were tested for spatial resolution. The cornea of human eyes was imaged with the slit-lamp and the structures were compared with the pictures captured using the ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). The central thickness of the corneal epithelium and total cornea was obtained using the slit-lamp and the results were compared with the thickness obtained using UHR-OCT. Results High-quality ocular images and higher spatial resolutions were obtained by using the slit-lamp with extremely high magnifications and Movie Crop Function, rather than the traditional slit-lamp. The structures and characteristics of the cornea, such as the normal epithelium, abnormal epithelium of corneal intraepithelial neoplasia, LASIK interface, and contact lenses, were clearly visualized using this device. These features were confirmed by comparing the obtained images with those acquired using UHR-OCT. Moreover, the tear film debris on the ocular surface and the corneal nerve in the anterior corneal stroma were also visualized. The thicknesses of the corneal epithelium and total cornea were similar to that measured using UHR-OCT (P < 0.05). Conclusions We demonstrated that the slit-lamp photography and videography with extremely high magnifications allows better visualization of the anterior segment structures of the eye, especially of the epithelium, when compared with the traditional slit-lamp. PMID:26020484

  16. The importance of optical optimization in whole slide imaging (WSI) and digital pathology imaging.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yukako; Gilbertson, John R

    2008-07-15

    In the last 10 years, whole slide imaging (WSI) has seen impressive progress not only in image quality and scanning speed but also in the variety of systems available to pathologists. However, we have noticed that most systems have relatively simple optics axes and rely on software to optimize image quality and colour balance. While much can be done in software, this study examines the importance of optics, in particular optical filters, in WSI.Optical resolution is a function of the wavelength of light used and the numerical aperture of the lens system (Resolution = (f) wavelength/2 NA). When illumining light is not conditioned correctly with filters, there is a tendency for the wavelength to shift to longer values (more red) because of the characteristics of the lamps in common use. Most microscopes (but remarkably few WSI devices) correct for this with ND filter for brightness and Blue filter (depends on the light source) for colour correction.Using H&E slides research microscopes (Axiophot, Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Inc. NY. Eclipse 50i., Nikon Inc. NY) at 20x, an attached digital camera (SPOT RT741 Slider Color, Diagnosis Instruments., MI USA), and a filter set, we examined the effect of filters and software enhancement on digital image quality. The focus value (as evaluated by focus evaluation software developed in house and SPOT imaging Software v4.6) was used as a proxy for image quality. Resolution of tissue features was best with the use of both the Blue and ND filters (in addition to software enhancement). Images without filters but with software enhancement while superficially good, lacked some details of specimen morphology and were unclear compared with the images with filters.The results indicate that the appropriate use of optical filters could measurably improve the appearance and resolution of WSI images.

  17. Monitoring Phenology by use of Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrends, H.; Stoeckli, R.; Eugster, W.; Bruegger, R.; Wanner, H.; Buchmann, N.

    2007-12-01

    In recent decades phenology has become recognized as an important integrative method for assessing the impact of climate variability and climate change on ecosystems. Time series analysis of selected variables such as green-up, maturity, senescence and dormancy, yield valuable information about ecosystem responses to climate and are widely used in phenological, climatological and ecological models. Phenological ground observations are often observer-biased. Additionally, there is a significant decline in long- term observation sites that continue monitoring plant development due to missing volunteers for phenological field work. For two decades satellite remote sensing has been providing a global integrated view of vegetation phenological states. However this method still heavily depends on ground-based measurements for validation. Moreover, satellite images often have limited temporal and spatial coverage due to clouds, aerosols and other sensor-/platform-specific characteristics. Our project investigates the application of ground-based commercially available digital cameras in observational procedures and quality assurance of phenological monitoring. A standard digital camera (NIKON Coolpix 5400) was mounted on a flux tower at the Lägeren FLUXNET site (Switzerland), providing hourly digital images of a mixed forest. Parameter estimation of phenological stages is based on image statistics and red, green and blue channel colour brightness. Image analysis is conducted on regions of interest (ROI) of single tree species. Camera colour channel values are extracted and averaged across the ROI using daily time step. CO2-fluxes measured by eddy covariance and the phenological data from camera and satellite imagery are jointly analyzed. We anticipate that a network of digital cameras could provide inexpensive, spatially accurate and objective information with the required temporal resolution for phenological monitoring applications and ecosystem research. However, first

  18. Pore space connectivity and porosity using CT scans of tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previatello da Silva, Livia; de Jong Van Lier, Quirijn

    2015-04-01

    Microtomography has been used in soil physics for characterization and allows non-destructive analysis with high-resolution, yielding a three-dimensional representation of pore space and fluid distribution. It also allows quantitative characterization of pore space, including pore size distribution, shape, connectivity, porosity, tortuosity, orientation, preferential pathways and is also possible predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity using Darcy's equation and a modified Poiseuille's equation. Connectivity of pore space is an important topological property of soil. Together with porosity and pore-size distribution, it governs transport of water, solutes and gases. In order to quantify and analyze pore space (quantifying connectivity of pores and porosity) of four tropical soils from Brazil with different texture and land use, undisturbed samples were collected in São Paulo State, Brazil, with PVC ring with 7.5 cm in height and diameter of 7.5 cm, depth of 10 - 30 cm from soil surface. Image acquisition was performed with a CT system Nikon XT H 225, with technical specifications of dual reflection-transmission target system including a 225 kV, 225 W high performance Xray source equipped with a reflection target with pot size of 3 μm combined with a nano-focus transmission module with a spot size of 1 μm. The images were acquired at specific energy level for each soil type, according to soil texture, and external copper filters were used in order to allow the attenuation of low frequency X-ray photons and passage of one monoenergetic beam. This step was performed aiming minimize artifacts such as beam hardening that may occur during the attenuation in the material interface with different densities within the same sample. Images were processed and analyzed using ImageJ/Fiji software. Retention curve (tension table and the pressure chamber methods), saturated hydraulic conductivity (constant head permeameter), granulometry, soil density and particle density

  19. The influence of urban area opacity on biologically active UV-B irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Rozental', Victor

    2013-04-01

    The study of UV irradiance changes in urban area is an essential problem due to the significant effect of UV irradiance on human health which can be positive (vitamin D synthesis) and negative (erythema, skin cancer, eye damage). According to the results of several experiments within the Moscow megacity we studied the effects of urban area opacity on the different types of biologically active UV-B irradiance on the base of a specially developed mobile photometric complex snd additional measurements of the urban opacity by Nikon Fisheye Converter FC-E8. We analyzed both the level of erythemally-active irradiance and the UV eye damaging radiation using the broadband UVB-1 YES pyranometer calibrated against ultraviolet spectroradiometer Bentham DTM-300 of the Medical University of Innsbruck (courtesy of Dr. M.Blumthaler). In order to estimate the effects of the urban opacity the measurements were normalized on similar measurements at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University with zero opacity. This ratio is defined as an urban radiative transmittance (URT). Different atmospheric conditions were considered. In cloudy conditions the effect of opacity on URT is much less than that in conditions when the sun disk is open from clouds. We revealed some spectral features in transmittance of biologically active UV-B irradiance which is characterized by higher URT variations in overcast cloudy conditions due to more intensive scattering and smaller direct solar radiation component. In the absence of cloudiness the effect of opacity was studied for open and screening solar disk conditions. We obtained much higher URT in UVB spectral region compared with that for total solar irradiance for screening solar disk conditions with a significant URT dependence on the opacity only in UVB spectral region. No URT dependence was obtained for total solar irradiance in these conditions. Some model calculations were fulfilled to match the experimental results.

  20. Testing a high-power LED based light source for hyperspectral imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klomkaew, Phiwat; Mayes, Sam A.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Our lab has worked to develop high-speed hyperspectral imaging systems that scan the fluorescence excitation spectrum for biomedical imaging applications. Hyperspectral imaging can be used in remote sensing, medical imaging, reaction analysis, and other applications. Here, we describe the development of a hyperspectral imaging system that comprised an inverted Nikon Eclipse microscope, sCMOS camera, and a custom light source that utilized a series of high-power LEDs. LED selection was performed to achieve wavelengths of 350-590 nm. To reduce scattering, LEDs with low viewing angles were selected. LEDs were surface-mount soldered and powered by an RCD. We utilized 3D printed mounting brackets to assemble all circuit components. Spectraradiometric calibration was performed using a spectrometer (QE65000, Ocean Optics) and integrating sphere (FOIS-1, Ocean Optics). Optical output and LED driving current were measured over a range of illumination intensities. A normalization algorithm was used to calibrate and optimize the intensity of the light source. The highest illumination power was at 375 nm (3300 mW/cm2), while the lowest illumination power was at 515, 525, and 590 nm (5200 mW/cm2). Comparing the intensities supplied by each LED to the intensities measured at the microscope stage, we found there was a great loss in power output. Future work will focus on using two of the same LEDs to double the power and finding more LED and/or laser diodes and chips around the range. This custom hyperspectral imaging system could be used for the detection of cancer and the identification of biomolecules.

  1. EUVL alternating phase shift mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pei-Yang; Myers, Alan; Shroff, Yashesh; Chandhok, Manish; Zhang, Guojing; Gullikson, Eric; Salmassi, Farhad

    2011-04-01

    Extreme ultra-violet Lithography (EUVL) alternating phase shift mask (APSM) or other optical enhancement techniques are likely needed for 16nm (half pitch) technology generation and beyond. One possible option is the combination of EUVL and APSM. The fabrication of EUVL APSM is more difficult than either the fabrication of an EUVL binary mask or a conventional optical APSM mask. In the case of EUVL APSM, the phase difference in the two regions (0 and 180-degree phase regions) is created by a phase step in the substrate prior to the multilayer (ML) coating. The step height that induces 180-degree phase mismatch in the ML is determined by [λ/(4cosθ)](2m+1), where m are integers (0, 1, 2,...). In this experiment, we targeted for a step height with m=1. The same mask design also contains the standard binary structures so that the comparison between the EUVL APSM and the EUVL binary mask can be performed under the same illumination and wafer process conditions. The EUVL APSM mask was exposed using Nikon's EUV1 scanner in Kumagaya Japan. The wafer level results showed higher dense line resolution for EUVL APSM as compared to that of EUVL binary mask. APSM also showed improved line width roughness (LWR) and depth of focus (DoF) as compared to the best EUVL binary results obtained with C-dipole off-axis illumination (OAI). The wafer CD resolution improvement obtained by APSM in this experiment is partially limited by the resist resolution and the mask phase edge spread during ML deposition. We believe that wafer CD resolution and can further be improved with imaging imbalance compensation mask design and improvements in resist resolution and the phase generation portion of the mask fabrication process. In this paper, we will discuss in detail the mask fabrication process, wafer level data analysis, and our understanding of EUVL APSM related issues.

  2. Flexible non-diffractive vortex microscope for three-dimensional depth-enhanced super-localization of dielectric, metal and fluorescent nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Petr; Bouchal, Zdeněk

    2017-10-01

    In the past decade, probe-based super-resolution using temporally resolved localization of emitters became a groundbreaking imaging strategy in fluorescence microscopy. Here we demonstrate a non-diffractive vortex microscope (NVM), enabling three-dimensional super-resolution fluorescence imaging and localization and tracking of metal and dielectric nanoparticles. The NVM benefits from vortex non-diffractive beams (NBs) creating a double-helix point spread function that rotates under defocusing while maintaining its size and shape unchanged. Using intrinsic properties of the NBs, the dark-field localization of weakly scattering objects is achieved in a large axial range exceeding the depth of field of the microscope objective up to 23 times. The NVM was developed using an upright microscope Nikon Eclipse E600 operating with a spiral lithographic mask optimized using Fisher information and built into an add-on imaging module or microscope objective. In evaluation of the axial localization accuracy the root mean square error below 18 nm and 280 nm was verified over depth ranges of 3.5 μm and 13.6 μm, respectively. Subwavelength gold and polystyrene beads were localized with isotropic precision below 10 nm in the axial range of 3.5 μm and the axial precision reduced to 30 nm in the extended range of 13.6 μm. In the fluorescence imaging, the localization with isotropic precision below 15 nm was demonstrated in the range of 2.5 μm, whereas in the range of 8.3 μm, the precision of 15 nm laterally and 30–50 nm axially was achieved. The tracking of nanoparticles undergoing Brownian motion was demonstrated in the volume of 14 × 10 × 16 μm3. Applicability of the NVM was tested by fluorescence imaging of LW13K2 cells and localization of cellular proteins.

  3. A Novel Multi-Digital Camera System Based on Tilt-Shift Photography Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Fang, Jun-yong; Zhao, Dong; Liu, Xue; Tong, Qing-xi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-digital camera systems (MDCS) are constantly being improved to meet the increasing requirement of high-resolution spatial data. This study identifies the insufficiencies of traditional MDCSs and proposes a new category MDCS based on tilt-shift photography to improve ability of the MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data. A prototype system, including two or four tilt-shift cameras (TSC, camera model: Nikon D90), is developed to validate the feasibility and correctness of proposed MDCS. Similar to the cameras of traditional MDCSs, calibration is also essential for TSC of new MDCS. The study constructs indoor control fields and proposes appropriate calibration methods for TSC, including digital distortion model (DDM) approach and two-step calibrated strategy. The characteristics of TSC are analyzed in detail via a calibration experiment; for example, the edge distortion of TSC. Finally, the ability of the new MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data is verified through flight experiments. The results of flight experiments illustrate that geo-position accuracy of prototype system achieves 0.3 m at a flight height of 800 m, and spatial resolution of 0.15 m. In addition, results of the comparison between the traditional (MADC II) and proposed MDCS demonstrate that the latter (0.3 m) provides spatial data with higher accuracy than the former (only 0.6 m) under the same conditions. We also take the attitude that using higher accuracy TSC in the new MDCS should further improve the accuracy of the photogrammetry senior product. PMID:25835187

  4. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  5. Influence of the ultimate torsion on the geometry of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana Beatriz V; Beja, Gabriela B S P; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Macedo, Ana Paula; Oliscovicz, Nathalia Ferraz; Reis, Andréa C dos

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the profile of implants subjected to torsion test. Four types of implants (Conexão®) were analyzed: Master Porous (MP - external hexagon, cylindrical, double-porous surface implants; 11.5 X 3.75 mm), Master Screw (MS - external hexagon, cylindrical, machined implants; 11.5 X 3.75 mm), Conect Conic (CC - external hexagon, cylindrical, machined implants; 11.5 X 3.5 mm) and Master Conect AR (CA - internal hexagon, cylindrical, double-porous surface implants; 11.5 X 3.75 mm). The Nikon® model C profile projector was used for the analysis before and after torsion test with a Mackena® model MK-20XX digital torque meter. The measures analyzed in the profile of implants were: diameter and height of the platform, diameter of the screw/platform connection, angle of the screw/platform connection, external diameter, internal diameter, thread pitch, height and length of the thread. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% significance level. The torsion test caused a visible deformity on the external implant profile. There was a statistical difference among the implants before and after torsion (p<0.05) for the variables: platform diameter, platform height, diameter of the screw/platform connection and length. Changes were observed in platform height of CC and CA, fracture of CA implants, fracture of the MP and MS assembler/connectors, and internal thread stripping of CC. Thus, it was concluded that excessive or some unadvised torque by the manufacturer can lead to changes in different geometric measurements of implants.

  6. The effect of disinfectant agents on dimensional stability and surface roughness of a tissue conditioner material.

    PubMed

    Khaledi, Amiralireza; Borhanihaghighi, Zohre; Vojdani, Mahroo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of disinfectant procedures on the dimensional stability and surface quality of a tissue conditioner used as a functional impression material. A tissue conditioner (Visco-gel) used as a functional impression material was disinfected by immersion in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite or 2% glutaraldehyde solutions for 10 or 20 minutes, respectively. The control group consisted of specimens (n=10) that were not treated by disinfectants. For testing the dimensional stability, impressions of an aluminum edentulous arch with three reference points were made. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water, the specimens were treated by one of the disinfection procedures. Impressions were poured and, subsequently, 50 stone casts were measured with a Nikon profile projector. For surface roughness evaluation, disks that contained Visco-gel were pressed against glass slides. The disks were then stored in distilled water for 24 hours. After disinfection, 50 disk-shaped dental stone casts were prepared. Surface roughness values were determined using a profilometer. For each test, data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The results of the dimensional stability test showed that immersion of Visco-gel impressions in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution or 2% glutaraldehyde solution did not significantly change the anteroposterior (AP) and cross-arch (CA) distances of the resultant stone casts when compared to the control group (P>0.05). The surface quality of dental stone casts formed by Visco-gel did not change significantly when impressions were immersed in the disinfectant solutions for either 10 or 20 minutes, or when stored in distilled water (P>0.05). The results showed that the disinfectant solutions used in this study did not have a significant effect on the surface quality and dimensional accuracy of Visco-gel as a functional impression material.

