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Sample records for cycas incomplete concerted

  1. Maternal inheritance of plastids and mitochondria in Cycas L. (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Rong; Li, Nan; Qian, Dan; Jin, Jian-Hua; Chen, Tao

    2011-12-01

    Cycas is often considered a living fossil, thereby providing a unique model for revealing the evolution of spermatophytes. To date, the genetic inheritance of these archaic plants is not fully understood. The present study seeks to document the process of organelle inheritance in an interspecific cross of Cycas species. Extranuclear organelle DNA from chloroplasts and mitochondria was analyzed using both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and microscopy. Here, we show that the chloroplasts and mitochondria in the progeny of interspecific crosses between Cycas taitungensis and Cycas ferruginea were exclusively inherited from the female parent. Epifluorescence microscopic analyses of the pollen cells from Cycas elongata indicated that there was a significant degradation of organelle DNA in male reproductive cells following maturation; the DNA fluorescent signals were only seen after pollen mitosis two, but not detectable at mature stage. Lack of organelle DNA fluorescent signal in prothallial cells was confirmed by the absence of plastids and mitochondria in electronic microscopic images. In conclusion, these data suggest that the maternal plastid and mitochondrial inheritance in Cycas, native to the old world, are the same as seen in seed plants.

  2. Arthropod invasion disrupts Cycas micronesica seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Terry, L Irene

    2011-11-01

    We recently described characteristics of reproductive effort for the cycad Cycas micronesica on the island of Guam. The data were serendipitously recorded just prior to the devastating invasion of the armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui. This invasion decimated the cycad population and after six years of infestation no recruitment is occurring among the survivors. We describe various underlying mechanisms that may explain how this homopteran insect has eliminated host recruitment among categories including plant-pollinator mutualism disruptions, direct damage to reproductive structures, population level responses to declining plant health, and failures of seedlings to establish. Our pre-invasion data on reproductive effort will serve as the benchmark for quantifying how this alien pest is endangering the endemic cycad.

  3. Concerts for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Louie

    2008-01-01

    Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…

  4. Astonishing 35S rDNA diversity in the gymnosperm species Cycas revoluta Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wencai; Ma, Lu; Becher, Hannes; Garcia, Sònia; Kovarikova, Alena; Leitch, Ilia J; Leitch, Andrew R; Kovarik, Ales

    2016-09-01

    In all eukaryotes, the highly repeated 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences encoding 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) typically show high levels of intragenomic uniformity due to homogenisation processes, leading to concerted evolution of 35S rDNA repeats. Here, we compared 35S rDNA divergence in several seed plants using next generation sequencing and a range of molecular and cytogenetic approaches. Most species showed similar 35S rDNA homogeneity indicating concerted evolution. However, Cycas revoluta exhibits an extraordinary diversity of rDNA repeats (nucleotide sequence divergence of different copies averaging 12 %), influencing both the coding and non-coding rDNA regions nearly equally. In contrast, its rRNA transcriptome was highly homogeneous suggesting that only a minority of genes (<20 %) encode functional rRNA. The most common SNPs were C > T substitutions located in symmetrical CG and CHG contexts which were also highly methylated. Both functional genes and pseudogenes appear to cluster on chromosomes. The extraordinary high levels of 35S rDNA diversity in C. revoluta, and probably other species of cycads, indicate that the frequency of repeat homogenisation has been much lower in this lineage, compared with all other land plant lineages studied. This has led to the accumulation of methylation-driven mutations and pseudogenisation. Potentially, the reduced homology between paralogs prevented their elimination by homologous recombination, resulting in long-term retention of rDNA pseudogenes in the genome.

  5. CycA is involved in the control of endoreplication dynamics in the Drosophila bristle lineage.

    PubMed

    Sallé, Jérémy; Campbell, Shelagh D; Gho, Michel; Audibert, Agnès

    2012-02-01

    Endocycles, which are characterised by repeated rounds of DNA replication without intervening mitosis, are involved in developmental processes associated with an increase in metabolic cell activity and are part of terminal differentiation. Endocycles are currently viewed as a restriction of the canonical cell cycle. As such, mitotic cyclins have been omitted from the endocycle mechanism and their role in this process has not been specifically analysed. In order to study such a role, we focused on CycA, which has been described to function exclusively during mitosis in Drosophila. Using developing mechanosensory organs as model system and PCNA::GFP to follow endocycle dynamics, we show that (1) CycA proteins accumulate during the last period of endoreplication, (2) both CycA loss and gain of function induce changes in endoreplication dynamics and reduce the number of endocycles, and (3) heterochromatin localisation of ORC2, a member of the Pre-RC complex, depends on CycA. These results show for the first time that CycA is involved in endocycle dynamics in Drosophila. As such, CycA controls the final ploidy that cells reached during terminal differentiation. Furthermore, our data suggest that the control of endocycles by CycA involves the subnuclear relocalisation of pre-RC complex members. Our work therefore sheds new light on the mechanism underlying endocycles, implicating a process that involves remodelling of the entire cell cycle network rather than simply a restriction of the canonical cell cycle.

  6. Improving Young People's Concerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Harvey

    1998-01-01

    Stresses that symphony orchestras and other professional arts organizations need to improve young people's concerts by accounting for student learning and becoming partners with music educators. Provides an experience hierarchy that helps artists and arts organizations benefit from music teachers' knowledge and a list of five elements to consider…

  7. Concert hall acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Manfred

    2004-05-01

    I will review some work at Bell Laboratories on artificial reverberation and concert hall acoustics including Philharmonic Hall (Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York). I will also touch on sound diffusion by number-theoretic surfaces and the measurement of reverberation time using the music as played in the hall as a ``test'' signal.

  8. Teaching bioinformatics in concert.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anya L; Dekhtyar, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students.

  9. Free and glycosylated sterol bioaccumulation in developing Cycas micronesica seeds.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Shaw, Christopher A

    2009-07-15

    The bioaccumulation of free and glycosylated forms of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were determined from Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill seeds throughout seed ontogeny. Per-seed pool of the four compounds increased linearly from 2 to 24 months, indicating no developmental period elicited a major shift in the rate of bioaccumulation. The slopes were not homogeneous, signifying a change in relative sterol profile concomitant with seed maturation. This shift was in favour of the glucosides, as their rate of accumulation exceeded that of the free sterols. Stigmasterol content exceeded that of β-sitosterol, but ontogeny did not influence the ratio of these dominant sterols. The quantity and quality of sterol exposure during consumption of foods prepared from gametophytes by humans is strongly influenced by age of harvested seeds. Results are critical for a further understanding of the link between human neurodegenerative diseases and historical consumption of foods derived from the seed gametophyte tissue.

  10. Distribution of free and glycosylated sterols within Cycas micronesica plants.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Shaw, Christopher A

    2010-02-02

    Flour derived from Cycas micronesica seeds was once the dominant source of starch for Guam's residents. Cycad consumption has been linked to high incidence of human neurodegenerative diseases. We determined the distribution of the sterols stigmasterol and β-sitosterol and their derived glucosides stigmasterol β-d-glucoside and β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside among various plant parts because they have been identified in cycad flour and have been shown to elicit neurodegenerative outcomes. All four compounds were common in seeds, sporophylls, pollen, leaves, stems, and roots. Roots contained the greatest concentration of both free sterols, and photosynthetic leaflet tissue contained the greatest concentration of both steryl glucosides. Concentration within the three stem tissue categories was low compared to other organs. Reproductive sporophyll tissue contained free sterols similar to seeds, but greater concentration of steryl glucosides than seeds. One of the glucosides was absent from pollen. Concentration in young seeds was higher than old seeds as reported earlier, but concentration did not differ among age categories of leaf, sporophyll, or vascular tissue. The profile differences among the various tissues within these organs may help clarify the physiological role of these compounds.

  11. Genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria in Cycas revoluta (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shuntaro; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Miyashita, Hideaki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-09-01

    The diversity of cyanobacterial species within the coralloid roots of an individual and populations of Cycas revoluta was investigated based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sixty-six coralloid roots were collected from nine natural populations of cycads on Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands, covering the entire distribution range of the species. Approximately 400 bp of the 5'-end of 16S rRNA genes was amplified, and each was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Most coralloid roots harbored only one cyanobiont, Nostoc, whereas some contained two or three, representing cyanobiont diversity within a single coralloid root isolated from a natural habitat. Genotypes of Nostoc within a natural population were occasionally highly diverged and lacked DNA sequence similarity, implying genetic divergence of Nostoc. On the other hand, Nostoc genotypes showed no phylogeographic structure across the distribution range, while host cycads exhibited distinct north-south differentiation. Cycads may exist in symbiosis with either single or multiple Nostoc strains in natural soil habitats.

  12. Chilades pandava mothers discriminate among Cycas species during oviposition choice tests, but only in an endemic naïve population.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Paris N

    2016-08-02

    Host and non-host plant species communicate with insect herbivores to influence oviposition decisions. We studied if Chilades pandava female adults expressed oviposition preferences among host Cycas species in 2 choice tests, counting 39,420 eggs among assays from 4 butterfly populations. A naïve butterfly population from Cycas nongnoochiae habitat oviposited 2.2-fold more eggs on leaves of Cycas species that are susceptible to butterfly herbivory than on leaves of its native host Cycas nongnoochiae. In contrast, Chilades pandava populations experienced with novel Cycas species in Thailand, Philippines, and Guam exhibited no preference in choice tests between leaves of susceptible versus leaves of minimally damaged Cycas species. The results indicated that oviposition deterrents and/or stimulants partly mediate the sustainable relationship between an endemic Cycas species and the naïve Chilades pandava population from its habitat. Alternatively, differences in infochemicals among Cycas species do not enable discrimination in oviposition choices for Chilades pandava populations that have experienced Cycas species exhibiting no evolutionary history with Chilades pandava.

  13. [RAPD and SCAR molecular markers linked to the sexuality of cycads (Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang)].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian-Zhou; Jin, Hong; Li, Dong-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA fragment, aiming at finding markers linked to the sex trait in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang. A total number of 160 random primers were screened in the RAPD-PCR and more than 2500 RAPD fragments were generated from the male or the female plants. One fragment of about 500 bp was amplified steadily and repeatedly by the S0465 (CCCCGGTAAC) primer only from female plants but not male plants. The RAPD marker was then converted into female-linked dominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) marker named STQC-S465-483. The development of this sex-linked SCAR marker provides a possibility of identifying the sex of Cycas tanqingii before sexual maturation, which is very important to in situ or ex situ conservation.

  14. Information-based or resource-based systems may mediate Cycas-herbivore interactions.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders; Terry, L Irene

    2012-07-01

    Invasive arthropod herbivores comprise one of the greatest threats to cycad conservation both in situ and ex situ. We discuss two mechanisms, not necessarily mutually exclusive, that may underlie the disparity in Chilades pandava damage among Cycas species. In an information-based system, plant infochemicals may differentially influence oviposition behavior of Ch. pandava adults or host finding behavior of this butterfly's natural enemies. Alternatively, heterogeneity in damage may be mediated by a resource-based system whereby plant substrate is more palatable to larvae for susceptible species or more defended by less damaged species.

  15. Phenotypic Characteristics as Predictors of Phytosterols in Mature Cycas micronesica Seeds.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Shaw, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between mature Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill seed sterol concentration and content and plant or seed phenotypic characteristics was established by multiple regression. Combined models were significant for free but not glycosylated sterols. Reduced models revealed leaf number as the only significant predictor. Free and glycosylated sterol concentrations were unaffected throughout the range of several predictors: tree height (1.7 to 5.8 m), seed fresh weight (48 to 120 g), seed load (one to 76 seeds per plant), and estimated tree age (32 to 110 years). The free and glycosylated sterol phenotypes were also not dependent on the presence/absence of developed embryos in mature seeds. The significant response to leaf number was subtle with an increase of 43 leaves associated with a 0.1-mg increase in free sterol per gram seed fresh weight. This is the first report for any cycad that discusses reproductive or physiological traits in the context of allometric relations. Results indicate a highly constrained phenotypic plasticity of Cycas gametophyte sterol and steryl glucoside concentration and seed content in relation to whole plant and organ size variation.

  16. RNA editing sites exist in protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of Cycas taitungensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyan; Deng, Likun; Jiang, Yuan; Lu, Ping; Yu, Jianing

    2011-12-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that results in modifications of ribonucleotides at specific locations. In land plants editing can occur in both mitochondria and chloroplasts and most commonly involves C-to-U changes, especially in seed plants. Using prediction and experimental determination, we investigated RNA editing in 40 protein-coding genes from the chloroplast genome of Cycas taitungensis. A total of 85 editing sites were identified in 25 transcripts. Comparison analysis of the published editotypes of these 25 transcripts in eight species showed that RNA editing events gradually disappear during plant evolution. The editing in the first and third codon position disappeared quicker than that in the second codon position. ndh genes have the highest editing frequency while serine and proline codons were more frequently edited than the codons of other amino acids. These results imply that retained RNA editing sites have imbalanced distribution in genes and most of them may function by changing protein structure or interaction. Mitochondrion protein-coding genes have three times the editing sites compared with chloroplast genes of Cycas, most likely due to slower evolution speed.

  17. Species Delimitation of the Cycas segmentifida Complex (Cycadaceae) Resolved by Phylogenetic and Distance Analyses of Molecular Data

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiuyan; Liu, Jian; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    The Cycas segmentifida complex consists of eight species whose distributions overlap in a narrow region in Southwest China. These eight taxa are also morphologically similar and are difficult to be distinguished. Consequently, their taxonomic status has been a matter of discussion in recent years. To study this species complex, we sequenced four plastid intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear genes and genotyped 12 microsatellites for the eight taxa from 19 different localities. DNA sequences were analyzed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) method and Bayesian Inference (BI), and microsatellites were analyzed using the Neighbor-joining (NJ) and structure inference methods. Results of cpDNA, nuclear gene GTP and microsatellites all rejected the hypotheses that this complex consisted of eight taxa or one distinct lineage (species) but two previously described species were adopted: Cycas guizhouensis K. M. Lan et R. F. Zou and Cycas segmentifida D. Y. Wang et C. Y. Deng. Cycas longlinensis H. T. Chang et Y. C. Zhong was included in C. guizhouensis and the other five taxa were included in C. segmentifida. Our species delimitation inferred from molecular data largely corresponds to morphological differentiation. However, the other two nuclear genes were unable to resolve species boundaries for this complex independently. This study offered evidences from different genomes for dealing with the species boundaries and taxonomical treatment of the C. segmentifida complex in an integrated perspective. PMID:26913044

  18. Nuclear Ribosomal ITS Functional Paralogs Resolve the Phylogenetic Relationships of a Late-Miocene Radiation Cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  19. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2001-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  20. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2004-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  1. Reasoning from Incomplete Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Allan M.; And Others

    People use a variety of plausible, but uncertain inferences to answer questions about which their knowledge is incomplete. Such inferential thinking and reasoning is being incorporated into the SCHOLAR computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system. Socratic tutorial techniques in CAI systems such as SCHOLAR are described, and examples of their…

  2. Live concerts reduce cancer inpatients' anxiety.

    PubMed

    Toccafondi, A; Bonacchi, A; Mambrini, A; Miccinesi, G; Prosseda, R; Cantore, M

    2016-10-10

    In Italy a new experience of music medicine called "The Music Givers" is spreading among Oncology Units; it aims to organise weekly live concerts (length 45-60 min) followed by a buffet. Purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the format of The Music Givers on cancer in-patients' anxiety. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y) was administered to 111 in-patients before and after the concerts. After the concerts we observed a 3.87 point decrease in state anxiety (p < .001) and statistically significant differences in most of the domains assessed by STAI-Y. These results invite a reflection on the importance of offering to inpatients events such as live music concerts, in order to improve their psychological condition during hospitalisation.

  3. Incomplete invention of drugs.

    PubMed

    Hisa, Tomoyuki

    2007-02-01

    Scientists seldom know the differences between "rejected invention", "non-invention", "incomplete invention", "invention yet to be completed" and "defective invention". The Japanese Supreme Court appointed me as a specialist member (Article 92-2, Code of Civil Procedure) of intellectual property division for medical and biological patents. Herein, I present scientists to the differences and which of them are patentable. In order to prevent oneself from being taken for granted for the scientists' noblesse oblige by clever business administrations, the scientists must know the borderline between patentable or non-patentable.

  4. The role of dor gene products in controlling the P2 promoter of the cytochrome c2 gene, cycA, in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Tavano, Christine L.; Comolli, James C.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the regulatory networks controlling anaerobic energy production by the facultative phototroph Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The specific aim was to determine why activity of the P2 promoter for the gene (cycA) encoding the essential photosynthetic electron carrier, cytochrome c2, is decreased when the alternative electron acceptor DMSO is added to photosynthetically grown cells. The presence of DMSO is believed to activate the DorR response regulator, which controls expression of proteins required to reduce DMSO. A DorR− strain showed no change in cycA P2 promoter activity when DMSO was added to photosynthetic cells, indicating that DorR was required for the decreased expression in wild-type cells. To test if DorR acted directly at this promoter to change gene expression, recombinant DorR was purified and studied in vitro. Preparations of DorR that were active at other target promoters showed no detectable interaction with cycA P2, suggesting that this protein is not a direct regulator of this promoter. We also found that cycA P2 activity in a DorA− strain was not decreased by the addition of DMSO to photosynthetic cells. A model is presented to explain why the presence of a functional DMSO reductase (DorA) is required for DMSO to decrease cycA P2 expression under photosynthetic conditions. PMID:15184575

  5. Three invasive insects alter Cycas micronesica leaf chemistry and predict changes in biogeochemical cycling.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Dongol, Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    Leaf litter chemical traits were measured for Cycas micronesica plants in Guam following leaf herbivory by the scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui, the butterfly Chilades pandava caterpillar, or the leaf miner Erechthias sp. to determine the influence of the non-native pests on litter quality. Scale herbivory increased litter phenols above those of undamaged leaves but did not influence lignin or cellulose concentrations. Butterfly caterpillar herbivory increased litter phenols above and decreased litter lignin below those of undamaged leaves, but did not influence cellulose concentrations. Leaf miner herbivory increased litter lignin concentrations above those of undamaged leaves, but did not influence phenols or cellulose concentrations. Herbivory influenced 8 of 12 essential elements that were quantified. Herbivory by all 3 insects increased nitrogen and potassium litter concentrations and decreased calcium and iron litter concentrations when compared with undamaged litter. The responses were idiosyncratic among herbivores for the remaining essential elements. Stoichiometry among the chemical constituents indicated that herbivory increased litter quality and predicted more rapid biogeochemical cycling in Guam's ecosystems as a result of these 3 non-native insect invasions.

  6. Cycas micronesica (Cycadales) plants devoid of endophytic cyanobacteria increase in beta-methylamino-L-alanine.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Snyder, Laura R; Shaw, Christopher A

    2010-09-15

    Cycads are among the most ancient of extant Spermatophytes, and are known for their pharmacologically active compounds. beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is one metabolite that been implicated as causal of human neurodegenerative diseases in Guam. We grew Cycas micronesica seedlings without endophytic cyanobacteria symbiosis, and quantified initial and ending BMAA in various plant tissues. BMAA increased 79% during nine months of seedling growth, and root tissue contained 75% of the ultimate BMAA pool. Endophytic cyanobacteria symbionts were not the source of BMAA increase in these seedlings, which contradicts previously reported claims that biosynthesis of this toxin by cyanobacteria initiates its accumulation in the Guam environment. The preferential loading of root tissue with BMAA does not support earlier reports that this toxin serves a defensive role against herbivory of leaf or seed tissues. The long history of conflicting results in Guam's cycad toxin research continues, and recent developments underscore the sense of urgency in continued research as this endangered cycad population approaches extirpation from the island.

  7. Genetic Differentiation and Relationships of Populations in the Cycas balansae Complex (Cycadaceae) and its Conservation Implications

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, LONG-QIAN; GONG, XUN

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The Cycas balansae complex is arguably a controversial group with regard to species delineation. Some taxonomists recognize a single polymorphic species while others distinguish five narrowly defined ones. The unresolved taxonomy has the potential to bring about significant problems for species conservation. Thus, an investigation to examine the genetic diversity and differentiation in the C. balansae complex was performed to determine the relationship of populations and to test whether the morphologically defined segregations represent genetically distinct units. • Methods Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic diversity in the C. balansae complex with a sample of 158 individuals from all extant populations in China. • Key Results ISSR markers revealed low genetic diversity in all populations studied (HE and HO averaged 0·0639 and 0·0798 at the population level, respectively). Phenetic analysis showed that the C. balansae complex grouped into five clusters closely corresponding to the narrowly defined C. balansae, C. parvula, C. shiwandashanica, C. tanqingii and C. simplicipinna. • Conclusions ISSR data suggest that the C. balansae complex has evolved into five genetically distinct units. These might be derived from a relatively widespread common ancestor through multiple vicariant events including geographical isolation resulting from the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate and from Pleistocene glaciations. In conservation, attention should be paid to each genetic unit. PMID:16517547

  8. Three invasive insects alter Cycas micronesica leaf chemistry and predict changes in biogeochemical cycling

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Dongol, Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leaf litter chemical traits were measured for Cycas micronesica plants in Guam following leaf herbivory by the scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui, the butterfly Chilades pandava caterpillar, or the leaf miner Erechthias sp. to determine the influence of the non-native pests on litter quality. Scale herbivory increased litter phenols above those of undamaged leaves but did not influence lignin or cellulose concentrations. Butterfly caterpillar herbivory increased litter phenols above and decreased litter lignin below those of undamaged leaves, but did not influence cellulose concentrations. Leaf miner herbivory increased litter lignin concentrations above those of undamaged leaves, but did not influence phenols or cellulose concentrations. Herbivory influenced 8 of 12 essential elements that were quantified. Herbivory by all 3 insects increased nitrogen and potassium litter concentrations and decreased calcium and iron litter concentrations when compared with undamaged litter. The responses were idiosyncratic among herbivores for the remaining essential elements. Stoichiometry among the chemical constituents indicated that herbivory increased litter quality and predicted more rapid biogeochemical cycling in Guam's ecosystems as a result of these 3 non-native insect invasions. PMID:27829976

  9. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR in Cycas elongata

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Tian; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Shouzhou

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique used in gene expression studies. To achieve a reliable quantification of transcripts, appropriate reference genes are required for comparison of transcripts in different samples. However, few reference genes are available for non-model taxa, and to date, reliable reference genes in Cycas elongata have not been well characterized. In this study, 13 reference genes (ACT7, TUB, UBQ, EIF4, EF1, CLATHRIN1, PP2A, RPB2, GAPC2, TIP41, MAPK, SAMDC and CYP) were chosen from the transcriptome database of C. elongata, and these genes were evaluated in 8 different organ samples. Three software programs, NormFinder, GeNorm and BestKeeper, were used to validate the stability of the potential reference genes. Results obtained from these three programs suggested that CeGAPC2 and CeRPB2 are the most stable reference genes, while CeACT7 is the least stable one among the 13 tested genes. Further confirmation of the identified reference genes was established by the relative expression of AGAMOUSE gene of C. elongata (CeAG). While our stable reference genes generated consistent expression patterns in eight tissues, we note that our results indicate that an inappropriate reference gene might cause erroneous results. Our systematic analysis for stable reference genes of C. elongata facilitates further gene expression studies and functional analyses of this species. PMID:27124298

  10. Incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Residual acetabular dysplasia is one of the most common complications after treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip. The acetabular growth response after reduction of a dislocated hip varies. The options are to wait and add a redirectional osteotomy as a secondary procedure at an older age, or to perform a primary acetabuloplasty at the time of the open reduction to stimulate acetabular development. We present the early results of such a procedure—open reduction and an incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty—as a one-stop procedure for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the results obtained with 55 hips (in 48 patients, 43 of them girls) treated between September 2004 and February 2011. This cohort included late presentations and failures of nonoperative treatment and excluded unsuccessful previous surgical treatment (including closed reductions), neuromuscular disease, and other teratological conditions. Patients were treated once the ossific nucleus was present or when they reached one year of age. 31 cases were late presentations while 17 represented failures of nonoperative treatment. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 1.3 (0.6–2.6) years. The mean follow-up period was 4 (2–8) years. According to the IHDI classification, 1 was grade I, 9 were grade II, 13 were grade III, and 32 were grade IV. Results The mean acetabular index fell from 38 (23–49) preoperatively to 21 (10–27) at the last follow-up. There were no infections, nerve palsies, or graft extrusions. None of the cases required secondary surgery for residual acetabular dysplasia. 8 patients developed avascular necrosis (AVN) of grade II or more. The incidence of AVN was significantly associated with previous, failed nonoperative treatment. 1 patient developed coxa magna requiring shelf arthroplasty 4 years after the index procedure and 1 patient with lateral growth arrest required medial screw epiphysiodesis

  11. Concerted evolution in the mitochondrial control region of the Amazon small-bodied frog Pseudopaludicola canga (Anura, Leiuperidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Camila; Rodrigues-Filho, Luis Fernando; Sodré, Davidson; Neckel-Oliveira, Selvino; Gordo, Marcelo; Gallati, Ulisses; Sequeira, Fernando; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    This study presents evidence of concerted evolution in the mitochondrial control region of the frog Pseudopaludicola canga. Four repeat units of 88 bp (as well as a fifth, incomplete unit) were observed in the 5' domain, with the duplicated segments of the same specimen being more related to one another than to the equivalent regions in other specimens, as a result of concerted evolution. We highlight that drawing conclusions from phylogeographical analysis using the control region containing VNTRs must be interpreted with caution, because it violated a basic assumption of phylogeny, since the regions cannot be treated as independent characters.

  12. Expressed sequence tag analysis in Cycas, the most primitive living seed plant

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eric D; Stevenson, Dennis W; McCombie, Richard W; Katari, Manpreet S; Rudd, Stephen A; Mayer, Klaus FX; Palenchar, Peter M; Runko, Suzan J; Twigg, Richard W; Dai, Guangwei; Martienssen, Rob A; Benfey, Phillip N; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2003-01-01

    Background Cycads are ancient seed plants (living fossils) with origins in the Paleozoic. Cycads are sometimes considered a 'missing link' as they exhibit characteristics intermediate between vascular non-seed plants and the more derived seed plants. Cycads have also been implicated as the source of 'Guam's dementia', possibly due to the production of S(+)-beta-methyl-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (BMAA), which is an agonist of animal glutamate receptors. Results A total of 4,200 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were created from Cycas rumphii and clustered into 2,458 contigs, of which 1,764 had low-stringency BLAST similarity to other plant genes. Among those cycad contigs with similarity to plant genes, 1,718 cycad 'hits' are to angiosperms, 1,310 match genes in gymnosperms and 734 match lower (non-seed) plants. Forty-six contigs were found that matched only genes in lower plants and gymnosperms. Upon obtaining the complete sequence from the clones of 37/46 contigs, 14 still matched only gymnosperms. Among those cycad contigs common to higher plants, ESTs were discovered that correspond to those involved in development and signaling in present-day flowering plants. We purified a cycad EST for a glutamate receptor (GLR)-like gene, as well as ESTs potentially involved in the synthesis of the GLR agonist BMAA. Conclusions Analysis of cycad ESTs has uncovered conserved and potentially novel genes. Furthermore, the presence of a glutamate receptor agonist, as well as a glutamate receptor-like gene in cycads, supports the hypothesis that such neuroactive plant products are not merely herbivore deterrents but may also serve a role in plant signaling. PMID:14659015

  13. Concerted versus Stepwise Mechanism in Thymidylate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TSase) catalyzes the intracellular de novo formation of thymidylate (a DNA building block) in most living organisms, making it a common target for chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the rate-limiting hydride transfer step in TSase catalysis: a stepwise mechanism in which the hydride transfer precedes the cleavage of the covalent bond between the enzymatic cysteine and the product and a mechanism where both happen concertedly. Striking similarities between the enzyme-bound enolate intermediates formed in the initial and final step of the reaction supported the first mechanism, while QM/MM calculations favored the concerted mechanism. Here, we experimentally test these two possibilities using secondary kinetic isotope effect (KIE), mutagenesis study, and primary KIEs. The findings support the concerted mechanism and demonstrate the critical role of an active site arginine in substrate binding, activation of enzymatic nucleophile, and the hydride transfer studied here. The elucidation of this reduction/substitution sheds light on the critical catalytic step in TSase and may aid future drug or biomimetic catalyst design. PMID:24949852

  14. Tectonic and climatic impacts on the biota within the Red River Fault, evidence from phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla (Cycadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic crustal deformation and river incision in Southwest China induced by the Indo-Asian collision have long been argued to contribute to the complicated landscapes, heterogeneous environment and abundant biodiversity in this region. However, biological impacts in promoting intraspecific phylogeographical subdivision and divergence along the Red River Fault zone (RRF) remain poorly understood. To investigate the possible biological effects of tectonic movements and environment variations within the RRF, the phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla-an endemic but widely distributed Cycas in Southwest China and North Vietnam along the RRF were carried out based on four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear DNA sequences (nDNA) and 16 simple sequence repeat variations (SSR). Two different phylogeographical patterns were detected: a Southwest-Northeast break across the RRF disclosed by chlorotypes and a China-Vietnam separation revealed by SSR. A Bayesian skyline plot from cpDNA data demonstrated a historical increasing, but a recent declining, dynamic in population size during the Pleistocene. Consequently, we infer it is the local environmental variation during Cenozoic that contributed to the complex landscape and microclimate mosaics, facilitating speciation and divergence of C. dolichophylla. Subsequently, the Quaternary climatic fluctuations coupled with human activities profoundly influenced the genetic structure and demographic history of this species. PMID:27629063

  15. Concerted Signaling by Retinal Ganglion Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Markus; Lagnado, Leon; Baylor, Denis A.