  7. In vivo Study of the Accuracy of Dual-arch Impressions

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Luciana Martinelli Santayana; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Junior, Luiz Henrique Burnett; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated in vivo the accuracy of metal (Smart®) and plastic (Triple Tray®) dual-arch trays used with vinyl polysiloxane (Flexitime®), in the putty/wash viscosity, as well as polyether (Impregum Soft®) in the regular viscosity. Materials and Methods: In one patient, an implant-level transfer was screwed on an implant in the mandibular right first molar, serving as a pattern. Ten impressions were made with each tray and impression material. The impressions were poured with Type IV gypsum. The width and height of the pattern and casts were measured in a profile projector (Nikon). The results were submitted to Student’s t-test for one sample (α = 0.05). Results: For the width distance, the plastic dual-arch trays with vinyl polysiloxane (4.513 mm) and with polyether (4.531 mm) were statistically wider than the pattern (4.489 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane (4.504 mm) and with polyether (4.500 mm) did not differ statistically from the pattern. For the height distance, only the metal dual-arch tray with polyether (2.253 mm) differed statistically from the pattern (2.310 mm). Conclusion: The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane, in the putty/wash viscosities, reproduced casts with less distortion in comparison with the same technique with the plastic dual-arch tray. The plastic or metal dual-arch trays with polyether reproduced cast with greater distortion. How to cite the article: Santayana de Lima LM, Borges GA, Burnett LH Jr, Spohr AM. In vivo study of the accuracy of dual-arch impressions. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):50-5. PMID:25083032

  8. In vivo Study of the Accuracy of Dual-arch Impressions.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Luciana Martinelli Santayana; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Junior, Luiz Henrique Burnett; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated in vivo the accuracy of metal (Smart®) and plastic (Triple Tray®) dual-arch trays used with vinyl polysiloxane (Flexitime®), in the putty/wash viscosity, as well as polyether (Impregum Soft®) in the regular viscosity. In one patient, an implant-level transfer was screwed on an implant in the mandibular right first molar, serving as a pattern. Ten impressions were made with each tray and impression material. The impressions were poured with Type IV gypsum. The width and height of the pattern and casts were measured in a profile projector (Nikon). The results were submitted to Student's t-test for one sample (α = 0.05). For the width distance, the plastic dual-arch trays with vinyl polysiloxane (4.513 mm) and with polyether (4.531 mm) were statistically wider than the pattern (4.489 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane (4.504 mm) and with polyether (4.500 mm) did not differ statistically from the pattern. For the height distance, only the metal dual-arch tray with polyether (2.253 mm) differed statistically from the pattern (2.310 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane, in the putty/wash viscosities, reproduced casts with less distortion in comparison with the same technique with the plastic dual-arch tray. The plastic or metal dual-arch trays with polyether reproduced cast with greater distortion. How to cite the article: Santayana de Lima LM, Borges GA, Burnett LH Jr, Spohr AM. In vivo study of the accuracy of dual-arch impressions. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):50-5.

  9. KSC01padig264

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-105 and Expedition Three (E3) crews are smiling as they exit the Operations and Checkout Building on their way to Launch Pad 39A for a second launch attempt. Leading the way are (left to right) Pilot Rick Sturckow and Commander Scott Horowitz; in the second row, Mission Specialists Patrick Forrester and Daniel Barry; in the third row, E3 cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Commander Frank Culbertson, and cosmonaut Vladimir Dezhurov. Forrester and Tyurin are both making their first space flights. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off at about 5:12 p.m. Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Highlighting the mission will be the rotation of the International Space Station crew, the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Included in the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS will be installed on the P6 truss, which holds the Station’s giant U.S. solar arrays, batteries and the cooling radiators. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station’s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station. Launch is scheduled for 5:15 p.m. EDT Aug. 10. [Photo by Scott Andrews; Nikon D1X camera

  10. Increase of Readability and Accuracy of 3d Models Using Fusion of Close Range Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, M.; Malarić, I.

    2012-07-01

    The development of laser scanning technology has opened a new page in geodesy and enabled an entirely new way of presenting data. Products obtained by the method of laser scanning are used in many sciences, as well as in archaeology. It should be noted that 3D models of archaeological artefacts obtained by laser scanning are fully measurable, written in 1:1 scale and have high accuracy. On the other hand, texture and RGB values of the surface of the object obtained by a laser scanner have lower resolution and poorer radiometric characteristics in relation to the textures captured with a digital camera. Scientific research and the goal of this paper are to increase the accuracy and readability of the 3D model with textures obtained with a digital camera. Laser scanning was performed with triangulation scanner of high accuracy, Vivid 9i (Konica Minolta), while for photogrammetric recording digital camera Nikon D90 with a lens of fixed focal length 20 mm, was used. It is important to stress that a posteriori accuracy score of the global registration of point clouds in the form of the standard deviation was ± 0.136 mm while the average distance was only ± 0.080 mm. Also research has proven that the quality projection texture model increases readability. Recording of archaeological artefacts and making their photorealistic 3D model greatly contributes to archaeology as a science, accelerates processing and reconstruction of the findings. It also allows the presentation of findings to the general public, not just to the experts.

  11. Flow and Transport of Radionuclides in the Rhizosphere: Imaging and Measurements in a 2D System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, Ashley; Darnault, Christophe; Li, Biting; Clifford, Heather; Montgomery, Dawn; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; DeVol, Tim; Erdmann, Bryan; Edayilam, Nimisha; Tharayil, Nishanth; Dogan, Mine; Martinez, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to build upon past 2D tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media, understand how exudates effect unstable flow patterns, and understand radionuclide mobility and dispersion in the subsurface. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a CMOS DSLR Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from RGB into HVI and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Radionuclide locations were determined via handheld gamma scanner. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for works studying how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media. As there is an increase in exudate concentration, the mobility of the radionuclides due to changing flow pattern and available water content in porous media may be improved causing more dispersion in the porous media and intake into the plant. Changes in plant root exudation impact the distribution and density of radionuclides in the rhizosphere and vadose zone.

  12. Measurement of Acidic Ions and Their Qualitative Effects on Snow Crystal Morphology and the Quasi-liquid Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepp, T. N.; Shepson, P. B.

    2006-12-01

    A temperature and humidity controlled chamber was constructed to observe snow crystal morphologies under various conditions and test the hypothesis that the morphology is dependent on the quasi-liquid layer's (QLL) thickness. The change in snow crystal morphology has been associated with the temperature dependent thickness of the QLL on the prism and basal facets of the forming ice. It has been proposed that the cause of a morphological change from columnar to flat plates at 263 K is a result of the QLL disappearing at this temperature. In the current experiment humid air was introduced to the top of the chamber at a constant rate by flowing air through a bubbler with the top and bottom of the chamber held at 313 K and 233 K respectively. Snow crystals were grown on the tip of an electrode held at 2000 V, positioned vertically in the chamber for the desired temperature. After the formation of an ice needle the voltage was shut off and the electrode was moved to the appropriate temperature to facilitate growth of the desired morphology on the tip of the grown needle. Sample air was drawn directly from near the region of crystal growth using a Silcosteel sampling tube. Addition of an ionizable impurity like acetic or hydrochloric acid to the bubbler air lowered the melting temperature of the ice thus forcing the QLL on the growing crystal to exist below 263 K and allowing a test of the hypothesis that the thickness of the QLL dictates the temperature at which morphological transitions occur. The morphological data was recorded using a Nikon 5400 digital camera, RH measured with a Pasco PS-2124 Dew Point sensor, and the ionic impurity concentration measured via ion chromatography. Here we discuss the preliminary results of these experiments.

  13. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ross, M P; Shumlak, U

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 10(20) m(-2) with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  14. Project support of practical training in biophysics.

    PubMed

    Mornstein, V; Vlk, D; Forytkova, L

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Biophysics ensures practical training in biophysics and related subjects for students of medical and health study programmes. Demonstrations of medical technology are an important part of this training. Teaching for Faculty of Sciences in biophysical study programmes becomes also very important. Some lectures and demonstrations of technology are involved, but the practical trainig is missing. About 1 mil. CZK for additional laboratory equipment was obtained from the HEIDF project No. 1866/ 2005 "The demonstration and measuring technology for education in medical biophysics and radiological physics" for measuring system DEWETRON for high frequency signal analysis, Fluke Ti30 IR camera, PM 9000B patient monitor, ARSENAL AF 1 fluorescence microscope, and Nikon Coolpix 4500 digital camera with accessories for microphotography. At the present time, further financial resources are being provided by a development project of Ministry of Education "Inter-university co-operation in biomedical technology and engineering using top technologies" in total amount of almost 5 mil CZK, whereas over 2 mil CZK from this project are reserved for student laboratory equipment. The main goal of this project is to ensure the participation of Medical Faculty in educational co-operation in the biomedical technology and engineering, namely with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication (FEEC), Brno University of Technology. There will be taught those areas of biophysics which are not covered by FEEC, thus forming a separate subject "General Biophysics". The following instruments will be installed: UV-VIS spectrophotometers, rotation viscometers, tensiometers, microscopes with digital image processing, cooled centrifuge, optical benches, and some smaller instruments for practical measurements.

  15. 4D photogrammetric technique to study free surface water in open channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubé, Damien; Berkaoui, Amine; Vinatier, Fabrice; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Belaud, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Characteristics of three-dimensional surface water are considered as the most valuable information to understand hydrodynamic phenomena in open channel flow. An accurate and coherent description of the free water surface morphology improves the accuracy of hydraulic models which study river processes. However, amongst existing techniques to measure three-dimensional surface, stereo-photogrammetry is clearly the most effective technique to obtain an instantaneous and high accurate 3D free water surface and it's suitable to both flume and field condition. Our study aims at developing this technique in two controlled channels, one in interior with glass borders (length: 6 m, width: 0.3 m and depth: 0.5 m) and one outside with cement borders (length: 13 m, width: 0.7 m and depth: 0.4 m). A system consisting in three NIKON-D3200 cameras, mounted to an adjustable tripod head, which is fixed to an inverted aluminium T-bar with the center camera higher than the two side cameras. Each camera is fitted with a 28 mm lens and cameras are synchronized using a Phottix(R) system. The system was mounted at a downstream position from the channel with an oblique configuration. A series of pictures taken at a 3 s interval during the water weight bearing were reported and analyzed using the Photoscan Pro(R) software for image matching. Validation procedure of the technique was realized using an orthophotography of the lateral border of the interior channel to delimit the line of water surface, and using a video capture of a slide fixed inside the outside channel. A high resolution and dynamic elevation map of the surface water was constructed. Our study give encouraging results, with a good capture of water surface morphology and a limited occlusion issues. The confrontation of the results with the validation dataset highlight limitations that need to be discussed with the audience.

  16. Aerial Surveys Using Consumer Electronics: Fast, Cheap and Best of All: Useful!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dearborn, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    We report results from two low-cost, low-altitude, aerial imaging surveys of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) carried out in late 2009. In total 541 km of the fault was imaged with a ground sample distance (pixel size) of a few cm. The two surveys covered the Carrizo Plain and points north to the Choice Valley on 24 Sep 2009, and the SAF between I-5 (Tejon Pass) and I-15 (Cajon Pass) on 29 Dec 2009. Each area was imaged twice, once on the first pass and a short time later on the return pass. The I-5 to I-15 flight included Lone Pine Canyon east of Wrightwood soon after the Sheep Fire of early Oct 2009. Ground that was normally covered by heavy brush was revealed for the first time in many years. The data set consists of 5216 6Mb jpg photographs (31 Gb total) which were posted on the internet within hours of their acquisition. Shortly thereafter they were placed into PICASA web albums for easy browsing. Total cost for both surveys (excluding camera) was about $5000. The pictures were taken with a Nikon D90 with an attached GP-1 receiver that wrote the aircraft’s position into the EXIF file of each photograph. Organization, manipulation and geolocation of the images were done on a Macintosh laptop. All photographs are freely available and carry no copyright. They are in the public domain. Lynch, David K., Kenneth W. Hudnut and David S. P. Dearborn “Low Altitude Aerial Color Digital Photographic Survey of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain”, Seismological Research Letters, 81, 453-459 (2010) Full frame image of Wallace Creek. The inset shows a visitor. The pixel size at the center of the frame is about 4 cm.

  17. Mobile teledermatopathology: using a tablet PC as a novel and cost-efficient method to remotely diagnose dermatopathology cases.

    PubMed

    Speiser, Jodi J; Hughes, Ian; Mehta, Vikas; Wojcik, Eva M; Hutchens, Kelli A

    2014-01-01

    : Dermatopathology has relatively few studies regarding teledermatopathology and none have addressed the use of new technologies, such as the tablet PC. We hypothesized that the combination of our existing dynamic nonrobotic system with a tablet PC could provide a novel and cost-efficient method to remotely diagnose dermatopathology cases. 93 cases diagnosed by conventional light microscopy at least 5 months earlier by the participating dermatopathologist were retrieved by an electronic pathology database search. A high-resolution video camera (Nikon DS-L2, version 4.4) mounted on a microscope was used to transmit digital video of a slide to an Apple iPAD2 (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA) at the pathologist's remote location via live streaming at an interval time of 500 ms and a resolution of 1280/960 pixels. Concordance to the original diagnosis and the seconds elapsed to reaching the diagnosis were recorded. 24.7% (23/93) of cases were melanocytic, 70.9% (66/93) were nonmelanocytic, and 4.4% (4/93) were inflammatory. About 92.5% (86/93) of cases were diagnosed on immediate viewing (<5 seconds), with the average time to diagnosis at 40.2 seconds (range: 10-218 seconds). Of the cases diagnosed immediately, 98.8% (85/86) of the telediagnoses were concordant with the original. Telepathology performed via a tablet PC may serve as a reliable and rapid technique for the diagnosis of routine cases with some diagnostic caveats in mind. Our study established a novel and cost-efficient solution for those institutions that may not have the capital to purchase either a dynamic robotic system or a virtual slide system.

  18. The development of meibomian glands in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Chyong Jy; Massei, Salina; Lin, Gloria; Liu, Hongshan; Paugh, Jerry R.; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston Whei-Yang; Brown, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the natural history of meibomian gland morphogenesis in the mouse. Methods Embryonic (E) and post natal (P) C57Bl/6 mouse pups were obtained at E18.5, P0, P1, P3, P5, P8, P15, and P60. Eyelids were fixed and processed for en bloc staining with Phalloidin/DAPI to identify gland morphogenesis, or frozen for immunohistochemistry staining with Oil red O (ORO) to identify lipid and antibodies specific against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to identify meibocyte differentiation. Samples were then evaluated using a Zeiss 510 Meta laser scanning confocal microscope or Nikon epi-fluorescent microscope. Tissues from adult mice (2 month-old) were also collected for western blotting. Results Meibomian gland morphogenesis was first detected at E18.5 with the formation of an epithelial placode within the fused eyelid margin. Invagination of the epithelium into the eyelid was detected at P0. From P1 to P3 there was continued extension of the epithelium into the eyelid. ORO and PPARγ staining was first detected at P3, localized to the central core of the epithelial cord thus forming the presumptive ductal lumen. Ductal branching was first detected at P5 associated with acinar differentiation identified by ORO and PPARγ staining. Adult meibomian glands were observed by P15. Western blotting of meibomian gland proteins identified a 50 kDa and a 72 kDa band that stained with antibodies specific to PPARγ. Conclusions We have demonstrated that meibomian gland development bears distinct similarities to hair development with the formation of an epithelial placode and expression of PPARγ co-incident with lipid synthesis and meibocyte differentiation. PMID:20664693

  19. Evaluation of two novel methods for assessing intracellular oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Kombrabail, M.; Vijayalakshmi, K.; White, Nick; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Lloyd, David

    2012-08-01

    The ability to resolve the spatio-temporal complexity of intracellular O2 distribution is the ‘Holy Grail’ of cellular physiology. In an effort to obtain a non-invasive approach of mapping intracellular O2 tensions, two methods of phosphorescent lifetime imaging microscopy were examined in the current study. These were picosecond time-resolved epiphosphorescence microscopy (single 0.5 µm focused spot) and two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy with pinhole shifting. Both methods utilized nanoparticle-embedded Ru complex (45 nm diameter) as the phosphorescent probe, excited using pulsed outputs of Ti-sapphire Tsunami lasers (710-1050 nm). The former method used a 1 ps pulse width excitation beam with vertical polarization via a dichroic mirror (610 nm, XF43) and a 20× objective (NA 0.55, Nikon). Transmitted luminescence (1-2 × 104 counts s-1) was collected and time-correlated single photon counted decay times measured. Alternatively, an unmodified Zeiss LSM510 Confocal NLO microscope with 40× objective (NA 1.3) used successively shifted pinhole positions to collect image data from the lagging trail of the raster scan. Images obtained from two-photon excitation of a yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and a flagellate fish parasite (Spironucleus vortens), electroporated with Ru complex, indicated the intracellular location and magnitude of O2 gradients, thus confirming the feasibility of optical mapping under different external O2 concentrations. Both methods gave similar lifetimes for Ru complex phosphorescence under aerobic and anaerobic gas phases. Estimation of O2 tensions within individual fibroblasts (human dermal fibroblast (HDF)) and mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells was possible using epiphosphorescence microscopy. MCF-7 cells showed lower intracellular O2 concentrations than HDF cells, possibly due to higher metabolic rates in the former. Future work should involve construction of higher resolution 3D maps of Ru coordinate complex lifetime

  20. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) promotes collagen fibre deposition associated with increased myofibroblast population in the early healing phase of diabetic wound.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ming-Chun; Cheung, Kwok-Kuen; Li, Xiaohui; Cheing, Gladys Lai-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of PEMF on collagen fibre deposition, collagen fibril alignment and collagen fibre orientation. The potential relationships between collagen fibre deposition and myofibroblast population in diabetic wound healing were also examined. Forty young male streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to PEMF group or control group. 2 cm × 2 cm square wounds were made at their back. The PEMF group received daily exposure of PEMF to the wounds, while control group was handled in the same manner except that the PEMF device was not activated. Wound tissues harvested on post-wounding day 7, 10 and 14 were fixed, processed and sectioned. The abundance, fibril alignment and fibre orientation of type I collagen were quantified with picro-sirius polarization method and image analysis software (Nikon NIS Element AR). Myofibroblast population data were adopted from our previous study. Correlation between myofibroblast population and collagen fibre deposition was examined. There was significantly greater abundance of type I collagen fibre in the PEMF group than in the control on day 7 (P = .013), but not on day 10 or 14. No significant between-group differences were found in collagen fibril alignment and collagen fibre orientation at any measured time points. Positive correlation was found between collagen fibre deposition and myofibroblast population only on day 7 (r = .729, P = .007). In conclusion, PEMF can significantly increase collagen fibre in the early phase of diabetic wound healing, which is associated with the enhancement of myofibroblast population.

  1. Seasonal Effect on Ocular Sun Exposure and Conjunctival UV Autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Kristina M; Chandler, Heather L

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate feasibility and repeatability of measures for ocular sun exposure and conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (UVAF), and to test for relationships between the outcomes. Fifty volunteers were seen for two visits 14 ± 2 days apart. Ocular sun exposure was estimated over a 2-week time period using questionnaires that quantified time outdoors and ocular protection habits. Conjunctival UVAF was imaged using a Nikon D7000 camera system equipped with appropriate flash and filter system; image analysis was done using ImageJ software. Repeatability estimates were made using Bland-Altman plots with mean differences and 95% limits of agreement calculated. Non-normally distributed data was transformed by either log10 or square root methods. Linear regression was conducted to evaluate relationships between measures. Mean (±SD) values for ocular sun exposure and conjunctival UVAF were 8.86 (±11.97) hours and 9.15 (±9.47) mm, respectively. Repeatability was found to be acceptable for both ocular sun exposure and conjunctival UVAF. Univariate linear regression showed outdoor occupation to be a predictor of higher ocular sun exposure; outdoor occupation and winter season of collection both predicted higher total UVAF. Furthermore, increased portion of day spent outdoors while working was associated with increased total conjunctival UVAF. We demonstrate feasibility and repeatability of estimating ocular sun exposure using a previously unreported method and for conjunctival UVAF in a group of subjects residing in Ohio. Seasonal temperature variation may have influenced time outdoors and ultimately calculation of ocular sun exposure. As winter season of collection and outdoor occupation both predicted higher total UVAF, our data suggests that ocular sun exposure is associated with conjunctival UVAF and, possibly, that UVAF remains for at least several months after sun exposure.

  2. Compact standoff Raman system for detection of homemade explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Bates, David E.; Acosta, Tayro E.

    2010-04-01

    We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a compact portable standoff Raman system developed at the University of Hawaii. Data presented in this article show that good quality Raman spectra of various organic and inorganic chemicals, including hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, and gasoline, can be easily obtained from remote distances with a compact standoff Raman system utilizing only a regular 85 mm Nikon camera lens as collection optics. Raman spectra of various chemicals showing clear Raman fingerprints obtained from targets placed at 50 m distance in daylight with 1 to 10 second of integration time are presented in this article. A frequency-doubled mini Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 30 mJ/pulse, 20 Hz, pulse width 8 ns) is used in an oblique geometry to excite the target located at 50 m distance. The standoff Raman system uses a compact spectrograph of size 10 cm (length) × 8.2 cm (width) × 5.2 cm (height) with spectral coverage from 100 to 4500 cm-1 Stokes-Raman shifted from 532 nm laser excitation and is equipped with a gated thermo-electrically cooled ICCD detector. The system is capable of detecting both the target as well as the atmospheric gases before the target. Various chemicals could be easily identified through glass, plastic, and water media. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  3. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. P.; Shumlak, U.

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 1020 m-2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  4. Predictive modeling for the management of consumable optics in a lithographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) environments require that equipment have high availability, low cost of ownership, and minimizes events that can cause product defects. With a scheduled proactive maintenance program for consumables, the impact to manufacturing schedules is minimized while maintaining the ability of the tool to create "good" product, and down time due to troubleshooting is reduced. In photolithography, consumable optics provide a large opportunity for instituting this type of program, since optical degradation is very well understood having known causes such as chemical contamination, manufacturing defects and physical effects. These effects can either be reversed or compensated for via optics cleaning, parts replacement or counter-measures such as optical adjustments, optical filters, or tool modifications. Traditionally the lifetime of optics in described in terms of the number of pulses through the optic. This pulse limit is based on modeling and reflects the usage of the machine. There are several disadvantages to using this method, including unnecessarily changing parts prior to failure, or alternately, premature parts failure. Performance-based modeling can solve most issues associated with usage-based models; however, there are also challenges related to performance-based modeling that must be overcome to make the model useful. These include forecasting usage rates, degradation mode signature, and determining thresholds to allow for efficient parts ordering. Nikon has developed a preliminary model to automate performance-based forecasting that takes all of these challenges into account, and with further optimization this model can be implemented successfully providing a reduction in consumables related Cost of Ownership.

  5. Total lithography system based on a new application software platform enabling smart scanner management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Hirotaka; Masaki, Kazuo; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki; Wakamoto, Shinji; Park, Seemoon; Sugihara, Taro; Shibazaki, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Along with device shrinkage, higher accuracy will continuously be required from photo-lithography tools in order to enhance on-product yield. In order to achieve higher yield, the advanced photo-lithography tools must be equipped with sophisticated tuning knobs on the tool and with software that is flexible enough to be applied per layer. This means photo-lithography tools must be capable of handling many types of sub-recipes and parameters simultaneously. To enable managing such a large amount of data easily and to setup lithography tools smoothly, we have developed a total lithography system called Litho Turnkey Solution based on a new software application platform, which we call Plug and Play Manager (PPM). PPM has its own graphical user interface, which enables total management of various data. Here various data means recipes, sub-recipes, tuning-parameters, measurement results, and so on. Through PPM, parameter making by intelligent applications such as CDU/Overlay tuning tools can easily be implemented. In addition, PPM is also linked to metrology tools and the customer's host computer, which enables data flow automation. Based on measurement data received from the metrology tools, PPM calculates correction parameters and sends them to the scanners automatically. This scheme can make calibration feedback loops possible. It should be noted that the abovementioned functions are running on the same platform through a user-friendly interface. This leads to smart scanner management and usability improvement. In this paper, we will demonstrate the latest development status of Nikon's total lithography solution based on PPM; describe details of each application; and provide supporting data for the accuracy and usability of the system. Keywords: exposure

  6. Application of top-down CD-SEM metrology in measuring and correlating profile with CD data in resist films with various thickness and sidewall profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Sunit S.; Azordegan, Amir R.; Liu, Ying

    2000-06-01

    To have a more complete and clear picture for resist characterization, a second metric is needed to supplement the traditional linewidth data. A fast and non-destructive metrology system is desired to provide resist profile information. Electron scan and SEM image correlation capability will provide this second metric to effectively select the correct and precise process window. Monitoring for high electron line scan correlation values allows one to maintain a sharp sidewall profile of photoresist while supporting high aspect ratios. This is ideal for magneto- resistive (MR) and inductive thin film recording head coil plating and many other mission-critical applications. An automated top-down CD-SEM technique, capable of acquiring and analyzing electron waveform profiles of resist lines in addition to the traditional linewidth values is reported here. These measurements were made using a KLA-Tencor 8100 CD SEM, taking advantage of its new Pattern Quality Confirmation (pQC) feature. Process engineer using pQC can correlate signal intensity and images against stored templates, and then output the correlation scores. The technique has been applied to silicon wafers coated with various AZR photoresists, such as AZR 3300, AZR7200, AZR7500, and AZR7900, with thickness of 1 - 3 microns. Wafers were exposed using a Nikon I line stepper and then developed by AZR 300 metal ion free developer. Focus-Exposure dose-array fields were measured to investigate their profiles transformation as well as CD through and beyond their exposure latitude. Correlation scores were derived using aspect ratio of film thickness vs. CD size in each resist family. The study was extended by inspecting 'image correlation' values of high aspect ratio Contact Holes. Possibility of automating determination of open versus closed Contact Holes printed in these photoresists is also discussed. The goal of this study is to optimize determination of acceptable process window, by utilizing line and image

  7. Comparison of digital and film stereo photography of the optic nerve in the evaluation of patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Khouri, Albert S; Szirth, Bernard; Realini, Tony; Fechtner, Robert D

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a digital simultaneous stereo photography system against film in the assessment of optic nerve head features in patients with glaucoma. Fifteen digital and 15 corresponding film simultaneous stereo photographs (SSP) of the optic nerve from patients with glaucoma were graded by two glaucoma specialists. Assessed parameters included the vertical and horizontal cup-to-disc ratios (VCD and HCD, respectively), and the image quality score (1 = worse, 5 = best) for each image. Digital and film SSP were presented in random order, two times to each grader. A total of 60 evaluations (30 digital and 30 film) per grader were collected. A Nidek 3-Dx simultaneous stereo disc camera (Gamagori, Japan) was used with both a standard 35-mm-film camera back, and with a 6.1 mega pixel camera (Nikon D1x, Tokyo, Japan) for capture of digital images. All digital images were stored on a computer and reviewed using the Navis Screener software (proprietary software from Nidek). Digital image pairs were evaluated directly on an ADVAN 27-inch Liquid Crystal Display computer monitor (Taipei, Taiwan) with resolution comparable to that of the digital camera, using the screen-vu stereo viewer held at a fixed angle to the monitor. Film image pairs were evaluated using a Pentax stereo slide viewer (Asahi Optical Co., Tokyo, Japan) illuminated by a light box over a neutral density filter to match the luminance between the computer screen and the light box. The mean difference between digital and film was near zero for all three evaluated outcomes (VCD, HCD, and quality score), and there was no significant grader effect for any of the outcomes. Digital images correlated well with film for SSP of the optic nerve in glaucoma.

  8. Classical taxonomy studies of medicinally important Ipomoea leari

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, Omji; Gupta, Saurabh; Nanjan, Moola Joghee; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea leari which belongs to the family Convolvulaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the whole plant is used for various disorders such as anti-inflammatory, psychotomimetic and anticancer activities. The current study seeks to standardize the parameters for this herb. Materials and Methods: The identification of the pharmacognostical, morphoanatomical characters of Ipomoea leari (leaf, stem and root) were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analyses. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values were determined by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The plant material was fixed in formalin-5 mL + acetic acid-5 mL + 70% ethyl alcohol-9 mL (FAA) and dehydrated with graded series of tertiary-butyl alcohol. Toluidine blue, a polychromatic stain was used for staining the sections and then whole components were observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Microscopically, leaf consists of prominent midrib and the lamina, both having dorsiventral symmetry. The stomata are actinocytic. The stem consists of an epidermal layer of one cell thickness, wide cortex, vascular cylinder and wide pith. The root measuring 1.6 mm thick was studied. It consists of uniformly thick and continuous periderm, wide cortex and thick vascular cylinder. Qualitative analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and phenols. The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of macroscopic, phytoconstituent and chromatographic analyses of Ipomoea leari. Various standard methods were adopted to carry out the investigation. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide valuable pharmacognostic information of Ipomoea leari for its identification. Our result's suggest that Ipomoea leari is a promising candidate as an

  9. Study of nuclear morphometry on cytology specimens of benign and malignant breast lesions: A study of 122 cases.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Anamika; Jain, Manjula; Shukla, Shailaja; Andley, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer has emerged as a leading site of cancer among women in India. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been routinely applied in assessment of breast lesions. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is subjective with a "gray zone" of 6.9-20%. Quantitative evaluation of nuclear size, shape, texture, and density parameters by morphometry can be of diagnostic help in breast tumor. To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates and assess its role in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions with derivation of suitable cut-off values between the two groups. The present study was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study of nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cases. The study included 50 benign breast disease (BBD), 8 atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and 64 carcinoma cases. Image analysis was performed on Papanicolaou-stained FNAC slides by Nikon Imaging Software (NIS)-Elements Advanced Research software (Version 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included 5 nuclear size, 2 shape, 4 texture, and 2 density parameters. Nuclear morphometry could differentiate between benign and malignant aspirates with a gradually increasing nuclear size parameters from BBD to ADH to carcinoma. Cut-off values of 31.93 μm(2), 6.325 μm, 5.865 μm, 7.855 μm, and 21.55 μm for mean nuclear area, equivalent diameter, minimum feret, maximum ferret, and perimeter, respectively, were derived between benign and malignant cases, which could correctly classify 7 out of 8 ADH cases. Nuclear morphometry is a highly objective tool that could be used to supplement FNAC in differentiating benign from malignant lesions, with an important role in cases with diagnostic dilemma.

  10. To evaluate the validity of Recurring Esthetic Dental proportion in natural dentition

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shilpa; Pitti, Varun; Satish Babu, CL; Surendra Kumar, GP; Jnanadev, KR

    2011-01-01

    Background: Different proportions are described in the literature for smile designing, such as Golden proportion, Golden percentage, Preston's proportion, and recently, Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) proportion. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the existence of RED proportion in natural dentition. To determine the relative height of maxillary lateral incisor and canine occurring in natural dentition so that it can be used in any of the above proportions. Materials and Methods: Fifteen male subjects and 15 female subjects in each of the different age groups of 18–23 years, 24–29 years and 30–35 years were selected for this study (total 90). Photographs of the subjects were taken using Nikon D200 camera with 135 mm lens and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop CS4 extended software. The height and width of maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines were found out using the measuring tool provided in the software. Results: Average width ratio and height ratio of maxillary lateral incisor to central incisor and maxillary canine to lateral incisor were calculated to check the existence of RED proportion in natural dentition. Average lateral incisor to central incisor height ratio for “small”- and “medium”-sized teeth was found to be 88% and for “tall”-sized teeth was found to be 84%. Average canine to lateral incisor height ratio for “small”- and “medium”-sized teeth was found to be 106% and for “tall”-sized teeth was found to be 105%. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, RED proportion was not seen in natural dentition. PMID:22025841

  11. Fluorescein angiography of the newborn rat. Implications in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Larrazabal, L I; Penn, J S

    1990-05-01

    The current technique was developed to characterize the morphologic changes in the retinas of oxygen-reared rats, as an animal model of retinopathy of prematurity. Past studies have used ink perfusion to observe the retinal vasculature, but this method is static and requires the sacrifice of the subject. Fluorescein angiography, however, is dynamic and relatively noninvasive, and allows the survival of the animal for further study. The fundus camera cannot be used because the source of light that is focused in an annulus is too large for the pupil size of a young (approximately 14-day-old) rat. To overcome this, a Nikon inverted microscope (Diaphot-TMD) was used. Using the proper exciting and barrier filters for fluorescene, a photographic sequence was made by rapidly focusing to the plane of the retinal vessels. To our knowledge, similar photographs have not been previously published. This technique was used in newborn pigmented ratlings that were 1) exposed to 80% oxygen for the first 14 days of life; 2) exposed to 80% oxygen for the first 21 days of life; or 3) exposed for the first 14 days followed by 7 days in room air. Age-matched controls were raised simultaneously in room air and evaluated with the same technique. Differences were observed between treatments in the amount of retinal capillary loss, and in the tortuosity and diameter of the major retinal vessels. The hyaloid system also varied between treatment groups. Oxygen-exposed rats showed a persistence of the hyaloid vessels that was particularly prominent in the group returned to room air before analysis. Comparisons are made to past results obtained with other histologic techniques.

  12. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  13. Dermatoscopic imaging of skin lesions by high school students: a cross-sectional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Michael A.; Fonseca, Maira; Dusza, Stephen W.; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C.; Bishop, Marilyn; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.; Oliveria, Susan A.; Halpern, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ability of novices to perform imaging of skin lesions is not well studied. Objectives: To determine the ability of 12th grade high school students without formal training to take clinical and dermatoscopic images of skin lesions on patient-actors. Patients/Methods: Nineteen participants were divided into 11 gender-specific groups of 1–2 students. Groups were provided written instructions and assessed in their ability to (a) identify 8 pre-specified skin lesions, (b) take overview clinical images, and (c) take contact, polarized dermatoscopic images. Groups captured the same images twice using two different cameras [Nikon TM 1 J1 / VEOS HD1 and a VEOS DS3 (Canfield Scientific, Inc.)]. The sequence of camera use was determined using block randomization. If students made visibly poor skin contact during dermatoscopic imaging using their first camera, study investigators provided verbal instructions to place the second camera directly onto the skin. Students completed anonymous surveys before and after the imaging activity. Results: Students were proficient at identifying the correct pre-specified skin lesions (86/88, 98%), capturing sufficient quality overview clinical images of the back and legs (41/42, 98%), and taking dermatoscopic images of the entire skin lesion (174/176, 99%). Regarding dermatoscopic image quality, 116 of 175 (66%) images were in focus. Out of focus images were attributed to poor skin contact. Groups that received feedback (n=4) were able to obtain a significantly higher proportion of in focus dermatoscopic images using their second camera compared to their first camera (16% to 72%, P<0.001). Conclusions: We identified several barriers that exist for participant-acquired dermatoscopic imaging. Instructions emphasizing the importance of skin contact are useful. Our results may help guide future patient-acquired teledermatoscopy efforts. PMID:25692076

  14. Dermatoscopic imaging of skin lesions by high school students: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Michael A; Fonseca, Maira; Dusza, Stephen W; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Bishop, Marilyn; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Oliveria, Susan A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-01-01

    The ability of novices to perform imaging of skin lesions is not well studied. To determine the ability of 12th grade high school students without formal training to take clinical and dermatoscopic images of skin lesions on patient-actors. Nineteen participants were divided into 11 gender-specific groups of 1-2 students. Groups were provided written instructions and assessed in their ability to (a) identify 8 pre-specified skin lesions, (b) take overview clinical images, and (c) take contact, polarized dermatoscopic images. Groups captured the same images twice using two different cameras [Nikon TM 1 J1 / VEOS HD1 and a VEOS DS3 (Canfield Scientific, Inc.)]. The sequence of camera use was determined using block randomization. If students made visibly poor skin contact during dermatoscopic imaging using their first camera, study investigators provided verbal instructions to place the second camera directly onto the skin. Students completed anonymous surveys before and after the imaging activity. Students were proficient at identifying the correct pre-specified skin lesions (86/88, 98%), capturing sufficient quality overview clinical images of the back and legs (41/42, 98%), and taking dermatoscopic images of the entire skin lesion (174/176, 99%). Regarding dermatoscopic image quality, 116 of 175 (66%) images were in focus. Out of focus images were attributed to poor skin contact. Groups that received feedback (n=4) were able to obtain a significantly higher proportion of in focus dermatoscopic images using their second camera compared to their first camera (16% to 72%, P<0.001). We identified several barriers that exist for participant-acquired dermatoscopic imaging. Instructions emphasizing the importance of skin contact are useful. Our results may help guide future patient-acquired teledermatoscopy efforts.