    1995-11-01

    To analyze the rules that govern communication between eye and brain, visual responses were recorded from an intact salamander retina. Parallel observation of many retinal ganglion cells with a microelectrode array showed that nearby neurons often fired synchronously, with spike delays of less than 10 milliseconds. The frequency of such synchronous spikes exceeded the correlation expected from a shared visual stimulus up to 20-fold. Synchronous firing persisted under a variety of visual stimuli and accounted for the majority of action potentials recorded. Analysis of receptive fields showed that concerted spikes encoded information not carried by individual cells; they may represent symbols in a multineuronal code for vision.

  16. The analysis of incomplete data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, H. O.; Hocking, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to provide a simple taxonomy for incomplete-data problems and at the same time develop unified methods of analysis. The emphasis is on techniques which are natural extensions of the complete-data analysis and which will handle rather general classes of incomplete-data problems as opposed to custom-made techniques for special problems. The principle of estimation is either maximum likelihood or is at least based on maximum likelihood.

  17. The A-Type Cyclin CYCA2;3 Is a Key Regulator of Ploidy Levels in Arabidopsis EndoreduplicationW⃞ 111111111111111111111111 100000000000000000000001 100001111000000001000001 100010000100000010100001 100100000010000010100001 101000000001000100010001 101000000001000100010001 101000000001001111111001 101000000001001000001001 100100000010001000001001 100010000100010000000101 100001111000010000000101 100000000000000000000001 111111111111111111111111

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Kumiko K.; Ohashi, Yohei; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Oka, Atsuhiro; Aoyama, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Plant cells frequently undergo endoreduplication, a process in which chromosomal DNA is successively duplicated in the absence of mitosis. It has been proposed that endoreduplication is regulated at its entry by mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activity. However, the regulatory mechanisms for its termination remain unclear, although plants tightly control the ploidy level in each cell type. In the process of searching for regulatory factors of endoreduplication, the promoter of an Arabidopsis thaliana cyclin A gene, CYCA2;3, was revealed to be active in developing trichomes during the termination period of endoreduplication as well as in proliferating tissues. Taking advantage of the situation that plants encode highly redundant cyclin A genes, we were able to perform functional dissection of CYCA2;3 using null mutant alleles. Null mutations of CYCA2;3 semidominantly promoted endocycles and increased the ploidy levels achieved in mature organs, but they did not significantly affect the proportion of cells that underwent endoreduplication. Consistent with this result, expression of the CYCA2;3–green fluorescent protein fusion protein restrained endocycles in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, a mutation in the destruction box of CYCA2;3 stabilized the fusion protein in the nuclei and enhanced the restraint. We conclude that CYCA2;3 negatively regulates endocycles and acts as a key regulator of ploidy levels in Arabidopsis endoreduplication. PMID:16415207

  18. OSD1 promotes meiotic progression via APC/C inhibition and forms a regulatory network with TDM and CYCA1;2/TAM.

    PubMed

    Cromer, Laurence; Heyman, Jefri; Touati, Sandra; Harashima, Hirofumi; Araou, Emilie; Girard, Chloe; Horlow, Christine; Wassmann, Katja; Schnittger, Arp; De Veylder, Lieven; Mercier, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle control is modified at meiosis compared to mitosis, because two divisions follow a single DNA replication event. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) promote progression through both meiosis and mitosis, and a central regulator of their activity is the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome) that is especially required for exit from mitosis. We have shown previously that OSD1 is involved in entry into both meiosis I and meiosis II in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, the molecular mechanism by which OSD1 controls these transitions has remained unclear. Here we show that OSD1 promotes meiotic progression through APC/C inhibition. Next, we explored the functional relationships between OSD1 and the genes known to control meiotic cell cycle transitions in Arabidopsis. Like osd1, cyca1;2/tam mutation leads to a premature exit from meiosis after the first division, while tdm mutants perform an aberrant third meiotic division after normal meiosis I and II. Remarkably, while tdm is epistatic to tam, osd1 is epistatic to tdm. We further show that the expression of a non-destructible CYCA1;2/TAM provokes, like tdm, the entry into a third meiotic division. Finally, we show that CYCA1;2/TAM forms an active complex with CDKA;1 that can phosphorylate OSD1 in vitro. We thus propose that a functional network composed of OSD1, CYCA1;2/TAM, and TDM controls three key steps of meiotic progression, in which OSD1 is a meiotic APC/C inhibitor.

  19. Listening to the acoustics in concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, Leo L.; Griesinger, David

    2001-05-01

    How does acoustics affect the symphonic music performed in a concert hall? The lecture begins with an illustrated discussion of the architectural features that influence the acoustics. Boston Symphony Hall, which was built in 1900 when only one facet of architectural design was known, now rates as one of the world's great halls. How this occurred will be presented. Music is composed with some acoustical environment in mind and this varies with time from the Baroque to the Romantic to the Modern musical period. Conductors vary their interpretation according to the hall they are in. Well-traveled listeners and music critics have favorite halls. The lecture then presents a list of 58 halls rank ordered according to their acoustical quality based on interviews of music critics and conductors. Modern acoustical measurements made in these halls are compared with their rankings. Music recordings will be presented that demonstrate how halls sound that have different measured acoustical parameters. Photographs of a number of recently built halls are shown as examples of how these known acoustical factors have been incorporated into architectural design.

  20. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert.

    PubMed

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  1. Listening to the acoustics in concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, Leo L.; Griesinger, David

    2004-05-01

    How does acoustics affect the symphonic music performed in a concert hall? The lecture begins with an illustrated discussion of the architectural features that influence the acoustics. Boston Symphony Hall, which was built in 1900 when only one facet of architectural design was known, now rates as one of the world's great halls. How this occurred will be presented. Music is composed with some acoustical environment in mind and this varies with time from the Baroque to the Romantic to the Modern musical period. Conductors vary their interpretation according to the hall they are in. Well-traveled listeners and music critics have favorite halls. The lecture then presents a list of 58 halls rank ordered according to their acoustical quality based on interviews of music critics and conductors. Modern acoustical measurements made in these halls are compared with their rankings. Music recordings will be presented that demonstrate how halls sound that have different measured acoustical parameters. Photographs of a number of recently built halls are shown as examples of how these known acoustical factors have been incorporated into architectural design.

  2. New Light on a Prism: The Concert for All Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linaberry, Robin

    2004-01-01

    The prism concert concept was introduced in this country at the Eastman School of Music in 1975. The development of Eastman's inaugural prism concert is commonly attributed to Donald Hunsberger and Gustav Meier, conductors of the wind ensemble and orchestra, respectively. The basic idea is that different styles of music performed by different…

  3. Mini-Concerts: Creating Space for Student-Initiated Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Cody; Johnson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Mini-concerts are regularly occurring, low-stakes curricular events in the classroom where students perform music of their choice for their peers. An idea generated by music educators in domestic and international K-12 schools who strive to meet the needs of diverse student populations, mini-concerts have helped generate student excitement and…

  4. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

  5. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870

  6. Profile Likelihood and Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwei

    2010-04-01

    According to the law of likelihood, statistical evidence is represented by likelihood functions and its strength measured by likelihood ratios. This point of view has led to a likelihood paradigm for interpreting statistical evidence, which carefully distinguishes evidence about a parameter from error probabilities and personal belief. Like other paradigms of statistics, the likelihood paradigm faces challenges when data are observed incompletely, due to non-response or censoring, for instance. Standard methods to generate likelihood functions in such circumstances generally require assumptions about the mechanism that governs the incomplete observation of data, assumptions that usually rely on external information and cannot be validated with the observed data. Without reliable external information, the use of untestable assumptions driven by convenience could potentially compromise the interpretability of the resulting likelihood as an objective representation of the observed evidence. This paper proposes a profile likelihood approach for representing and interpreting statistical evidence with incomplete data without imposing untestable assumptions. The proposed approach is based on partial identification and is illustrated with several statistical problems involving missing data or censored data. Numerical examples based on real data are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  7. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into "Yuanjiang-Nanhun" basin and "Ejia-Jiepai" basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the conservation

  8. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into “Yuanjiang-Nanhun” basin and “Ejia-Jiepai” basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the

  9. Asymmetric Introgression in the Horticultural Living Fossil Cycas Sect. Asiorientales Using a Genome-Wide Scanning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct. PMID:23591840

  10. Asymmetric introgression in the horticultural living fossil cycas sect. Asiorientales using a genome-wide scanning approach.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-04-15

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.

  11. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by leaf extracts of Cycas circinalis, Ficus amplissima, Commelina benghalensis and Lippia nodiflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, I.; Prabu, H. Joy

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is a kind of bottom-up approach where the main reaction occurring is reduction. Since silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used for infection prevention in medical field, it is more relevant to reduce their size using ancient Indian herbal plants. This method is good in anti-microbial efficiency against bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms and hence clearly enhances the medicinal usage of AgNPs. This type of green biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly technologies for nano-materials synthesis. In the process of synthesizing AgNPs, we observed a rapid reduction of silver ions leading to the formation of stable crystalline AgNPs in the solution. Plant extracts from Cycas circinalis, Ficus amplissima, Commelina benghalensis and Lippia nodiflora were used for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate solution. AgNPs were characterized by different techniques.

  12. Item Calibration in Incomplete Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs.…

  13. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  14. The acoustics of a concert hall as a linear problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of a concert hall is to convey sound from musicians to listeners and to reverberate the music for more pleasant experience in the audience area. This process is linear and can be represented with impulse responses. However, by studying measured and simulated impulse responses for decades, researchers have not been able to exhaustively explain the success and reputation of certain concert halls.

  15. ENAM Mutations with Incomplete Penetrance

    PubMed Central

    Seymen, F.; Lee, K.-E.; Koruyucu, M.; Gencay, K.; Bayram, M.; Tuna, E.B.; Lee, Z.H.; Kim, J.-W.

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetic disease affecting tooth enamel formation. AI can be an isolated entity or a phenotype of syndromes. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with various forms of AI. We have identified 2 unrelated Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis. Whole-exome sequencing identified 2 novel heterozygous nonsense mutations in the ENAM gene (c.454G>T p.Glu152* in family 1, c.358C>T p.Gln120* in family 2) in the probands. Affected individuals were heterozygous for the mutation in each family. Segregation analysis within each family revealed individuals with incomplete penetrance or extremely mild enamel phenotype, in spite of having the same mutation with the other affected individuals. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations. PMID:25143514

  16. Genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of Cycas simplicipinna (Cycadaceae) assessed by DNA sequences and SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cycas simplicipinna (T. Smitinand) K. Hill. (Cycadaceae) is an endangered species in China. There were seven populations and 118 individuals that we could collect were genotyped in this study. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of this species. Results Analyses of data of DNA sequences (two maternally inherited intergenic spacers of chloroplast, cpDNA and one biparentally inherited internal transcribed spacer region ITS4-ITS5, nrDNA) and sixteen microsatellite loci (SSR) were conducted in the species. Of the 118 samples, 86 individuals from the seven populations were used for DNA sequencing and 115 individuals from six populations were used for the microsatellite study. We found high genetic diversity at the species level, low genetic diversity within each of the seven populations and high genetic differentiation among the populations. There was a clear genetic structure within populations of C. simplicipinna. A demographic history inferred from DNA sequencing data indicates that C. simplicipinna experienced a recent population contraction without retreating to a common refugium during the last glacial period. The results derived from SSR data also showed that C. simplicipinna underwent past effective population contraction, likely during the Pleistocene. Conclusions Some genetic features of C. simplicipinna such as having high genetic differentiation among the populations, a clear genetic structure and a recent population contraction could provide guidelines for protecting this endangered species from extinction. Furthermore, the genetic features with population dynamics of the species in our study would help provide insights and guidelines for protecting other endangered species effectively. PMID:25016306

  17. Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Britt, D.T.; Rovers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.

    2010-01-22

    We document the size distributions and locations of voids present within five highly porous equilibrated ordinary chondrites using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) and helium pycnometry. We found total porosities ranging from {approx}10 to 20% within these chondrites, and with {mu}CT we show that up to 64% of the void space is located within intergranular voids within the rock. Given the low (S1-S2) shock stages of the samples and the large voids between mineral grains, we conclude that these samples experienced unusually low amounts of compaction and shock loading throughout their entire post accretionary history. With Fe metal and FeS metal abundances and grain size distributions, we show that these chondrites formed naturally with greater than average porosities prior to parent body metamorphism. These materials were not 'fluffed' on their parent body by impact-related regolith gardening or events caused by seismic vibrations. Samples of all three chemical types of ordinary chondrites (LL, L, H) are represented in this study and we conclude that incomplete compaction is common within the asteroid belt.

  18. Multimodal interaction in real and virtual concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Pontus; Västfjäll, Daniel; Kleiner, Mendel

    2004-05-01

    Recently, researchers within the field of room acoustics have shown an increased interest for the understanding of how different modalities, especially vision and audition, interact in the concert hall experience. Computer auralization and virtual reality technology have brought means to efficiently study such auditory-visual interaction phenomena in concert halls. However, an important question to address is to what extent the results from such studies agree with real, unmediated situations. In this paper, we discuss some of the auditory-visual cross-modal effects discovered in previous experiments, and an account of cross-modal phenomena in room acoustic perception is proposed. Moreover, the importance of measuring simulation fidelity when performing cross-modal experiments in virtual concert halls is discussed. The conclusions are that one can expect auditory-visual interaction effects to occur in both real and virtual rooms, but that simulation fidelity might affect the results when performing experiments in virtual conditions.

  19. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  20. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  1. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  2. A Theoretical Structure of High School Concert Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify a theoretical structure for high school concert band performance and to test that structure for viability, generality, and invariance. A total of 101 university students enrolled in two different bands rated two high school band performances (a "first"…

  3. The 1975-76 Concert Season: A Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Robert

    The Association of College, University and Community Arts Administrators, Inc. (ACUCAA) surveyed 162 colleges and universities and 33 nonprofit institutions that will present professional performing arts programs in the 1975-76 concert season. Some highlights are: (1) 195 institutions will present 3,515 performances that cost $12,015,119 in artist…

  4. Family Music Concerts: Bringing Families, Music Students, and Music Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how conductors of the top performing groups and music education faculty at one university collaborated to create a Family Concert Series for parents and children of all ages, including infants in arms. Recognizing the conflict between "The first three years of life are the most important for educating a young child in…

  5. Parenting Priorities and Pressures: Furthering Understanding of "Concerted Cultivation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Maxwell, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-examines the purposes of a planned and intentional parenting style--"concerted cultivation"--for different middle-class groups, highlighting that social class fraction, ethnicity, and also individual family disposition, guides understandings of the purposes of enrolling children in particular enrichment activities. We…

  6. Concert halls with strong lateral reflections enhance musical dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Robinson, Philip W.; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    One of the most thrilling cultural experiences is to hear live symphony-orchestra music build up from a whispering passage to a monumental fortissimo. The impact of such a crescendo has been thought to depend only on the musicians’ skill, but here we show that interactions between the concert-hall acoustics and listeners’ hearing also play a major role in musical dynamics. These interactions contribute to the shoebox-type concert hall’s established success, but little prior research has been devoted to dynamic expression in this three-part transmission chain as a complete system. More forceful orchestral playing disproportionately excites high frequency harmonics more than those near the note’s fundamental. This effect results in not only more sound energy, but also a different tone color. The concert hall transmits this sound, and the room geometry defines from which directions acoustic reflections arrive at the listener. Binaural directional hearing emphasizes high frequencies more when sound arrives from the sides of the head rather than from the median plane. Simultaneously, these same frequencies are emphasized by higher orchestral-playing dynamics. When the room geometry provides reflections from these directions, the perceived dynamic range is enhanced. Current room-acoustic evaluation methods assume linear behavior and thus neglect this effect. The hypothesis presented here is that the auditory excitation by reflections is emphasized with an orchestra forte most in concert halls with strong lateral reflections. The enhanced dynamic range provides an explanation for the success of rectangularly shaped concert-hall geometry. PMID:24591584

  7. 7 CFR 763.8 - Incomplete applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... days of receipt of an incomplete application, the Agency will provide the seller and buyer written notice of any additional information that must be provided. The seller or buyer, as applicable,...

  8. Screening for non-protein amino acids in seeds of the Guam cycad, Cycas circinalis, by an improved GC-MS method.

    PubMed

    Oh, C H; Brownson, D M; Mabry, T J

    1995-02-01

    The non-protein amino acid, beta-N-methyl-amino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) from Cycas circinalis seeds, has been implicated as a causative agent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS-PDC), a disease known from Guam and other areas in the western Pacific. We analyzed C. circinalis seeds for additional free non-protein amino acids by a recently developed GC-MS method. The samples were prepared by water extraction of seed flour. The amino acids present in the extract were derivatized by N(O,S)-isobutyloxycarbonylation of the amine functional groups and then tert-butyldimethylsilylation of the carboxyl functional groups. Peaks for a total of seventeen derivatives of non-protein amino acids were detected by GC-MS. In addition to L-BMAA, four other non-protein amino acids were identified as beta-alanine, gamma-amino-butyric acid, pyroglutamic acid, and alpha-aminoadipic acid.

  9. Pathfinder: A parallel search algorithm for concerted atomistic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Aiichiro

    2007-02-01

    An algorithm has been designed to search for the escape paths with the lowest activation barriers when starting from a local minimum-energy configuration of a many-atom system. The pathfinder algorithm combines: (1) a steered eigenvector-following method that guides a constrained escape from the convex region and subsequently climbs to a transition state tangentially to the eigenvector corresponding to the lowest negative Hessian eigenvalue; (2) discrete abstraction of the atomic configuration to systematically enumerate concerted events as linear combinations of atomistic events; (3) evolutionary control of the population dynamics of low activation-barrier events; and (4) hybrid task + spatial decompositions to implement massive search for complex events on parallel computers. The program exhibits good scalability on parallel computers and has been used to study concerted bond-breaking events in the fracture of alumina.

  10. Reaction mechanism of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, concerted or step-wise

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Bruice, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics investigation of the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase catalyzed reaction, which shows that proton transfer from guanidinoacetate (GAA) to Asp-134 and methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to GAA are concerted. By self-consistent-charge density functional tight binding/molecular mechanics, the bond lengths in the concerted mechanism's transition state are 1.26 Å for both the OD1 (Asp-134)–HE (GAA) and HE (GAA)–NE (GAA) bonds, and 2.47 and 2.03 Å for the S8 (AdoMet)–C9 (AdoMet) and C9 (AdoMet)–NE (GAA) bonds, respectively. The potential-energy barrier (ΔE‡) determined by single-point B3LYP/6–31+G*//MM is 18.9 kcal/mol. The contributions of the entropy (−TΔS‡) and zero-point energy corrections Δ(ZPE)‡ by normal mode analysis are 2.3 kcal/mol and −1.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the activation enthalpy of this concerted mechanism is predicted to be ΔH‡ = ΔE‡ + Δ(ZPE)‡ = 17.2 kcal/mol. The calculated free-energy barrier for the concerted mechanism is ΔG‡ = 19.5 kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with the value of 19.0 kcal/mol calculated from the experimental rate constant (3.8 ± 0.2·min−1). PMID:17053070

  11. The mosh pit experience: emergency medical care for concert injuries.

    PubMed

    Janchar, T; Samaddar, C; Milzman, D

    2000-01-01

    Effective planning is essential for medical personnel preparing to provide emergency care at mass gatherings. At large concerts where audience members participate in "moshing," crowd surfing, and stage diving, there may be a potential for a dramatic increase in injuries requiring medical attention. Injuries seen at emergency medical stations at 3 concerts, all with large mosh pits, over 4 event days were recorded and evaluated. Each event day had over 60,000 attendees. A total of 1,542 medical incidents (82.9 per 10,000) were reported over the 4 event days. There were 37% (466 patients, 25.1 per 10,000) of incidents related to moshing activity. Hospital transport was required for 2.5% (39 patients, 2.1 per 10,000) of medical visits with 74% (29 patients, 1.5 per 10,000) of those transported being for mosh pit-related injuries. When planning emergency medical care for such concerts with mosh pits, the potential for an increase in the number of medical incidents and injuries requiring medical attention and hospital transport should be taken into account for efficient medical coverage.

  12. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marie, Pierre; Brunskog, Jonas; Møller Petersen, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Noise generated by the audience during musical performances is audible and sometimes disturbing. In this study, an attempt to estimate such audience noise was carried out. From the recordings of performances in five performance spaces (four concert halls and one opera house), probability density functions of the sound pressure levels were obtained in octave bands, which were fitted with three Gaussian distribution curves. The Gaussian distribution curve with the lowest mean value corresponds to a mixture of the technical background noise and audience generated noise, which is named the mixed background noise. Finally, the audience noise distribution is extracted by energy subtraction of the technical background noise levels measured in an empty condition from the mixed background noise levels. As a single index, L(90) of the audience noise distribution is named the audience noise level. Empirical prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended.

  13. Concerted and Birth-and-Death Evolution of Multigene Families*

    PubMed Central

    Nei, Masatoshi; Rooney, Alejandro P.

    2006-01-01

    Until around 1990, most multigene families were thought to be subject to concerted evolution, in which all member genes of a family evolve as a unit in concert. However, phylogenetic analysis of MHC and other immune system genes showed a quite different evolutionary pattern, and a new model called birth-and-death evolution was proposed. In this model, new genes are created by gene duplication and some duplicate genes stay in the genome for a long time, whereas others are inactivated or deleted from the genome. Later investigations have shown that most non-rRNA genes including highly conserved histone or ubiquitin genes are subject to this type of evolution. However, the controversy over the two models is still continuing because the distinction between the two models becomes difficult when sequence differences are small. Unlike concerted evolution, the model of birth-and-death evolution can give some insights into the origins of new genetic systems or new phenotypic characters. PMID:16285855

  14. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R.; Gallivan, K.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  15. Adaptive schemes for incomplete quantum process tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Rehacek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdenek

    2011-12-15

    We propose an iterative algorithm for incomplete quantum process tomography with the help of quantum state estimation. The algorithm, which is based on the combined principles of maximum likelihood and maximum entropy, yields a unique estimator for an unknown quantum process when one has less than a complete set of linearly independent measurement data to specify the quantum process uniquely. We apply this iterative algorithm adaptively in various situations and so optimize the amount of resources required to estimate a quantum process with incomplete data.

  16. Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I.

    PubMed

    Berrettini, S; Forli, F; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Quaranta, N

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are mainly related to the surgical placement of the electrode and residual neural nerve fibres. Moreover, in some cases the association of cochlear nerve abnormalities and other disabilities may significantly affect results.

  17. Subjective ranking of concert halls substantiated through orthogonal objective parameters.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Salvador; Giménez, Alicia; Cibrián, Rosa; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global subjective assessment, obtained from mean values of the results of surveys addressed to members of the audience of live concerts in Spanish auditoriums, through the mean values of the three orthogonal objective parameters (Tmid, IACCE3, and LEV), expressed in just noticeable differences (JNDs), regarding the best-valued hall. Results show that a linear combination of the relative variations of orthogonal parameters can largely explain the overall perceived quality of the sample. However, the mean values of certain orthogonal parameters are not representative, which shows that an alternative approach to the problem is necessary. Various possibilities are proposed.

  18. Architectural shape and early acoustic efficiency in concert halls (L).

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Yann; Wulfrank, Thomas; Kahle, Eckhard

    2012-09-01

    Supplying sufficient early reflections to audience members is an important prerequisite to good acoustic quality in performing arts spaces. However, the relationship between the geometry of a room and its acoustic efficiency in terms of early energy has rarely been investigated using basic geometrical principles. The present study demonstrates the possibility of predicting the average value of early reflected energy across the audience area using solid angles. The formulas obtained display the influence of various factors on average early energy; in particular, the direction of arrival of early reflections is found to play a significant role, which highlights interesting implications for the acoustic design of concert halls.

  19. Lowering energy barriers in surface reactions through concerted reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sakong, Sung; Mosch, Christian; Lozano, Ariel; Busnengo, H Fabio; Gross, Axel

    2012-10-22

    Any technologically important chemical reaction typically involves a number of different elementary reaction steps consisting of bond-breaking and bond-making processes. Usually, one assumes that such complex chemical reactions occur in a step-wise fashion where one single bond is made or broken at a time. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory we show that the barriers of rate-limiting steps for technologically relevant surface reactions are significantly reduced if concerted reaction mechanisms are taken into account.

  20. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete information. When the proposed action will have significant adverse effects on the human environment, and there...

  1. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  2. Higher Education's Grade for Data: "Incomplete"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The latest national report card on higher education, as in the past, handed out a lot of "incompletes." Like the student who keeps forgetting to turn in that lab report, the grades can't be computed without all the data. There's a lot policy makers don't know about their states' higher-education performance, and the gaps in information limit the…

  3. Non-concerted ITS evolution in Mammillaria (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2006-12-01

    Molecular studies of 21 species of the large Cactaceae genus Mammillaria representing a variety of intrageneric taxonomic levels revealed a high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2). Only a few of these ITS copies belong to apparently functional genes, whereas most are probably non-functional (pseudogenes). As a multiple gene family, the ITS region is subjected to concerted evolution. However, the high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of up to 36% in ITS1 and up to 35% in ITS2 suggests a non-concerted evolution of these loci in Mammillaria. Conserved angiosperm motifs of ITS1 and ITS2 were compared between genomic and cDNA ITS clones of Mammillaria. Some of these motifs (e.g., ITS1 motif 1, 'TGGT' within ITS2) in combination with the determination of GC-content, length comparisons of the spacers and ITS2 secondary structure (helices II and III) are helpful in the identification of pseudogene rDNA regions.