  15. Three-dimensional measurement of cAMP gradients using hyperspectral confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Thomas C.; Annamdevula, Naga; Britain, Andrea L.; Mayes, Samuel; Favreau, Peter F.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger known to differentially regulate many cellular functions over a wide range of timescales. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the distribution of cAMP within cells is not uniform, and that cAMP compartmentalization is largely responsible for signaling specificity within the cAMP signaling pathway. However, to date, no studies have experimentally measured three dimensional (3D) cAMP distributions within cells. Here we use both 2D and 3D hyperspectral microscopy to visualize cAMP gradients in endothelial cells from the pulmonary microvasculature (PMVECs). cAMP levels were measured using a FRETbased cAMP sensor comprised of a cAMP binding domain from EPAC sandwiched between FRET donors and acceptors -- Turquoise and Venus fluorescent proteins. Data were acquired using either a Nikon A1R spectral confocal microscope or custom spectral microscopy system. Analysis of hyperspectral image stacks from a single confocal slice or from summed images of all slices (2D analysis) indicated little or no cAMP gradients were formed within PMVECs under basal conditions or following agonist treatment. However, analysis of hyperspectral image stacks from 3D cellular geometries (z stacks) demonstrate marked cAMP gradients from the apical to basolateral membrane of PMVECs. These results strongly suggest that 2D imaging studies of cAMP compartmentalization -- whether epifluorescence or confocal microscopy -- may lead to erroneous conclusions about the existence of cAMP gradients, and that 3D studies are required to assess mechanisms of signaling specificity.

  16. Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2007-01-01

    Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

  17. Design and commissioning of a directly coupled in-vivo multiphoton microscope for skin imaging in humans and large animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, William J.; Kendall, Mark A.

    2004-02-01

    The application of near infrared multiphoton excitation to the laser-scanning microscope was first conceived by Denk, Strickler and Webb in 1990. Since then, advances in design have seen the multiphoton laser scanning microscope (MPLSM) applied to a wide range of biological research areas, including skin imaging and vaccine delivery. The technique has the attributes of low phototoxicity, high-resolution functional imaging to depths in scattered tissues. These characteristics have encouraged engineers and scientists to develop in-vivo imaging systems. For these applications, laser excitation pulses can be delivered to the sample through optical fibers. Although this solution provides a number of advantages relating to movement and flexibility of the site of interest relative to the laser source, the peak powers that can be delivered down the fiber are limited. We report on the design and commissioning of a directly coupled in-vivo MPM system, optimised for the imaging of epidermal vaccines delivered to a range of biological models and humans. Specifically, we seek to apply the system to visualise in-vivo, the influence of hand-held, helium powered needle-free systems on skin cells. A standard Nikon E600FN microscope, dissected above the optical plane was cantilevered from a vibration isolated table using rigid support arms. The modified microscope was coupled to an infrared optimised Bio-Rad Radiance 2100MP, multiphoton dedicated laser scanning control and image acquisition system. Femtosecond laser pulses were provided by a 10W Verdi pumped Mira Ti:Sapphire laser, from Coherent Inc. The microscope was modified such that the transmission half may be selectively attached for conventional imaging with ex-vivo and cell culture samples, or removed for in-vivo imaging of skin sites on the body of humans and large animals. Optical performance of the system, and aspects of its design and commissioning are discussed in this paper.

  18. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  19. Using small unmanned aerial vehicle for instream habitat evaluation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegiano, Luca; Vezza, Paolo; Comoglio, Claudio; Lingua, Andrea; Spairani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in digital image collection and processing have led to the increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for river research and management. In this paper, we assess the capabilities of a small UAV to characterize physical habitat for fish in three river stretches of North-Western Italy. The main aim of the study was identifying the advantages and challenges of this technology for environmental river management, in the context of the increasing river exploitation for hydropower production. The UAV used to acquire overlapping images was a small quadcopter with a two different high-resolution (non-metric) cameras (Nikon J1™ and Go-Pro Hero 3 Black Edition™). The quadcopter was preprogrammed to fly set waypoints using a small tablet PC. With the acquired imagery, we constructed a 5-cm resolution orthomosaic image and a digital surface model (DSM). The two products were used to map the distribution of aquatic and riparian habitat features, i.e., wetted area, morphological unit distributions, bathymetry, water surface gradient, substrates and grain sizes, shelters and cover for fish. The study assessed the quality of collected data and used such information to identify key reach-scale metrics and important aspects of fluvial morphology and aquatic habitat. The potential and limitations of using UAV for physical habitat survey were evaluated and the collected data were used to initialize and run common habitat simulation tools (MesoHABSIM). Several advantages of using UAV-based imagery were found, including low cost procedures, high resolution and efficiency in data collection. However, some challenges were identified for bathymetry extraction (vegetation obstructions, white waters, turbidity) and grain size assessment (preprocessing of data and automatic object detection). The application domain and possible limitation for instream habitat mapping were defined and will be used as a reference for future studies. Ongoing activities include the

  20. [Ophthalmological reading tests : Part 1: historical aspects].

    PubMed

    Radner, W

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this article was an analytical review of reading charts with regard to the historical background, printing techniques, print quality and print size. For this study original historical reading charts (Jaeger, Snellen, Nieden and Birkhäuser) were investigated microscopically by measuring the lower case letter sizes (iNexis VMA 2520, Nikon, Tokyo). Calculations were made according to EN ISO 8596 and the recommendations of the International Research Council. In the mid-nineteenth century various reading cards were published; however, at that time it was not possible to print lower case letters according to exactly defined standards. Thus, these reading cards were not comparable to each other or between different language versions. At a reading distance of 32 cm Jaeger No. 1 represented in the original edition (1856) a visual acuity of 0.72 and 0.63 in the version from 1945 and the smallest print size of the Snellen reading test (1862) represented 0.55. Nieden No. 1 (1882) corresponded to a visual acuity of 0.59 and the smallest print size of the Birkhäuser cards (1911) 1.5. In the case of all reading cards except the original Birkhäuser cards, there was no logarithmic progression of the print sizes and the sizes of numbers were also not in accordance with the corresponding letter sizes. Print sizes of historical reading charts do not adhere to current standards and were usually not logarithmically scaled. These deficits and the lack of comparability between the historical reading charts may have caused reading cards to be currently underestimated as an accurate diagnostic tool. Nevertheless, the historical reading charts were the successful forerunners of developments for modern reading charts.

  1. Hyperspectral imaging using a color camera and its application for pathogen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon; Gamble, Gary

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the results of a feasibility study for the development of a hyperspectral image recovery (reconstruction) technique using a RGB color camera and regression analysis in order to detect and classify colonies of foodborne pathogens. The target bacterial pathogens were the six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) grown in Petri dishes of Rainbow agar. The purpose of the feasibility study was to evaluate whether a DSLR camera (Nikon D700) could be used to predict hyperspectral images in the wavelength range from 400 to 1,000 nm and even to predict the types of pathogens using a hyperspectral STEC classification algorithm that was previously developed. Unlike many other studies using color charts with known and noise-free spectra for training reconstruction models, this work used hyperspectral and color images, separately measured by a hyperspectral imaging spectrometer and the DSLR color camera. The color images were calibrated (i.e. normalized) to relative reflectance, subsampled and spatially registered to match with counterpart pixels in hyperspectral images that were also calibrated to relative reflectance. Polynomial multivariate least-squares regression (PMLR) was previously developed with simulated color images. In this study, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was also evaluated as a spectral recovery technique to minimize multicollinearity and overfitting. The two spectral recovery models (PMLR and PLSR) and their parameters were evaluated by cross-validation. The QR decomposition was used to find a numerically more stable solution of the regression equation. The preliminary results showed that PLSR was more effective especially with higher order polynomial regressions than PMLR. The best classification accuracy measured with an independent test set was about 90%. The results suggest the potential of cost-effective color imaging using hyperspectral image

  2. Apollo 15 Lunar eclipse views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-01

    S71-58222 (31 July-2 Aug. 1971) --- During the lunar eclipse that occurred during the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission, astronaut Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot, used a 35mm Nikon camera to obtain a series of 15 photographs while the moon was entering and exiting Earth's umbra. Although it might seem that there should be no light on the moon when it is in Earth's shadow, sunlight is scattered into this region by Earth's atmosphere. This task was an attempt to measure by photographic photometry the amount of scattered light reaching the moon. The four views from upper left to lower right were selected to show the moon as it entered Earth's umbra. The first is a four-second exposure which was taken at the moment when the moon had just entered umbra; the second is a 15-second exposure taken two minutes after entry; the third, a 30-second exposure three minutes after entry; and the fourth is a 60-second exposure four minutes after entry. In all cases the light reaching the moon was so bright on the very high speed film (Eastman Kodak type 2485 emulsion) that the halation obscures the lunar image, which should be about one-third as big as the circle of light. The background star field is clearly evident, and this is very important for these studies. The spacecraft was in full sunlight when these photographs were taken, and it was pointed almost directly away from the sun so that the windows and a close-in portion of the camera's line-of-sight were in shadow. The environment around the vehicle at this time appears to be very "clean" with no light scattering particles noticeable.

  3. Portable retinal imaging for eye disease screening using a consumer-grade digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Simon; Larichev, Andrey; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The development of affordable means to image the retina is an important step toward the implementation of eye disease screening programs. In this paper we present the i-RxCam, a low-cost, hand-held, retinal camera for widespread applications such as tele-retinal screening for eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, and age-related ocular diseases. Existing portable retinal imagers do not meet the requirements of a low-cost camera with sufficient technical capabilities (field of view, image quality, portability, battery power, and ease-of-use) to be distributed widely to low volume clinics, such as the offices of single primary care physicians serving rural communities. The i-RxCam uses a Nikon D3100 digital camera body. The camera has a CMOS sensor with 14.8 million pixels. We use a 50mm focal lens that gives a retinal field of view of 45 degrees. The internal autofocus can compensate for about 2D (diopters) of focusing error. The light source is an LED produced by Philips with a linear emitting area that is transformed using a light pipe to the optimal shape at the eye pupil, an annulus. To eliminate corneal reflex we use a polarization technique in which the light passes through a nano-wire polarizer plate. This is a novel type of polarizer featuring high polarization separation (contrast ratio of more than 1000) and very large acceptance angle (>45 degrees). The i-RxCam approach will yield a significantly more economical retinal imaging device that would allow mass screening of the at-risk population.

  4. A highly reliable and budget-friendly Peltier-cooled camera for biological fluorescence imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jolling, Koen; Vandeven, Martin; Van den Eynden, Jimmy; Ameloot, Marcel; Van Kerkhove, Emmy

    2007-12-01

    The SAC8.5, a low-cost Peltier-cooled black and white 8-bit CCD camera for astronomy, was evaluated for its use in imaging microscopy. Two camera-microscope configurations were used: an epifluorescence microscope (Nikon Eclipse TE2000-U) and a bottom port laser scanning confocal microscope system (Zeiss LSCM 510 META). Main advantages of the CCD camera over the currently used photomultiplier detection in the scanning setup are fast image capturing, stable background, an improved signal-to-noise ratio and good linearity. Based on DAPI-labelled Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells, the signal-to-noise ratio was estimated to be 4 times higher with respect to the currently used confocal photomultiplier detector. A linear relationship between the fluorescence signal and the FITC-inulin concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.8 mg mL(-1) could be established. With the SAC8.5 CCD camera and using DAPI, calcein-AM and propidium iodide we could also distinguish between viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells: exposure to CdCl(2) caused necrosis in A6 cells. Additional examples include the observation of wire-like mitochondrial networks in Mito Tracker Green-loaded Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Furthermore, it is straightforward to interface the SAC8.5 with automated shutters to prevent rapid fluorophore photobleaching via easy to use astrovideo software. In this study, we demonstrate that the SAC8.5 black and white CCD camera is an easy-to-implement and cost-conscious addition to quantitative fluorescence microfluorimetry on living tissues and is suitable for teaching laboratories.

  5. Geocam Space: Enhancing Handheld Digital Camera Imagery from the International Space Station for Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lee, Yeon Jin; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    information native to the data makes it difficult to integrate astronaut photographs with other georeferenced data to facilitate quantitative analysis such as urban land cover/land use classification, change detection, or geologic mapping. The manual determination of image centerpoints is both time and labor-intensive, leading to delays in releasing geolocated and cataloged data to the public, such as the timely use of data for disaster response. The GeoCam Space project was funded by the ISS Program in 2015 to develop an on-orbit hardware and ground-based software system for increasing the efficiency of geolocating astronaut photographs from the ISS (Fig. 1). The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center leads the development of both the ground and on-orbit systems in collaboration with the ESRS Unit. The hardware component consists of modified smartphone elements including cameras, central processing unit, wireless Ethernet, and an inertial measurement unit (gyroscopes/accelerometers/magnetometers) reconfigured into a compact unit that attaches to the base of the current Nikon D4 camera - and its replacement, the Nikon D5 - and connects using the standard Nikon peripheral connector or USB port. This provides secondary, side and downward facing cameras perpendicular to the primary camera pointing direction. The secondary cameras observe calibration targets with known internal X, Y, and Z position affixed to the interior of the ISS to determine the camera pose corresponding to each image frame. This information is recorded by the GeoCam Space unit and indexed for correlation to the camera time recorded for each image frame. Data - image, EXIF header, and camera pose information - is transmitted to the ground software system (GeoRef) using the established Ku-band USOS downlink system. Following integration on the ground, the camera pose information provides an initial geolocation estimate for the individual film frame. This new capability represents a significant

  6. Innovativ Airborne Sensors for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, M. O.; Kemper, G.

    2016-06-01

    Modern Disaster Management Systems are based on 3 columns, crisis preparedness, early warning and the final crisis management. In all parts, special data are needed in order to analyze existing structures, assist in the early warning system and in the updating after a disaster happens to assist the crises management organizations. How can new and innovative sensors assist in these tasks? Aerial images have been frequently used in the past for generating spatial data, however in urban structures not all information can be extracted easily. Modern Oblique camera systems already assist in the evaluation of building structures to define rescue paths, analyze building structures and give also information of the stability of the urban fabric. For this application there is no need of a high geometric accurate sensor, also SLC Camera based Oblique Camera system as the OI X5, which uses Nikon Cameras, do a proper job. Such a camera also delivers worth full information after a Disaster happens to validate the degree of deformation in order to estimate stability and usability for the population. Thermal data in combination with RGB give further information of the building structure, damages and potential water intrusion. Under development is an oblique thermal sensor with 9 heads which enables nadir and oblique thermal data acquisition. Beside the application for searching people, thermal anomalies can be created out of humidity in constructions (transpiration effects), damaged power lines, burning gas tubes and many other dangerous facts. A big task is in the data analysis which should be made automatically and fast. This requires a good initial orientation and a proper relative adjustment of the single sensors. Like that, many modern software tools enable a rapid data extraction. Automated analysis of the data before and after a disaster can highlight areas of significant changes. Detecting anomalies are the way to get the focus on the prior area. Also Lidar supports

  7. Machining characteristics and fracture morphologies in a copper-beryllium (Cu-2Be) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, K. V.; Cisneros, J. C.; Cervantes, Hector; Pineda, Cosme Gomez

    2006-02-01

    The technology of materials removal is improved greatly by the introduction of advanced cutting tools like cubic boron nitride, ceramics, polycrystalline diamond and the more recent whisker-reinforced materials. In this paper, the influence of cutting temperature on machinability, mechanical properties, microstructure, and fracture morphology of Cu-2Be alloy using a polycrystalline diamond cutter is investigated. The information on machining, microstructure, and fracture morphology of Cu-2Be alloy are very useful to understand their fabrication characteristics and the basic mechanisms of its deformation and fracture. The machinability (in terms of surface finish) of Cu-2Be alloy is evaluated as a function of cutting temperature, resulting from wet and dry cutting. Machining is carried out on a Hardinge Cobra 42 CNC machine (Hardinge Inc., Elmira, NY), and the machining parameters used—cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate—are kept constant during both wet and dry cutting. The machined surface finish on Cu-2Be alloy is measured using a surface finish analyzer (Surftest 401, series 178) technique. The machined specimens are examined for their strength and hardness properties using a standard Universal Testing Machine and Rockwell hardness tester, respectively. Wet cutting (using coolants) produced a smooth surface finish when compared with dry cutting of the Cu-2Be alloy. The machined specimens are examined for their microstructural features using a Nikon optical microscope. The specimens are etched using a suitable etchant solution for revealing such microstructure constituents as grain size, phase proportions, and the possible overheated areas (especially in dry cutting). The fractured surfaces from the tensile and impact toughness tests are investigated for their fracture morphologies (dry and wet cutting) using a microprocessor-controlled scanning electron microscope (Jeol Model JSM 5910 LV). A detailed analysis is also made to understand and interpret

  8. LED-FISH: Fluorescence microscopy based on light emitting diodes for the molecular analysis of Her-2/neu oncogene amplification.

    PubMed

    Lang, Dagmar S; Zeiser, Tobias; Schultz, Holger; Stellmacher, Florian; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Zabel, Peter; Goldmann, Torsten

    2008-12-16

    Light emitting diodes (LED), which are available as small monochromatic light sources with characteristic features such as maximum illumination power combined with minimum energy consumption and extremely long lifespan have already proved as a highly potential low-cost alternative for specific diagnostic applications in clinical medicine such as tuberculosis fluorescence microscopy. Likewise, the most reliable evaluation of Her-2/neu (c-erbB2) gene amplification, which has been established in the last few years for routine diagnosis in clinical pathology as determinant towards Herceptin-based treatment of patients with breast cancer, is based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and corresponding high priced fluorescence equipment. In order to test the possibility to utilize the advantages of low-cost LED technology on FISH analysis of c-erbB2 gene expression for routine diagnostic purposes, the applicability of a standard bright field Carl Zeiss Axiostar Plus microscope equipped with a Fraen AFTER (Amplified Fluorescence by Transmitted Excitation of Radiation) LED Fluorescence Microscope Kit for the detection of Her-2/neu gene signals was compared to an advanced Nikon Eclipse 80i fluorescence microscope in combination with a conventional 100W mercury vapor lamp. Both microscopes were fitted with the same Quicam FAST CCD digital camera to unequivocally compare the quality of the captured images. C-erbB2 gene expression was analyzed in 30 different human tissue samples of primary invasive breast cancer, following formalin fixation and subsequent paraffin-embedding. The Her2/neu gene signals (green) were identifiable in the tumor cells in all cases and images of equal quality were captured under almost identical conditions by 480 nm (blue) LED module equipped standard Axiostar microscope as compared to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In this first attempt, these monochromatic LED elements proved in principle to be suitable for the detection of Her-2/neu

  9. Monitoring seasonal dust depositions on snow in a high-altitude site of the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Filippa, Gianluca; Pogliotti, Paolo; Galvagno, Marta; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Cremonese, Edoardo; Isabellon, Michel; Rossini, Micol; Garzonio, Roberto; Gramegna, Gianluca; Colombo, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The seasonal input of mineral dust from Saharan desert impacts the optical properties of snow in the European Alps. The albedo reduction may alter the melting dynamics of the snowpack, resulting in earlier snow melts. In this contribution, we evaluate the impact of dust depositions on snowpack melting dynamics in a high-altitude site (2160 m) in the northwestern Italian Alps (Aosta Valley, IT). In particular, we focus on the two following specific objectives: i) to assess the potential of a spectral index derived from digital camera images to identify the occurrence of dust deposition events; ii) to evaluate the impact of dust depositions on snow melting based on the comparison between observed snow height and the potential snow height simulated with a hydrological model not accounting for melting caused by snow impurities. The experimental site is equipped with instruments that measure snow albedo (Kipp and Zonen cnr4 net radiometer), snow height (SR50A, Campbell Scientific, Inc), air temperature (HMP45, Vaisala Inc.) and surface temperature (SI-111, Apogee Instr. Inc.). Furthermore, a Nikon digital camera (model d5000) is installed at the site. The camera collects images in JPEG format and features a resolution of 12.3 megapixels, with three color channels (namely Red, Green and Blue). Data were collected from 10 am to 5 pm, with an hourly temporal resolution. Data from 2013 to 2016 are presented here. The seasonality and timing of dust depositions were determined using two atmospheric transport models: the NAAPS and the BSC-DREAM8 model. Dust depositions were compared with time series of the Snow Darkening Index (SDI) calculated from the channels of the digital camera, combining the Red and Green channels as a normalized difference. SDI time series were extracted from the repeated images using the Phenopix R package (https://r-forge.r-project.org/projects/phenopix/). The impact of dust deposition on snow melt was evaluated by comparing the observed snow height

  10. A methodology to generate high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and surface water profile for a physical model using close range photogrammetric (CRP) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez Incera, F. J.; Erikson, L. H.; Ruggiero, P.; Barnard, P.; Camus, P.; Rueda Zamora, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the river flow dynamics with varying topography in a real field is very intricate and difficult. Conventional experimental methods based on manual data collection are time consuming and prone to many errors. Recently, remotely sensed satellite imageries are at the best to provide necessary information for large area provided the high resolution but which are very expensive and untimely, consequently, attaining accurate river bathymetry from relatively course resolution and untimely imageries are inaccurate and impractical. Despite of that, these data are often being used to calibrate the river flow models, though these models require highly accurate morpho-dynamic data in order to predict the flow field precisely. Under this circumstance, these data could be supplemented through experimental observations in a physical model with modern techniques. This paper proposes a methodology to generate highly accurate river bathymetry and water surface (WS) profile for a physical model of river network system using CRP technique. For the task accomplishment, a number of DSLR Nikon D5300 cameras (mounted at 3.5 m above the river bed) were used to capture the images of the physical model and the flooding scenarios during the experiments. During experiment, non-specular materials were introduced at the inlet and images were taken simultaneously from different orientations and altitudes with significant overlap of 80%. Ground control points were surveyed using two ultrasonic sensors with ±0.5 mm vertical accuracy. The captured images are, then processed in PhotoScan software to generate the DEM and WS profile. The generated data were then passed through statistical analysis to identify errors. Accuracy of WS profile was limited by extent and density of non-specular powder and stereo-matching discrepancies. Furthermore, several factors of camera including orientation, illumination and altitude of camera. The CRP technique for a large scale physical

  11. A methodology to generate high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and surface water profile for a physical model using close range photogrammetric (CRP) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, V. K.; Kuiry, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the river flow dynamics with varying topography in a real field is very intricate and difficult. Conventional experimental methods based on manual data collection are time consuming and prone to many errors. Recently, remotely sensed satellite imageries are at the best to provide necessary information for large area provided the high resolution but which are very expensive and untimely, consequently, attaining accurate river bathymetry from relatively course resolution and untimely imageries are inaccurate and impractical. Despite of that, these data are often being used to calibrate the river flow models, though these models require highly accurate morpho-dynamic data in order to predict the flow field precisely. Under this circumstance, these data could be supplemented through experimental observations in a physical model with modern techniques. This paper proposes a methodology to generate highly accurate river bathymetry and water surface (WS) profile for a physical model of river network system using CRP technique. For the task accomplishment, a number of DSLR Nikon D5300 cameras (mounted at 3.5 m above the river bed) were used to capture the images of the physical model and the flooding scenarios during the experiments. During experiment, non-specular materials were introduced at the inlet and images were taken simultaneously from different orientations and altitudes with significant overlap of 80%. Ground control points were surveyed using two ultrasonic sensors with ±0.5 mm vertical accuracy. The captured images are, then processed in PhotoScan software to generate the DEM and WS profile. The generated data were then passed through statistical analysis to identify errors. Accuracy of WS profile was limited by extent and density of non-specular powder and stereo-matching discrepancies. Furthermore, several factors of camera including orientation, illumination and altitude of camera. The CRP technique for a large scale physical

  12. 100 nm half-pitch double exposure KrF lithography using binary masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, S.; Bauer, J.; Haak, U.; Stolarek, D.; Schulz, K.; Wolf, H.; Meier, W.; Trojahn, M.; Matthus, E.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the process margin for the 100nm half - pitch double exposure KrF lithography using binary masks for different illumination settings. The application of Double Exposure Lithography (DEL) would enlarge the capability of 248 nm exposure technique to smaller pitch e.g. for the integration of dedicated layers into 0.13 μm BiCMOS with critical dimension (CD) requirements exceeding the standard 248 nm lithography specification. The DEL was carried out with a KrF Scanner (Nikon S207D, NA Lens = 0.82) for a critical dimension (CD) of 100nm half pitch. The chemical amplified positive resists SL4800 or UV2000 (Rohm & Haas) with a thickness of 325nm were coated on a 70 nm AR10L (Rohm & Haas) bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC). With a single exposure and using binary masks it is not possible to resolve 100nm lines with a pitch of 200 nm, due to the refraction and the resolution limit. First we investigated the effect of focus variation. It is shown that the focus difference of 1st and 2nd exposure is one critical parameter of the DEL. This requires a good focus repeatability of the scanner. The depth of focus (DOF) of 360 nm with the coherence parameter σ = 0.4 was achieved for DEL with SL4800 resist. The influence of the better resist resolution of UV2000 on the process window will be shown (DOF = 460 nm). If we change the focus of one of the exposures the CD and DOF performance of spaces is reduced with simultaneous line position changing. Second we investigated the effect of different illumination shapes and settings. The results for conventional illumination with different values for σ and annular illumination with σ inner = 0.57 and σ outer = 0.85 will be shown. In summary, the results show that DEL has the potential to be a practical lithography enhancement method for device fabrication using high NA KrF tool generation.

  13. Coming of Age: Polarization as a Probe of Plant Canopy Water Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Kupinski, Meredith; Bradley, Christine Lavella; Dahlgren, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the relative water content (RWC) of the sunlit leaves in a plant canopy may be estimated from polarized canopy imagery. Recently (IGARSS, July 27-31, 2015, Milan, Italy), we reported the results of laboratory polarization measurements of single detached leaves during dry down. We found that RWC was linearly related to the ratio of the reflectance of the interior of the leaf and the leaf transmittance. Here we report application of the laboratory results to estimate RWC for sunlit leaves in a plant canopy. Using a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Nikon 810 camera with Nikkor 300 mm lens and Polaroid type HN-22 linear polarizer, we photographed in the principle plane a plant canopy displaying a gradient of water stress and collected, at each of multiple points along the gradient, two images, one with the polarization filter oriented for maximum scene response and a second with the filter oriented for minimum scene response. We converted the digital values in the two images to reflectance factor with reference to images of a white, flat, horizontal Spectralon surface. We classified the polarization imagery, identifying reflecting leaves, transmitting leaves, other sunlit vegetation and shadows. For each image pair we normalized the leaf internal reflectance by dividing by the cosine of the angle of incidence of the sunlight on the leaf, selected the leaf maximum transmittance in the scene and divided to obtain the ratio reflectance/transmittance, which we compared with leaf RWC. We determined the leaf relative water content by harvesting a section of leaf and immediately placing it in a sealed container in an ice chest. Later in the laboratory the leaf sample was weighed, rehydrated, weighed, dried and again weighed. RWC was determined using the standard formula. Our experimental results support our hypothesis, suggesting that the RWC of sunlit leaves in a plant canopy may be estimated from analysis of polarization imagery collected by a

  14. Scale-up of an oil/water cream containing 40% diethylene glycol monoethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Williams, S O; Long, S; Allen, J; Wells, M L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to scale up an oil/water (o/w) cream formulation containing 40% diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME), developed via 300-g laboratory batches in a 2(5-2) fractional factorial design, to 7-kg batch sizes in a Brogli-10 homogenizer. The o/w cream was manufactured via a standard phase-inversion process in the Brogli-10 homogenizer. Partitioning studies of DGME were conducted in test tubes at ambient temperature and after 24 hr at 70 degrees C in a convection oven. Phase height was measured by vernier calipers. Microscopy studies of excipients with and without treatment with water or a DGME/water mixture were conducted with a Nikon microscope after equilibration at 35 degrees C for 24 hr. During creation of the 7-kg pilot-scale batches, congealed material was observed between the sweep agitation blade and the discharge port, where the Brogli-10 homogenizer is not temperature jacketed. Factors that increased the amount of congealed material were higher temperatures during primary emulsification and longer cooling times. Partitioning studies revealed that DGME resides in the aqueous external phase of this formulation. Microscopy studies revealed that DGME in the external phase of this cream has a profound impact on the solubility of certain solid, waxy excipients (e.g., cetyl alcohol and polyoxyethylene-2-stearyl ether) at 35 degrees C. From this study, it appears that DGME resides in the external phase of the o/w cream. During manufacturing, it is hypothesized that the presence of DGME in the external phase alters the solubility of certain solid, waxy excipients in the formula such that they no longer primarily reside in the internal oil phase. On cooling, these materials precipitate or congeal in the external phase. The fractional factorial experimental design at the 300-g laboratory scale did not predict the issues encountered during scale-up. Differences between laboratory scale and pilot plant scale that explain why this phenomenon

  15. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  16. Live (Rose-bengal stained) foraminifera from deep-sea anoxic salt brine in the Eastern Mediterranean: toward understanding limit of life for single-celled eukaryotes (foraminifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazato, H.; Ohkawara, N.; Iwasaki, A.; Nomaki, H.; Akoumianaki, I.; Tokuyama, H.

    2012-04-01

    What is a limit of life for the eukaryotes? Eukaryotes are thought to adapt and evolve under oxic environmental conditions. Recently, there are many exceptions for this hypothesis, as many eukaryotes including metazoan groups are found in anoxic environmental conditions. We found many rose-bengal stained foraminifera from a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) in the eastern Mediterranean. During KH06-04 cruise, we conducted oceanographic research at Medée Lake, the largest DHAB, that is located 100km southwest of Crete Island in the eastern Mediterranean. The lake situates at 2920m in water depth. Depth of saline water is 120m in maximum. Both water and sediment samplings were carried out both with Niskin bottles and multiple corer attached to camera watching sampling system at three sites, inside of the lake (CS), the edge of the lake (OMS) and the normal deep-sea floor (RS). Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations at central saline lake are 15.27 oC, 328PSU, and 0.0 ml/L, respectively. Strong smell of hydrogen sulfide was detected from the lake sediment. Subsamples were conducted for multiple core samples using 3 subcores(φ 2.9cm) from each core tube (φ 8.2cm). Sediment samples were fixed with 4% formalin Rose Bengal solution on board. In laboratory, samples were washed with 32μm sieve. Rose Bengal stained specimens were picked under binocular stereomicroscope (Zeiss Stemi SV11) for surface 0.5cm layer, and identified with inverted microscope (Nikon ECLIPSE TE300). In total, 26 species belonging to 9 genera were identified from three sites. Six species belonging to two genera were identified in the center of the salt brine. Only a few species are common among three sites, even though the numbers of common species were 10 between OMS and RS sites. In DHAB, spherical organic-walled species, such as allogromiid and psammosphaerid, are dominant. In contrast, tube-like chitinous foraminifera, such as Resigella, Conicotheca and Nodellum, are

  17. Coming of Age: Polarization as a Probe of Plant Canopy Water Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Kupinski, M.; Bradley, C. L.; Dahlgren, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the relative water content (RWC) of the sunlit leaves in a plant canopy may be estimated from polarized canopy imagery. Recently (IGARSS, July 27-31, 2015, Milan, Italy), we reported the results of laboratory polarization measurements of single detached leaves during dry down. We found that RWC was linearly related to the ratio of the reflectance of the interior of the leaf and the leaf transmittance. Here we report application of the laboratory results to estimate RWC for sunlit leaves in a plant canopy. Using a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Nikon 810 camera with Nikkor 300 mm lens and Polaroid type HN-22 linear polarizer, we photographed in the principle plane a plant canopy displaying a gradient of water stress and collected, at each of multiple points along the gradient, two images, one with the polarization filter oriented for maximum scene response and a second with the filter oriented for minimum scene response. We converted the digital values in the two images to reflectance factor with reference to images of a white, flat, horizontal Spectralon surface. We classified the polarization imagery, identifying reflecting leaves, transmitting leaves, other sunlit vegetation and shadows. For each image pair we normalized the leaf internal reflectance by dividing by the cosine of the angle of incidence of the sunlight on the leaf, selected the leaf maximum transmittance in the scene and divided to obtain the ratio reflectance/transmittance, which we compared with leaf RWC. We determined the leaf relative water content by harvesting a section of leaf and immediately placing it in a sealed container in an ice chest. Later in the laboratory the leaf sample was weighed, rehydrated, weighed, dried and again weighed. RWC was determined using the standard formula.Our experimental results support our hypothesis, suggesting that the RWC of sunlit leaves in a plant canopy may be estimated from analysis of polarization imagery collected by a

  18. Laser Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Shocked Plagioclase from the Lonar Impact Crater, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, R.; Basu, A. R.; Peterson, J.; Misra, S.