  4. One young woman's campaign: rock concerts and graffiti.

    PubMed

    Malewska, J

    1993-05-01

    Prevailing law and church dictum in 1989 Poland precluded talking about condoms and sex on the radio. Accordingly, a young woman who did a radio-theater drama with some friends about how to avoid HIV infection was thrown out of school. This youth, however, knew that her audience found the emission to be provocative and interesting, and that people were having unprotected sex at concerts in toilet stalls with unknown partners. The Ministry of Health nonetheless said funds were unavailable for condom distribution. Undeterred, the author, her younger brother, and 2 friends joined forces to make large banners with pictures of condoms, bought 500 condoms with their own money, and went to the largest rock festival in Warsaw. She described on stage what AIDS is and how to contract it while friends handed out condoms and leaflets. Their success how has them cooperating with 20 other groups and going to concerts to talk about AIDS and hand out condoms. They have also sprayed graffiti across Warsaw aimed at preventing HIV transmission and provide leaflets and condoms with money from France to ticket holders at area clubs; letters requesting cooperative action have been received. Despite the success of these activities, the Ministry of Health requires receipt of a project and budget proposal before they may consider funding. Graffiti, however, is illegal in Poland and the new Catholic government made is impossible to obtain cheap Polish condoms in shops. The activists continued to develop banners and graffiti, but failed to keep people from engaging in high risk sex with multiple partners. 3 of the author's attractive and healthy female friends therefore began going to concerts and night clubs where they feigned soliciting sexual relations and being HIV-seropositive. Unsuspecting takers without condoms were informed of the girls contrived HIV serostatus and told they must surely desire death if they are ready to have unprotected intercourse. The desire to use condoms has

  5. Methods for incomplete Bessel function evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.; Fripiat, J. G.

    Presented here are detailed methods for evaluating the incomplete Bessel functions arising when Gaussian-type orbitals are used for systems periodic in one spatial dimension. The scheme is designed to yield these incomplete Bessel functions with an absolute accuracy of ±1 × 10-10, for the range of integer orders 0 ≤ n ≤ 12 [a range sufficient for a basis whose members have angular momenta of up to three units (s, p, d, or f atomic functions)]. To reach this accuracy level within acceptable computation times, new rational approximations were developed to compute the special functions involved, namely, the exponential integral E1(x) and the modified Bessel functions K0(x) and K1(x), to absolute accuracy ±1 × 10-15.

  6. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu

    2014-06-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  7. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Il`in, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  8. The undirected incomplete perfect phylogeny problem.

    PubMed

    Satya, Ravi Vijaya; Mukherjee, Amar

    2008-01-01

    The incomplete perfect phylogeny (IPP) problem and the incomplete perfect phylogeny haplotyping (IPPH) problem deal with constructing a phylogeny for a given set of haplotypes or genotypes with missing entries. The earlier approaches for both of these problems dealt with restricted versions of the problems, where the root is either available or can be trivially re-constructed from the data, or certain assumptions were made about the data. In this paper, we deal with the unrestricted versions of the problems, where the root of the phylogeny is neither available nor trivially recoverable from the data. Both IPP and IPPH problems have previously been proven to be NP-complete. Here, we present efficient enumerative algorithms that can handle practical instances of the problem. Empirical analysis on simulated data shows that the algorithms perform very well both in terms of speed and in terms accuracy of the recovered data.

  9. Stochastic approximation boosting for incomplete data problems.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Joseph; Laake, Petter

    2009-12-01

    Boosting is a powerful approach to fitting regression models. This article describes a boosting algorithm for likelihood-based estimation with incomplete data. The algorithm combines boosting with a variant of stochastic approximation that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to deal with the missing data. Applications to fitting generalized linear and additive models with missing covariates are given. The method is applied to the Pima Indians Diabetes Data where over half of the cases contain missing values.

  10. Efficacy of five volatile oils and their mixtures against the soft scale insect, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infesting the Sago palm, Cycas revoluta in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; Nagda, A El Sayed; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak, I Soad; Samar, E Abd El-Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Five tested plant volatile oils and their mixtures were evaluated for controlling the coccid, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) on growing Sago palms Cycas revoluta in Antoniades public gardens, Alexandria, Egypt. The tested volatile oils at concentration rates of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (v/v) were: Camphor 20%, Dill 20%, Rose 30%, Peppermint 20% and Clove 30% (v/v). Their mixtures were : Camphor/Peppermint, Camphor/Rose at a rate of 1:1, Camphor/Rose/Peppermint at 1:1:2 rate and Camphor/Rose/Dill at 2:1:1 rate. The results, as a general mean of residual reduction percent for the whole inspection intervals of the test lasted 2 days up to 9 days post treatment, indicated that the superior volatile oils in reducing the insect were both Camphor and Rose, followed by Dill, Peppermint and the least efficient one was the Clove oil. The evaluated mixtures of the volatile oils showed that each of Camphor/Rose/Peppermint, Camphor/Rose and Camphor/Peppermint mixtures attained a higher rank of efficiency against that of the assigned soft scale insect.

  11. Middle-Upper Pleistocene climate changes shaped the divergence and demography of Cycas guizhouensis (Cycadaceae): Evidence from DNA sequences and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zheng, Ying; Gong, Xun

    2016-06-07

    Climatic oscillations in the Pleistocene have had profound effects on the demography and genetic diversity of many extant species. Cycas guizhouensis Lan &R.F. Zou is an endemic and endangered species in Southwest China that is primarily distributed along the valleys of the Nanpan River. In this study, we used four chloroplast DNAs (cpDNA), three nuclear genes (nDNA) and 13 microsatellite (SSR) loci to investigate the genetic structure, divergence time and demographic history of 11 populations of C. guizhouensis. High genetic diversity and high levels of genetic differentiation among the populations were observed. Two evolutionary units were revealed based on network and Structure analysis. The divergence time estimations suggested that haplotypes of C. guizhouensis were diverged during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene. Additionally, the demographic histories deduced from different DNA sequences were discordant, but overall indicated that C. guizhouensis had experienced a recent population expansion during the post-glacial period. Microsatellite data revealed that there was a contraction in effective population size in the past. These genetic features allow conservation measures to be taken to ensure the protection of this endangered species from extinction.

  12. Middle-Upper Pleistocene climate changes shaped the divergence and demography of Cycas guizhouensis (Cycadaceae): Evidence from DNA sequences and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zheng, Ying; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Climatic oscillations in the Pleistocene have had profound effects on the demography and genetic diversity of many extant species. Cycas guizhouensis Lan & R.F. Zou is an endemic and endangered species in Southwest China that is primarily distributed along the valleys of the Nanpan River. In this study, we used four chloroplast DNAs (cpDNA), three nuclear genes (nDNA) and 13 microsatellite (SSR) loci to investigate the genetic structure, divergence time and demographic history of 11 populations of C. guizhouensis. High genetic diversity and high levels of genetic differentiation among the populations were observed. Two evolutionary units were revealed based on network and Structure analysis. The divergence time estimations suggested that haplotypes of C. guizhouensis were diverged during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene. Additionally, the demographic histories deduced from different DNA sequences were discordant, but overall indicated that C. guizhouensis had experienced a recent population expansion during the post-glacial period. Microsatellite data revealed that there was a contraction in effective population size in the past. These genetic features allow conservation measures to be taken to ensure the protection of this endangered species from extinction. PMID:27270859

  13. Purification, characterization, and sequencing of antimicrobial peptides, Cy-AMP1, Cy-AMP2, and Cy-AMP3, from the Cycad (Cycas revoluta) seeds.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Seiya; Kato, Kouji; Koba, Atsuko; Minami, Yuji; Watanabe, Keiichi; Yagi, Fumio

    2008-12-01

    Novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP), designated Cy-AMP1, Cy-AMP2, and Cy-AMP3, were purified from seeds of the cycad (Cycas revoluta) by a CM cellulofine column, ion-exchange HPLC on SP COSMOGEL, and reverse-phase HPLC. They had molecular masses of 4583.2 Da, 4568.9 Da and 9275.8 Da, respectively, by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Half of the amino acid residues of Cy-AMP1 and Cy-AMP2 were cysteine, glycine and proline, and their sequences were similar. The sequence of Cy-AMP3 showed high homology to various lipid transfer proteins. For Cy-AMP1 and Cy-AMP2, the concentrations of peptides required for 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 7.0-8.9 microg/ml. The Cy-AMP3 had weak antimicrobial activity. The structural and antimicrobial characteristics of Cy-AMP1 and Cy-AMP2 indicated that they are a novel type of antimicrobial peptide belonging to a plant defensin family.

  14. Relative seed and fruit toxicity of the Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica: further evidence for a megafaunal seed dispersal syndrome in cycads, and its possible antiquity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Walter, G H

    2014-08-01

    An apparent contradiction in the ecology of cycad plants is that their seeds are known to be highly poisonous, and yet they seem well adapted for seed dispersal by animals, as shown by their visually conspicuous seed cones and large seeds presented within a brightly colored fleshy "fruit" of sarcotesta. We tested if this sarcotesta could function as a reward for cycad seed dispersal fauna, by establishing if the toxic compound cycasin, known from the seeds, is absent from the sarcotesta. The Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica were tested (N = 10 individuals per species) using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Cycasin was detected at 0.34 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of M. miquelii and 0.28 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of C. ophiolitica. Cycasin was absent from the sarcotesta of the same propagules (none detected in the case of M. miquelii, and trace quantities detected in sarcotesta of only four of the ten C. ophiolitica propagules). This laboratory finding was supported by field observations of native animals eating the sarcotesta of these cycads but discarding the toxic seed intact. These results suggest cycads are adapted for dispersal fauna capable of swallowing the large, heavy propagules whole, digesting the non-toxic sarcotesta flesh internally, and then voiding the toxic seed intact. Megafauna species such as extant emus or cassowaries, or extinct Pleistocene megafauna such as Genyornis, are plausible candidates for such dispersal. Cycads are an ancient lineage, and the possible antiquity of their megafaunal seed dispersal adaptations are discussed.

  15. Classification and data acquisition with incomplete data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David P.

    In remote-sensing applications, incomplete data can result when only a subset of sensors (e.g., radar, infrared, acoustic) are deployed at certain regions. The limitations of single sensor systems have spurred interest in employing multiple sensor modalities simultaneously. For example, in land mine detection tasks, different sensor modalities are better-suited to capture different aspects of the underlying physics of the mines. Synthetic aperture radar sensors may be better at detecting surface mines, while infrared sensors may be better at detecting buried mines. By employing multiple sensor modalities to address the detection task, the strengths of the disparate sensors can be exploited in a synergistic manner to improve performance beyond that which would be achievable with either single sensor alone. When multi-sensor approaches are employed, however, incomplete data can be manifested. If each sensor is located on a separate platform ( e.g., aircraft), each sensor may interrogate---and hence collect data over---only partially overlapping areas of land. As a result, some data points may be characterized by data (i.e., features) from only a subset of the possible sensors employed in the task. Equivalently, this scenario implies that some data points will be missing features. Increasing focus in the future on using---and fusing data from---multiple sensors will make such incomplete-data problems commonplace. In many applications involving incomplete data, it is possible to acquire the missing data at a cost. In multi-sensor remote-sensing applications, data is acquired by deploying sensors to data points. Acquiring data is usually an expensive, time-consuming task, a fact that necessitates an intelligent data acquisition process. Incomplete data is not limited to remote-sensing applications, but rather, can arise in virtually any data set. In this dissertation, we address the general problem of classification when faced with incomplete data. We also address the

  16. The efficacy of sound regulations on the listening levels of pop concerts.

    PubMed

    Gjestland, Truls; Tronstad, Tron Vedul

    2017-01-01

    This analysis of new and previously collected data was done to validate the efficacy of recommendations for limits regarding sound exposure levels at live pop concerts. After the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limiting the sound levels at such concerts to avoid noise induced hearing damage among the audience, the actual levels at concerts where these recommendations are observed, have stabilized around 100 dBA. This is a level that is considered acceptable by WHO. At concerts where there are no limitations, however, the sound levels in the audience area are still increasing far beyond safe limits and thus the exposure may represent a serious threat to people's hearing.

  17. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  18. Incomplete figure perception and invisible masking.

    PubMed

    Chikhman, Valery; Shelepin, Yuri; Foreman, Nigel; Merkuljev, Aleksey; Pronin, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    The Gollin test (measuring recognition thresholds for fragmented line drawings of everyday objects and animals) has traditionally been regarded as a test of incomplete figure perception or 'closure', though there is a debate about how such closure is achieved. Here, figural incompleteness is considered to be the result of masking, such that absence of contour elements of a fragmented figure is the result of the influence of an 'invisible' mask. It is as though the figure is partly obscured by a mask having parameters identical to those of the background. This mask is 'invisible' only consciously, but for the early stages of visual processing it is real and has properties of multiplicative noise. Incomplete Gollin figures were modeled as the figure covered by the mask with randomly distributed transparent and opaque patches. We adjusted the statistical characteristics of the contour image and empty noise patches and processed those using spatial and spatial-frequency measures. Across 73 figures, despite inter-subject variability, mean recognition threshold was always approximately 15% of total contour in naive observers. Recognition worsened with increasing spectral similarity between the figure and the 'invisible' mask. Near threshold, the spectrum of the fragmented image was equally similar to that of the 'invisible' mask and complete image. The correlation between spectral parameters of figures at threshold and complete figures was greatest for figures that were most easily recognised. Across test sessions, thresholds reduced when either figure or mask parameters were familiar. We argue that recognition thresholds for Gollin stimuli in part reflect the extraction of signal from noise.

  19. Dynamic pattern matcher using incomplete data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G. (Inventor); Wang, Lui (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pattern matching systems, and more particularly to a method for dynamically adapting the system to enhance the effectiveness of a pattern match. Apparatus and methods for calculating the similarity between patterns are known. There is considerable interest, however, in the storage and retrieval of data, particularly, when the search is called or initiated by incomplete information. For many search algorithms, a query initiating a data search requires exact information, and the data file is searched for an exact match. Inability to find an exact match thus results in a failure of the system or method.

  20. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chandre, C.

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  1. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  2. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  3. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  4. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  5. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  6. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  7. Operational modal analysis applied to the concert harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomette, B.; Le Carrou, J.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) methods are useful to extract modal parameters of operating systems. These methods seem to be particularly interesting to investigate the modal basis of string instruments during operation to avoid certain disadvantages due to conventional methods. However, the excitation in the case of string instruments is not optimal for OMA due to the presence of damped harmonic components and low noise in the disturbance signal. Therefore, the present study investigates the least-square complex exponential (LSCE) and the modified least-square complex exponential methods in the case of a string instrument to identify modal parameters of the instrument when it is played. The efficiency of the approach is experimentally demonstrated on a concert harp excited by some of its strings and the two methods are compared to a conventional modal analysis. The results show that OMA allows us to identify modes particularly present in the instrument's response with a good estimation especially if they are close to the excitation frequency with the modified LSCE method.

  8. Intramolecular Alkene Aminocarbonylation Using Concerted Cycloadditions of Amino-Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovich, Ryan A; Clavette, Christian; Vincent-Rocan, Jean-François; Roveda, Jean-Grégoire; Gorelsky, Serge I; Beauchemin, André M

    2016-06-01

    The ubiquity of nitrogen heterocycles in biologically active molecules challenges synthetic chemists to develop a variety of tools for their construction. While developing metal-free hydroamination reactions of hydrazine derivatives, it was discovered that carbazates and semicarbazides can also lead to alkene aminocarbonylation products if nitrogen-substituted isocyanates (N-isocyanates) are formed in situ as reactive intermediates. At first this reaction required high temperatures (150-200 °C), and issues included competing hydroamination and N-isocyanate dimerization pathways. Herein, improved conditions for concerted intramolecular alkene aminocarbonylation with N-isocyanates are reported. The use of βN-benzyl carbazate precursors allows the effective minimization of N-isocyanate dimerization. Diminished dimerization leads to higher yields of alkene aminocarbonylation products, to reactivity at lower temperatures, and to an improved scope for a reaction sequence involving alkene aminocarbonylation followed by 1,2-migration of the benzyl group. Furthermore, fine-tuning of the blocking (masking) group on the N-isocyanate precursor, and reaction conditions relying on base catalysis for N-isocyanate formation from simpler precursors resulted in room temperature reactivity, consequently minimizing the competing hydroamination pathway. Collectively, this work highlights that controlled reactivity of aminoisocyanates is possible, and provides a broadly applicable alkene aminocarbonylation approach to heterocycles possessing the β-aminocarbonyl motif.

  9. Calsyntenins Function as Synaptogenic Adhesion Molecules in Concert with Neurexins

    PubMed Central

    Um, Ji Won; Pramanik, Gopal; Ko, Ji Seung; Song, Min-Young; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Hyun; Park, Kang-Sik; Südhof, Thomas C.; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Ko, Jaewon

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple synaptic adhesion molecules govern synapse formation. Here, we propose calsyntenin-3/alcadein-β as a synapse organizer that specifically induces presynaptic differentiation in heterologous synapse-formation assays. Calsyntenin-3 (CST-3) was highly expressed during various postnatal periods of mouse brain development. The simultaneous knockdown of all three CSTs, but not CST-3 alone, decreased inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse densities in cultured hippocampal neurons. Moreover, the knockdown of CSTs specifically reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, the loss of CSTs induced a concomitant decrease in neuron soma size in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Furthermore, α-neurexins (α-Nrxs) were affinity-purified as components of a CST-3 complex involved in CST-3-mediated presynaptic differentiation. However, CST-3 did not directly bind to Nrxs. Viewed together, these data suggest that the three CSTs redundantly regulate inhibitory synapse formation, inhibitory synapse function, and neuron development in concert with Nrxs. PMID:24613359

  10. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with 19F- and 18F-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Constanze N.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain 18F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a ‘leaving group’ leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant 18F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize 18F-PET probes. Selective 18F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of 18F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to 18F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry.

  11. Alkane desaturation by concerted double hydrogen atom transfer to benzyne.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dawen; Willoughby, Patrick H; Woods, Brian P; Baire, Beeraiah; Hoye, Thomas R

    2013-09-26

    The removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from an alkane to produce an alkene is a challenge for synthetic chemists. In nature, desaturases and acetylenases are adept at achieving this essential oxidative functionalization reaction, for example during the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, gibberellins and carotenoids. Alkane-to-alkene conversion almost always involves one or more chemical intermediates in a multistep reaction pathway; these may be either isolable species (such as alcohols or alkyl halides) or reactive intermediates (such as carbocations, alkyl radicals, or σ-alkyl-metal species). Here we report a desaturation reaction of simple, unactivated alkanes that is mechanistically unique. We show that benzynes are capable of the concerted removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from a hydrocarbon. The discovery of this exothermic, net redox process was enabled by the simple thermal generation of reactive benzyne intermediates through the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder cycloisomerization reaction of triyne substrates. We are not aware of any single-step, bimolecular reaction in which two hydrogen atoms are simultaneously transferred from a saturated alkane. Computational studies indicate a preferred geometry with eclipsed vicinal C-H bonds in the alkane donor.

  12. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with 19F− and 18F−

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Constanze N.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain a 18F for use in PET imaging.1 A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales.2 During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a ‘leaving group’ leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s).3 In this manuscript, we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favored over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional group–tolerant 18F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize 18F-PET probes. Selective 18F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of 18F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to 18F-labeled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry. PMID:27281221

  13. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  14. Some characteristics of the concert harp's acoustic radiation.

    PubMed

    Le Carrou, Jean-Loic; Leclere, Quentin; Gautier, Francois

    2010-05-01

    The way a musical instrument radiates plays an important part in determining the instrument's sound quality. For the concert harp, the soundboard has to radiate the string's vibration over a range of 7 octaves. Despite the effort of instrument makers, this radiation is not uniform throughout this range. In a recent paper, Waltham and Kotlicki [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 1774-1780 (2008)] proposed an interesting approach for the study of the string-to-string variance based on the relationship between the string attachment position and the operating deflection shapes of the soundboard. Although the soundboard vibrational characteristics determine a large part of the instrument's radiation, it is also important to study directly its radiation to conclude on the origins of the string-to-string variation in the sound production. This is done by computing the equivalent acoustical sources on the soundboard from the far field sound radiation measured around the harp, using the acoustic imaging technique inverse frequency response function. Results show that the radiated sound depends on the correlation between these sources, and the played string's frequency and location. These equivalent sources thus determine the magnitude and directivity of each string's partial in the far field, which have consequences on the spectral balance of the perceived sound for each string.

  15. Rate-dependent incompleteness of earthquake catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainzl, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Important information about the earthquake generation process can be gained from instrumental earthquake catalogs, but this requires complete recordings to avoid biased results. The local completeness magnitude Mc is known to depend on general conditions such as the seismographic network and the environmental noise, which generally limit the possibility to detect small events. The detectability can be additionally reduced by an earthquake-induced increase of the noise-level leading to short-term variations of Mc, which cannot be resolved by traditional methods relying on the analysis of the frequency-magnitude distribution. Based on simple assumptions, I propose a new method to estimate such temporal excursions of Mc solely based on the estimation of the earthquake rate resulting in a high temporal resolution of Mc. The approach is shown to be in agreement with the apparent decrease of the estimated Gutenberg-Richter b-value in high-activity phases of recorded data sets and the observed incompleteness periods after mainshocks. Furthermore, an algorithm to estimate temporal changes of Mc is introduced and applied to empirical aftershock and swarm sequences from California and central Europe, indicating that observed b-value fluctuations are often related to rate-dependent incompleteness of the earthquake catalogs.

  16. Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-03-01

    As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

  17. "Iitaohkanao'pi--The Meeting Place Project": An Alternative Approach to Young People's Concerts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasiak, Edwin B.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored alternative approaches to young people's concerts aimed at extending musical appreciations and cultural understandings while promoting interest in concert attendance among upper elementary students. The project, an artistic and cross-cultural collaboration grounded in a spirit of mutual respect, consisted of three components:…

  18. What Did You Do to Teach Good Concert Behavior at Your School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she taught concert etiquette to her students. The author started by having her students research concert etiquette online. She then created a music Web site bibliography, beginning with the MENC site (www.menc.org/guides/etiquette /etiquette_home.html). She relates that the teaching approach she used has…

  19. The 2003 Music in Our School's Month and World's Largest Concert Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    On March 13, 2003 millions of school children, teachers, and citizens from around the world participate simultaneously in the "World's Largest Concert" (WLC). This concert, a sing-along program, is broadcast on PBS and the Armed Forces Radio and Television Network overseas. Participating in the WLC is a way to celebrate Music in Our…

  20. General Music as a Cure for the High-Stakes Concert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that concerts create pressures on the music curriculum similar to those high-stakes tests generate on the general curriculum. Three similarities are presented and discussed using the example of a concert the author organized: first, teaching to the test and the narrowing of curricular goals; second, evaluation by a single source…

  1. Science 101: How Do Acoustics Dictate the Design of a Concert Hall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This column provides background science information for elementary teachers. When the author was young he used to think that the ideal design for a concert hall would contain walls that were composed of sound-absorbing material, like foam or egg cartons or such. He noticed, though, that this was not the case. Most concert halls contain curtains…

  2. The Historical Demography and Genetic Variation of the Endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae) in the Red River Region, Examined by Chloroplast DNA Sequences and Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yi-Qing; Zhan, Qing-Qing; Nguyen, Khang Sinh; Nguyen, Hiep Tien; Wang, Yue-Hua; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU). In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species. PMID:25689828

  3. When North and South don't mix: genetic connectivity of a recently endangered oceanic cycad, Cycas micronesica, in Guam using EST-microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Cibrián-Jaramillo, Angélica; Daly, A C; Brenner, E; Desalle, R; Marler, T E

    2010-06-01

    Subject to environmental changes and recurrent isolation in the last ca. 250 Ma, cycads are often described as relicts of a previously common lineage, with populations characterized by low genetic variation and restricted gene flow. We found that on the island of Guam, the endemic Cycas micronesica has most of the genetic variation of 14 EST-microsatellites distributed within each of 18 genetic populations, from 24 original sampling sites. There were high levels of genetic variation in terms of total number of alleles and private alleles, and moderate levels of inbreeding. Restricted but ongoing gene flow among populations within Guam reveals a genetic mosaic, probably more typical of cycads than previously assumed. Contiguous cycad populations in the north of Guam had higher self-recruitment rates compared to fragmented populations in the south, with no substantial connection between them except for one population. Guam's genetic mosaic may be explained by the influence of forest continuity, seed size, edaphic differences, and human transport of cycads. Also important are the extent of synchrony among flushes of reproductive female seed-bearing sporophylls and restricted pollen movement by an obligate mutualist and generalist insects. An NADH EST-locus under positive selection may reflect pressure from edaphic differences across Guam. This and three other loci are ideal candidates for ecological genomic studies. Given this species' vulnerability due to the recent introduction of the cycad aulacaspis scale, we also identify priority populations for ex situ conservation, and provide a genetic baseline for understanding the effects of invasive species on cycads in the Western Pacific, and islands in general.

  4. Bereavement: an incomplete rite of passage.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer

    A bereavement ritual observed during anthropological fieldwork in Peru gives basis to this article which asserts that bereavement has become an incomplete rite of passage. The article reviews the role of ritual and rites of passage, examines other anthropologic examples of death and bereavement rituals, and identifies the lack of post-funeral ritual for many bereaved individuals in the United States. While funerary rituals which end with the funeral and burial of the dead are helpful in providing immediate structure for the bereaved, they are not congruent with the long-term emotional needs and reconstruction of meaning within grief. The author acknowledges value of both private ritual and reunions of the community of mourners, and recommends that bereavement counselors and/or the funeral industry offer to help bereaved construct a "ritual of remembrance and new meaning" after time has allowed them to move along in meaning reconstruction processes of making sense, finding benefits, and identity change.

  5. Shape reconstruction methods with incomplete data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahata, K.; Kitahara, M.

    2000-05-01

    Linearized inverse scattering methods are applied to the shape reconstruction of defects in elastic solids. The linearized methods are based on the Born approximation in the low frequency range and the Kirchhoff approximation in the high frequency range. The experimental measurement is performed to collect the scattering data from defects. The processed data from the measurement are fed into the linearized methods and the shape of the defect is reconstructed by two linearized methods. The importance of scattering data in the low frequency range is pointed out not only for Born inversion but also for Kirchhoff inversion. In the ultrasonic measurement for the real structure, the access points of the sensor may be limited to one side of the structural surfaces and a part of the surface. From the viewpoint of application, the incomplete scattering data are used as inputs for the shape reconstruction methods and the effect of the sensing points are discussed.

  6. Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Cerezo, Rafael; Rosa, João G.

    2016-05-01

    We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the Universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

  7. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  8. [Public music concerts in a psychiatric hospital: effects on public opinion and as therapy for patients].

    PubMed

    Takasaka, Y; Yokota, O; Tanioka, T; Nagata, K; Yasuoka, K; Toda, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effects of music therapy concerts, which were held 60 times over a four year period, 1992 to 1996, in Geiyo Psychiatric Hospital, Kochi Prefecture and found that; 1) Musicians who performed at the concerts were not only from Kochi prefecture but also from other prefectures (10 times) and from four foreign countries (7 times). 2) Live concerts in a small hall had a positive influence on patients and drew the patient's attention and interest away from their hallucinations and delusions to the real world. Moreover, the concerts provided the patients with chances to acquire social graces such as being well-groomed. 3) Explanations by the musicians, interviews with the musicians and the seasonal choruses accompanied by the musicians were helpful to give the patients motives for recovering communication skills and to interact with society. 4) Inquiries to the patients about the concerts indicated discrepancies between the poor observed estimations during the concerts (83.3%) and the good subjective impressions expressed by the patients (82.0%), suggesting that the patients were not good at expressing their internal emotions through facial expressions or attitudes. 5) Many citizens including children came to the concerts and/or gave aid to the hospital because the concerts were open to the public and we suggest that this contributed to improving the general publics' image of psychiatric hospitals. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of people in a control group had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals in Japan, but only 32% of the members of the general public who attended our concerts had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals. In addition, the revolving ratio of the hospital beds rose from 0.4 to 1.2 over the four years, which also suggests a beneficial effect on the patients.