    2004-12-01

    We report Raman spectra of shocked plagioclase grains from the Lonar impact Crater of India. The Lonar Crater, located in the Buldana district of Maharashtra, India (19° 58'N, 76° 31'E), is an almost circular depression in the 65Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. Age estimates of this impact crater range from 10-50ka. Tektite and basalt samples were collected for this study from the rim of the crater, which is raised about 20 meters above the surrounding plains. For comparison, a Manicouagan maskelynite and an unaltered mid-oceanic ridge basalt with plagioclase laths were also analyzed. Polished thin sections of all these samples were first petrographically studied. The MORB plagioglase as well as the plagioclase from Lonar host-basalts show first order interference colors and distinct multiple lamellar twinning. The Manicouagan maskelynite is isotropic under crossed-polars. The Lonar tektite samples characteristically demonstrate spherules which are identified by their perfectly circular cross-section and isotropic nature. The spherules also contain fragments of the host basalt with plagioclase laths showing lamellar twinning. The groundmass within the spherules shows lath shaped plagioclase grains, most of which show varying degrees of isotropism due to maskelynitization. Raman scattering measurements were performed using the 514.5 nm line of an argon ion laser at an intensity of 40 kW/cm2. An inverted microscope (Nikon TE3000) with 50x objective (NA 0.55) was used for confocal imaging. A holographic notch filter removed residual laser scatter and the Raman scattering was detected by a silicon CCD at -90° C (Princeton Instruments Spec10-400R). Raman spectra were collected from ~250 cm-1 through 2000 cm-1. Raman spectra of crystalline unshocked plagioclase feldspars from the MORB and the Lonar host basalt show strongest peaks at 265 cm-1, 410 cm-1, 510 cm-1 and 1110 cm-1. The results remain the same for different points in a single grain but vary slightly

  19. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  20. An unusually very bright dust light mass (?) observed in the vicinity (?) of á Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanopoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    There are not many written worldwide references regarding unusual phenomena such as dust, unusual lights or unexplained objects orbiting the earth or the solar and extra solar systems. Regarding the external space few references exist . Regarding the a Lyrae many scientists were involve in the eighties with the possible existence of a planet next to this star. Structure in the Dusty Debris around Vega, D. J. Wilner et al 2002 ApJ 569.Near-infrared observations of Vega, at 2006 Philip M. Hinz et al. refers to possible companion planet round this star .In constellations Lyrae and Eridani,some authors refer to possible initial formation of planets and they mention the presence of dust formations orbiting around those stars.(A. N. Heinze, Philip M. Hinz, Deep L' and M-band Imaging for Planets Around Vega and epsilon Eridani,The Astrophysical Journal 688 (2008) 583. This paper is concerned with an unexplained or perhaps portion of dust, in the constellation of Lyrae, which appears and have been observed only in conventional photographic plaque.For this observation , simple equipment and amateur instruments are use.In the night of April the 2002, during an amatory observation in variable stars, in the RR Lyrae, pictures were taken in the mentioned deep space area as a normal weekly study procedure. The instruments used are, telescope Meade 10΄΄, illuminate reticle guiding, 12mm, photo camera Nikon F -100, and lenses,70mm, f =1,8.The film used was a Kodak X-pro,BW 400 ASA.The equatorial mount was motorized. A total of six pictures with an exposure 5-10 min were taken. While developing the film, on the fifth photogram, a bright (object?) - dust light appear which seems to be in adhesion with the Vega star . On consecutive months more pictures were taken, with conventional and digital exposures, without any repetition of the event. What is provoke illumination of this dust portion to have been present in a simple photographic film? This simple observation study is

  1. Comparison of snow melt properties across multiple spatial scales and landscape units in interior sub-Arctic boreal Alaskan watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Cherry, J. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Interior sub-Arctic Alaskan snow cover is rapidly changing and requires further study for correct parameterization in physically based models. This project undertook field studies during the 2013 snow melt season to capture snow depth, snow temperature profiles, and snow cover extent to compare with observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor at four different sites underlain by discontinuous permafrost. The 2013 melt season, which turned out to be the latest snow melt period on record, was monitored using manual field measurements (SWE, snow depth data collection), iButtons to record temperature of the snow pack, GoPro cameras to capture time lapse of the snow melt, and low level orthoimagery collected at ~1500 m using a Navion L17a plane mounted with a Nikon D3s camera. Sites were selected across a range of landscape conditions, including a north facing black spruce hill slope, a south facing birch forest, an open tundra site, and a high alpine meadow. Initial results from the adjacent north and south facing sites indicate a highly sensitive system where snow cover melts over just a few days, illustrating the importance of high resolution temporal data capture at these locations. Field observations, iButtons and GoPro cameras show that the MODIS data captures the melt conditions at the south and the north site with accuracy (2.5% and 6.5% snow cover fraction present on date of melt, respectively), but MODIS data for the north site is less variable around the melt period, owing to open conditions and sparse tree cover. However, due to the rapid melt rate trajectory, shifting the melt date estimate by a day results in a doubling of the snow cover fraction estimate observed by MODIS. This information can assist in approximating uncertainty associated with remote sensing data that is being used to populate hydrologic and snow models (the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model, coupled with SNOW-17, and the Variable

  2. Verification of optical proximity effect in immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganaga, Toshifumi; Maejima, Shinroku; Hanawa, Tetsuro; Ishibashi, Takeo; Nakao, Shuji; Shirai, Seiichiro; Narimatsu, Koichiro; Suko, Kazuyuki; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Ishii, Yuki; Ando, Tomoyuki; Ohmori, Katsumi

    2006-03-01

    193 nm lithography is one of the most promising technologies for next-generation lithography and is being actively evaluated for making it practicable (1,2). First, we evaluated an immersion lithography tool (engineering evaluation tool (EET)) (3) and a dry lithography tool (S307E) with the same numerical aperture (NA = 0.85), manufactured by Nikon Corporation. As a result, an increase in the depth of focus (DOF) of the EET to 200 nm in comparison with the DOF (110 nm) of the dry exposure tool was confirmed in a 90 nm isolated space pattern. Next, the optical proximity effect (OPE) in this pattern was evaluated. Generally, when an immersion lithography tool is compared with a dry one with the same NA or both the tools, only an increase in the DOF is found. However, we confirmed that the OPE (The OPE of the 90 nm isolated space pattern is defined as the difference in the space width between a dense space and an isolated space.) of the dry exposure tool for the 90 nm isolated space pattern reduced from 33.1 nm to 14.1 nm by immersion lithography. As the effect of the reduction of 19 nm, the OPE reduced to 15.2 nm by the effect of the top coatings (TCs) and to 3.8 nm by the optical characteristics. An impact of about 5 nm on the OPE was confirmed by the process parameters-film thickness and the pre-bake temperature of the TC. In the case that the solvent was replaced with a high boiling point solvent, the impact changed from 5 to 20 nm further, the replacement of the solvent had a considerable impact on the OPE. However, this influence differs considerably according to the kind of resists; further, it was shown that the addition of acid materials and a change in the polymer base resulted in a high impact on the OPE for a certain resist. Thus, it was demonstrated that the selection of TC is very important for the OPE in immersion lithography.

  3. Automatic Isolation of Blurred Images from Uav Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberth, T.; Wackrow, R.; Chandler, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated filtering process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. A "shaking table" was used to create images with known blur during a series of laboratory tests. This platform can be moved in one direction by a mathematical function controlled by a defined frequency and amplitude. The shaking table was used to displace a Nikon D80 digital SLR camera with a user defined frequency and amplitude. The actual camera displacement was measured accurately and exposures were synchronized, which provided the opportunity to acquire images with a known blur effect. Acquired images were processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur, which has been created by the actual shaking table function. Once determined

  4. Integration, testing, and calibration of imaging systems for land and water remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Kovacs, Mate; Jozsa, Oszkar

    2010-10-01

    Imagery is presented along with calibration and testing procedures of several airborne imaging systems. The low altitude airborne systems include a cooled hyperspectral imaging system with 1024 spectral channels and 1375 spatial pixels. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD image acquisition, 12.3 megapixel digital images for multispectral "sharpening" the hyperspectral imagery, or large frame 9 inch film cameras yielding scanned aerial imagery with approximately 2200 by 2200 pixel multispectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) and a downwelling irradiance using a fiber optic irradiance sensor. These sensors are utilized for cross calibration and independent acquisition of ground or water reflectance signatures. The upwelling spectrograph is integrated to collect signatures collocated with a 12.3 megapixel Nikon D2Xs with 5 HZ WAAS GPS input for mixed pixel analysis in conjunction with the other sensing systems. In addition to the airborne hyperspectral sensors, traditional photogrammetric imagery can be collected from dual 9 inch frame cameras capable of using a combination of panchromatic, color or color infrared film types. The panchromatic film can be collected with special filters designed to create spectral windows, such as the "red edge" which is useful for land or shallow submerged vegetation and live coral detection. The 9 inch film negatives are scanned to produce over 250 megapixel scanned multispectral imagery for sub pixel assessments us and image fusion sharpening of the hyperspectral imagery. The scanned imagery covers larger spatial regions and is thus useful for geospatial registration, rectification, and spatial sharpening of the hyperspectral imagery along flight lines. All of the airborne sensor systems allow for modern research in the use of sun and

  5. Application of the Photomodeler software and Matlab environment for analysisof objects movement parameters based on image sequences. (Polish Title: Wykorzystanie pakietu Photomodeler oraz środowiska Matlab, do badania parametrów ruchu obiektów na podstawie obrazów sekwencyjnych)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowski, T.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of objects movement parameters is the area of interest of scientists representing many disciplines. Technological progress provides improvement of research methods. One of them is photogrammetry, and more specifically, close-range image sequences processing. Much research on different approaches to this issue are conducted all over the world. Proposed solution is to carry out photogrammetric measurements using one of the standard programs for close-range objects 3D modeling - PhotoModeler software and their mathematical processing using popular computing environment - Matlab software. Application of existing software's functionality, in many cases seems to be less costly than development and then implementation of specialized measuring and computing applications, dedicated to analysis of movement parameters. Considered solution is based primarily on the appropriate transformations of the frame of reference with respect to which the movement takes place. Automatic coded targets measurements and bundle adjustment, carried out using PhotoModeler software, were used in the research. In order to calculate objects movements parameters, there were further repeated isometric coordinates transformations, numerical differentiation in method of difference quotient and orientation by iterative tabulation with intervals narrowing additionally applied by building own Matlab environment functions. A number of experiments were performed using registration in the form of films from JVC GZ-HD5 digital video camera and films and series of photographs from Nikon D5000 digital photographic camera. Accomplished experiments covered different objects of movement parameters analysis and also distinct movement types. There were also three different versions of established frame of reference -movement of the camera in relation to surroundings, movement of the object in relation to the camera and movement of the object in relation to surrounding. Carried out research revealed that

  6. Distortion of CAD-CAM-fabricated implant-fixed titanium and zirconia complete dental prosthesis frameworks.

    PubMed

    Al-Meraikhi, Hadi; Yilmaz, Burak; McGlumphy, Edwin; Brantley, William A; Johnston, William M

    2017-05-03

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM)-fabricated titanium and zirconia implant-supported fixed dental prostheses have become increasingly popular for restoring patients with complete edentulism. However, the distortion level of these frameworks is not well known. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the 3-dimensional (3D) distortion of CAD-CAM zirconia and titanium implant-fixed screw-retained complete dental prostheses. A master edentulous model with 4 implants at the positions of the maxillary first molars and canines was used. Multiunit abutments (Nobel Biocare) secured to the model were digitally scanned using scan bodies and a laboratory scanner (S600 ARTI; Zirkonzahn). Titanium (n=5) and zirconia (n=5) frameworks were milled using a CAD-CAM system (Zirkonzahn M1; Zirkonzahn). All frameworks were scanned using an industrial computed tomography (CT) scanner (Nikon/X-Tek XT H 225kV MCT Micro-Focus). The direct CT scans were reconstructed to generate standard tessellation language (STL) files. To calculate the 3D distortion of the frameworks, STL files of the CT scans were aligned to the CAD model using a sum of the least squares best-fit algorithm. Surface comparison points were placed on the CAD model on the midfacial aspect of all teeth. The 3D distortion of each direct scan to the CAD model was calculated. In addition, color maps of the scan-to-CAD comparison were constructed using a ±0.500 mm color scale range. Both materials exhibited distortion; however, no significant difference was found in the amount of distortion from the CAD model between the materials (P=.747). Absolute values of deviations from the CAD model were evident in the x and y plane and less so in the z direction. Zirconia and titanium frameworks showed similar 3D distortion compared with the CAD model for the tested CAD-CAM and implant systems. The distortion was more pronounced in the horizontal and sagittal plane than in the vertical plane

  7. Deformation analysis of a sinkhole in Thuringia using multi-temporal multi-view stereo 3D reconstruction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petschko, Helene; Goetz, Jason; Schmidt, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes are a serious threat on life, personal property and infrastructure in large parts of Thuringia. Over 9000 sinkholes have been documented by the Geological Survey of Thuringia, which are caused by collapsing hollows which formed due to solution processes within the local bedrock material. However, little is known about surface processes and their dynamics at the flanks of the sinkhole once the sinkhole has shaped. These processes are of high interest as they might lead to dangerous situations at or within the vicinity of the sinkhole. Our objective was the analysis of these deformations over time in 3D by applying terrestrial photogrammetry with a simple DSLR camera. Within this study, we performed an analysis of deformations within a sinkhole close to Bad Frankenhausen (Thuringia) using terrestrial photogrammetry and multi-view stereo 3D reconstruction to obtain a 3D point cloud describing the morphology of the sinkhole. This was performed for multiple data collection campaigns over a 6-month period. The photos of the sinkhole were taken with a Nikon D3000 SLR Camera. For the comparison of the point clouds the Multiscale Model to Model Comparison (M3C2) plugin of the software CloudCompare was used. It allows to apply advanced methods of point cloud difference calculation which considers the co-registration error between two point clouds for assessing the significance of the calculated difference (given in meters). Three Styrofoam cuboids of known dimensions (16 cm wide/29 cm high/11.5 cm deep) were placed within the sinkhole to test the accuracy of the point cloud difference calculation. The multi-view stereo 3D reconstruction was performed with Agisoft Photoscan. Preliminary analysis indicates that about 26% of the sinkhole showed changes exceeding the co-registration error of the point clouds. The areas of change can mainly be detected on the flanks of the sinkhole and on an earth pillar that formed in the center of the sinkhole. These changes describe

  8. Standards And Their Impact On Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endelman, Lincoln L.

    1990-01-01

    The needs for standards and the processes to provide them are very complex. Standardization is dependent upon voluntary and nonvoluntary agreement among individuals, companies, various organizations, and countries around the world. The agreements on standards, which sometimes take five to ten years, are hindered by monetary considerations, relinquishment of patent rights, disagreement among nations on dimensions in metric or the English system, and professional jealousy among some individuals. Standards, Standards, Standards - what a boring and uninteresting topic. Why did I ever agree to speak to you about something that most people take for granted and don't even bother to pay much attention to until they encounter a situation where a nonstandard item creates a problem. Have any of you ever bought a roll of 35mm film for your foreign made camera and found out that it needs 32mm film? That could have happened to you in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. Yes, we know that, you say, but that's not a problem anymore. Well, how about when you try to put a Beta cassette into your VCR that uses VHS cassettes? Have you tried to fit a Minolta lens onto a Nikon camera? But enough, you all have the idea. Standards were developed to make interchangeable components compatible with other equipment, no matter who made it or where it was made. Some companies and countries deliberately made things different to protect their inventions and profit by their uniqueness. More and more attempts are being made to reduce the international differences in technology and establish a common ground for trade and commerce. The European Common Market is in the process of eliminating many of the barriers to free exchange of goods, services, and even moving to a universal currency. This all sounds good for Europe, but what about the USA and the rest of the world. The United States has fought the change to the metric system for almost two hundred years. Our electrical system and the

  9. Testing photogrammetry-based techniques for three-dimensional surface documentation in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr; Jurda, Mikoláš

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional surface technologies particularly close range photogrammetry and optical surface scanning have recently advanced into affordable, flexible and accurate techniques. Forensic postmortem investigation as performed on a daily basis, however, has not yet fully benefited from their potentials. In the present paper, we tested two approaches to 3D external body documentation - digital camera-based photogrammetry combined with commercial Agisoft PhotoScan(®) software and stereophotogrammetry-based Vectra H1(®), a portable handheld surface scanner. In order to conduct the study three human subjects were selected, a living person, a 25-year-old female, and two forensic cases admitted for postmortem examination at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic (both 63-year-old males), one dead to traumatic, self-inflicted, injuries (suicide by hanging), the other diagnosed with the heart failure. All three cases were photographed in 360° manner with a Nikon 7000 digital camera and simultaneously documented with the handheld scanner. In addition to having recorded the pre-autopsy phase of the forensic cases, both techniques were employed in various stages of autopsy. The sets of collected digital images (approximately 100 per case) were further processed to generate point clouds and 3D meshes. Final 3D models (a pair per individual) were counted for numbers of points and polygons, then assessed visually and compared quantitatively using ICP alignment algorithm and a cloud point comparison technique based on closest point to point distances. Both techniques were proven to be easy to handle and equally laborious. While collecting the images at autopsy took around 20min, the post-processing was much more time-demanding and required up to 10h of computation time. Moreover, for the full-body scanning the post-processing of the handheld scanner required rather time-consuming manual image alignment. In all instances the applied approaches

  10. A rapid screening method using DNA binding dyes to determine whether hair follicles have sufficient DNA for successful profiling.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    We report a simple screening method to assess the viability of successful DNA profiling from single hair follicles. A total of 48 hair samples (shed and plucked) were collected from male and female donors and the root tips (0.5cm) were stained using one of three DNA binding dyes (EvaGreen™, Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye and RedSafe™) at 20× concentration. The hairs were subsequently viewed under a Nikon Optiphot fluorescent microscope to count the approximate number of nuclei in one plane of view. The hairs were then processed using either (1) a DNA extraction kit (QIAmp(®) Mini Kit) and then amplified using the AmpFLSTR(®) NGM™ kit, which amplifies 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus the gender marker amelogenin, or (2) by direct PCR amplification using the same DNA profiling kit. Diamond™ dye had the lowest background signal and plucked hairs treated with this dye produced full DNA profiles when amplified directly and was chosen to screen a further 150 mixed hair samples. These hairs were separated into one of five categories (1, >100 nuclei; 1.5, 50-99 nuclei; 2, 1-49 nuclei; 2.5, no nuclei but high fluorescent signal; 3, no nuclei and very low fluorescent signal) from which 60 of the hairs were chosen to undergo direct amplification using the NGM™ kit. It was found that there was a direct correlation to the category designation and the ability to obtain a DNA profile up-loadable to the Australian DNA Database. Approximately 91% of category 1 hairs resulted in either a full or high partial (12-29 alleles) profile by direct PCR whereas about 78% of category 3 hairs exhibited no amplification. The results show that this method can be used to predict successful STR amplification from single hair follicles. It is a rapid, sensitive, cheap, non-destructive and easy to perform methodology applicable for screening multiple hairs in order to aid forensic investigators in predicting hairs that will yield DNA results.