  9. Structure of Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1974-01-01

    Emulsions of complete (CFA) and incomplete (IFA) Freund's adjuvants were examined in the light and electron microscopes, and the resulting morphological findings were correlated with the effectiveness of the emulsions as immunological adjuvants. Thick (viscous) emulsions of both IFA and CFA consisted of highly stable, three-dimensional meshworks composed of interconnecting strands of antigen-containing water droplets interspersed in oil phase. Included mycobacteria were confined to this meshwork and were coated with an adherent surface layer of water droplets. Thin Freund's adjuvants were less stable, relatively coarse emulsions, but even in such preparations mycobacteria showed a striking affinity for the surface of water droplets when these contained low concentrations of antigens such as human serum albumin (HSA). The characteristic adjuvant effect of CFA was observed only when associations between mycobacteria and water droplets took place. Thus, no adjuvant effect occurred with oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions, nor when antigen and mycobacteria-in-oil were injected into separate foot pads. Further, a good adjuvant effect was observed even with thin emulsions when mycobacteria-water droplet associations were abundant. These morphological and immunological data suggest that CFA is a device for bringing extrinsic, water-soluble antigens into intimate, stable contact with myco-bacteria, thereby conferring on them the ability to elicit an immunological response qualitatively similar to that induced by mycobacteria-in-oil to the intrinsic antigen, tuberculin. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4605156

  10. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  11. Analyzing incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data.

    PubMed

    Molenberghs, Geert; Thijs, Herbert; Jansen, Ivy; Beunckens, Caroline; Kenward, Michael G; Mallinckrodt, Craig; Carroll, Raymond J

    2004-07-01

    Using standard missing data taxonomy, due to Rubin and co-workers, and simple algebraic derivations, it is argued that some simple but commonly used methods to handle incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data, such as complete case analyses and methods based on last observation carried forward, require restrictive assumptions and stand on a weaker theoretical foundation than likelihood-based methods developed under the missing at random (MAR) framework. Given the availability of flexible software for analyzing longitudinal sequences of unequal length, implementation of likelihood-based MAR analyses is not limited by computational considerations. While such analyses are valid under the comparatively weak assumption of MAR, the possibility of data missing not at random (MNAR) is difficult to rule out. It is argued, however, that MNAR analyses are, themselves, surrounded with problems and therefore, rather than ignoring MNAR analyses altogether or blindly shifting to them, their optimal place is within sensitivity analysis. The concepts developed here are illustrated using data from three clinical trials, where it is shown that the analysis method may have an impact on the conclusions of the study.

  12. Deep community detection in topologically incomplete networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xin; Wang, Chaokun; Ying, Xiang; Wang, Boyang

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting communities in topologically incomplete networks (TIN), which are usually observed from real-world networks and where some edges are missing. Existing approaches to community detection always consider the input network as connected. However, more or less, even nearly all, edges are missing in real-world applications, e.g. the protein-protein interaction networks. Clearly, it is a big challenge to effectively detect communities in these observed TIN. At first, we bring forward a simple but useful method to address the problem. Then, we design a structured deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to better detect communities in TIN. By gradually removing edges of the real-world networks, we show the effectiveness and robustness of our structured deep model on a variety of real-world networks. Moreover, we find that the appropriate choice of hop counts can improve the performance of our deep model in some degree. Finally, experimental results conducted on synthetic data sets also show the good performance of our proposed deep CNN model.

  13. WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hruschka, Daniel  J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric  D.; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2014-12-18

    Background: Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicon—a phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Results: Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular sound change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elements—such as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traits—can change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group.

  15. Auditory Compensation for Head Rotation Is Incomplete

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hearing is confronted by a similar problem to vision when the observer moves. The image motion that is created remains ambiguous until the observer knows the velocity of eye and/or head. One way the visual system solves this problem is to use motor commands, proprioception, and vestibular information. These “extraretinal signals” compensate for self-movement, converting image motion into head-centered coordinates, although not always perfectly. We investigated whether the auditory system also transforms coordinates by examining the degree of compensation for head rotation when judging a moving sound. Real-time recordings of head motion were used to change the “movement gain” relating head movement to source movement across a loudspeaker array. We then determined psychophysically the gain that corresponded to a perceptually stationary source. Experiment 1 showed that the gain was small and positive for a wide range of trained head speeds. Hence, listeners perceived a stationary source as moving slightly opposite to the head rotation, in much the same way that observers see stationary visual objects move against a smooth pursuit eye movement. Experiment 2 showed the degree of compensation remained the same for sounds presented at different azimuths, although the precision of performance declined when the sound was eccentric. We discuss two possible explanations for incomplete compensation, one based on differences in the accuracy of signals encoding image motion and self-movement and one concerning statistical optimization that sacrifices accuracy for precision. We then consider the degree to which such explanations can be applied to auditory motion perception in moving listeners. PMID:27841453

  16. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.085-20 Incomplete vehicles... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incomplete vehicles,...

  17. Calculating Balanced Incomplete Block Design for Educational Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Carlson, James E.

    A popular design in large-scale educational assessments is the balanced incomplete block design. The design assumes that the item pool is split into a set of blocks of items that are assigned to assessment booklets. This paper shows how the technique of 0-1 linear programming can be used to calculate a balanced incomplete block design. Several…

  18. Loss of Information in Estimating Item Parameters in Incomplete Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verelst, Norman D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency of conditional maximum likelihood (CML) and marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation of the item parameters of the Rasch model in incomplete designs is investigated. The use of the concept of F-information (Eggen, 2000) is generalized to incomplete testing designs. The scaled determinant of the F-information…

  19. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  20. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  1. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  2. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  3. Treatment of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Cardiac Extension following Incomplete Resection

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Mathew P.; Li, Annette; Villanueva, Claudia I.; Peeceeyen, Sheen C. S.; Cooper, Michael G.; Hanel, Kevin C.; Fermanis, Gary G.; Robertson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) with cardiac extension (CE) is a rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. Incomplete resection has a recurrence rate of over 30%. Different hormonal treatments have been described following incomplete resection; however no standard therapy currently exists. We review the literature for medical treatments options following incomplete resection of IVL with CE. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for all studies reporting IVL with CE. These studies were then searched for reports of patients with inoperable or incomplete resection and any further medical treatments. Our database was searched for patients with medical therapy following incomplete resection of IVL with CE and their results were included. Results. All studies were either case reports or case series. Five literature reviews confirm that surgery is the only treatment to achieve cure. The uses of progesterone, estrogen modulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonism, and aromatase inhibition have been described following incomplete resection. Currently no studies have reviewed the outcomes of these treatments. Conclusions. Complete surgical resection is the only means of cure for IVL with CE, while multiple hormonal therapies have been used with varying results following incomplete resection. Aromatase inhibitors are the only reported treatment to prevent tumor progression or recurrence in patients with incompletely resected IVL with CE. PMID:26783463

  4. Evidence for concerted pathways in ion-pairing coupled electron transfers.

    PubMed

    Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2008-04-09

    Ion-pairing with electro-inactive metal ions may change drastically the thermodynamic and kinetic reactivity of electron transfer in chemical and biochemical processes. Besides the classical stepwise pathways (electron-transfer first, followed by ion-pairing or vice versa), ion-pairing may also occur concertedly with electron transfer. The latter pathway avoids high-energy intermediates but a key issue is that of the kinetic price to pay to benefit from this thermodynamic advantage. A model is proposed leading to activation/driving force relationships characterizing such concerted associative electron transfers for intermolecular and intramolecular homogeneous reactions and for electrochemical reactions. Contrary to previous assertions, the driving force of the reaction (defined as the opposite of the reaction standard free energy), as well as the intrinsic barrier, does not depend on the concentration of the ion-pairing agent, which simply plays the role of one of the reactants. Besides solvent and intramolecular reorganization, the energy of the bond being formed is the main component of the intrinsic barrier. Application of these considerations to reactions reported in recent literature illustrates how concerted ion-pairing electron-transfer reactions can be diagnosed and how competition between stepwise and concerted pathways can be analyzed. It provided the first experimental evidence of the viability of concerted ion-pairing electron-transfer reactions.

  5. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, K R

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  6. Double Incomplete Internal Biliary Fistula: Coexisting Cholecystogastric and Cholecystoduodenal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae. PMID:26904348

  7. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Hruschka, Daniel  J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric  D.; ...

    2014-12-18

    Background: Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicon—a phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Results: Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular soundmore » change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elements—such as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traits—can change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group.« less

  8. Efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The incomplete Airy integrals serve as canonical functions for the uniform ray optical solutions to several high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems that involve a class of integrals characterized by two stationary points that are arbitrarily close to one another or to an integration endpoint. Integrals with such analytical properties describe transition region phenomena associated with composite shadow boundaries. An efficient and accurate method for computing the incomplete Airy functions would make the solutions to such problems useful for engineering purposes. In this paper a convergent series solution for the incomplete Airy functions is derived. Asymptotic expansions involving several terms are also developed and serve as large argument approximations. The combination of the series solution with the asymptotic formulae provides for an efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions. Validation of accuracy is accomplished using direct numerical integration data.

  9. Degradation of hyaluronate by the concerted action of ozone and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Schmut, O; Ansari, A N; Faulborn, J

    1994-01-01

    The influence of ozone and sunlight in a concerted reaction on hyaluronate solutions was investigated. The kinematic viscosity of hyaluronate solutions is decreased by ozone-air mixtures and simultaneous radiation with sun rays within a few minutes, indicating a depolymerization of the hyaluronate molecule. The reaction is dependent on the concentration of ozone and on the time of exposure to ozone and sunlight. The concerted degradation of hyaluronate is more effective than the reaction with each component, ozone and sun rays, alone. We conclude that hyaluronate depolymerization by ozone and sunlight may be one factor for irritations of the eye by photochemical smog and increased exposure to sun rays.

  10. Incomplete Relaxation between Beats after Myocardial Hypoxia and Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Weisfeldt, Myron L.; Armstrong, Paul; Scully, Hugh E.; Sanders, Charles A.; Daggett, Willard M.

    1974-01-01

    Recovery from hypoxia has been shown to prolong cardiac muscle contraction, particularly the relaxation phase. The present studies were designed to examine whether incomplete relaxation between beats can result from this prolongation of contraction and relaxation in isolated muscle after hypoxia and in the canine heart after both hypoxia and acute ischemia. The relationship between heart rate and the extent of incomplete relaxation is emphasized in view of the known enhancement of the velocity of contraction caused by increasing heart rate. The extent of incomplete relaxation during 10-s periods of pacing at increasing rates was examined before and after hypoxia in isometric cat right ventricular papillary muscle (12-120 beats/min) and in the canine isovolumic left ventricle (120-180 beats/min). Incomplete relaxation was quantified by measuring the difference between the lowest diastolic tension or pressure during pacing and the true resting tension or pressure determined by interruption of pacing at each rate. In eight cat papillary muscles (29°C), there was significantly greater incomplete relaxation 5 min after hypoxia at rates of 96 and 120 beats/min (P < 0.02 vs. before hypoxia). In seven canine isovolumic left ventricles, recovery from hypoxia and higher heart rates also resulted in incomplete relaxation. Incomplete relaxation before hypoxia at a rate of 180 beats/min was 0.8±0.5 cm H2O and at 5 min of recovery from hypoxia was 12.6±3.5 cm H2O (P < 0.01). 12 hearts were subjected to a 1.5-3-min period of acute ischemia and fibrillation. There was significant incomplete relaxation at a rate of 140 beats/min for 5 min after defibrillation and reperfusion. These data indicate that incomplete relaxation is an important determinant of diastolic hemodynamics during recovery from ischemia or hypoxia. The extent of incomplete relaxation appears to be a function of the rate of normalization of the velocity of relaxation and tension development after ischemia or

  11. Evaluation of stage acoustics in Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall by measuring stage support.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Barron, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Stage acoustics is an important characteristic for concert halls, both for the acoustic quality on stage and for the audience. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the question. This study was based on the investigation of an actual concert hall stage, that of the Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall in Korea. The stage acoustics was evaluated in the actual hall, and with two models: a 1:25 scale model and a computer model. The study was based on the stage support parameter ST1 proposed by Gade as a measure of support for individual performers [Acustica 65, 193-203 (1989)]. The variation of support was measured on the empty stage of the actual hall and in the two models. The effect of musicians on stage, the effect of moving the orchestra, the effect of ceiling height and of stage-wall profile were also investigated. Conclusions are drawn both relating to the Seoul Concert Hall stage and stages in general.

  12. Living Room vs. Concert Hall: Patterns of Music Consumption in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roose, Henk; Stichele, Alexander Vander

    2010-01-01

    In this article we probe the interplay between public and private music consumption using a large-scale survey of the Flemish population in Belgium. We analyze whether public and private music consumption have different correlates and to what extent there is convergence between the genres that people listen to at home and at concerts. Results show…

  13. Unequal Academic Achievement in High School: The Mediating Roles of Concerted Cultivation and Close Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2016-01-01

    Building from the classic Wisconsin model of status attainment, this study examines whether a specific style of parenting, concerted cultivation, and a close friend's school-related attitudes and behaviors mediate the relationship between a family's socioeconomic status and their child's academic achievement in the United States. Using a recursive…

  14. Managing Risk in Producing Concerts and Other Major Campus Events: A Guide for Student Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Carol J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers suggestions for campus-activities programmers on how to minimize liability for problems with concerts and other student-planned campus events. Discussion covers prevention of monetary loss, breach of contract issues, and preventing personal injuries and property damage. Specific preventive actions and policies are discussed. (MSE)

  15. Regioselective de novo synthesis of cyanohydroxypyridines with a concerted cycloaddition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin-Yong; Keith, John A; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Schürmann, Markus; Preut, Hans; Jacob, Timo; Arndt, Hans-Dieter

    2008-10-08

    An efficient cycloaddition reaction of 1-alkoxy-1-azadienes with alpha,alpha-dicyanoalkenes is described, which gives facile access to highly substituted 3-hydroxypyridines in very good yields and with complete regiocontrol and chemoselectivity. The reaction path was investigated in detail by quantum mechanics calculations, reporting that a concerted cycloaddition mechanism and thermodynamic control synergistically contribute to the observed selectivity.

  16. Carbon Based Lifeforms @ Cosmonova: A Concert in Sight and Sound for IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callen, T.

    2012-05-01

    Replacing its conventional analogue planetarium with a digital fulldome system, the Cosmonova theatre at the Swedish Museum of Natural History sought to come up with a variety of public offerings for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. Besides several fulldome shows it was decided that a concert of live music would both celebrate the year as well as attempt to attract a new audience.

  17. A statistical approach for distinguishing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting.

    PubMed

    Joly, Simon; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2009-08-01

    The extent and evolutionary significance of hybridization is difficult to evaluate because of the difficulty in distinguishing hybridization from incomplete lineage sorting. Here we present a novel parametric approach for statistically distinguishing hybridization from incomplete lineage sorting based on minimum genetic distances of a nonrecombining locus. It is based on the idea that the expected minimum genetic distance between sequences from two species is smaller for some hybridization events than for incomplete lineage sorting scenarios. When applied to empirical data sets, distributions can be generated for the minimum interspecies distances expected under incomplete lineage sorting using coalescent simulations. If the observed distance between sequences from two species is smaller than its predicted distribution, incomplete lineage sorting can be rejected and hybridization inferred. We demonstrate the power of the method using simulations and illustrate its application on New Zealand alpine buttercups (Ranunculus). The method is robust and complements existing approaches. Thus it should allow biologists to assess with greater accuracy the importance of hybridization in evolution.

  18. Incomplete caries removal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2013-04-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of incomplete caries removal, in particular in the treatment of deep caries. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials investigating one- or two-step incomplete compared with complete caries removal. Studies treating primary and permanent teeth with primary caries lesions requiring a restoration were analyzed. The following primary and secondary outcomes were investigated: risk of pulpal exposure, post-operative pulpal symptoms, overall failure, and caries progression. Electronic databases were screened for studies from 1967 to 2012. Cross-referencing was used to identify further articles. Odds ratios (OR) as effect estimates were calculated in a random-effects model. From 364 screened articles, 10 studies representing 1,257 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed risk reduction for both pulpal exposure (OR [95% CI] 0.31 [0.19-0.49]) and pulpal symptoms (OR 0.58 [0.31-1.10]) for teeth treated with one- or two-step incomplete excavation. Risk of failure seemed to be similar for both complete and incomplete excavation, but data for this outcome were of limited quality and inconclusive (OR 0.97 [0.64-1.46]). Based on reviewed studies, incomplete caries removal seems advantageous compared with complete excavation, especially in proximity to the pulp. However, evidence levels are currently insufficient for definitive conclusions because of high risk of bias within studies.

  19. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M

    2014-10-26

    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information.

  20. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  1. A comparison of incomplete-data methods for categorical data.

    PubMed

    van der Palm, Daniël W; van der Ark, L Andries; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-04-01

    We studied four methods for handling incomplete categorical data in statistical modeling: (1) maximum likelihood estimation of the statistical model with incomplete data, (2) multiple imputation using a loglinear model, (3) multiple imputation using a latent class model, (4) and multivariate imputation by chained equations. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and it is unknown which method should be recommended to practitioners. We reviewed the merits of each method and investigated their effect on the bias and stability of parameter estimates and bias of the standard errors. We found that multiple imputation using a latent class model with many latent classes was the most promising method for handling incomplete categorical data, especially when the number of variables used in the imputation model is large.

  2. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Summary The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  3. A Novel Method to Assess Incompleteness of Mammography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Francisco J.; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography has been shown to improve outcomes of women with breast cancer, but it is subject to inter-reader variability. One well-documented source of such variability is in the content of mammography reports. The mammography report is of crucial importance, since it documents the radiologist’s imaging observations, interpretation of those observations in terms of likelihood of malignancy, and suggested patient management. In this paper, we define an incompleteness score to measure how incomplete the information content is in the mammography report and provide an algorithm to calculate this metric. We then show that the incompleteness score can be used to predict errors in interpretation. This method has 82.6% accuracy at predicting errors in interpretation and can possibly reduce total diagnostic errors by up to 21.7%. Such a method can easily be modified to suit other domains that depend on quality reporting. PMID:25954448

  4. A novel method to assess incompleteness of mammography reports.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Francisco J; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Rubin, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Mammography has been shown to improve outcomes of women with breast cancer, but it is subject to inter-reader variability. One well-documented source of such variability is in the content of mammography reports. The mammography report is of crucial importance, since it documents the radiologist's imaging observations, interpretation of those observations in terms of likelihood of malignancy, and suggested patient management. In this paper, we define an incompleteness score to measure how incomplete the information content is in the mammography report and provide an algorithm to calculate this metric. We then show that the incompleteness score can be used to predict errors in interpretation. This method has 82.6% accuracy at predicting errors in interpretation and can possibly reduce total diagnostic errors by up to 21.7%. Such a method can easily be modified to suit other domains that depend on quality reporting.

  5. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C.-F.; Kiang, D.

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage.

  6. Incomplete use of condoms: the importance of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify associations between incomplete condom use (not using condoms from start to finish of sex) and sexual arousal variables. A convenience sample of heterosexual men (n = 761) completed a web-based questionnaire. Men who scored higher on sexual arousability were more likely to put a condom on after sex had begun (AOR = 1.58). Men who reported difficulty reaching orgasm were more likely to report removing condoms before sex was over (AOR = 2.08). These findings suggest that sexual arousal may be an important, and under-studied, factor associated with incomplete use of condoms.

  7. Incomplete and False Identification Distributions: Group Screening Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    AD-AO99 310 MARYLAND LUN1V COLLEGE PARK F/6 12/1 INCOMPLETE AND FALSE IDENTIFICATION DISTRIBUTIONS: GROUP SCREEN--ETC(U) MAY 8l S KOTZ. N L JOHNSON...present paper, we extend some of these results to the case of screeningw’mpling schemes. KeyWords and Phrases: group screening; binomial distribution...Johnson and Kotz (1981a). la) Incomplete identification. Consider a sample of size n without replacement from a lot of size N conforming X defective (or

  8. Mechanism of Concerted RNA-DNA Primer Synthesis by the Human Primosome.

    PubMed

    Baranovskiy, Andrey G; Babayeva, Nigar D; Zhang, Yinbo; Gu, Jianyou; Suwa, Yoshiaki; Pavlov, Youri I; Tahirov, Tahir H

    2016-05-06

    The human primosome, a 340-kilodalton complex of primase and DNA polymerase α (Polα), synthesizes chimeric RNA-DNA primers to be extended by replicative DNA polymerases δ and ϵ. The intricate mechanism of concerted primer synthesis by two catalytic centers was an enigma for over three decades. Here we report the crystal structures of two key complexes, the human primosome and the C-terminal domain of the primase large subunit (p58C) with bound DNA/RNA duplex. These structures, along with analysis of primase/polymerase activities, provide a plausible mechanism for all transactions of the primosome including initiation, elongation, accurate counting of RNA primer length, primer transfer to Polα, and concerted autoregulation of alternate activation/inhibition of the catalytic centers. Our findings reveal a central role of p58C in the coordinated actions of two catalytic domains in the primosome and ultimately could impact the design of anticancer drugs.

  9. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  10. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Gintautas, Vadas; Pepe, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  11. Concerted proton-coupled electron transfer from a metal-hydride complex.

    PubMed

    Bourrez, Marc; Steinmetz, Romain; Ott, Sascha; Gloaguen, Frederic; Hammarström, Leif

    2014-02-01

    Metal hydrides are key intermediates in the catalytic reduction of protons and CO2 as well as in the oxidation of H2. In these reactions, electrons and protons are transferred to or from separate acceptors or donors in bidirectional protoncoupled electron transfer (PCET) steps. The mechanistic interpretation of PCET reactions of metal hydrides has focused on the stepwise transfer of electrons and protons. A concerted transfer may, however, occur with a lower reaction barrier and therefore proceed at higher catalytic rates. Here we investigate the feasibility of such a reaction by studying the oxidation–deprotonation reactions of a tungsten hydride complex. The rate dependence on the driving force for both electron transfer and proton transfer—employing different combinations of oxidants and bases—was used to establish experimentally the concerted, bidirectional PCET of a metal-hydride species. Consideration of the findings presented here in future catalyst designs may lead to more-efficient catalysts.

  12. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  13. The Concert system - Compiler and runtime technology for efficient concurrent object-oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Andrew A.; Karamcheti, Vijay; Plevyak, John; Sahrawat, Deepak

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented languages, particularly fine-grained approaches, reduce the difficulty of large scale concurrent programming by providing modularity through encapsulation while exposing large degrees of concurrency. Despite these programmability advantages, such languages have historically suffered from poor efficiency. This paper describes the Concert project whose goal is to develop portable, efficient implementations of fine-grained concurrent object-oriented languages. Our approach incorporates aggressive program analysis and program transformation with careful information management at every stage from the compiler to the runtime system. The paper discusses the basic elements of the Concert approach along with a description of the potential payoffs. Initial performance results and specific plans for system development are also detailed.

  14. Endodontic and restorative management of incompletely fractured molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, J L; Rakusin, H

    1994-11-01

    The treatment of fractured teeth poses significant problems for the practitioner. However, once the treatment planning decision has been made to attempt to retain the tooth, various practical regimens are available to effect this goal. This paper addresses the specific use of glass ionomer in the restorative management of incompletely, vertically fractured molar teeth integrated with specific root canal treatment techniques.

  15. Robustness of shape descriptors to incomplete contour representations.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anarta; Petkov, Nicolai

    2005-11-01

    With inspiration from psychophysical researches of the human visual system, we propose a novel aspect and a method for performance evaluation of contour-based shape recognition algorithms regarding their robustness to incompleteness of contours. We use complete contour representations of objects as a reference (training) set. Incomplete contour representations of the same objects are used as a test set. The performance of an algorithm is reported using the recognition rate as a function of the percentage of contour retained. We call this evaluation procedure the ICR test. We consider three types of contour incompleteness, viz. segment-wise contour deletion, occlusion, and random pixel depletion. As an illustration, the robustness of two shape recognition algorithms to contour incompleteness is evaluated. These algorithms use a shape context and a distance multiset as local shape descriptors. Qualitatively, both algorithms mimic human visual perception in the sense that recognition performance monotonously increases with the degree of completeness and that they perform best in the case of random depletion and worst in the case of occluded contours. The distance multiset method performs better than the shape context method in this test framework.

  16. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  17. Computer Simulation of Incomplete-Data Interpretation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Douglas Frederick

    1987-01-01

    Described is a computer simulation that was used to help general education students enrolled in a large introductory geology course. The purpose of the simulation is to learn to interpret incomplete data. Students design a plan to collect bathymetric data for an area of the ocean. Procedures used by the students and instructor are included.…

  18. Gender under Incomplete Acquisition: Heritage Speakers' Knowledge of Noun Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinsky, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses a study of gender assignment (noun categorization) in heritage Russian and presents issues in the methodology of heritage language study. To anticipate the conclusions of this article, the gender assignment data presented argue for the systematicity of what emerges under incomplete acquisition. The system is different from its…

  19. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  20. Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P.

    1994-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but…

  2. An Interactive Approach to Analyzing Incomplete Multivariate Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mark R.

    This paper examines some of the problems that arise when conducting multivariate analyses with incomplete data. The literature on the effectiveness of several missing data procedures (MDP) is summarized. The most widely used MDPs are: (1) listwise deletion; (2) pairwise deletion; (3) variable mean; (4) correlational methods. No MDP should be used…

  3. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incomplete vehicles, classification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...

  4. Palladium(II)-catalyzed direct alkoxylation of arenes: evidence for solvent-assisted concerted metalation deprotonation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Megha; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2011-09-16

    Density functional theory investigations on the mechanism of palladium acetate catalyzed direct alkoxylation of N-methoxybenzamide in methanol reveal that the key steps involve solvent-assisted N-H as well as C-H bond activations. The transition state for the critical palladium-carbon bond formation through a concerted metalation deprotonation (CMD) process leading to a palladacycle intermediate has been found to be more stable in the methanol-assisted pathway as compared to an unassisted route.

  5. Collective motion of humans in mosh and circle pits at heavy metal concerts.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jesse L; Bierbaum, Matthew; Sethna, James P; Cohen, Itai

    2013-05-31

    Human collective behavior can vary from calm to panicked depending on social context. Using videos publicly available online, we study the highly energized collective motion of attendees at heavy metal concerts. We find these extreme social gatherings generate similarly extreme behaviors: a disordered gaslike state called a mosh pit and an ordered vortexlike state called a circle pit. Both phenomena are reproduced in flocking simulations demonstrating that human collective behavior is consistent with the predictions of simplified models.

  6. Collective Motion of Humans in Mosh and Circle Pits at Heavy Metal Concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse L.; Bierbaum, Matthew; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-05-01

    Human collective behavior can vary from calm to panicked depending on social context. Using videos publicly available online, we study the highly energized collective motion of attendees at heavy metal concerts. We find these extreme social gatherings generate similarly extreme behaviors: a disordered gaslike state called a mosh pit and an ordered vortexlike state called a circle pit. Both phenomena are reproduced in flocking simulations demonstrating that human collective behavior is consistent with the predictions of simplified models.

  7. The link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in Tremblaya princeps

    PubMed Central

    López-Madrigal, Sergio; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. The betaproteobacterium “Candidatus Tremblaya” maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which are classified in subfamilies Phenacoccinae and Pseudococcinae. Most Phenacoccinae mealybugs have “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola” as their unique endosymbiont, while most Pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed inside another one) where every “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” cell harbors several cells of a gammaproteobacterium. Genomic characterization of the endosymbiotic consortium from Planococcus citri, composed by “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia,” unveiled several atypical features of the former's genome, including the concerted evolution of paralogous loci. Its comparison with the genome of “Ca. Tremblaya phenacola” PAVE, single endosymbiont of Phenacoccus avenae, suggests that the atypical reductive evolution of “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” could be linked to the acquisition of “Ca. Moranella endobia,” which possess an almost complete set of genes encoding proteins involved in homologous recombination. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed comparative genomics between “Ca. Tremblaya phenacola” and “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” and searched for the co-occurrence of concerted evolution and homologous recombination genes in endosymbiotic consortia from four unexplored mealybug species, Dysmicoccus boninsis, Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus longispinus, and Pseudococcus viburni. Our results support a link between concerted evolution and nested endosymbiosis. PMID:26161080

  8. Disentangling preference ratings of concert hall acoustics using subjective sensory profiles.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari

    2012-11-01

    Subjective evaluation of acoustics was studied by recording nine concert halls with a simulated symphony orchestra on a seat 12 m from the orchestra. The recorded music was spatially reproduced for subjective listening tests and individual vocabulary profiling. In addition, the preferences of the assessors and objective parameters were gathered. The results show that concert halls were discriminated using perceptual characteristics, such as Envelopment/Loudness, Reverberance, Bassiness, Proximity, Definition, and Clarity. With these perceptual dimensions the preference ratings can be explained. Seventeen assessors were divided into two groups based on their preferences. The first group preferred concert halls with relatively intimate sound, in which it is quite easy to hear individual instruments and melody lines. In contrast, the second group preferred a louder and more reverberant sound with good envelopment and strong bass. Even though all halls were recorded exactly at the same distance, the preference is best explained with subjective Proximity and with Bassiness, Envelopment, and Loudness to some extent. Neither the preferences nor the subjective ratings could be fully explained by objective parameters (ISO3382-1:2009), although some correlations were found.

  9. Ethanol dehydration in HZSM-5 studied by density functional theory: evidence for a concerted process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonah; Robichaud, David J; Beckham, Gregg T; Paton, Robert S; Nimlos, Mark R

    2015-04-16

    Dehydration over acidic zeolites is an important reaction class for the upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors to hydrocarbon fuels or to precursors for myriad chemical products. Here, we examine the dehydration of ethanol at a Brønsted acid site, T12, found in HZSM-5 using density functional theory (DFT). The geometries of both cluster and mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM:MM) models are prepared from the ZSM-5 crystal structure. Comparisons between these models and different DFT methods are conducted to show similar results among the models and methods used. Inclusion of the full catalyst cavity through a QM:MM approach is found to be important, since activation barriers are computed on average as 7 kcal mol(-1) lower than those obtained with a smaller cluster model. Two different pathways, concerted and stepwise, have been considered when examining dehydration and deprotonation steps. The current study shows that a concerted dehydration process is possible with a lower (4-5 kcal mol(-1)) activation barrier while previous literature studies have focused on a stepwise mechanism. Overall, this work demonstrates that fairly high activation energies (∼50 kcal mol(-1)) are required for ethanol dehydration. A concerted mechanism is favored over a stepwise mechanism because charge separation in the transition state is minimized. QM:MM approaches appear to provide superior results to cluster calculations due to a more accurate representation of charges on framework oxygen atoms.

  10. LC-MS/MS determination of the isomeric neurotoxins BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) in cyanobacteria and seeds of Cycas revoluta and Lathyrus latifolius.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Thomas; Mönch, Bettina; Oppenhäuser, Steven; Luckas, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Since diverse taxa of cyanobacteria has been linked to biosynthesis of BMAA, a controversy has arisen about the detection of neurotoxic amino acids in cyanobacteria. In this context, a novel LC-MS/MS method was developed for the unambiguous determination of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) in cyanobacteria and selected plant seeds. Both neurotoxic and non-proteinogenic amino acids were analyzed without derivatization considering the total concentration of the free and protein-bound form. The investigation of overall 62 cyanobacterial samples of worldwide origin by application of this method revealed the absence of BMAA, whereas seeds of Cycas revoluta contained 6.96 microg g(-1) of free BMAA. In contrast, the isomer DAB was confirmed in 16 cyanobacterial samples in concentrations of 0.07-0.83 microg g(-1),whereof one sample is distributed as nutritional supplement. In addition, seeds of Lathyrus latifolius contained 4.21 microg g(-1) of free DAB. Limits of detection were for BMAA<1.0 microg g(-1) in the cyanobacterial matrix and<0.14 microg g(-1) in angiosperm seeds. DAB exhibits higher sensitivities of <0.06 microg g(-1) in cyanobacteria and <0.008 microg g(-1) in angiosperm seeds. The highly specific analysis method with increased detection sensitivity eliminates the disadvantages of derivatization-based methods to be discussed.

  11. Relationship Between Type of Bow Holding and Propagation of Performed Sound in Small Concert Hall in Violin Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2005-03-01

    The propagation of violin sound performed by eight amateur players was compared in the front and rear seats of a small concert hall. It was found that the propagation of the performed sound in the hall is different according to the type of bow holding of the players and the difference of the instrument. The relationship between the player and the instrument influences the listeners’ impressions in the concert hall. It is important to perform a sound that is adjusted to the characteristics of the concert hall to minimize the decrease in the sound level in the rear seats of the hall.

  12. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.

    PubMed

    Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard; Liston, Aaron

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

  13. Incomplete Stevens-Johnson syndrome secondary to atypical pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Anantharaman; Patel, Chiraush; Conlon, Christopher

    2011-10-04

    Steven-Johnson syndrome is a common condition characterised by erythematous target lesions on the skin and involvement of the oral mucosa, genitals and conjunctivae. It has been documented as one of the extra-pulmonary manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Recently, there has been several documentation of an incomplete presentation of this syndrome - without the typical rash but with mucosal, conjunctival and genital involvement. Our case illustrates that the incomplete Steven-Johnson syndrome may present with oral mucosal and conjunctival involvement alone without skin or genital involvement. This important clinical diagnosis should not be missed due to its atypical presentation. Treatment of Steven-Johnson syndrome remains supportive along with treating the underlying infection if recognised.

  14. Investigations on the Incompletely Developed Plane Diagonal-Tension Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1940-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation on the incompletely developed diagonal-tension field. Actual diagonal-tension beams work in an intermediate stage between pure shear and pure diagonal tension; the theory developed by wagner for diagonal tension is not directly applicable. The first part of the paper reviews the most essential items of the theory of pure diagonal tension as well as previous attempts to formulate a theory of incomplete diagonal tension. The second part of the paper describes strain measurement made by the N. A. C. A. to obtain the necessary coefficients for the proposed theory. The third part of the paper discusses the stress analysis of diagonal-tension beams by means of the proposed theory.

  15. Survey incompleteness and the evolution of the QSO luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Kron, Richard G.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Smetanka, John J.; Koo, David C.

    1993-01-01

    We concentrate on a type of QSO survey which depends on selecting QSO candidates based on combinations of colors. Since QSO's have emission lines and power-law continua, they are expected to yield broadband colors unlike those of stellar photospheres. Previously, the fraction of QSO's expected to be hiding (unselected) within the locus of stellar (U-J, J-F) colors was estimated at about 15 percent. We have now verified that the KK88 survey is at least 11 percent incomplete, but have determined that it may be as much as 34 percent incomplete. The 'missing' QSO's are expected to be predominantly at z less than or = 2.2. We have studied the proper motion and variability properties of all stellar objects with J less than or = 22.5 or F less than or = 21.5 in the SA 57 field which has previously been surveyed with a multicolor QSO search by KK88.

  16. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  17. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time‐dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data. PMID:27917593

  18. Noise effects on conflicting interest quantum games with incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, Haozhen; Huang, Zhiming; Zhang, Cai

    2016-09-01

    Noise effects can be harmful to quantum information systems. In the present paper, we study noise effects in the context of quantum games with incomplete information, which have more complicated structure than quantum games with complete information. The effects of several paradigmatic noises on three newly proposed conflicting interest quantum games with incomplete information are studied using numerical optimization method. Intuitively noises will bring down the payoffs. However, we find that in some situations the outcome of the games under the influence of noise effects are counter-intuitive. Sometimes stronger noise may lead to higher payoffs. Some properties of the game, like quantum advantage, fairness and equilibrium, are invulnerable to some kinds of noises.

  19. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2014-08-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest - essential in determining reward and penalty - is frequently an ambiguous task due to the incomplete (partially filled) nature of competition networks. Here we introduce the ``Natural Ranking,'' an unambiguous ranking method applicable to a round robin tournament, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula for inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in resolving important issues of ranking by applying it to real-world competition networks.

  20. Einstein's Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics (QM), not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and its systematic import. Though it should be kept in mind that the argument is not the one Einstein intends, I show how it suggests itself and leads to a conflict between QM's completeness and a physical principle more fundamental than the separation principle, i.e. a principle saying that QM should deliver probabilities for physical systems possessing properties at definite times.

  1. Contributions to the theory of incomplete tension bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schapitz, E

    1937-01-01

    The present report offers an approximate theory for the stress and deformation condition after buckling of the skin in reinforced panels and shells loaded in simple shear and compression and under combined stresses. The theory presents a unified scheme for stresses of these types. It is based upon the concept of a nonuniform stress distribution in the metal panel and its marked power of resistance against compressive stresses ("incomplete" tension bay).

  2. Distributed control systems with incomplete and uncertain information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingpeng

    Scientific and engineering advances in wireless communication, sensors, propulsion, and other areas are rapidly making it possible to develop unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with sophisticated capabilities. UAVs have come to the forefront as tools for airborne reconnaissance to search for, detect, and destroy enemy targets in relatively complex environments. They potentially reduce risk to human life, are cost effective, and are superior to manned aircraft for certain types of missions. It is desirable for UAVs to have a high level of intelligent autonomy to carry out mission tasks with little external supervision and control. This raises important issues involving tradeoffs between centralized control and the associated potential to optimize mission plans, and decentralized control with great robustness and the potential to adapt to changing conditions. UAV capabilities have been extended several ways through armament (e.g., Hellfire missiles on Predator UAVs), increased endurance and altitude (e.g., Global Hawk), and greater autonomy. Some known barriers to full-scale implementation of UAVs are increased communication and control requirements as well as increased platform and system complexity. One of the key problems is how UAV systems can handle incomplete and uncertain information in dynamic environments. Especially when the system is composed of heterogeneous and distributed UAVs, the overall system complexity is increased under such conditions. Presented through the use of published papers, this dissertation lays the groundwork for the study of methodologies for handling incomplete and uncertain information for distributed control systems. An agent-based simulation framework is built to investigate mathematical approaches (optimization) and emergent intelligence approaches. The first paper provides a mathematical approach for systems of UAVs to handle incomplete and uncertain information. The second paper describes an emergent intelligence approach for UAVs

  3. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation.

  4. Simulated data supporting inbreeding rate estimates from incomplete pedigrees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    This data release includes:(1) The data from simulations used to illustrate the behavior of inbreeding rate estimators. Estimating inbreeding rates is particularly difficult for natural populations because parentage information for many individuals may be incomplete. Our analyses illustrate the behavior of a newly-described inbreeding rate estimator that outperforms previously described approaches in the scientific literature.(2) Python source code ("analytical expressions", "computer simulations", and "empricial data set") that can be used to analyze these data.

  5. Reconstruction of Unilateral Incomplete Cryptophthalmos in Fraser Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ann Q; Lee, Bradford W; Alameddine, Ramzi M; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O

    2015-03-25

    A full-term baby girl with Fraser syndrome was born with right incomplete cryptophthalmos. On examination, the globe was completely covered with skin with partially formed eyelids laterally. At 3 years of age, she underwent an evisceration with orbital implant and reconstruction of the eyelids and fornices using the pre-existing scleral remnant. Custom ocular prosthetic fitting was performed 5 weeks postoperatively. At 4 years follow up, she continued to successfully retain an ocular prosthesis.

  6. 3D ultrasound image segmentation using multiple incomplete feature sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liexiang; Herrington, David M.; Santago, Peter, II

    1999-05-01

    We use three features, the intensity, texture and motion to obtain robust results for segmentation of intracoronary ultrasound images. Using a parameterized equation to describe the lumen-plaque and media-adventitia boundaries, we formulate the segmentation as a parameter estimation through a cost functional based on the posterior probability, which can handle the incompleteness of the features in ultrasound images by employing outlier detection.

  7. The effect of diffuse reflections on spatial discrimination in a simulated concert hall.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip; Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio

    2013-05-01

    This letter presents results from a study on diffusive architectural surfaces and auditory perception. Spatial discrimination of multiple sources is investigated in a simulated performance venue with various diffusive surface treatments. Simulations were generated with closely spaced sound sources on the stage of a concert hall and a listener in the audience area. Subjects were asked to distinguish signals in which pairs of simultaneous talkers were presented at various lateral separations, in halls with flat or diffusive surfaces. The experiments reveal that discriminating differences in the lateral arrangement of sources is possible at narrower separation angles when reflections come from flat rather than diffusive surfaces.

  8. Atom-by-Atom and Concerted Hopping of Adatom Pairs on an Open Metal Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bogicevic, A.; Ovesson, S.; Lundqvist, B.I.; Jennison, D.R.

    1999-08-25

    Atom-by-atom and concerted hopping of ad-dimers on the open (100) surface of fcc metals are studied by means of density-functional calculations. The adatom interaction is relatively short-ranged, and beyond next-nearest neighbors ad-dimers are effectively dissociated. Diffusion takes place by a simple shearing process, favored because it maximizes adatom coordination at the transition state This holds for Al, Au, and Rh, and is likely a general result because geometrical arguments dominate over details of the electronic structure.

  9. Beyond music: auditory temporary threshold shift in rock musicians after a heavy metal concert.

    PubMed

    Drake-Lee, A B

    1992-10-01

    Audiometry was undertaken before and within half an hour following a heavy metal concert to assess evidence of noise damage. Of the four members tested, one member wore an ear defender in his right ear during the period of noise exposure. All unprotected ears showed a temporary threshold shift which was maximum in the lower frequencies. There was some evidence that early noise damage had occurred with a dip at 6 kHz. The role of music as noise and its potential to damage the cochlea are discussed.

  10. A Coordinated Emergency Response: A Color Dust Explosion at a 2015 Concert in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, nearly 500 concert attendees suffered injuries from smoke inhalation and severe burns following a color-dust explosion at a waterpark in Taiwan. We report on the progressions of the incident and government responses, share cross-departmental mobilization and case management lessons, and reflect on clinical and complex policy issues emerged. The timely and coordinated emergency responses, a high-quality universal health care system, and dedicated clinicians voluntarily working overtime resulted in an unprecedented 2.4% mortality rate (international statistics predicted 26.8%). PMID:27459446

  11. Determination of the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of incompletely coupled fluxes. Stoichiometry of incompletely coupled reactions.

    PubMed

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    A rationale is formulated for the design of experiments to determine the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of any two incompletely coupled fluxes J1 and J2. Incomplete coupling results when there is a branch at some point in the sequence of reactions or processes coupling the two fluxes. The upper limit of the mechanistic stoichiometry is given by the minimum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are systematically varied by changes in steps after the branch point. The lower limit is given by the maximum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are varied by changes in steps prior to the branch point. The rationale for determining these limits is developed from both a simple kinetic model and from a linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic treatment of coupled fluxes, using the mechanistic approach [Westerhoff, H. V. & van Dam, K. (1979) Curr. Top. Bioenerg. 9, 1-62]. The phenomenological stoichiometry, the flux ratio at level flow and the affinity ratio at static head of incompletely coupled fluxes are defined in terms of mechanistic conductances and their relationship to the mechanistic stoichiometry is discussed. From the rationale developed, experimental approaches to determine the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are outlined. The principles employed do not require knowledge of the pathway or the rate of transmembrane leaks or slippage and may also be applied to analysis of the stoichiometry of other incompletely coupled systems, including vectorial H+/O and K+/O translocation coupled to mitochondrial electron transport.

  12. Bringing Astronomy Directly to New Audiences (50,000 People) at Outdoor Concerts and Music Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2014-07-01

    My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While < 50% of the participants took part in a science museum or activity in the past year (survey result), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). Taking science directly to people is effective in promoting science education!

  13. Extraordinary ribosomal spacer length heterogeneity in a neotyphodium endophyte hybrid: implications for concerted evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, A R; Scott, B

    1998-01-01

    An extraordinary level of length heterogeneity was found in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of an asexual hybrid Neotyphodium grass endophyte, isolate Lp1. This hybrid Neotyphodium endophyte is an interspecific hybrid between two grass endophytes, Neotyphodium lolii, and a sexual form, Epichlöe typhina, and the length heterogeneity was not found in either of these progenitor species. The length heterogeneity in the hybrid is localized to the intergenic spacer (IGS) and is the result of copy-number variation of a tandemly repeated subrepeat class within the IGS, the 111-/119-bp subrepeats. Copy number variation of this subrepeat class appears to be a consequence of mitotic unequal crossing over that occurs between these subrepeats. This implies that unequal crossing over plays a role in the concerted evolution of the whole rDNA. Changes in the pattern of IGS length variants occurred in just two rounds of single-spore purification. Analysis of the IGS length heterogeneity revealed features that are unexpected in a simple model of unequal crossing over. Potential refinements of the molecular details of unequal crossing over are presented, and we also discuss evidence for a combination of homogenization mechanisms that drive the concerted evolution of the Lp1 rDNA. PMID:9832538

  14. Concerted dihedral rotations give rise to internal friction in unfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Ignacia; Makarov, Dmitrii E; Papoian, Garegin A

    2014-06-18

    Protein chains undergo conformational diffusion during folding and dynamics, experiencing both thermal kicks and viscous drag. Recent experiments have shown that the corresponding friction can be separated into wet friction, which is determined by the solvent viscosity, and dry friction, where frictional effects arise due to the interactions within the protein chain. Despite important advances, the molecular origins underlying dry friction in proteins have remained unclear. To address this problem, we studied the dynamics of the unfolded cold-shock protein at different solvent viscosities and denaturant concentrations. Using extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations we estimated the internal friction time scales and found them to agree well with the corresponding experimental measurements (Soranno et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012, 109, 17800-17806). Analysis of the reconfiguration dynamics of the unfolded chain further revealed that hops in the dihedral space provide the dominant mechanism of internal friction. Furthermore, the increased number of concerted dihedral moves at physiological conditions suggest that, in such conditions, the concerted motions result in higher frictional forces. These findings have important implications for understanding the folding kinetics of proteins as well as the dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins.

  15. Extensive gene amplification and concerted evolution within the CPR family of cuticular proteins in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Cornman, R Scott; Willis, Judith H

    2008-06-01

    Annotation of the Anopheles gambiae genome has revealed a large increase in the number of genes encoding cuticular proteins with the Rebers and Riddiford Consensus (the CPR gene family) relative to Drosophila melanogaster. This increase reflects an expansion of the RR-2 group of CPR genes, particularly the amplification of sets of highly similar paralogs. Patterns of nucleotide variation indicate that extensive concerted evolution is occurring within these clusters. The pattern of concerted evolution is complex, however, as sequence similarity within clusters is uncorrelated with gene order and orientation, and no comparable clusters occur within similarly compact arrays of the RR-1 group in mosquitoes or in either group in D. melanogaster. The dearth of pseudogenes suggests that sequence clusters are maintained by selection for high gene-copy number, perhaps due to selection for high expression rates. This hypothesis is consistent with the apparently parallel evolution of compact gene architectures within sequence clusters relative to single-copy genes. We show that RR-2 proteins from sequence-cluster genes have complex repeats and extreme amino-acid compositions relative to single-copy CPR proteins in An. gambiae, and that the amino-acid composition of the N-terminal and C-terminal sequence flanking the chitin-binding consensus region evolves in a correlated fashion.

  16. Stepwise Versus Concerted Mechanisms in General-Base Catalysis by Serine Proteases.

    PubMed

    Uritsky, Neta; Shokhen, Michael; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-01-26

    General-base catalysis in serine proteases still poses mechanistic challenges despite decades of research. Whether proton transfer from the catalytic Ser to His and nucleophilic attack on the substrate are concerted or stepwise is still under debate, even for the classical Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad. To address these key catalytic steps, the transformation of the Michaelis complex to tetrahedral complex in the covalent inhibition of two prototype serine proteases was studied: chymotrypsin (with the catalytic triad) inhibition by a peptidyl trifluoromethane and GlpG rhomboid (with Ser-His dyad) inhibition by an isocoumarin derivative. The sampled MD trajectories of averaged pKa  values of catalytic residues were QM calculated by the MD-QM/SCRF(VS) method on molecular clusters simulating the active site. Differences between concerted and stepwise mechanisms are controlled by the dynamically changing pKa  values of the catalytic residues as a function of their progressively reduced water exposure, caused by the incoming ligand.

  17. Analysis of concert hall acoustics via visualizations of time-frequency and spatiotemporal responses.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2013-02-01

    Acousticians and other practitioners alike often describe acoustic conditions in performance spaces with standard objective parameters. Apart from a few exceptions, the parameters are calculated by integrating the sound energy of the impulse responses over time; this makes them inadequate for researching the acoustics in detail, especially in the early part of the room impulse response. This paper proposes a method based on time-frequency and spatiotemporal presentations to overcome the lack of detail in the standard analysis. In brief, the proposed methods visualize the cumulative development of the sound field as a function of frequency or direction by forward-integrating the energy in the impulse response in short time frames. Analysis on the measurements from six concert halls concentrates particularly on interpreting the results in light of the seat dip effect. Earlier research has concluded that the seat dip effect is reduced by reflection from low overhead surfaces. In contrast, the current results indicate that the seat dip attenuation in the frequency response is corrected the best when the hall provides most lateral reflections. These findings suggest that the proposed analysis is suitable for explaining concert hall acoustics in detail.

  18. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social

  19. Concerted Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondria of Species of the Flatfish Family Bothidae (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-He; Shi, Wei; Munroe, Thomas A; Gong, Li; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mitogenomes of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) exhibit the greatest diversity of gene rear-rangements in teleostean fishes. Duplicate control regions (CRs) have been found in the mito-genomes of two flatfishes, Samariscus latus (Samaridae) and Laeops lanceolata (Bothidae), which is rare in teleosts. It has been reported that duplicate CRs have evolved in a concerted fashion in fishes and other animals, however, whether concerted evo-lution exists in flatfishes remains unknown. In this study, based on five newly sequenced and six previously reported mitogenomes of lefteye flounders in the Bothidae, we explored whether duplicate CRs and concerted evolution exist in these species. Results based on the present study and previous reports show that four out of eleven bothid species examined have duplicate CRs of their mitogenomes. The core regions of the duplicate CRs of mitogenomes in the same species have identical, or nearly identical, sequences when compared to each other. This pattern fits the typical characteristics of concerted evolution. Additionally, phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis also provided evidence to support the hypothesis that duplicate CRs evolved concertedly. The core region of concerted evolution is situated at the conserved domains of the CR of the mitogenome from the termination associated sequences (TASs) to the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Commonly, this region is con-sidered to regulate mitochondrial replication and transcription. Thus, we hypothesize that the cause of concerted evolution of the duplicate CRs in the mtDNAs of these four bothids may be related to some function of the conserved sequences of the CRs during mitochondrial rep-lication and transcription. We hope our results will provide fresh insight into the molecular mechanisms related to replication and evolution of mitogenomes.

  20. Analytical Solution for Reactive Solute Transport Considering Incomplete Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellin, A.; Chiogna, G.

    2013-12-01

    The laboratory experiments of Gramling et al. (2002) showed that incomplete mixing at the pore scale exerts a significant impact on transport of reactive solutes and that assuming complete mixing leads to overestimation of product concentration in bimolecular reactions. We consider here the family of equilibrium reactions for which the concentration of the reactants and the product can be expressed as a function of the mixing ratio, the concentration of a fictitious non reactive solute. For this type of reactions we propose, in agreement with previous studies, to model the effect of incomplete mixing at scales smaller than the Darcy scale assuming that the mixing ratio is distributed within an REV according to a Beta distribution. We compute the parameters of the Beta model by imposing that the mean concentration is equal to the value that the concentration assumes at the continuum Darcy scale, while the variance decays with time as a power law. We show that our model reproduces the concentration profiles of the reaction product measured in the Gramling et al. (2002) experiments using the transport parameters obtained from conservative experiments and an instantaneous reaction kinetic. The results are obtained applying analytical solutions both for conservative and for reactive solute transport, thereby providing a method to handle the effect of incomplete mixing on multispecies reactive solute transport, which is simpler than other previously developed methods. Gramling, C. M., C. F. Harvey, and L. C. Meigs (2002), Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(11), 2508-2514.

  1. A Supernodal Approach to Incomplete LU Factorization with Partial Pivoting

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoye Sherry; Shao, Meiyue

    2009-06-25

    We present a new supernode-based incomplete LU factorization method to construct a preconditioner for solving sparse linear systems with iterative methods. The new algorithm is primarily based on the ILUTP approach by Saad, and we incorporate a number of techniques to improve the robustness and performance of the traditional ILUTP method. These include the new dropping strategies that accommodate the use of supernodal structures in the factored matrix. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate that our new method is competitive with the other ILU approaches and is well suited for today's high performance architectures.

  2. Bayesian model updating using incomplete modal data without mode matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates a new probabilistic strategy for model updating using incomplete modal data. A hierarchical Bayesian inference is employed to model the updating problem. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-work steps is used to draw parameter samples for uncertainty quantification. Mode matching between measured and predicted modal quantities is not required through model reduction. We employ an iterated improved reduced system technique for model reduction. The reduced model retains the dynamic features as close as possible to those of the model before reduction. The proposed algorithm is finally validated by an experimental example.

  3. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Napov, Artem

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  4. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Hua

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  5. Incompletely-Condensed Fluorinated Silsesquioxane: Synthesis and Crystal Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-29

    other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...ABSTRACT A recently developed sub-class of POSS, fluorinated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS), consists of a Si-O core with a periphery of...incompletely-condensed silsesquioxane, (CF3(CF2)7CH2CH2)8Si8O11(OH)2, has been synthesized via a multi-step synthesis (52% yield). The structure was

  6. A computer program for estimation from incomplete multinomial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    Coding is given for maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation of the vector p of multinomial cell probabilities from incomplete data. Also included is coding to calculate and approximate elements of the posterior mean and covariance matrices. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the Control Data CYBER 170 series digital computer system with network operating system (NOS) 1.1. The program requires approximately 44000 octal locations of core storage. A typical case requires from 72 seconds to 92 seconds on CYBER 175 depending on the value of the prior parameter.

  7. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  8. Chronic incomplete atrioventricular block induced by radiofrequency catheter ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.K.; Bharati, S.; Graham, A.R.; Gorman, G.; Lev, M. )

    1989-10-01

    To determine if catheter ablation of the atrioventricular (AV) junction with radiofrequency energy can induce chronic incomplete (first- and second-degree) AV block to avoid the need for a permanent pacemaker, 20 closed-chest dogs were studied. Group 1 (10 dogs) received radiofrequency energy (750 kHz) with a fixed power setting (5 or 10 W) while increasing the pulse duration from 10 to 50 seconds for each application. Group 2 (10 dogs) received energy with a fixed pulse duration (20 or 30 seconds) while increasing the power setting from 5 to 10 W or from 10 to 20 W during each energy delivery. Radiofrequency energy was delivered between a chest-patch electrode and the distal electrode of a regular 7F tripolar His bundle catheter. For each application, the energy delivery was interrupted when (1) the PR interval prolonged (greater than 50%) or (2) second-degree or complete AV block occurred and persisted up to 5 seconds. The ablation procedure ended when there was (1) persistent PR prolongation (greater than 50%) or persistent second-degree AV block (lasting greater than 30 minutes) after ablation, (2) occurrence of two consecutive transient (less than 1 minute) complete AV blocks after each energy delivery, or (3) complete AV block (lasting greater than 2 minutes) after ablation. Of seven dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which incomplete AV block was achieved 1 hour after the procedure, six in group 1 and five in group 2 remained in incomplete AV block 2-3 months after ablation. One dog in group 1 progressed into complete AV block. Of the remaining three dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which complete AV block was initially achieved 1 hour after ablation, two in group 1 and four in group 2 continued to have complete AV block, whereas one in each group had AV conduction returned to incomplete at 1-2 months of follow-up.