  11. Spheres of Earth: An Introduction to Making Observations of Earth Using an Earth System's Science Approach. Student Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Baker, Marshalyn (Editor); Graff, Trevor (Editor); Lindgren, Charlie (Editor); Mailhot, Michele (Editor); McCollum, Tim (Editor); Runco, Susan (Editor); Stefanov, William (Editor); Willis, Kim (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from the Image Science and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) work with astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) who take images of Earth. Astronaut photographs, sometimes referred to as Crew Earth Observations, are taken using hand-held digital cameras onboard the ISS. These digital images allow scientists to study our Earth from the unique perspective of space. Astronauts have taken images of Earth since the 1960s. There is a database of over 900,000 astronaut photographs available at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov . Images are requested by ISAL scientists at JSC and astronauts in space personally frame and acquire them from the Destiny Laboratory or other windows in the ISS. By having astronauts take images, they can specifically frame them according to a given request and need. For example, they can choose to use different lenses to vary the amount of area (field of view) an image will cover. Images can be taken at different times of the day which allows different lighting conditions to bring out or highlight certain features. The viewing angle at which an image is acquired can also be varied to show the same area from different perspectives. Pointing the camera straight down gives you a nadir shot. Pointing the camera at an angle to get a view across an area would be considered an oblique shot. Being able to change these variables makes astronaut photographs a unique and useful data set. Astronaut photographs are taken from the ISS from altitudes of 300 - 400 km (185 to 250 miles). One of the current cameras being used, the Nikon D3X digital camera, can take images using a 50, 100, 250, 400 or 800mm lens. These different lenses allow for a wider or narrower field of view. The higher the focal length (800mm for example) the narrower the field of view (less area will be covered). Higher focal lengths also show greater detail of the area on the surface being imaged. Scientists from the Image Science and Analysis

  12. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  13. Assessment of Middle Creek stream (Snyder County, PA) using Water Quality Index (WQI) and Diatom metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhab, A.; Holt, J. R.; Beren, M.; Santiago, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water quality Index (WQI) in combination with diatom community metrics were used to provide single values to express the overall quality of water based on a number of measurable parameters. WQI, Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) and Bray-Curtis Index of similarity were all measured during the period between June 26th and July 14th in an effort to assess the water quality of Middle Creek (MC) (Snyder, CO., PA). MC is a 2nd order tributary stream flowing into Penns Creek before joining the Susquehanna River. In this study, eleven sites were selected between the head waters and its confluence with Penns Creek. MC has two main branches in its upper reaches, each branch with a manmade reservoir. 3 sites were selected on each branch with one site upstream, the other site downstream and the third site on the reservoir. Five sites (A, B, C, D and E) were selected on the main stem from the confluence with Penns Creek to the confluence of the two headwater branches. For the WQI, all sites were sampled three times during the first week, twice the second week and once a week for the remaining two weeks. Diatom communities were samples by placing diatometers at each site and allowing them to incubate in situ for three weeks. Each diatometer had five microscope slides, each of which was mounted to form a permanent slide and then examined at 1000X using a Nikon E 200. A minimum of 300 cells was identified to species on each slide (~1500 cells per diatometer). The resulting relative abundances were used to generate a Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) for each site and to compare the diatom communities using a Bray-Curtis Similarity Index. Physical properties were measured in the field and grab-samples were tested for PO43-, NO2-, NH3, NO3-, Na+, NH4, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ in addition to BOD5, COD and TSS. The results showed and average WQI for the first week of 90.35 confirming that the water was in good condition and could overcome discharge of runoff with nutrients chemicals. KE

  14. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Apollo Samples as a Curation Technique Enabling Better Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, R. A.; Almeida, N. V.; Sykes, D.; Smith, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a technique that has been used to research meteorites for some time and many others], and recently it is becoming a more common tool for the curation of meteorites and Apollo samples. Micro-CT is ideally suited to the characterization of astromaterials in the curation process as it can provide textural and compositional information at a small spatial resolution rapidly, nondestructively, and without compromising the cleanliness of the samples (e.g., samples can be scanned sealed in Teflon bags). This data can then inform scientists and curators when making and processing future sample requests for meteorites and Apollo samples. Here we present some preliminary results on micro-CT scans of four Apollo regolith breccias. Methods: Portions of four Apollo samples were used in this study: 14321, 15205, 15405, and 60639. All samples were 8-10 cm in their longest dimension and approximately equant. These samples were micro-CT scanned on the Nikon HMXST 225 System at the Natural History Museum in London. Scans were made at 205-220 kV, 135-160 microamps beam current, with an effective voxel size of 21-44 microns. Results: Initial examination of the data identify a variety of mineral clasts (including sub-voxel FeNi metal grains) and lithic clasts within the regolith breccias. Textural information within some of the lithic clasts was also discernable. Of particular interest was a large basalt clast (approx.1.3 cc) found within sample 60639, which appears to have a sub-ophitic texture. Additionally, internal void space, e.g., fractures and voids, is readily identifiable. Discussion: It is clear from the preliminary data that micro-CT analyses are able to identify important "new" clasts within the Apollo breccias, and better characterize previously described clasts or igneous samples. For example, the 60639 basalt clast was previously believed to be quite small based on its approx.0.5 sq cm exposure on the surface of the main mass

  15. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging for quantification of TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines at the single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekkar, Hakim; Benbernou, N.; Esnault, S.; Shin, H. C.; Guenounou, Moncef

    1998-04-01

    Immune responses are strongly influenced by the cytokines following antigenic stimulation. Distinct cytokine-producing T cell subsets are well known to play a major role in immune responses and to be differentially regulated during immunological disorders, although the characterization and quantification of the TH-1/TH-2 cytokine pattern in T cells remained not clearly defined. Expression of cytokines by T lymphocytes is a highly balanced process, involving stimulatory and inhibitory intracellular signaling pathways. The aim of this study was (1) to quantify the cytokine expression in T cells at the single cell level using optical imaging, (2) and to analyze the influence of cyclic AMP- dependent signal transduction pathway in the balance between the TH-1 and TH-2 cytokine profile. We attempted to study several cytokines (IL-2, IFN-(gamma) , IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cells were prestimulated in vitro using phytohemagglutinin and phorbol ester for 36h, and then further cultured for 8h in the presence of monensin. Cells were permeabilized and then simple-, double- or triple-labeled with the corresponding specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The cell phenotype was also determined by analyzing the expression of each of CD4, CD8, CD45RO and CD45RA with the cytokine expression. Conventional images of cells were recorded with a Peltier- cooled CCD camera (B/W C5985, Hamamatsu photonics) through an inverted microscope equipped with epi-fluorescence (Diaphot 300, Nikon). Images were digitalized using an acquisition video interface (Oculus TCX Coreco) in 762 by 570 pixels coded in 8 bits (256 gray levels), and analyzed thereafter in an IBM PC computer based on an intel pentium processor with an adequate software (Visilog 4, Noesis). The first image processing step is the extraction of cell areas using an edge detection and a binary thresholding method. In order to reduce the background noise of fluorescence, we performed an opening

  16. AB298. SPR-25 NLRP3/IL-1β mediates denervation during bladder outlet obstruction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lutolf, Robin; Hughes, Francis M.; Purves, J. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a common condition resulting from benign prostatic hyperplasia, neurologic pathology, organ prolapse, etc. Long-term, obstruction is well-established to evoke denervation in the bladder which causes the detrusor to become hypocontractile, resulting in inefficient bladder emptying and consequent infections, continence issues or even renal failure. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to a role for inflammation in bladder deterioration during BOO and we have shown a central role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in triggering this inflammation. In the present study we explore a possible connection between this NLRP3-induced inflammation and bladder denervation. Methods Rats were divided into five groups: (I) control; (II) sham operated; (III) BOO + vehicle (1 mL, 40% ethanol in PBS, p.o.); (IV) BOO + glyburide (Gly, NLRP3 inhibitor; 10 mg/kg, p.o.); (V) BOO + anakinra (Ana, IL-1 receptor antagonist; 25 mg/kg, i.p.). BOO is constructed in female rats by inserting a 1 mm outer diameter transurethral catheter, tying a silk ligature around the urethra and removing the catheter. Medications were administered prior to surgery and once daily. At 12 days animals were sacrificed and the bladders processed for histological analysis. Transverse sections (5 µm) were stained for PGP9.5 expression (a pan-neuronal marker) using standard immunohistochemistry techniques. Entire sections were scanned, using a 10× objective, into TIFF files using Zen software (Zeiss Inc.). Images were imported into Elements software (Nikon Inc.) and the area of individual neurons designated as well as total bladder area (exclusive of the urothelium and lumen). The number of neurons and respective areas were used to calculate nerve density. Results Denervation in the bladder wall during BOO was significant, as measured by nerve density. This effect was attenuated by either preventing NLRP3 activation with Gly or blocking IL-1β’s action at its

  17. Validation of Global EO Biophysical Products at JECAM Test Site in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Kravchenko, Oleksiy; Basarab, Ruslan; Ostapenko, Vadym; Yailymov, Bohdan; Shelestov, Andrii; Kolotii, Andrii; Mironov, Andrii

    acquired with a NIKON D70 camera. The images acquired during the field campaign are processed with the CAN-EYE software to derive LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER. The in situ biophysical values were used for producing LAI, FCOVER and FAPAR maps from optical satellite images, and provide cross-validation, and validation of global remote sensing products. The following satellite data were used: SPOT-4, RapidEye and Landsat-8. Inter-comparison of the derived products is performed. The paper presents an insight on the general methodology used within JECAM test site, the results achieved so far and challenges, and future planned activities. 1. Gallego, F.J., Kussul, N., Skakun, S., Kravchenko, O., Shelestov, A., Kussul, O. “Efficiency assessment of using satellite data for crop area estimation in Ukraine,” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 29, pp. 22-30, 2014. 2. Kogan, F., Kussul, N., Adamenko, T., Skakun, S., Kravchenko, O., Kryvobok, O., Shelestov, A., Kolotii, A., Kussul, O., Lavrenyuk, A., “Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models,” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013.

  18. Using a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to analyze the stability of a natural rock slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Mastrorocco, Giovanni; Seddaiu, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of a rotary wing RPAS for monitoring the stability of a natural rock slope in the municipality of Vecchiano (Pisa, Italy). The slope under investigation is approximately oriented NNW-SSE and has a length of about 320 m; elevation ranges from about 7 to 80 m a.s.l.. The hill consists of stratified limestone, somewhere densely fractured, with dip direction predominantly oriented in a normal way respect to the slope. Fracture traces are present in variable lengths, from decimetre to metre, and penetrate inward the rock versant with thickness difficult to estimate, often exceeding one meter in depth. The intersection between different fracture systems and the slope surface generates rocky blocks and wedges of variable size that may be subject to phenomena of gravitational instability (with reference to the variation of hydraulic and dynamic conditions). Geometrical and structural info about the rock mass, necessary to perform the analysis of the slope stability, were obtained in this work from geo-referenced 3D point clouds acquired using photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques. In particular, a terrestrial laser scanning was carried out from two different point of view using a Leica Scanstation2. The laser survey created many shadows in the data due to the presence of vegetation in the lower parts of the slope and limiting the feasibility of geo-structural survey. To overcome such a limitation, we utilized a rotary wing Aibotix Aibot X6 RPAS geared with a Nikon D3200 camera. The drone flights were executed in manual modality and the images were acquired, according to the characteristics of the outcrops, under different acquisition angles. Furthermore, photos were captured very close to the versant (a few meters), allowing to produce a dense 3D point cloud (about 80 Ma points) by the image processing. A topographic survey was carried out in order to guarantee the necessary spatial accuracy to the process of images exterior

  19. Lithography with infrared illumination alignment for advanced BiCMOS backside processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulse, P.; Schulz, K.; Behrendt, U.; Wietstruck, M.; Kaynak, M.; Marschmeyer, S.; Tillack, B.

    2014-10-01

    Driven by new applications such as BiCMOS embedded RF-MEMS, high-Q passives, Si-based microfluidics for bio sensing and InP-Si BiCMOS heterointegration [1-4], accurate alignment between back and front side is highly desired. In this paper, we present an advanced back to front side alignment technique and implementation of it into the back side processing module of IHP's 0.25/0.13 μm high performance SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Using the Nikon i-line Stepper NSR-SF150, a new infrared alignment system has been introduced. The developed technique enables a high resolution and accurate lithography on the back side of the BiCMOS-processed Si wafers for additional backside processing, such as backside routing metallization. In comparison to previous work [5] with overlay values of 500 nm and the requirement of two-step lithography, the new approach provides significant improvement in the overlay accuracy with overlay values of 200 nm and a significant increase of the fabrication throughput by eliminating the need of the two-step lithography. The new non-contact alignment procedure allows a direct back to front side alignment using any front side alignment mark (Fig. 2), which generated a signal by reflecting the IR light beam. Followed by a measurement of the misalignment between both front to back side overlay marks (Fig. 3) using EVG®NT40 automated measurement system, a final lithography process with wafer interfield corrections is applied to obtain a minimum overlay of 200 nm. For the specific application of deep Si etching using Bosch process, the etch profile angle deviation across the wafer (tilting) has to be considered as well. From experimental data, an etch profile angle deviation of 8 μm across the wafer has been measured (Fig. 7). The overlay error caused by tilting was corrected by optimization and adjustment of the stepper offset parameters. All measurements of back to front side misalignment were performed with the EVG®40NT automated measurement system

  20. Segmentation of white blood cells and comparison of cell morphology by linear and naïve Bayes classifiers.

    PubMed

    Prinyakupt, Jaroonrut; Pluempitiwiriyawej, Charnchai

    2015-06-30

    Blood smear microscopic images are routinely investigated by haematologists to diagnose most blood diseases. However, the task is quite tedious and time consuming. An automatic detection and classification of white blood cells within such images can accelerate the process tremendously. In this paper we propose a system to locate white blood cells within microscopic blood smear images, segment them into nucleus and cytoplasm regions, extract suitable features and finally, classify them into five types: basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte. Two sets of blood smear images were used in this study's experiments. Dataset 1, collected from Rangsit University, were normal peripheral blood slides under light microscope with 100× magnification; 555 images with 601 white blood cells were captured by a Nikon DS-Fi2 high-definition color camera and saved in JPG format of size 960 × 1,280 pixels at 15 pixels per 1 μm resolution. In dataset 2, 477 cropped white blood cell images were downloaded from CellaVision.com. They are in JPG format of size 360 × 363 pixels. The resolution is estimated to be 10 pixels per 1 μm. The proposed system comprises a pre-processing step, nucleus segmentation, cell segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The main concept of the segmentation algorithm employed uses white blood cell's morphological properties and the calibrated size of a real cell relative to image resolution. The segmentation process combined thresholding, morphological operation and ellipse curve fitting. Consequently, several features were extracted from the segmented nucleus and cytoplasm regions. Prominent features were then chosen by a greedy search algorithm called sequential forward selection. Finally, with a set of selected prominent features, both linear and naïve Bayes classifiers were applied for performance comparison. This system was tested on normal peripheral blood smear slide images from two datasets. Two sets

  1. Response of the diatom flora in the Gdańsk Basin (southern Baltic Sea) to eutrophication in the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    index nD=1.73). The analysis was performed with a NIKON microscope under a 100× oil immersion objective. The raw counts were transformed to relative abundance of the total frustules counted. The diatoms were divided into groups according to their biotype, salinity, trophy and saproby requirements. The content (in percentage) of all ecological groups were counted in the core. A total of 145 diatom species including varieties and forms representing 53 genera were identified in all samples. The diatom community was strong dominance by small-size planktic euhalobous (Thalassiosira levanderi, Pauliella taeniata) and mesohalobous (Cyclotella choctawhatcheeana) species. They were accompanied by freshwater eutraphentic and pollution-tolerant forms Actinocyclus normanii, Cyclostephanos dubius, Cyclotella atomus, C. caspia, C. meneghiniana, Stephanodiscus hantzschii, S. medius, S. neoastraea and S. parvus. The assemblage structure is a visible evidence of the progressive anthropopressure recorded in the near-bottom sediments of the Gdańsk Basin. Moreover, changes in spatial distribution of diatom anthropogenic assemblage show the close relationship to the distance from mouth of the Vistula River.

  2. X-ray CT imaging and image-based modelling study of gas exchange in the rice rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affholder, Marie-Cecile; Keyes, Samuel David; Roose, Tiina; Heppell, James; Kirk, Guy

    2016-04-01

    We used X-ray computer tomography and image-based modelling to investigate CO2 uptake by rice roots growing in submerged soil, and its consequences for the chemistry and biology of the rhizosphere. From previous work, three processes are known to greatly modify the rhizophere of rice and other wetland plants: (1) oxygenation of the submerged, anoxic soil by O2 transported through the root gas channels (aerenchyma); (2) oxidation of ferrous iron and resulting accumulation of ferric oxide; and (3) pH changes due to protons formed in iron oxidation and released from the roots to balance excess intake of cations over anions. A further process, so far not much investigated, is the possibility of CO2 uptake by the roots. Large amounts of CO2 accumulate in submerged soils because CO2 formed in soil respiration escapes only slowly by diffusion through the water-saturated soil pores. There is therefore a large CO2 gradient between the soil and the aerenchyma inside the root, and CO2 may be taken up by the roots and vented to the atmosphere. The extent of this and its consequences for rhizosphere chemistry and biology are poorly understood. We grew rice plants in a submerged, strongly-reduced, Philippine rice soil contained in 10-cm diameter, 20-cm deep Perspex pots. Four-week old rice seedlings, grown in nutrient culture, were transplanted into the pots at either 1 or 4 plants per pot, planted closely together. After 3 and 4 weeks, the pots were analysed with an X-ray CT scanner (Custom Nikon/Xtek Hutch; 80 mm by 56 mm field of view and 40 μm voxel size). Gas bubbles were extracted from the data by 3D median filtering and roots using a region-growth method. The images showed prominent and abundant gas bubbles in the soil bulk, but no or very few bubbles in the soil close to roots. There was a clear relation between the absence of gas bubbles and the presence of roots, as well as an increasing concentration of bubbles with depth through the soil. Analysis of the bubbles

  3. Multi Length Scale Imaging of Flocculated Estuarine Sediments; Insights into their Complex 3D Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatland, Jonathan; Bushby, Andy; Droppo, Ian; Carr, Simon; Spencer, Kate

    2015-04-01

    addition of heavy metal stains and washing samples in a series of ethanol solutions and acetone. Gross-scale characterisation involved scanning samples using a Nikon Metrology HM X 225 µCT. For micro-scale analysis a working surface was revealed by microtoming the sample. Ultrathin sections were then collected and analysed using a JEOL 1200 Ex II TEM, and FIB-tomography datasets obtained using an FEI Quanta 3D FIB-SEM. Finally, to locate the surface and relate TEM and FIB-tomography datasets to the original floc, samples were rescanned using the µCT. Image processing was initially conducted in ImageJ. Following this datasets were imported into Amira 5.5 where pixel intensity thresholding allowed particle-matrix boundaries to be defined. Using 'landmarks' datasets were then registered to enable their co-visualisation in 3D models. Analysis of registered datasets reveals the complex non-fractal nature of flocs, whose properties span several of orders of magnitude. Primary particles are organised into discrete 'bundles', the arrangement of which directly influences their gross morphology. This strategy, which allows the co-visualisation of spatially registered multi-scale 3D datasets, provides unique insights into the true nature floc which would other have been impossible.