  9. Uniform Asymptotic Expansion for the Incomplete Beta Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemes, Gergő; Olde Daalhuis, Adri B.

    2016-10-01

    In [Temme N.M., Special functions. An introduction to the classical functions of mathematical physics, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996, Section 11.3.3.1] a uniform asymptotic expansion for the incomplete beta function was derived. It was not obvious from those results that the expansion is actually an asymptotic expansion. We derive a remainder estimate that clearly shows that the result indeed has an asymptotic property, and we also give a recurrence relation for the coefficients.

  10. Incomplete exponential sums and Diffie-Hellman triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, William D.; Friedlander, John B.; Konyagin, Sergei V.; Shparlinski, Igor E.

    2006-03-01

    Let p be a prime and vartheta an integer of order t in the multiplicative group modulo p. In this paper, we continue the study of the distribution of Diffie-Hellman triples (vartheta(x,) vartheta(y,) vartheta(xy) ) by considering the closely related problem of estimating exponential sums formed from linear combinations of the entries in such triples. We show that the techniques developed earlier for complete sums can be combined, modified and developed further to treat incomplete sums as well. Our bounds imply uniformity of distribution results for Diffie-Hellman triples as the pair (x,y) varies over small boxes.

  11. Incomplete optical shielding in cold sodium atom traps

    SciTech Connect

    Yurovsky, Vladimir; Ben-Reuven, Abraham

    1997-01-05

    A simple two-channel model, based on the semiclassical Landau-Zener (LZ) approximation, with averaging over angle-dependent exponents, is proposed as a fast means for accounting for the incomplete optical shielding of collisions, as observed in recent experiments conducted by Weiner and co-workers on ultracold sodium-atom traps, and its dependence on the laser polarization. The model yields a reasonably good agreement with the recent quantum close-coupling calculations of Julienne and co-workers. The remaining discrepancy between both theories and the data is qualitatively attributed to a partial overlap of the collision ranges at which loss processes and optical shielding occur.

  12. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*

    PubMed Central

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  13. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  14. Observable Priors: Limiting Biases in Estimated Parameters for Incomplete Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmo, Kelly; Martinez, Gregory; Hees, Aurelien; Witzel, Gunther; Ghez, Andrea M.; Do, Tuan; Sitarski, Breann; Chu, Devin; Dehghanfar, Arezu

    2017-01-01

    Over twenty years of monitoring stellar orbits at the Galactic center has provided an unprecedented opportunity to study the physics and astrophysics of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. In order to constrain the mass of and distance to the black hole, and to evaluate its gravitational influence on orbiting bodies, we use Bayesian statistics to infer black hole and stellar orbital parameters from astrometric and radial velocity measurements of stars orbiting the central SMBH. Unfortunately, most of the short period stars in the Galactic center have periods much longer than our twenty year time baseline of observations, resulting in incomplete orbital phase coverage--potentially biasing fitted parameters. Using the Bayesian statistical framework, we evaluate biases in the black hole and orbital parameters of stars with varying phase coverage, using various prior models to fit the data. We present evidence that incomplete phase coverage of an orbit causes prior assumptions to bias statistical quantities, and propose a solution to reduce these biases for orbits with low phase coverage. The explored solution assumes uniformity in the observables rather than in the inferred model parameters, as is the current standard method of orbit fitting. Of the cases tested, priors that assume uniform astrometric and radial velocity observables reduce the biases in the estimated parameters. The proposed method will not only improve orbital estimates of stars orbiting the central SMBH, but can also be extended to other orbiting bodies with low phase coverage such as visual binaries and exoplanets.

  15. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. Results In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different levels. Conclusions In doing so, we identify the most relevant factors affecting the validity of previous findings, highlighting important caveats to future prokaryotic TRNs topological analysis. PMID:22920968

  16. Incomplete oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in chemical oxygen demand analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James E; Mueller, Sherry A; Kim, Byung R

    2007-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was found to incompletely oxidize in chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis, leading to incorrect COD values for water samples containing relatively large amounts of EDTA. The degree of oxidation depended on the oxidant used, its concentration, and the length of digestion. The COD concentrations measured using COD vials with a potassium dichromate concentration of 0.10 N (after dilution by sample and sulfuric acid) were near theoretical oxygen demand values. However, COD measured with dichromate concentrations of 0.010 N and 0.0022 N were 30 to 40% lower than theoretical oxygen demand values. Similarly, lower COD values were observed with manganic sulfate as oxidant at 0.011 N. Extended digestion yielded somewhat higher COD values, suggesting incomplete and slower oxidation of EDTA, as a result of lower oxidant concentrations. For wastewater in which EDTA is a large fraction of COD, accurate COD measurement may not be achieved with methods using dichromate concentrations less than 0.1 N.

  17. Analysis of recurrent event data with incomplete observation gaps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Jin; Jhun, Myoungshic

    2008-03-30

    In analysis of recurrent event data, recurrent events are not completely experienced when the terminating event occurs before the end of a study. To make valid inference of recurrent events, several methods have been suggested for accommodating the terminating event (Statist. Med. 1997; 16:911-924; Biometrics 2000; 56:554-562). In this paper, our interest is to consider a particular situation, where intermittent dropouts result in observation gaps during which no recurrent events are observed. In this situation, risk status varies over time and the usual definition of risk variable is not applicable. In particular, we consider the case when information on the observation gap is incomplete, that is, the starting time of intermittent dropout is known but the terminating time is not available. This incomplete information is modeled in terms of an interval-censored mechanism. Our proposed method is applied to the study of the Young Traffic Offenders Program on conviction rates, wherein a certain proportion of subjects experienced suspensions with intermittent dropouts during the study.

  18. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  19. Semiparametric pseudoscore for regression with multidimensional but incompletely observed regressor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zonghui; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean

    2017-02-16

    We study the regression fβ (Y|X,Z), where Y is the response, Z∈Rd is a vector of fully observed regressors and X is the regressor with incomplete observation. To handle missing data, maximum likelihood estimation via expectation-maximisation (EM) is the most efficient but is sensitive to the specification of the distribution of X. Under a missing at random assumption, we propose an EM-type estimation via a semiparametric pseudoscore. Like in EM, we derive the conditional expectation of the score function given Y and Z, or the mean score, over the incompletely observed units under a postulated distribution of X. Instead of directly using the 'mean score' in estimating equation, we use it as a working index to construct the semiparametric pseudoscore via nonparametric regression. Introduction of semiparametric pseudoscore into the EM framework reduces sensitivity to the specified distribution of X. It also avoids the curse of dimensionality when Z is multidimensional. The resulting regression estimator is more than doubly robust: it is consistent if either the pattern of missingness in X is correctly specified or the working index is appropriately, but not necessarily correctly, specified. It attains optimal efficiency when both conditions are satisfied. Numerical performance is explored by Monte Carlo simulations and a study on treating hepatitis C patients with HIV coinfection. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Evolution of dinoflagellate unigenic minicircles and the partially concerted divergence of their putative replicon origins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoduo; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Green, Beverley R

    2002-04-01

    Dinoflagellate chloroplast genes are unique in that each gene is on a separate minicircular chromosome. To understand the origin and evolution of this exceptional genomic organization we completely sequenced chloroplast psbA and 23S rRNA gene minicircles from four dinoflagellates: three closely related Heterocapsa species (H. pygmaea, H. rotundata, and H. niei) and the very distantly related Amphidinium carterae. We also completely sequenced a Protoceratium reticulatum minicircle with a 23S rRNA gene of novel structure. Comparison of these minicircles with those previously sequenced from H. triquetra and A. operculatum shows that in addition to the single gene all have noncoding regions of approximately a kilobase, which are likely to include a replication origin, promoter, and perhaps segregation sequences. The noncoding regions always have a high potential for folding into hairpins and loops. In all six dinoflagellate strains for which multiple minicircles are fully sequenced, parts of the noncoding regions, designated cores, are almost identical between the psbA and 23S rRNA minicircles, but the remainder is very different. There are two, three, or four cores per circle, sometimes highly related in sequence, but no sequence identity is detectable between cores of different species, even within one genus. This contrast between very high core conservation within a species, but none among species, indicates that cores are diverging relatively rapidly in a concerted manner. This is the first well-established case of concerted evolution of noncoding regions on numerous separate chromosomes. It differs from concerted evolution among tandemly repeated spacers between rRNA genes, and that of inverted repeats in plant chloroplast genomes, in involving only the noncoding DNA cores. We present two models for the origin of chloroplast gene minicircles in dinoflagellates from a typical ancestral multigenic chloroplast genome. Both involve substantial genomic reduction and

  1. An analysis of concert saxophone vibrato through the examination of recordings by eight prominent soloists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinninger, Thomas

    This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.

  2. Efficacy of role play in concert with lecture to enhance student learning of immunology.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Samantha L

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.

  3. Several posttranslational modifications act in concert to regulate gephyrin scaffolding and GABAergic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Himanish; Auguadri, Luca; Battaglia, Sereina; Simone Thirouin, Zahra; Zemoura, Khaled; Messner, Simon; Acuña, Mario A.; Wildner, Hendrik; Yévenes, Gonzalo E.; Dieter, Andrea; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; O. Hottiger, Michael; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.

    2016-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate the majority of fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain via synergistic association with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin and its interaction partners. However, unlike their counterparts at glutamatergic synapses, gephyrin and its binding partners lack canonical protein interaction motifs; hence, the molecular basis for gephyrin scaffolding has remained unclear. In this study, we identify and characterize two new posttranslational modifications of gephyrin, SUMOylation and acetylation. We demonstrate that crosstalk between SUMOylation, acetylation and phosphorylation pathways regulates gephyrin scaffolding. Pharmacological intervention of SUMO pathway or transgenic expression of SUMOylation-deficient gephyrin variants rescued gephyrin clustering in CA1 or neocortical neurons of Gabra2-null mice, which otherwise lack gephyrin clusters, indicating that gephyrin SUMO modification is an essential determinant for scaffolding at GABAergic synapses. Together, our results demonstrate that concerted modifications on a protein scaffold by evolutionarily conserved yet functionally diverse signalling pathways facilitate GABAergic transmission. PMID:27819299

  4. Concerted hydrogen-bond breaking by quantum tunneling in the water hexamer prism.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jeremy O; Pérez, Cristóbal; Lobsiger, Simon; Reid, Adam A; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Wales, David J; Pate, Brooks H; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2016-03-18

    The nature of the intermolecular forces between water molecules is the same in small hydrogen-bonded clusters as in the bulk. The rotational spectra of the clusters therefore give insight into the intermolecular forces present in liquid water and ice. The water hexamer is the smallest water cluster to support low-energy structures with branched three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks, rather than cyclic two-dimensional topologies. Here we report measurements of splitting patterns in rotational transitions of the water hexamer prism, and we used quantum simulations to show that they result from geared and antigeared rotations of a pair of water molecules. Unlike previously reported tunneling motions in water clusters, the geared motion involves the concerted breaking of two hydrogen bonds. Similar types of motion may be feasible in interfacial and confined water.

  5. Is the Beckmann rearrangement a concerted or stepwise reaction? A computational study.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Shinichi; Tsuchida, Noriko; Yamazaki, Shoko

    2005-12-23

    [reaction: see text] RB3LYP calculations were performed on the Beckman rearrangement by the use of three substrates, acetone oxime (1), acetophenone oxime (2), and cyclohexanone oxime (3). Acidic solvents were modeled by H+ (CH3COOH)3 and H3O+ (H2O)6, and reaction paths were determined precisely. For 1, a two-step process involving a sigma-type cationic complex was obtained. For 2, a three-step process with pi- and sigma-type complexes was found in H+ (CH3COOH)3 and a two-step process involving a sigma-type cationic complex was obtained in H3O+ (H2O)6. However, for 3, a concerted process without pi and sigma complexes was calculated, which leads to the product, epsilon-caprolactam. Three different mechanisms were explained in terms of FMO theory.

  6. An Efficient Algorithm to Perform Local Concerted Movements of a Chain Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Zamuner, Stefano; Rodriguez, Alex; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the “local backbone volume”, related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations. PMID:25825903

  7. State-resolved imaging of CO from propenal photodissociation: Signatures of concerted three-body dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Arghya; Fernando, Ravin; Suits, Arthur G.

    2014-04-21

    State-selected DC sliced images of propenal photodissociation show clear signatures of a novel synchronous concerted three-body dissociation of propenal recently proposed by Lee and co-workers to give C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + H{sub 2} + CO [S. H. Lee, C. H. Chin, C. Chaudhuri, ChemPhysChem 12, 753 (2011)]. Unlike any prior example of a concerted 3-body dissociation event, this mechanism involves breaking three distinct bonds and yields 3 distinct molecules. DC sliced images of CO fragments were recorded for a range of rotational levels for both v = 0 and v = 1. The results show formation of two distinct CO product channels having dissimilar translational energy distributions with characteristic rovibrational state distributions. The images for CO (v = 0) show a large contribution of slower CO fragments at lower rotational levels (J = 5–25). This slow component is completely absent from the v = 1 CO images. The images for the higher rotational levels of the v = 0 and v = 1 CO are nearly identical, and this provides a basis for decomposing the two channels for v = 0. The quantum state and translational energy distributions for the slow channel are readily assigned to the 3-body dissociation based on the properties of the transition state. The faster CO fragments dominating the higher rotational levels in both v = 0 and v = 1 are attributed to formation of CH{sub 3}CH + CO, also in agreement with the inferences based on previous non-state-resolved measurements with supporting theoretical calculations.

  8. Detecting concerted demographic response across community assemblages using hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yvonne L; Schanzenbach, David; Hickerson, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Methods that integrate population-level sampling from multiple taxa into a single community-level analysis are an essential addition to the comparative phylogeographic toolkit. Detecting how species within communities have demographically tracked each other in space and time is important for understanding the effects of future climate and landscape changes and the resulting acceleration of extinctions, biological invasions, and potential surges in adaptive evolution. Here, we present a statistical framework for such an analysis based on hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) with the goal of detecting concerted demographic histories across an ecological assemblage. Our method combines population genetic data sets from multiple taxa into a single analysis to estimate: 1) the proportion of a community sample that demographically expanded in a temporally clustered pulse and 2) when the pulse occurred. To validate the accuracy and utility of this new approach, we use simulation cross-validation experiments and subsequently analyze an empirical data set of 32 avian populations from Australia that are hypothesized to have expanded from smaller refugia populations in the late Pleistocene. The method can accommodate data set heterogeneity such as variability in effective population size, mutation rates, and sample sizes across species and exploits the statistical strength from the simultaneous analysis of multiple species. This hABC framework used in a multitaxa demographic context can increase our understanding of the impact of historical climate change by determining what proportion of the community responded in concert or independently and can be used with a wide variety of comparative phylogeographic data sets as biota-wide DNA barcoding data sets accumulate.

  9. Complete Genome Viral Phylogenies Suggests the Concerted Evolution of Regulatory Cores and Accessory Satellites

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo Marinho; Krakauer, David C.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the concerted evolution of viral genomes in four families of DNA viruses. Given the high rate of horizontal gene transfer among viruses and their hosts, it is an open question as to how representative particular genes are of the evolutionary history of the complete genome. To address the concerted evolution of viral genes, we compared genomic evolution across four distinct, extant viral families. For all four viral families we constructed DNA-dependent DNA polymerase-based (DdDp) phylogenies and in addition, whole genome sequence, as quantitative descriptions of inter-genome relationships. We found that the history of the polymerase gene was highly predictive of the history of the genome as a whole, which we explain in terms of repeated, co-divergence events of the core DdDp gene accompanied by a number of satellite, accessory genetic loci. We also found that the rate of gene gain in baculovirus and poxviruses proceeds significantly more quickly than the rate of gene loss and that there is convergent acquisition of satellite functions promoting contextual adaptation when distinct viral families infect related hosts. The congruence of the genome and polymerase trees suggests that a large set of viral genes, including polymerase, derive from a phylogenetically conserved core of genes of host origin, secondarily reinforced by gene acquisition from common hosts or co-infecting viruses within the host. A single viral genome can be thought of as a mutualistic network, with the core genes acting as an effective host and the satellite genes as effective symbionts. Larger virus genomes show a greater departure from linkage equilibrium between core and satellites functions. PMID:18941535

  10. Detecting Concerted Demographic Response across Community Assemblages Using Hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yvonne L.; Schanzenbach, David; Hickerson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Methods that integrate population-level sampling from multiple taxa into a single community-level analysis are an essential addition to the comparative phylogeographic toolkit. Detecting how species within communities have demographically tracked each other in space and time is important for understanding the effects of future climate and landscape changes and the resulting acceleration of extinctions, biological invasions, and potential surges in adaptive evolution. Here, we present a statistical framework for such an analysis based on hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) with the goal of detecting concerted demographic histories across an ecological assemblage. Our method combines population genetic data sets from multiple taxa into a single analysis to estimate: 1) the proportion of a community sample that demographically expanded in a temporally clustered pulse and 2) when the pulse occurred. To validate the accuracy and utility of this new approach, we use simulation cross-validation experiments and subsequently analyze an empirical data set of 32 avian populations from Australia that are hypothesized to have expanded from smaller refugia populations in the late Pleistocene. The method can accommodate data set heterogeneity such as variability in effective population size, mutation rates, and sample sizes across species and exploits the statistical strength from the simultaneous analysis of multiple species. This hABC framework used in a multitaxa demographic context can increase our understanding of the impact of historical climate change by determining what proportion of the community responded in concert or independently and can be used with a wide variety of comparative phylogeographic data sets as biota-wide DNA barcoding data sets accumulate. PMID:24925925

  11. An efficient algorithm to perform local concerted movements of a chain molecule.

    PubMed

    Zamuner, Stefano; Rodriguez, Alex; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the "local backbone volume", related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations.

  12. Complete genome viral phylogenies suggests the concerted evolution of regulatory cores and accessory satellites.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo Marinho; Krakauer, David C

    2008-01-01

    We consider the concerted evolution of viral genomes in four families of DNA viruses. Given the high rate of horizontal gene transfer among viruses and their hosts, it is an open question as to how representative particular genes are of the evolutionary history of the complete genome. To address the concerted evolution of viral genes, we compared genomic evolution across four distinct, extant viral families. For all four viral families we constructed DNA-dependent DNA polymerase-based (DdDp) phylogenies and in addition, whole genome sequence, as quantitative descriptions of inter-genome relationships. We found that the history of the polymerase gene was highly predictive of the history of the genome as a whole, which we explain in terms of repeated, co-divergence events of the core DdDp gene accompanied by a number of satellite, accessory genetic loci. We also found that the rate of gene gain in baculovirus and poxviruses proceeds significantly more quickly than the rate of gene loss and that there is convergent acquisition of satellite functions promoting contextual adaptation when distinct viral families infect related hosts. The congruence of the genome and polymerase trees suggests that a large set of viral genes, including polymerase, derive from a phylogenetically conserved core of genes of host origin, secondarily reinforced by gene acquisition from common hosts or co-infecting viruses within the host. A single viral genome can be thought of as a mutualistic network, with the core genes acting as an effective host and the satellite genes as effective symbionts. Larger virus genomes show a greater departure from linkage equilibrium between core and satellites functions.

  13. Spectral ordering techniques for incomplete LU preconditoners for CG methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clift, Simon S.; Simon, Horst D.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of an incomplete LU (ILU) factorization as a preconditioner for the conjugate gradient method can be highly dependent on the ordering of the matrix rows during its creation. Detailed justification for two heuristics commonly used in matrix ordering for anisotropic problems is given. The bandwidth reduction and weak connection following heuristics are implemented through an ordering method based on eigenvector computations. This spectral ordering is shown to be a good representation of the heuristics. Analysis and test cases in two and three dimensional diffusion problems demonstrate when ordering is important, and when an ILU decomposition will be ordering insensitive. The applicability of the heuristics is thus evaluated and placed on a more rigorous footing.

  14. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  15. The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Radde, Rebecca; Duma, Cecilia; Goedert, Michel; Jucker, Mathias

    2008-03-01

    To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of Abeta42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral beta-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging.

  16. Multirate control with incomplete information over Profibus-DP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, J.; Casanova, V.; Cuenca, A.; Pizá, R.

    2014-07-01

    When a process field bus-decentralized peripherals (Profibus-DP) network is used in an industrial environment, a deterministic behaviour is usually claimed. However, due to some concerns such as bandwidth limitations, lack of synchronisation among different clocks and existence of time-varying delays, a more complex problem must be faced. This problem implies the transmission of irregular and, even, random sequences of incomplete information. The main consequence of this issue is the appearance of different sampling periods at different network devices. In this paper, this aspect is checked by means of a detailed Profibus-DP timescale study. In addition, in order to deal with the different periods, a delay-dependent dual-rate proportional-integral-derivative control is introduced. Stability for the proposed control system is analysed in terms of linear matrix inequalities.

  17. Iterative reconstruction of images from incomplete spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhebergen, Jan B.; van den Berg, Peter M.; Habashy, Tarek M.

    1997-06-01

    In various branches of engineering and science, one is confronted with measurements resulting in incomplete spectral data. The problem of the reconstruction of an image from such a data set can be formulated in terms of an integral equation of the first kind. Consequently, this equation can be converted into an equivalent integral equation of the second kind which can be solved by a Neumann-type iterative method. It is shown that this Neumann expansion is an error-reducing method and that it is equivalent to the Papoulis - Gerchberg algorithm for band-limited signal extrapolation. The integral equation can also be solved by employing a conjugate gradient iterative scheme. Again, convergence of this scheme is demonstrated. Finally a number of illustrative numerical examples are presented and discussed.

  18. Traumatic vertebral artery dissection presenting with incomplete congruous homonymous quadrantanopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To describe a rare presentation of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) as a small but congruous incomplete homonymous hemianopia demonstrating use of visual field testing in the diagnosis. Case presentation A 30 year old woman had been unwell for 4 months with difficulty focusing, vertigo, dizziness and a feeling of falling to the right. A small but congruous right inferior homonymous quadrantanopia was found on examination leading to further investigation that uncovered a vertebral artery dissection and multiple posterior circulation infarctions including a left occipital stroke matching the field defect. Conclusions We describe an atypical case of VAD presenting with a small congruous quadrantanopia. This is a rare but significant condition that predisposes to multiple thromboembolic infarction that may be easily misdiagnosed and a high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis. PMID:20482837

  19. Incomplete Lineage Sorting Is Common in Extant Gibbon Genera

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis. PMID:23341974

  20. Classification with Incomplete Data Using Dirichlet Process Priors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunping; Liao, Xuejun; Carin, Lawrence; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    A non-parametric hierarchical Bayesian framework is developed for designing a classifier, based on a mixture of simple (linear) classifiers. Each simple classifier is termed a local “expert”, and the number of experts and their construction are manifested via a Dirichlet process formulation. The simple form of the “experts” allows analytical handling of incomplete data. The model is extended to allow simultaneous design of classifiers on multiple data sets, termed multi-task learning, with this also performed non-parametrically via the Dirichlet process. Fast inference is performed using variational Bayesian (VB) analysis, and example results are presented for several data sets. We also perform inference via Gibbs sampling, to which we compare the VB results. PMID:23990757

  1. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  2. Incomplete rotational cooling in a 22-pole ion trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, E. S.; Egger, G.; Lee, S.; Lakhmanskaya, O.; Simpson, M.; Wester, R.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogenic 22-pole ion traps have found many applications in ion-molecule reaction kinetics and in high resolution molecular spectroscopy. For most of these applications it is important to know the translational and internal temperatures of the trapped ions. Here, we present detailed rotational state thermometry measurements over an extended temperature range for hydroxyl anions in He, HD, and H2. The measured rotational temperatures show a termination of the thermalisation with the buffer gas around 25 K, independent of mass ratio and confinement potential of the trap. Different possible explanations for this incomplete thermalisation are discussed, among them the thermalisation of the buffer gas, room temperature blackbody radiation or warm gas entering the trap, and heating due to energy transfer from rotationally excited hydrogen molecules.

  3. Corrected profile likelihood confidence interval for binomial paired incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Vivek; Menon, Sandeep; Das, Ujjwal

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials often use paired binomial data as their clinical endpoint. The confidence interval is frequently used to estimate the treatment performance. Tang et al. (2009) have proposed exact and approximate unconditional methods for constructing a confidence interval in the presence of incomplete paired binary data. The approach proposed by Tang et al. can be overly conservative with large expected confidence interval width (ECIW) in some situations. We propose a profile likelihood-based method with a Jeffreys' prior correction to construct the confidence interval. This approach generates confidence interval with a much better coverage probability and shorter ECIWs. The performances of the method along with the corrections are demonstrated through extensive simulation. Finally, three real world data sets are analyzed by all the methods. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) codes to execute the profile likelihood-based methods are also presented.

  4. Pericardio-Amniotic Shunting for Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell.

    PubMed

    Engels, Alexander C; Debeer, Anne; Russo, Francesca M; Aertsen, Michael; Aerts, Katleen; Miserez, Marc; Deprest, Jan; Lewi, Liesbeth; Devlieger, Roland

    2017-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, presented with an incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell with an omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, and a pericardial defect at 32 weeks' gestation. A large pericardial effusion compressed the lungs and had led to a reduced lung growth with an observed-to-expected total lung volume of 28% as measured by MRI. The effusion disappeared completely after the insertion of a pericardio-amniotic shunt at 33 weeks. After birth, the newborn showed no signs of pulmonary hypoplasia and underwent a surgical correction of the defect. Protracted wound healing and a difficult withdrawal from opioids complicated the neonatal period. The child was discharged on postnatal day 105 in good condition. This case demonstrates that in case of Pentalogy of Cantrell with large pericardial effusion, the perinatal outcome might be improved by pericardio-amniotic shunting.

  5. A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware.

  6. Quantum Tomography from Incomplete Data via MaxEnt Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bužek, Vladimír

    We show how the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle can be efficiently used for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from incomplete tomographic data. This MaxEnt reconstruction scheme can be in specific cases several orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard inverse Radon transformation or the reconstruction via direct sampling using pattern functions. We apply the MaxEnt algorithm for a reconstruction of motional quantum states of neutral atoms. As an example we analyze the experimental data obtained by the group of C. Salomon at the ENS in Paris and we reconstruct Wigner functions of motional quantum states of Cs atoms trapped in an optical lattice. We also reconstruct Wigner functions of a cavity field based on a measurement of the parity operator. We analyze in detail experimental data obtained by the group of S. Haroche at the ENS in Paris.

  7. Incomplete lineage sorting is common in extant gibbon genera.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Kim, Sung K; Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R; de Jong, Pieter J; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis.

  8. Missing... presumed at random: cost-analysis of incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Andrew; Clark, Taane; Wolstenholme, Jane; Clarke, Philip

    2003-05-01

    When collecting patient-level resource use data for statistical analysis, for some patients and in some categories of resource use, the required count will not be observed. Although this problem must arise in most reported economic evaluations containing patient-level data, it is rare for authors to detail how the problem was overcome. Statistical packages may default to handling missing data through a so-called 'complete case analysis', while some recent cost-analyses have appeared to favour an 'available case' approach. Both of these methods are problematic: complete case analysis is inefficient and is likely to be biased; available case analysis, by employing different numbers of observations for each resource use item, generates severe problems for standard statistical inference. Instead we explore imputation methods for generating 'replacement' values for missing data that will permit complete case analysis using the whole data set and we illustrate these methods using two data sets that had incomplete resource use information.

  9. Analysis of incomplete longitudinal binary data using multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Mehrotra, Devan V; Barnard, John

    2006-06-30

    We propose a propensity score-based multiple imputation (MI) method to tackle incomplete missing data resulting from drop-outs and/or intermittent skipped visits in longitudinal clinical trials with binary responses. The estimation and inferential properties of the proposed method are contrasted via simulation with those of the commonly used complete-case (CC) and generalized estimating equations (GEE) methods. Three key results are noted. First, if data are missing completely at random, MI can be notably more efficient than the CC and GEE methods. Second, with small samples, GEE often fails due to 'convergence problems', but MI is free of that problem. Finally, if the data are missing at random, while the CC and GEE methods yield results with moderate to large bias, MI generally yields results with negligible bias. A numerical example with real data is provided for illustration.

  10. Reaction of Chlorosulfonyl Isocyanate (CSI) with Fluorosubstituted Alkenes: Evidence of a Concerted Pathway for Reaction of CSI with Fluorosubstituted Alkenes (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    ABSTRACT Concerted reactions are indicated for the electrophilic addition of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate with monofluoroalkenes. A vinyl fluorine atom on...SO2Cl R F O ‡ N SO2Cl F R O Abstract: Concerted reactions are indicated for the electrophilic addition of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate with...monofluoroalkenes. A vinyl fluorine atom on an alkene raises the energy of a step-wise transition state more than the energy of the competing concerted

  11. Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci

  12. Sound Pressure Levels Measured in a University Concert Band: A Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nicholas V., III

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have reported public school band directors as experiencing noise-induced hearing loss. Little research has focused on collegiate band directors and university student musicians. The present study measures the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and compares sound levels with the criteria set by the…

  13. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  14. The Messages behind the Methods: The Authoritarian Pedagogical Legacy in Western Concert Dance Technique Training and Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Robin

    2005-01-01

    One of the great puzzles within the Western concert dance world is why so many artists who create revolutionary works onstage conduct their classes and rehearsals as demagogues. Such teachers are engaged in teaching practices that replicate and reproduce in the dance studio the very power relationships they are often critiquing as unjust and…

  15. Warm-Up Activities of Middle and High School Band Directors Participating in State-Level Concert Band Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Justin P.; Hancock, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the warm-ups chosen by concert band directors participating in state-level performance assessments. We observed 29 middle and high school bands and coded the frequency and duration of warm-up activities and behaviors. Results indicated that most bands rehearsed music and played scales, long tones, and…

  16. Excited singlet (S1) state interactions of calixarenes with chloroalkanes: A combination of concerted and stepwise dissociative electron transfer mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, J.; Pal, H.; Nayak, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Sapre, A. V.

    2002-12-01

    Both steady-state and time-resolved studies in acetonitrile (ACN) solutions show that the excited singlet (S1) states of calixarenes (CX) undergo quenching by chloroalkanes (CA). It has been revealed by characterizing the Cl ions in the photolyzed CX-CA systems in ACN solutions that the quenching occurs due to dissociative electron transfer (DET) mechanism, whereby a C-Cl bond of the CAs undergoes dissociation on acceptance of an electron from excited CX. The bimolecular quenching constants (kq) in the present systems were correlated with the free energy changes for the concerted DET reactions based on a suitable DET theory. Such a correlation results in the recovery of an intramolecular reorganization energy, which is substantially lower to account for the C-Cl bond dissociation energy of the CAs. Comparing present results with those of an another donor-acceptor system (e.g., biphenyldiol-CA systems) where a concerted DET mechanism is applicable, it is inferred that in CX-CA systems both concerted and stepwise DET mechanisms operate simultaneously. It is proposed that the interaction of excited CXs with encaged CAs follows the stepwise mechanism whereas that with the out of cage CAs follows the concerted mechanism.

  17. [Age and aging as incomplete architecture of human ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1999-12-01

    The focus is on the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development across the life span. The starting point is the frame provided by past evolutionary forces. A first conclusion is that for modern times and the relative brevity of the time windows involved in modernity, further change in human functioning is primarily dependent on the evolution of new cultural forms of knowledge rather than evolution-based changes in the human genome. A second conclusion concerns the general architecture of the life course. Three governing lifespan developmental principles coexist. First, because long-term evolutionary selection evince a negative age correlation, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity and negative effects associated with some principles of learning (e.g., negative transfer), the efficiency of culture is reduced as lifespan development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Three examples are given to illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture outlined. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes and their age-related dynamics: Selection, optimization, and compensation. The second example is theory and research on lifespan intelligence that distinguishes between the biology-based mechanics and culture-based pragmatics of intelligence and specifies distinct age gradients for the two categories of intellectual functioning. The third example considers the goal of evolving a positive biological and cultural scenario for the last phase of life (fourth age). Because of the general lifespan architecture outlined, this objective becomes

  18. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  19. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  20. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  1. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment from Incomplete and Uncertain Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Ansie; Kijko, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    A question that frequently arises with seismic hazard assessment is why are our assessments so poor? Often the answer is that in many cases the standard applied methodologies do not take into account the nature of seismic event catalogs. In reality these catalogues are incomplete with uncertain magnitude estimates and a significant discrepancy between the empirical data and applied occurrence model. Most probabilistic seismic hazard analysis procedures require knowledge of at least three seismic source parameters: the mean seismic activity rate λ, the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, and the area-characteristic (seismogenic source) maximum possible earthquake magnitude Mmax. In almost all currently used seismic hazard assessment procedures utilizing these three parameters, it's explicitly assumed that all three remain constant over a specified time and space. However, closer examination of most earthquake catalogues indicates that there are significant spatial and temporal variations in the seismic activity rate λ as well as the Gutenberg-Richter b-value. In the proposed methodology the maximum likelihood estimation of these earthquake hazard parameters takes into account the incompleteness of catalogues, uncertainty in the earthquake magnitude determination as well as the uncertainty associated with the applied earthquake occurrence models. The uncertainty in the earthquake occurrence models are introduced by assuming that both, the mean, seismic activity rate λ and the b-value of Gutenberg-Richter are random variables, each described by the Gamma distribution. The approach results in the extension of the classic frequency-magnitude Gutenberg-Richter relation and the Poisson distribution of number of earthquakes, with their compounded counterparts. The proposed procedure is applied in the estimation of the seismic parameters for the area of Ceres-Tulbagh, South Africa, which experienced the strongest earthquake in the country's recorded history. In this example it is

  2. Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-03-01

    We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques.

  3. Piriformis syndrome in an incomplete paraplegic patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Misirlioglu, TO; Palamar, D; Akgun, K

    2015-01-01

    Study design: Single case report. Objectives: We present an incomplete paraplegic patient with lower back and hip pain, diagnosed and treated as the piriformis syndrome (PS). Setting: University hospital, Turkey. Case: A 62-year-old woman with T3 paraplegia of American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade D presented with lower back and right hip pain accompanied by pain and numbness radiating to her right leg. After detailed anamnesis and physical examination, she was pre-diagnosed as having PS. The marked relief of pain following the ultrasound-guided piriformis muscle injection of 4 cc of lidocaine 2%+1 cc of betametazone confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion: Although the compressive neuropathies and musculoskeletal injuries of the upper limb leading to neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are well described in literature, there is limited information regarding those of lower limbs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PS in a patient with SCI. PS should be kept in mind as a pain generator, especially in active and ambulatory SCI patients. PMID:28053713

  4. Learning with incomplete information and the mathematical structure behind it.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Reimer; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the problem of learning with incomplete information as exemplified by learning with delayed reinforcement. We study a two phase learning scenario in which a phase of Hebbian associative learning based on momentary internal representations is supplemented by an 'unlearning' phase depending on a graded reinforcement signal. The reinforcement signal quantifies the success-rate globally for a number of learning steps in phase one, and 'unlearning' is indiscriminate with respect to associations learnt in that phase. Learning according to this model is studied via simulations and analytically within a student-teacher scenario for both single layer networks and, for a committee machine. Success and speed of learning depend on the ratio lambda of the learning rates used for the associative Hebbian learning phase and for the unlearning-correction in response to the reinforcement signal, respectively. Asymptotically perfect generalization is possible only, if this ratio exceeds a critical value lambda( c ), in which case the generalization error exhibits a power law decay with the number of examples seen by the student, with an exponent that depends in a non-universal manner on the parameter lambda. We find these features to be robust against a wide spectrum of modifications of microscopic modelling details. Two illustrative applications-one of a robot learning to navigate a field containing obstacles, and the problem of identifying a specific component in a collection of stimuli-are also provided.

  5. Incomplete restoration of homeostatic shear stress within arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Eugene Zierler, R; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are surgically created to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is, in part, a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. We present computational hemodynamic simulations in four patient-specific models of mature arteriovenous fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Our results suggest that these mature fistulae have remodeled to return to ''normal'' shear stresses away from the anastomoses: about 1.0 Pa in the outflow veins and about 2.5 Pa in the inflow arteries. Large parts of the anastomoses were found to be under very high shear stresses >15 Pa, over most of the cardiac cycle. These results suggest that the remodeling process works toward restoring mechanical homeostasis in the fistulae, but that the process is limited or incomplete, even in mature fistulae, as evidenced by the elevated shear at or near the anastomoses. Based on the long term clinical viability of these dialysis accesses, we hypothesize that the elevated nonhomeostatic shear stresses in some portions of the vessels were not detrimental to fistula patency.

  6. General Relativity Theory - Well Proven and Also Incomplete: Further Arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Jürgen

    In the former article "General Relativity Theory - well proven and also incomplete?" with a few arguments it was proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments it was proven that this contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity. General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle). In the following article these considerations are generalized to a moving particle. A particle moving in the gravitational field has a total energy less than its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor since there is energy needed to pull the particle out without changing its velocity. On the other side total energy of a moving particle is equal to its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle, too). This contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity in the same manner as above. The other fact: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years.

  7. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Sperling, J; Bartley, T J; Donati, G; Barbieri, M; Jin, X-M; Datta, A; Vogel, W; Walmsley, I A

    2016-08-19

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  8. Topology and incompleteness for 2+1-dimensional cosmological spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajman, David

    2016-12-01

    We study the long-time behavior of the Einstein flow coupled to matter on 2-dimensional surfaces. We consider massless matter models such as collisionless matter composed of massless particles, massless scalar fields and radiation fluids and show that the maximal globally hyperbolic development of homogeneous and isotropic initial data on the 2-sphere is geodesically incomplete in both time directions, i.e. the spacetime recollapses. This behavior also holds for open sets of initial data. In particular, we construct classes of recollapsing 2+1-dimensional spacetimes with spherical spatial topology which provide evidence for a closed universe recollapse conjecture for massless matter models in 2+1 dimensions. Furthermore, we construct solutions with toroidal and higher genus topology for the massless matter fields, which in both cases are future complete. The spacetimes with toroidal topology are 2+1-dimensional analogies of the Einstein-de Sitter model. In addition, we point out a general relation between the energy-momentum tensor and the Kretschmann scalar in 2+1 dimensions and use it to infer strong cosmic censorship for all these models. In view of this relation, we also recall corresponding models containing massive particles, constructed in a previous work and determine the nature of their initial singularities. We conclude that the global structure of non-vacuum cosmological spacetimes in 2+1 dimensions is determined by the mass of particles and—in the homogeneous and isotropic setting studied here—verifies strong cosmic censorship.

  9. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors.

  10. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J.; Bartley, T. J.; Donati, G.; Barbieri, M.; Jin, X.-M.; Datta, A.; Vogel, W.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  11. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sahoo, Rudra N.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF) in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs) measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb)+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF) increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 %) has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027) in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern's systematics.

  12. Pathlength scaling in graphs with incomplete navigational information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

    2011-10-01

    The graph-navigability problem concerns how one can find as short paths as possible between a pair of vertices, given an incomplete picture of a graph. We study the navigability of graphs where the vertices are tagged by a number (between 1 and the total number of vertices) in a way to aid navigation. This information is too little to ensure errorfree navigation but enough, as we will show, for the agents to do significantly better than a random walk. In our setup, given a graph, we first assign information to the vertices that agents can utilize for their navigation. To evaluate the navigation, we calculate the average distance traveled over random pairs of source and target and different graph realizations. We show that this type of embedding can be made quite efficiently; the more information is embedded, the more efficient it gets. We also investigate the embedded navigational information in a standard graph layout algorithm and find that although this information does not make algorithms as efficient as the above-mentioned schemes, it is significantly helpful.

  13. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  14. A multiple imputation strategy for incomplete longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Landrum, M B; Becker, M P

    Longitudinal studies are commonly used to study processes of change. Because data are collected over time, missing data are pervasive in longitudinal studies, and complete ascertainment of all variables is rare. In this paper a new imputation strategy for completing longitudinal data sets is proposed. The proposed methodology makes use of shrinkage estimators for pooling information across geographic entities, and of model averaging for pooling predictions across different statistical models. Bayes factors are used to compute weights (probabilities) for a set of models considered to be reasonable for at least some of the units for which imputations must be produced, imputations are produced by draws from the predictive distributions of the missing data, and multiple imputations are used to better reflect selected sources of uncertainty in the imputation process. The imputation strategy is developed within the context of an application to completing incomplete longitudinal variables in the so-called Area Resource File. The proposed procedure is compared with several other imputation procedures in terms of inferences derived with the imputations, and the proposed methodology is demonstrated to provide valid estimates of model parameters when the completed data are analysed. Extensions to other missing data problems in longitudinal studies are straightforward so long as the missing data mechanism can be assumed to be ignorable.

  15. Incomplete water securitization in coupled hydro-human production sytems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, B.; Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the dynamics, the externalities and the contingencies involved in managing local water resource for production, the water allocation at basin-level is a subtle balance between laws of nature (gravity; flux) and laws of economics (price; productivity). We study this balance by looking at inter-temporal basin-level water resource allocations in which subbasins enjoy a certain degree of autonomy. Each subbasin is represented as an economic agent i, following a gravity ordering with i=1 representing the most upstream area and i=I the downstream boundary. The water allocation is modeled as a decentralized equilibrium in a coupled conceptual hydro-human production system. Agents i=1,2,...,I in the basin produce a composite good according to a technology that requires water as a main input and that is specific to the subbasin. Agent i manages her use Xi and her storage Si, conceptualizing surface and subsurface water, of water with the purpose of maximizing the utility derived from consumption Ci of the composite good, where Ci is a scalar and Xi and Si are vectors which are composed of one element for each time period and for each contingency. A natural way to consume the good would be to absorb the own production. Yet, the agent may have two more option, namely, she might get a social transfer from other agents or she could use an income from trading water securities with her contiguous neighbors. To study these options, we compare water allocations (Ci, Xi, Si) all i=1,2,...,I for three different settings. We look at allocations without water securitization (water autarky equilibrium EA) first. Next, we describe the imaginary case of full securitization (contingent water markets equilibrium ECM) and, in between, we study limited securitization (incomplete water security equilibrium EWS). We show that allocations under contingent water markets ECM are efficient in the sense that, for the prevailing production technologies, no other allocation exists that is at

  16. Concerted Breaking of Two Hydrogen Bonds in Water Hexamer Prism Revealed from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jeremy O.; Perez, Cristobal; Lobsiger, Simon; Reid, Adam A.; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Wales, David J.; Pate, Brooks; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, we have used H218O water substitution to determine the structures of water clusters by molecular rotational spectroscopy. In the case of the water hexamer, the energy difference between the cage and prism structures is calculated to be about 0.1 kcal/mol and this energy difference is of the order of the zero-point energy variation between the isomers. Using rotational spectroscopy we provided experimental evidence for three isomers, i.e, cage, prism and book and established their relative energy ordering. In the special case of the prism hexamer, cluster dynamics causes measurable splitting in rotational transitions resulting from tunneling between discernible equivalent minima. Multiple isotopic substitution measurements involving all 64 possible isotopologues of the water hexamer prism (H218O)n(H216O)6-n were performed in order to identify the water molecules involved in the tunneling motion. The analysis of these tunneling-rotation spectra suggests that there are two distinct tunneling paths that involve concerted motion of two water molecules, implying a prototype scenario involving the breaking of two hydrogen bonds. C. Pérez, et al, Science. 2012, 336 897-901 J. O. Richardson et al, Science. 2016, in press

  17. Classification of hydrogen bond flips in small water polyhedra applied to concerted proton tunneling.

    PubMed

    Kirov, M V

    2016-10-05

    Recently a new mechanism of proton tunneling in a prism-like water hexamer was revealed [Richardson et al., Science, 2016, 351, 1310]. The tunneling motion involves the concerted breaking of two hydrogen bonds and rotations of two nearest water molecules. Eventually, this structural transformation means flipping one of the hydrogen bonds without the creation of defects in the hydrogen bond network. On the surface of polyhedral water clusters, there are five essentially different types of hydrogen bonds, and only two of them can be changed in this manner. In this article, the topological classification of such transformations for five small water polyhedra: triangular, pentagonal, and hexagonal prisms as well as cube and polyhedron 4(4)5(4), consisting of four square and four pentagonal faces, is presented. Our classification includes the enumeration of all possible one-bond-flips with consideration of the types of hydrogen bonds on the polyhedral surface. Attention is paid to the most stable proton configurations which can be studied in experiments. It was established that a number of one-bond-flip transitions between the low energy configurations are possible in clusters in the shape of triangular and pentagonal prisms.

  18. Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence Is Mediated by the Concerted Action of Three Phospholipases D

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Julia; Bergmann, Holger; Göttig, Stephan; Ebersberger, Ingo; Averhoff, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii causes a broad range of opportunistic infections in humans. Its success as an emerging pathogen is due to a combination of increasing antibiotic resistance, environmental persistence and adaptation to the human host. To date very little is known about the molecular basis of the latter. Here we demonstrate that A. baumannii can use phosphatidylcholine, an integral part of human cell membranes, as sole carbon and energy source. We report on the identification of three phospholipases belonging to the PLD superfamily. PLD1 and PLD2 appear restricted to the bacteria and display the general features of bacterial phospholipases D. They possess two PLDc_2 PFAM domains each encompassing the HxKx4Dx6GS/GGxN (HKD) motif necessary for forming the catalytic core. The third candidate, PLD3, is found in bacteria as well as in eukaryotes and harbours only one PLDc_2 PFAM domain and one conserved HKD motif, which however do not overlap. Employing a markerless mutagenesis system for A. baumannii ATCC 19606T, we generated a full set of PLD knock-out mutants. Galleria mellonella infection studies as well as invasion experiments using A549 human lung epithelial cells revealed that the three PLDs act in a concerted manner as virulence factors and are playing an important role in host cell invasion. PMID:26379240

  19. DNA methylation and histone acetylation work in concert to regulate memory formation and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Courtney A; Campbell, Susan L; Sweatt, J David

    2008-05-01

    A clear understanding is developing concerning the importance of epigenetic-related molecular mechanisms in transcription-dependent long-term memory formation. Chromatin modification, in particular histone acetylation, is associated with transcriptional activation, and acetylation of histone 3 (H3) occurs in Area CA1 of the hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning training. Conversely, DNA methylation is associated with transcriptional repression, but is also dynamically regulated in Area CA1 following training. We recently reported that inhibition of the enzyme responsible for DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), in the adult rat hippocampus blocks behavioral memory formation. Here, we report that DNMT inhibition also blocks the concomitant memory-associated H3 acetylation, without affecting phosphorylation of its upstream regulator, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Interestingly, the DNMT inhibitor-induced deficit in memory consolidation, along with deficits in long-term potentiation, can be rescued by pharmacologically increasing levels of histone acetylation prior to DNMT inhibition. These observations suggest that DNMT activity is not only necessary for memory and plasticity, but that DNA methylation may work in concert with histone modifications to regulate plasticity and memory formation in the adult rat hippocampus.

  20. Concerted copy number variation balances ribosomal DNA dosage in human and mouse genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, John G.; Branco, Alan T.; Godinho, Susana A.; Yu, Shoukai; Lemos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Tandemly repeated ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are among the most evolutionary dynamic loci of eukaryotic genomes. The loci code for essential cellular components, yet exhibit extensive copy number (CN) variation within and between species. CN might be partly determined by the requirement of dosage balance between the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays. The arrays are nonhomologous, physically unlinked in mammals, and encode functionally interdependent RNA components of the ribosome. Here we show that the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays exhibit concerted CN variation (cCNV). Despite 5S and 45S rDNA elements residing on different chromosomes and lacking sequence similarity, cCNV between these loci is strong, evolutionarily conserved in humans and mice, and manifested across individual genotypes in natural populations and pedigrees. Finally, we observe that bisphenol A induces rapid and parallel modulation of 5S and 45S rDNA CN. Our observations reveal a novel mode of genome variation, indicate that natural selection contributed to the evolution and conservation of cCNV, and support the hypothesis that 5S CN is partly determined by the requirement of dosage balance with the 45S rDNA array. We suggest that human disease variation might be traced to disrupted rDNA dosage balance in the genome. PMID:25583482

  1. Phosphoryl transfer by a concerted reaction mechanism in UMP/CMP-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, M. C.; Helms, V.

    2000-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by UMP/CMP-kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum was investigated by semiempirical AM1 molecular orbital computations of an active site model system derived from crystal structures that contain a transition state analog or a bisubstrate inhibitor. The computational results suggest that the nucleoside monophosphate must be protonated for the forward reaction while it is unprotonated in the presence of aluminium fluoride, a popular transition state analog for phosphoryl transfer reactions. Furthermore, a compactification of the active site model system during the reaction and for the corresponding complex containing AlF3 was observed. For the active site residues that are part of the LID domain, conformational flexibility during the reaction proved to be crucial. On the basis of the calculations, a concerted phosphoryl transfer mechanism is suggested that involves the synchronous shift of a proton from the monophosphate to the transferred PO3-group. The proposed mechanism is thus analogous to the phosphoryl transfer mechanism in cAMP-dependent protein kinase that phosphorylates the hydroxyl groups of serine residues. PMID:11152133

  2. Concerted hydrogen atom and electron transfer mechanism for catalysis by lysine-specific demethylase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Higashi, Masahiro; Cembran, Alessandro; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-07-18

    We calculate the free energy profile for the postulated hydride transfer reaction mechanism for the catalysis of lysine demethylation by lysine-specific demethylase LSD1. The potential energy surface is obtained by using combined electrostatically embedded multiconfiguration molecular mechanics (EE-MCMM) and single-configuration molecular mechanics (MM). We employ a constant valence bond coupling term to obtain analytical energies and gradients of the EE-MCMM subsystem, which contains 45 quantum mechanics (QM) atoms and which is parametrized with density functional calculations employing specific reaction parameters obtained by matching high-level wave function calculations. In the MM region, we employ the Amber ff03 and TIP3P force fields. The free energy of activation at 300 K is calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) umbrella sampling on a system with 102,090 atoms as the maximum of the free energy profile along the reaction coordinate as obtained by the weighted histogram analysis method with 17 umbrella sampling windows. This yields a free energy of activation of only 10 kcal/mol, showing that the previously postulated direct hydride transfer reaction mechanism is plausible, although we find that it is better interpreted as a concerted transfer of a hydrogen atom and an electron.

  3. Modulators in concert for cognition: modulator interactions in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Briand, Lisa A.; Gritton, Howard; Howe, William M.; Young, Damon A.; Sarter, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Research on the regulation and function of ascending noradrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic systems has focused on the organization and function of individual systems. In contrast, evidence describing co-activation and interactions between multiple neuromodulatory systems has remained scarce. However, commonalities in the anatomical organization of these systems and overlapping evidence concerning the post-synaptic effects of neuromodulators strongly suggest that these systems are recruited in concert; they influence each other and simultaneously modulate their target circuits. Therefore, evidence on the regulatory and functional interactions between these systems is considered essential for revealing the role of neuromodulators. This postulate extends to contemporary neurobiological hypotheses of major neuropsychiatric disorders. These hypotheses have focused largely on aberrations in the integrity or regulation of individual ascending modulatory systems, with little regard for the likely possibility that dysregulation in multiple ascending neuromodulatory systems and their interactions contribute essentially to the symptoms of these disorders. This review will paradigmatically focus on neuromodulator interactions in the PFC and be further constrained by an additional focus on their role in cognitive functions. Recent evidence indicates that individual neuromodulators, in addition to their general state-setting or gating functions, encode specific cognitive operations, further substantiating the importance of research concerning the parallel recruitment of neuromodulator systems and interactions between these systems. PMID:17681661

  4. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction

    PubMed Central

    Aranjuelo, Iker

    2013-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N2 fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N2-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N2 fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism. PMID:23440170

  5. ITS non-concerted evolution and rampant hybridization in the legume genus Lespedeza (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Zeng, Xiao-Mao; Gao, Xin-Fen; Jin, Dong-Pil; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2017-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) as one part of nuclear ribosomal DNA is one of the most extensively sequenced molecular markers in plant systematics. The ITS repeats generally exhibit high-level within-individual homogeneity, while relatively small-scale polymorphism of ITS copies within individuals has often been reported in literature. Here, we identified large-scale polymorphism of ITS copies within individuals in the legume genus Lespedeza (Fabaceae). Divergent paralogs of ITS sequences, including putative pseudogenes, recombinants, and multiple functional ITS copies were sometimes detected in the same individual. Thirty-seven ITS pseudogenes could be easily detected according to nucleotide changes in conserved 5.8S motives, the significantly lower GC contents in at least one of three regions, and the lost ability of 5.8S rDNA sequence to fold into a conserved secondary structure. The distribution patterns of the putative functional clones were highly different between the traditionally recognized two subgenera, suggesting different rates of concerted evolution in two subgenera which could be attributable to their different extents/frequencies of hybridization, confirmed by our analysis of the single-copy nuclear gene PGK. These findings have significant implications in using ITS marker for reconstructing phylogeny and studying hybridization. PMID:28051161

  6. Overcoming limitations of current antiplatelet drugs: A concerted effort for more profitable strategies of intervention

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Guida, Anna; Camera, Marina; Colli, Susanna; Di Minno, Giovanni; Tremoli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in the pathophysiology of atherothrombosis, an inappropriate platelet activation leading to acute ischemic complications (acute myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke). In view of this, platelets are a major target for pharmacotherapy. Presently, the main classes of antiplatelet agents approved for the use in such complications are aspirin and fhienopyridines. Although antiplatelet treatment with these two types of drugs, alone or in combination, leads to a significant reduction of non-fatal myocardial infarction (−32%), non-fatal stroke (−25%), and of cardiovascular death (−17%), a residual risk persists. Newer antiplatelet agents have addressed some, but not all, these limitations. Vis-à-vis their net clinical benefit, the higher potency of some of them is associated with a rise in bleeding complications. Moreover, newer fhienopyridines do not show advantages over and above the older ones as to reduction of stroke. A concerted effort that takes into consideration clinical, genetic, and laboratory information is increasingly recognized as a major direction to be pursued in the area. The well-established road signs of clinical epidemiology will provide major information to define newer potentially useful targets for platelet pharmacology. PMID:21815879

  7. The value of utilizing binaural dummy head recordings in evaluating physical acoustic changes in concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Cooper, Russell; Rivera, Carlos

    2004-10-01

    In some instances, after a concert hall is built there may be a need to modify the physical environment of the space through the application of diffusion or absorptive surfaces, the addition of reflector systems or the repositioning of the orchestra in the space. Prior to moving forward with suggested changes to the physical environment, it has been customary to conduct evaluation rehearsals with physical mock-ups installed to confirm the acousticians recommendations. Questionnaires are given to the musicians, the conductor and the administration staff to document the effect of the changes, and physical measurements are taken before and after the installation of the mock-ups. The questionnaires can be difficult to correlate and the differences in data resulting from the physical measurements may be too small to properly evaluate. More recently, Jaffe Holden Acoustics has added dummy head recordings to the mix. These recordings are extremely representative of what a human hears and one can place these devices in various locations on stage and in the audience chamber. The recordings create a permanent record of the event and the results of subsequent A/B evaluation can be more closely correlated to render judgments.

  8. How orchestra members influence stage acoustic parameters on five different concert hall stages and orchestra pits.

    PubMed

    Wenmaekers, R H C; Hak, C C J M; Hornikx, M C J

    2016-12-01

    Stage acoustic parameters aim to quantify the amount of sound energy reflected by the stage and hall boundaries and the energy decay over time. In this research, the effect of orchestra presence on parameter values is investigated. The orchestra is simulated by dressed mannequins, which have been compared with humans with respect to acoustic properties. Impulse response measurements were performed in a concert hall, a theatre, a rehearsal room, and in two orchestra pits. Conditions were empty stage floors, stage floors with music stands and chairs only, and floors occupied by the mannequin orchestra. Results show that the direct and reflected sound levels and the energy decay are significantly affected by the orchestra compared to an empty stage or a stage with chairs and stands only. Both the direct sound and early reflected sound levels are reduced by the orchestra with the distance. The late reflected sound level is reduced considerably more than can be expected based on Barron's revised theory. It can be concluded that measurements on a stage without the orchestra being present results in significant differences. A practical method is presented to perform a "musician friendly" stage acoustic measurement with a real orchestra.

  9. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N(2) fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N(2)-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N(2) fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism.

  10. International concerted action on collaboration in telemedicine: G8 sub-project 4.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, A

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of G-7/8 Global Healthcare Applications sub-project 4 is to enable an international concerted action on collaboration in telemedicine. To promote and facilitate the implementation of telemedicine or health telematics networks around the world, it was felt necessary to solve certain key issues. Five thematic solution-seeking FORUMS are each addressing a specific item. The first FORUM held in Montréal, Canada on May 28-30 1998 focussed on Interoperability of telemedicine and telehealth systems. Other FORUMS address other themes such as: Impacts of Telemedicine on health care management (Regensburg, Germany, November 21-23 1998); Evaluation and Cost Effectiveness of Telemedicine (Melbourne, Australia, February 19-20 1999); Clinical and technical quality and standards (Washington, USA, April 29-30 1999); Medico-legal aspects of national and international applications (Oxford, UK, fall 1999). The main objective of these FORUMS is to arrive at best practices through consultation amongst experts who seek together the best solutions to facilitate global international telemedicine networks. Towards this goal, G-8 sub-project-4 will also conduct the IMPACT (International Multipoint Project of Advanced Communication in Telemedicine) feasibility study which will aim at conducting multipoint exchanges between telemedicine units in the academic centers of the participating G-8 and other countries. More detailed information on this project and summaries of the initial FORUMS are found on our Web site at www.g7sp4.org.

  11. Concerted effects of substituents in the reaction of •OH radicals with aromatics: The hydroxybenzaldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarran, Guadalupe; Mendoza, Edith; Schuler, Robert H.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we have examined the distribution of products in the radiolytic hydroxylation of 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to obtain information on the concerted effect of the -CHO and -OH groups at the addition site of •OH radicals. The •OH radical was found to selectively add to the free positions of the aromatic ring. Furthermore, the •OH radical reacts by substitution at the ipso position followed by elimination of the substituent, producing dihydroxybenzene compounds. Additionally, the formation of carboxylic acids as an initial product has been conclusively identified by retention times and UV and mass spectra. These acids are formed as a result of the radiolytic oxidation of the initial radical formed by the addition reaction of the •OH radicals to the meso position (exocyclic carbon). The identification of the products, dihydroxybenzaldehydes, dihydroxybenzenes and hydroxybenzoic acids and calculation of their yields were achieved through HPLC. The G values of each product are given, which reflect the charge distributions in the hydroxybenzaldehydes, such that the formyl group modifies the ortho-para directing effect of the -OH substituent. The 3 and 5 positions in 2- and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde showed increased the electronic density compared to that of phenol, indicating that the formyl group has a significant effect on the electronic structure of those hydroxybenzaldehydes. In 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, the -OH substituent had a dominant ortho-directing effect similar to that observed for phenol.

  12. Probabilistic models of expectation violation predict psychophysiological emotional responses to live concert music.

    PubMed

    Egermann, Hauke; Pearce, Marcus T; Wiggins, Geraint A; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a study testing the often-theorized role of musical expectations in inducing listeners' emotions in a live flute concert experiment with 50 participants. Using an audience response system developed for this purpose, we measured subjective experience and peripheral psychophysiological changes continuously. To confirm the existence of the link between expectation and emotion, we used a threefold approach. (1) On the basis of an information-theoretic cognitive model, melodic pitch expectations were predicted by analyzing the musical stimuli used (six pieces of solo flute music). (2) A continuous rating scale was used by half of the audience to measure their experience of unexpectedness toward the music heard. (3) Emotional reactions were measured using a multicomponent approach: subjective feeling (valence and arousal rated continuously by the other half of the audience members), expressive behavior (facial EMG), and peripheral arousal (the latter two being measured in all 50 participants). Results confirmed the predicted relationship between high-information-content musical events, the violation of musical expectations (in corresponding ratings), and emotional reactions (psychologically and physiologically). Musical structures leading to expectation reactions were manifested in emotional reactions at different emotion component levels (increases in subjective arousal and autonomic nervous system activations). These results emphasize the role of musical structure in emotion induction, leading to a further understanding of the frequently experienced emotional effects of music.

  13. Concerted electron-proton transfer in the optical excitation of hydrogen-bonded dyes.

    PubMed

    Westlake, Brittany C; Brennaman, M Kyle; Concepcion, Javier J; Paul, Jared J; Bettis, Stephanie E; Hampton, Shaun D; Miller, Stephen A; Lebedeva, Natalia V; Forbes, Malcolm D E; Moran, Andrew M; Meyer, Thomas J; Papanikolas, John M

    2011-05-24

    The simultaneous, concerted transfer of electrons and protons--electron-proton transfer (EPT)--is an important mechanism utilized in chemistry and biology to avoid high energy intermediates. There are many examples of thermally activated EPT in ground-state reactions and in excited states following photoexcitation and thermal relaxation. Here we report application of ultrafast excitation with absorption and Raman monitoring to detect a photochemically driven EPT process (photo-EPT). In this process, both electrons and protons are transferred during the absorption of a photon. Photo-EPT is induced by intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) excitation of hydrogen-bonded-base adducts with either a coumarin dye or 4-nitro-4'-biphenylphenol. Femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements following ICT excitation reveal the appearance of two spectroscopically distinct states having different dynamical signatures. One of these states corresponds to a conventional ICT excited state in which the transferring H(+) is initially associated with the proton donor. Proton transfer to the base (B) then occurs on the picosecond time scale. The other state is an ICT-EPT photoproduct. Upon excitation it forms initially in the nuclear configuration of the ground state by application of the Franck-Condon principle. However, due to the change in electronic configuration induced by the transition, excitation is accompanied by proton transfer with the protonated base formed with a highly elongated (+)H ─ B bond. Coherent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of a vibrational mode corresponding to the protonated base in the optically prepared state.

  14. CO2 capture in ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: a concerted mechanism without carbene.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fangyong; Dhumal, Nilesh R; Kim, Hyung J

    2017-01-04

    Ionic liquids (ILs) provide a promising medium for CO2 capture. Recently, the family of ILs comprising imidazolium-based cations and acetate anions, such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMI(+)OAc(-)), has been found to react with CO2 and form carboxylate compounds. N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) is widely assumed to be responsible by directly reacting with CO2 though NHC has not been detected in these ILs. Herein, a computational analysis of CO2 capture in EMI(+)OAc(-) is presented. Quantum chemistry calculations predict that NHC is unstable in a polar environment, suggesting that NHC is not formed in EMI(+)OAc(-). Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that an EMI(+) ion "activated" by the approach of a CO2 molecule can donate its acidic proton to a neighboring OAc(-) anion and form a carboxylate compound with the CO2 molecule. Analysis of this termolecular process indicates that the EMI(+)-to-OAc(-) proton transfer and the formation of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate occur essentially concurrently. Based on these findings, a novel concerted mechanism that does not involve NHC is proposed for CO2 capture.

  15. Determining the Effect of Concerted Elimination Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Lignin Using Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, D.; Clark, J.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis is a significant impediment in forming liquid fuel from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at a higher temperature than other biomass components (ie cellulose, hemicellulose) and tends to form radicals which lead to cross linking and ultimately char formation. A primary step in advances biomass-to-fuel technology will be to discover mechanisms that can disassemble lignin at lower temperatures and depolymerize lignin into more stable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin ({beta}-O4, {alpha}-O4, {beta}-{beta}, {beta}-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to the usually-assumed bond homolysis reactions, we have investigated a variety of concerted elimination pathways that will tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  16. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L.; Herr, Andrew B.; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-01-01

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)–like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses. PMID:27302953

  17. Perceptual significance of seat-dip effect related direct sound coloration in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Henna; Haapaniemi, Aki; Lokki, Tapio

    2017-03-01

    In concert halls, the spectrum of direct sound (here 0 to 15 ms) is influenced by the seat-dip effect that causes selective low frequency attenuation. The seat-dip effect has been considered to be detrimental to the acoustic quality of halls, yet there is little evidence about the perceptual significance of the effect. This paper studies the discrimination and preference of seat-dip effect related changes in the direct sound, with realistic auralization of multichannel anechoic orchestra recordings in halls measured with the loudspeaker orchestra. Comparisons are made with a free-field direct sound and direct sound magnitude changes typically associated with the seat-dip effect. Overall, the differences were not significantly audible, except with a subgroup of participants in one out of four halls, and two out of three comparisons. Furthermore, participants' preference for the uncolored direct sound was significant in the halls with less reflected energy, but non-significant in the halls with more reflected energy. The results imply that for most seats in adequately reverberant halls, typical seat-dip effect related coloration in the direct sound can be perceptually negligible.

  18. Learning with incomplete information in the committee machine.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Urs M; Kühn, Reimer; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2009-12-01

    We study the problem of learning with incomplete information in a student-teacher setup for the committee machine. The learning algorithm combines unsupervised Hebbian learning of a series of associations with a delayed reinforcement step, in which the set of previously learnt associations is partly and indiscriminately unlearnt, to an extent that depends on the success rate of the student on these previously learnt associations. The relevant learning parameter lambda represents the strength of Hebbian learning. A coarse-grained analysis of the system yields a set of differential equations for overlaps of student and teacher weight vectors, whose solutions provide a complete description of the learning behavior. It reveals complicated dynamics showing that perfect generalization can be obtained if the learning parameter exceeds a threshold lambda ( c ), and if the initial value of the overlap between student and teacher weights is non-zero. In case of convergence, the generalization error exhibits a power law decay as a function of the number of examples used in training, with an exponent that depends on the parameter lambda. An investigation of the system flow in a subspace with broken permutation symmetry between hidden units reveals a bifurcation point lambda* above which perfect generalization does not depend on initial conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that cases of a complexity mismatch between student and teacher are optimally resolved in the sense that an over-complex student can emulate a less complex teacher rule, while an under-complex student reaches a state which realizes the minimal generalization error compatible with the complexity mismatch.

  19. Potential associations between chronic whiplash and incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, AC; Parrish, TB; Hoggarth, MA; McPherson, JG; Tysseling, VM; Wasielewski, M; Kim, HE; Hornby, TG; Elliott, JM

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: This research utilized a cross-sectional design with control group inclusion. Objectives: Preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of the patient population with chronic whiplash may have sustained spinal cord damage. Our hypothesis is that in some cases of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), observed muscle weakness in the legs will be associated with local signs of a partial spinal cord injury of the cervical spine. Setting: University based laboratory in Chicago, IL, USA. Methods: Five participants with chronic WAD were compared with five gender/age/height/weight/body mass index (BMI) control participants. For a secondary investigation, the chronic WAD group was compared with five unmatched participants with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Spinal cord motor tract integrity was assessed using magnetization transfer imaging. Muscle fat infiltration (MFI) was quantified using fat/water separation magnetic resonance imaging. Central volitional muscle activation of the plantarflexors was assessed using a burst superimposition technique. Results: We found reduced spinal cord motor tract integrity, increased MFI of the neck and lower extremity muscles and significantly impaired voluntary plantarflexor muscle activation in five participants with chronic WAD. The lower extremity structural changes and volitional weakness in chronic WAD were comparable to participants with iSCI. Conclusion: The results support the position that a subset of the chronic whiplash population may have sustained partial damage to the spinal cord. Sponsorship: NIH R01HD079076-01A1, NIH T32 HD057845 and the Foundation for Physical Therapy Promotion of Doctoral Studies program. PMID:27630770

  20. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution.

  1. Multiple imputation for an incomplete covariate that is a ratio.

    PubMed

    Morris, Tim P; White, Ian R; Royston, Patrick; Seaman, Shaun R; Wood, Angela M

    2014-01-15

    We are concerned with multiple imputation of the ratio of two variables, which is to be used as a covariate in a regression analysis. If the numerator and denominator are not missing simultaneously, it seems sensible to make use of the observed variable in the imputation model. One such strategy is to impute missing values for the numerator and denominator, or the log-transformed numerator and denominator, and then calculate the ratio of interest; we call this 'passive' imputation. Alternatively, missing ratio values might be imputed directly, with or without the numerator and/or the denominator in the imputation model; we call this 'active' imputation. In two motivating datasets, one involving body mass index as a covariate and the other involving the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we assess the sensitivity of results to the choice of imputation model and, as an alternative, explore fully Bayesian joint models for the outcome and incomplete ratio. Fully Bayesian approaches using Winbugs were unusable in both datasets because of computational problems. In our first dataset, multiple imputation results are similar regardless of the imputation model; in the second, results are sensitive to the choice of imputation model. Sensitivity depends strongly on the coefficient of variation of the ratio's denominator. A simulation study demonstrates that passive imputation without transformation is risky because it can lead to downward bias when the coefficient of variation of the ratio's denominator is larger than about 0.1. Active imputation or passive imputation after log-transformation is preferable.

  2. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  3. Concerted electron-proton transfer in the optical excitation of hydrogen-bonded dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Westlake, Brittany C.; Brennaman, Kyle M.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Paul, Jared J.; Bettis, Stephanie E.; Hampton, Shaun D.; Miller, Stephen A.; Lebedeva, Natalia V.; Forbes, Malcolm D. E.; Moran, Andrew M.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Papanikolas, John M.

    2011-05-24

    The simultaneous, concerted transfer of electrons and protons—electron-proton transfer (EPT)—is an important mechanism utilized in chemistry and biology to avoid high energy intermediates. There are many examples of thermally activated EPT in ground-state reactions and in excited states following photoexcitation and thermal relaxation. Here we report application of ultrafast excitation with absorption and Raman monitoring to detect a photochemically driven EPT process (photo-EPT). In this process, both electrons and protons are transferred during the absorption of a photon. Photo-EPT is induced by intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) excitation of hydrogen-bonded-base adducts with either a coumarin dye or 4-nitro-4'-biphenylphenol. Femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements following ICT excitation reveal the appearance of two spectroscopically distinct states having different dynamical signatures. One of these states corresponds to a conventional ICT excited state in which the transferring H⁺ is initially associated with the proton donor. Proton transfer to the base (B) then occurs on the picosecond time scale. The other state is an ICT-EPT photoproduct. Upon excitation it forms initially in the nuclear configuration of the ground state by application of the Franck–Condon principle. However, due to the change in electronic configuration induced by the transition, excitation is accompanied by proton transfer with the protonated base formed with a highly elongated ⁺H–B bond. Coherent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of a vibrational mode corresponding to the protonated base in the optically prepared state.

  4. Concerted proton-electron transfer in the oxidation of hydrogen-bonded phenols.

    PubMed

    Rhile, Ian J; Markle, Todd F; Nagao, Hirotaka; DiPasquale, Antonio G; Lam, Oanh P; Lockwood, Mark A; Rotter, Katrina; Mayer, James M

    2006-05-10

    Three phenols with pendant, hydrogen-bonded bases (HOAr-B) have been oxidized in MeCN with various one-electron oxidants. The bases are a primary amine (-CPh(2)NH(2)), an imidazole, and a pyridine. The product of chemical and quasi-reversible electrochemical oxidations in each case is the phenoxyl radical in which the phenolic proton has transferred to the base, (*)OAr-BH(+), a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process. The redox potentials for these oxidations are lower than for other phenols, predominately from the driving force for proton movement. One-electron oxidation of the phenols occurs by a concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) mechanism, based on thermochemical arguments, isotope effects, and DeltaDeltaG(++)/DeltaDeltaG degrees . The data rule out stepwise paths involving initial electron transfer to form the phenol radical cations [(*)(+)HOAr-B] or initial proton transfer to give the zwitterions [(-)OAr-BH(+)]. The rate constant for heterogeneous electron transfer from HOAr-NH(2) to a platinum electrode has been derived from electrochemical measurements. For oxidations of HOAr-NH(2), the dependence of the solution rate constants on driving force, on temperature, and on the nature of the oxidant, and the correspondence between the homogeneous and heterogeneous rate constants, are all consistent with the application of adiabatic Marcus theory. The CPET reorganization energies, lambda = 23-56 kcal mol(-)(1), are large in comparison with those for electron transfer reactions of aromatic compounds. The reactions are not highly non-adiabatic, based on minimum values of H(rp) derived from the temperature dependence of the rate constants. These are among the first detailed analyses of CPET reactions where the proton and electron move to different sites.

  5. Asymmetric patterns of reassortment and concerted evolution in Cardamom bushy dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Savory, F R; Ramakrishnan, U

    2014-06-01

    Nanoviruses are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) plant viruses which have multipartite genomes consisting of discrete, individually encapsidated components. This multipartite strategy may lead to high rates of reassortment, whereby entire genome components are exchanged among different strains. However, few studies have explored the extent to which reassortment shapes the genetic diversity of nanovirus populations. Here we present an extensive analysis of reassortment among 163 Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV; Nanoviridae family, Babuvirus genus) isolates collected in Northeast India. We also examined evidence of recombination, which is known to play a role in the evolutionary dynamics of nanovirus populations. By sequencing six discrete genome components for each isolate, we demonstrate that over 40% of the isolates display evidence of at least one reassortment event during their evolutionary histories. Nevertheless, a bias in the frequencies at which different genome components reassort was observed, with the DNA-M and DNA-N components being the most predisposed to reassortment. This may reflect variation in the ability of different genome components to function efficiently in a foreign genomic background. Comparisons of the common regions of different genome components revealed signatures of concerted evolution mediated by frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This process, which has previously been reported in nanoviruses and other multipartite ssDNA viruses, may allow proteins which initiate replication to maintain control over distinct genome components. Notably, DNA-N, one of the genome components most prone to reassortment, also exhibited the most frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This supports the idea that inter-component homologous recombination may promote the efficient replication of novel components which are introduced into a genome via reassortment.

  6. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J.; King, Simon J.; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br∗), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br∗ atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br∗ images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br∗, indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5+ from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br+ molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  7. Concerted Proton Transfer Mechanism of Clostridium thermocellum Ribose-5-phosphate Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi) catalyzes the interconversion of D-ribose-5-phosphate and D-ribulose-5-phosphate and plays an essential role in the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. RpiB, one of the two isoforms of Rpi, is also a potential drug target for some pathogenic bacteria. Clostridium thermocellum ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (CtRpi), belonging to RpiB family, has recently been employed to the industrial production of rare sugars because of it fast reactions kinetics and narrow substrate specificity. It is known this enzyme adopts proton transfer mechanism. It was suggested that the deprotonated Cys65 attracts the proton at C2 of substrate to initiate the isomerization reaction and this step is the rate-limiting step. However the elaborate catalytic mechanism is still unclear. We have performed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of this rate-limiting step of the reaction catalyzed by CtRpi with the substrate D-ribose. Our results demonstrate that the deprotonated Cys65 is not a stable reactant. Instead, our calculations revealed a concerted proton-transfer mechanism: Asp8, a highly conserved residue in the RpiB family performs as the base to abstract the proton at Cys65 and Cys65 in turn abstracts the proton of the D-ribose simultaneously. Moreover, we found Thr67 cannot catalyze the proton transfer from O2 to O1 of the D-ribose alone. Water molecule(s) may assist this proton transfer with Thr67. Our findings lead to a clear understanding of the catalysis mechanism of RpiB family and should guide the experiments to increase the catalysis efficiency. This study also highlights the importance of initial protonation states of cysteines. PMID:23875675

  8. Dosage Sensitivity of RPL9 and Concerted Evolution of Ribosomal Protein Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Devis, Deborah; Firth, Sue M.; Liang, Zhe; Byrne, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome in higher eukaryotes is a large macromolecular complex composed of four rRNAs and eighty different ribosomal proteins. In plants, each ribosomal protein is encoded by multiple genes. Duplicate genes within a family are often necessary to provide a threshold dose of a ribosomal protein but in some instances appear to have non-redundant functions. Here, we addressed whether divergent members of the RPL9 gene family are dosage sensitive or whether these genes have non-overlapping functions. The RPL9 family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises two nearly identical members, RPL9B and RPL9C, and a more divergent member, RPL9D. Mutations in RPL9C and RPL9D genes lead to delayed growth early in development, and loss of both genes is embryo lethal, indicating that these are dosage-sensitive and redundant genes. Phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 as well as RPL4, RPL5, RPL27a, RPL36a, and RPS6 family genes in the Brassicaceae indicated that multicopy ribosomal protein genes have been largely retained following whole genome duplication. However, these gene families also show instances of tandem duplication, small scale deletion, and evidence of gene conversion. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 genes in angiosperm species showed that genes within a species are more closely related to each other than to RPL9 genes in other species, suggesting ribosomal protein genes undergo convergent evolution. Our analysis indicates that ribosomal protein gene retention following whole genome duplication contributes to the number of genes in a family. However, small scale rearrangements influence copy number and likely drive concerted evolution of these dosage-sensitive genes. PMID:26734020

  9. Evidence for concerted kinetic oxidation of progesterone by purified rat hepatic cytochrome P-450g

    SciTech Connect

    Swinney, D.C.; Ryan, D.E.; Thomas, P.E.; Levin, W.

    1988-07-26

    Purified cytochrome P-450g, a male-specific rat hepatic isozyme, was observed to metabolize progesterone to two primary metabolites (6..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone and 16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone), two secondary metabolites (6..beta..,16..cap alpha..-dihydroxyprogesterone and 6-ketoprogesterone), and one tertiary metabolite (6-keto-16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone). The K/sub m,app/ for the formation of these products from progesterone was determined to be approximately 0.5 ..mu..M, while the K/sub m,app/ for metabolism of 6..beta..- and 16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone was found to be 5-10 ..mu..M. The ratio of primary to secondary metabolites did not change significantly at progesterone concentrations from 6 to 150 ..mu..M, and a lag in formation of secondary metabolites was not observed in 1-min incubations. Concerted oxidation of progesterone to secondary products without the intermediate products leaving the active site was suggested by these results and confirmed by isotopic dilution experiments in which little or no dilution of metabolically formed 6..beta..,16..cap alpha..-dihydroxyprogesterone and 6-keto-16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone was observed in incubations containing a mixture of radiolabeled progesterone and unlabeled 6..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone or 16..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone. Incubation of 6..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone with a reconstituted system in an atmosphere of /sup 18/I/sub 2/ resulted in > 90% incorporation of /sup 18/O in the 16..cap alpha..-position of 6..beta..,16..cap alpha..-dihydroxyprogesterone but no incorporation of /sup 18/O into 6-ketoprogesterone, even though the reaction was dependent upon enzyme and O/sub 2/, and not inhibited by mannitol, catalase, or superoxide dismutase. Factors which characterize the metabolism of progesterone by cytochrome P-450g in terms of active-site constraints and the catalytic competence of the enzyme in microsomes were also explored.

  10. Concerted modulation of alanine and glutamate metabolism in young Medicago truncatula seedlings under hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Limami, Anis M; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Ricoult, Claudie; Cliquet, Jean-Bernard; Planchet, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The modulation of primary nitrogen metabolism by hypoxic stress was studied in young Medicago truncatula seedlings. Hypoxic seedlings were characterized by the up-regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) and mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase (mAlaAT), and down-regulation of glutamine synthetase 1b (GS1b), NADH-glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase 3 (GDH3), and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) gene expression. Hypoxic stress severely inhibited GS activity and stimulated NADH-GOGAT activity. GDH activity was lower in hypoxic seedlings than in the control, however, under either normoxia or hypoxia, the in vivo activity was directed towards glutamate deamination. (15)NH(4) labelling showed for the first time that the adaptive reaction of the plant to hypoxia consisted of a concerted modulation of nitrogen flux through the pathways of both alanine and glutamate synthesis. In hypoxic seedlings, newly synthesized (15)N-alanine increased and accumulated as the major amino acid, asparagine synthesis was inhibited, while (15)N-glutamate was synthesized at a similar rate to that in the control. A discrepancy between the up-regulation of GDH1 expression and the down-regulation of GDH activity by hypoxic stress highlighted for the first time the complex regulation of this enzyme by hypoxia. Higher rates of glycolysis and ethanol fermentation are known to cause the fast depletion of sugar stores and carbon stress. It is proposed that the expression of GDH1 was stimulated by hypoxia-induced carbon stress, while the enzyme protein might be involved during post-hypoxic stress contributing to the regeneration of 2-oxoglutarate via the GDH shunt.

  11. Divergent origins and concerted expansion of two segmental duplications on chromosome 16.

    PubMed

    Eichler, E E; Johnson, M E; Alkan, C; Tuzun, E; Sahinalp, C; Misceo, D; Archidiacono, N; Rocchi, M

    2001-01-01

    An unexpected finding of the human genome was the large fraction of the genome organized as blocks of interspersed duplicated sequence. We provide a comparative and phylogenetic analysis of a highly duplicated region of 16p12.2, which is composed of at least four different segmental duplications spanning in excess of 160 kb. We contrast the dispersal of two different segmental duplications (LCR16a and LCR16u). LCR16a, a 20 kb low-copy repeat sequence A from chromosome 16, was shown previously to contain a rapidly evolving novel hominoid gene family (morpheus) that had expanded within the last 10 million years of great ape/human evolution. We compare the dispersal of this genomic segment with a second adjacent duplication called LCR16u. The duplication contains a second putative gene family (KIAA0220/SMG1) that is represented approximately eight times within the human genome. A high degree of sequence identity (approximately 98%) was observed among the various copies of LCR16u. Comparative analyses with Old World monkey species show that LCR16a and LCR16u originated from two distinct ancestral loci. Within the human genome, at least 70% of the LCR16u copies were duplicated in concert with the LCR16a duplication. In contrast, only 30% of the chimpanzee loci show an association between LCR16a and LCR16u duplications. The data suggest that the two copies of genomic sequence were brought together during the chimpanzee/human divergence and were subsequently duplicated as a larger cassette specifically within the human lineage. The evolutionary history of these two chromosome-specific duplications supports a model of rapid expansion and evolutionary turnover among the genomes of man and the great apes.

  12. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  13. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  14. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  15. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  16. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  17. Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

  18. On Testing the Equality of Proportions in the Paired Case with Incomplete Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekbohm, Gunnar

    1982-01-01

    The problem of testing two correlated proportions with incomplete data is considered by means of Monte Carlo simulations studies. A test proposed in this paper, which can be regarded as a generalization of McNemar's test, is recommended in all cases with incomplete data and not too small samples. (Author)

  19. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 223.230 Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. In any... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and...

  20. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 223.230 Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. In any... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and...

  1. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.230 Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and...

  2. Desorption of hydrogen from light