  4. D Modeling of Historical Doger Caravansaries by Digital Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakar, M.; Uysal, M.; Toprak, A. S.; Polat, N.

    2013-07-01

    main gate. Today, it has been cancelled to reach upstairs. The underside of the satires is empty. There are two loophole windows at the both two short side. The columns that are near the long walls are bounded each other with arches and overlaid with cross squinches. The rooms in the second floor have domes. One of these rooms was arranged as prey room. The second part of Caravansaries is single storey and walls made of rubble. There are four columns inside the room and they bounded with arches. Back side of the rooms were destroyed by earth quake and restored. This restoration was not appropriate with its original plan but the good one is that the Caravansaries was saved from totally comedown. It is aimed to survey Doger Caravansaries Photogrammetricaly and generate 3D model covered by real tissues. In this study, South NTS-352 Total Station is used to constitute a closed polygon with 6 point. The coordinates of polygon points are calculated by distance and direction measurements. Levelling was carried out for determining the height of polygon points. Photographs was taken by Nikon D7000 camera. 3D model and faces were created in Photomodeler software.

  5. Collecting Inexpensive High Resolution Aerial and Stereo Images of Small- to Mid-Scale Geomorphic and Tectonic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelwright, R. J.; White, W. S.; Willis, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Methods for collecting accurate, mm- to cm-scale stereoscopic aerial imagery of both small- and mid-scale geomorphic features are developed for a one-time cost of under $1500. High resolution aerial images are valuable for documenting and analyzing small- to mid-scale geomorphic and tectonic features. However, collecting images of mid-scale features such as landslides, rock glaciers, fault scarps, and cinder cones is expensive and makes studies that rely on high resolution repeat imagery prohibitive for undergraduate geology departments with limited budgets. In addition to cost, collecting images of smaller scale geomorphic features such as gravel bars is often impeded by overhanging vegetation or other features in the immediate environment that make impractical the collection of aerial images using standard airborne techniques. The methods provide high resolution stereo photos suitable for image processing and stereographic analysis; the images are potentially suitable for change analyses, velocity tracking, and construction of lidar-resolution digital elevation models. We developed two techniques. The technique suitable for small-scale features (such as gravel bars) utilizes two Nikon D3000 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras attached to a system of poles that suspends the cameras at a height of 4 meters with a variable camera separation of 0.6 to 0.9 m. The poles are oriented such that they do not appear in the photographs. The cameras are simultaneously remotely activated to collect stereo pairs at a resolution of 64 pixels/cm2 (pixel length is 1.2 mm). Ground control on the images is provided by pegs placed 5 meters apart, GPS positioning, and a meter-stick included in each photograph. Initial photo data gathered of a gravel bar on the Henry’s Fork of the Snake River, north of Rexburg, Idaho is sharp and readily segmented using the MatLab-based CLASTS image processing algorithm. The technique developed for imaging mid-scale features (such as cinder

  6. Computer graphics of center of masticatory forces in complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Kawahara, K; Kishimoto, E; Ogata, S

    1995-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION. In dental education, it is valuable to show visually the differences between a good-fitting and an ill-fitting complete denture. A vector of masticatory forces across all the teeth of the denture is available to estimate the capability of the denture. The vector is simple while the forces exerted on a denture are very complex. A vector has only two factors, the point of application (center of force) and the magnitude. Because a complete denture acts as a unit, we can obtain the vector from electrical signals detected by transducers installed in the denture base. The aim of this study was to develop software which is able to show visually to dental students, the differences between the vectors of the dentures of three representative complete denture wearers. 2. METHODS. Three subjects, each with either a good, a moderate or an ill-fitting complete denture, were selected. Subject 1 could use the denture very comfortably during experiment. Subject 2 was uncomfortable at the insertion of the new denture, but after adaptations to the denture he could use it very well. Subject 3 had been uncomfortable during the experiment. A bottom complete denture was divided into upper and lower parts. These were connected by the four force-detecting units which were embedded in approximately the first premolar and second molar regions on both sides of the denture. The electric signals from these units during the chewing of peanuts and raisins (sampling time period: 30 msec) were recorded as digital signals and processed using the computer (Macintosh IIcx, Apple Computer) with the A/D converter (Lab-NB), National Instruments). Center and magnitudes of masticatory force were calculated from all sampling points using our newly developed software scripted by ¿C¿ (MPW C, Apple Computer). On the other hand, a tracing of the external shape of the dentition of the denture was made using the project (V-12, NIKON). The tracing of the dentition, with center and magnitude of

  7. Observations of High-altitude Negative Lightning Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edens, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    On 20 August 2010 a high-speed video recording was made of a bolt-from-the-blue (BFB) lightning flash where the negative leader exited the cloud near 9 km altitude and could be observed in clear air along most of its path to ground. The observation was augmented by data from Langmuir Laboratory's 3-D Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) as well as slow and fast Delta-E and broadband (up to 100 MHz) electric field waveform recordings. The various data sets are correlated in time and time-correlated LMA data is overlaid on the video frames, yielding a spectacular animation of a negative leader as it propagates from 9 km altitude down into air of increasingly higher pressure, contacting ground at 1.5 km altitude. At 9 km altitude, the tip of the negative leader exhibits impulsive emissions of light and retrograde luminosity waves that are seen to travel backward along the channel, away from the leader tip. As the leader propagates down in altitude the light emissions from the leader tip become more continuous in nature and the leader starts branching profusely. The leader velocity, on the order of 10^5 m/s, did not appear to change significantly. At the same storm, 30 minutes before the BFB flash occurred, a photograph was obtained of another negative leader from an intracloud (IC) flash that exited the cloud near the top, propagated several kilometers upward along a slanted path and terminated in clear air at 11 km altitude. The photograph was made with a Nikon D700 digital camera set at high sensitivity. The individual leader steps, which are on the order of 200 m length, are resolved as relatively straight segments of channel between sharp bends. At each bend (or kink) in the channel, clusters of 5 to 8 blue streamer filaments occur that are on the order of 100 m length. Small branches occur at most of the channel bends. One bend in the channel is accompanied by a space stem with blue streamers at both ends. The positive streamer emanating from the space stem and reaching

  8. Three-dimensional growth dynamics of the liver in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Szpinda, Michał; Paruszewska-Achtel, Monika; Woźniak, Alina; Badura, Mateusz; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    The fetal liver is indubitably the earliest and the most severely affected organ by abnormal fetal growth. The size of the fetal liver assessed by three-dimensional ultrasonography is indispensable in determining the status of fetal growth, nutrition and maturity, and in the early recognition and monitoring fetal micro- and macrosomias. The aim of the present study was to measure the human fetal liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters to establish their age-specific reference intervals, the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 97th smoothed centile curves, and the relative growth of the liver calculated for the 50th centile. Using anatomical, digital (NIS-Elements AR 3.0, Nikon) and statistical methods (one-way ANOVA test for paired data and post hoc RIR Tukey test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Fisher's test, Student's t test, the Altman-Chitty method), length, transverse and sagittal diameters of the liver for the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 97th centiles were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes (32 males and 37 females) aged 18-30 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions or stillbirths. No male-female differences (P > 0.05) concerning the three parameters studied were found. During the study period, the fetal liver increased tri-dimensionally: in length from 19.51 ± 1.02 to 39.65 ± 7.05 mm, in transverse diameter from 29.44 ± 3.73 to 53.13 ± 5.31 mm, and in sagittal diameter from 22.97 ± 3.79 to 43.22 ± 5.49 mm. The natural logarithmic models were found to fit the data with gestational age (P < 0.001) in the following five cutoff points: 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th and 97th centiles. The values of liver parameters in relation to gestational age in weeks were calculated by the following logarithmic regressions: y = -82.778 + 35.752 × ln(age) ± Z × (-2.778 + 0.308 × age) for liver length, y = -123.06 + 52.668 × ln(age) ± Z × (3.156 + 0.049 × age) for liver transverse diameter, and y = -108.94 + 46.052 × ln(age) ± Z × (-0.541 + 0.188 × age) for liver sagittal

  9. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events

  10. Rapid additive manufacturing of MR compatible multipinhole collimators with selective laser melting of tungsten powder

    SciTech Connect

    Deprez, Karel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas; Van Holen, Roel

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The construction of complex collimators with a high number of oblique pinholes is very labor intensive, expensive or is sometimes impossible with the current available techniques (drilling, milling or electric discharge machining). All these techniques are subtractive: one starts from solid plates and the material at the position of the pinholes is removed. The authors used a novel technique for collimator construction, called metal additive manufacturing. This process starts with a solid piece of tungsten on which a first layer of tungsten powder is melted. Each subsequent layer is then melted on the previous layer. This melting is done by selective laser melting at the locations where the CAD design file defines solid material. Methods: A complex collimator with 20 loftholes with 500 {mu}m diameter pinhole opening was designed and produced (16 mm thick and 70 Multiplication-Sign 52 mm{sup 2} transverse size). The density was determined, the production accuracy was measured (GOM ATOS II Triple Scan, Nikon AZ100M microscope, Olympus IMT200 microscope). Point source measurements were done by mounting the collimator on a SPECT detector. Because there is increasing interest in dual-modality SPECT-MR imaging, the collimator was also positioned in a 7T MRI scanner (Bruker Pharmascan). A uniform phantom was acquired using T1, T2, and T2* sequences to check for artifacts or distortion of the phantom images due to the collimator presence. Additionally, three tungsten sample pieces (250, 500, and 750 {mu}m thick) were produced. The density, attenuation (140 keV beam), and uniformity (GE eXplore Locus SP micro-CT) of these samples were measured. Results: The density of the collimator was equal to 17.31 {+-} 0.10 g/cm{sup 3} (89.92% of pure tungsten). The production accuracy ranges from -260 to +650 {mu}m. The aperture positions have a mean deviation of 5 {mu}m, the maximum deviation was 174 {mu}m and the minimum deviation was -122 {mu}m. The mean aperture diameter

  11. Rapid additive manufacturing of MR compatible multipinhole collimators with selective laser melting of tungsten powder.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Karel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas; Van Holen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    The construction of complex collimators with a high number of oblique pinholes is very labor intensive, expensive or is sometimes impossible with the current available techniques (drilling, milling or electric discharge machining). All these techniques are subtractive: one starts from solid plates and the material at the position of the pinholes is removed. The authors used a novel technique for collimator construction, called metal additive manufacturing. This process starts with a solid piece of tungsten on which a first layer of tungsten powder is melted. Each subsequent layer is then melted on the previous layer. This melting is done by selective laser melting at the locations where the CAD design file defines solid material. A complex collimator with 20 loftholes with 500 μm diameter pinhole opening was designed and produced (16 mm thick and 70 × 52 mm(2) transverse size). The density was determined, the production accuracy was measured (GOM ATOS II Triple Scan, Nikon AZ100M microscope, Olympus IMT200 microscope). Point source measurements were done by mounting the collimator on a SPECT detector. Because there is increasing interest in dual-modality SPECT-MR imaging, the collimator was also positioned in a 7T MRI scanner (Bruker Pharmascan). A uniform phantom was acquired using T1, T2, and T2* sequences to check for artifacts or distortion of the phantom images due to the collimator presence. Additionally, three tungsten sample pieces (250, 500, and 750 μm thick) were produced. The density, attenuation (140 keV beam), and uniformity (GE eXplore Locus SP micro-CT) of these samples were measured. The density of the collimator was equal to 17.31 ± 0.10 g∕cm(3) (89.92% of pure tungsten). The production accuracy ranges from -260 to +650 μm. The aperture positions have a mean deviation of 5 μm, the maximum deviation was 174 μm and the minimum deviation was -122 μm. The mean aperture diameter is 464 ± 19 μm. The calculated and measured sensitivity and

  12. Implications of the colonic deposition of free hemoglobin-alpha chain: a previously unknown tissue by-product in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jeremy N.; Schäffer, Michael W.; Korolkova, Olga Y.; Williams, Amanda D.; Gangula, Pandu R.; M’Koma, Amosy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed inflamed mucosal/submucosal layers of ulcerative colitis (UC=63) and Crohn’s colitis (CC=50) and unexpectedly we unveiled a pool of free-hemoglobin-alpha (Hb-α) chain. Patients with colitides have increased ROS, DNA-oxidation products, free-iron in mucosa, in pre-neoplastic, and in colitis-cancers and increased risks of developing colorectal-cancer (CRC). All IBD-related-CRC lesions are found in segments with colitis. Linking this information we investigated whether free-Hb-α is key transformational stepping that increases colitis-related-CRC vulnerability. Methods UC/CC samples were profiled using MALDI-MS; protein identification was made by LCM. Diverticulitis (DV) was used as control (Ctrl). The presence of Hb(n) (n=α, β and hemin)/Hb was validated by Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We tested for DNA-damage (DNAD) by exposing normal colonic-epithelial-cell-line, NCM460, to 10μM and 100μM of Hb(n)/Hb, individually for 2 h, 6 h, and 12 h. Quantification of Hb-α-staining was done by Nikon Elements Advance Research Analysis software. ROS was measured by the production of 8-OHdG. DNAD was assessed by Comet-assay. Colonic tissue homogenate antioxidants Nrf2-, CAT-, SOD- and GPx-expressions was analyzed densitometrically/ normalized by β-actin. Results IHC of CC/UC mucosal/submucosal-compartments stained strongly positive for Hb-α and significantly higher vs. Ctrl. NCM460 exposed to Hb(n)/Hb exhibited steadily-increasing ROS and subsequent DNAD. DNAD was higher in 10μM than 100μM in Hb-β/hemin the first 2 h then plateaued followed by DNAD-repair. This may be likely due to apoptosis in the later concentration. Nrf2 enzyme activities among UC, CC and UCAC were observed impaired in all IBD subjects. Decreased levels of Nrf2 among UC vs. CC patients with active disease was insignificant as well as vs. Ctrls but significantly lower in UCAC vs. Ctrl. SOD was decreased in UC and UCAC and GPx in CC but statistically not

  13. The Milky Way above La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    experience in ground-based non-optical observations, paving the way for the ALMA project. The Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) [1] is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects of the next decade after the ESO VLT. Its construction started last year and will be completed by 2011. When ready, it will be the largest and most sensitive astronomical observatory of its kind, comprisiing some sixty-four 12-m antennas located on a 10-km wide plateau at a 5000-m elevation in the Atacama Desert. More information on ALMA can be found on ESO PR 29/03 or on the ESO ALMA web page. ESO PR Photo 27/04 may be reproduced if Nico Housen and the European Southern Observatory are mentioned as source. Technical information: The photo was obtained on September 4, 2004 at about 20:45 hrs local time (00:45 hrs UT) with a Nikon D100 digital camera with a Sigma 20mm/f1.8 lens. The exposure time was about 40 sec at 1600 ASA.

  14. a Comparison of Laser Scanning and Structure from Motion as Applied to the Great Barn at Harmondsworth, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. P.; Bedford, J.; Bryan, P. G.

    2013-07-01

    repeat visit following the clearance of artefacts and with the benefit of access equipment was required to obtain complete coverage, especially for the top surfaces of the timber frame elements. Initial results from the laser scanning were extremely promising, with some historical events (e.g. a major fire at one end of the structure) dramatically shown in the intensity data. Comprehensive photographic coverage of the exterior of the barn including the roof was obtained using a Nikon D3X mounted on both a 6m telescopic pole and a conventional tripod. A repeat visit was required to address some exposure problems in shadow areas. A unified control network for both sets of data was obtained through the use of a total station theodolite (TST) with reflectorless electromagnetic distance measurement (REDM), incorporating a closed traverse as well as the acquisition of scanner and photogrammetric targets. The control network therefore permits the direct comparison of the results from both survey methods (allowing for systematic errors). A point cloud generated from the photography, using Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion software, was compared with the registered laser scan points with a view to determining any systematic differences, although these were to a large extent ameliorated by the use of the dense control network. The resultant data also has potential downstream use within English Heritage for improving our understanding of Building Information Modelling (BIM) as applied to heritage structures rather than new build, and thereby contributing to the formulation of elements of a BIM strategy for English Heritage. There are also a number of hand-measured survey drawings of the barn in existence. A quantitative as well as a qualitative comparison was made with drawings generated from the laser scan data. In general the later drawings were more metrically accurate but exhibited less understanding of the construction techniques employed. A discussion of the reasons for

  15. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    , on 21 September 2009. Notes [1] During his quest, Brunier used a Nikon D3 digital camera. The apparent motion of the sky caused by Earth's rotation was corrected for using a small, precise equatorial mount moving in the opposite direction, which made a whole circle in 23 hours 56 minutes around the Earth's axis of rotation. Each photo required a six-minute exposure, for a total exposure time of more than 120 hours. [2] The data processing, using software called Autopano Pro Giga, took great care in respecting the colours and "texture" of the Milky Way. Frédéric Tapissier needed about 340 computing hours on a powerful PC to complete the task. More information As part of the IYA2009, ESO is participating in several remarkable outreach activities, in line with its world-leading rank in the field of astronomy. ESO is hosting the IYA2009 Secretariat for the International Astronomical Union, which coordinates the Year globally. ESO is one of the Organisational Associates of IYA2009, and was also closely involved in the resolution submitted to the United Nations (UN) by Italy, which led to the UN's 62nd General Assembly proclaiming 2009 the International Year of Astronomy. In addition to a wide array of activities planned both at the local and international level, ESO is leading three of the twelve global Cornerstone Projects. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO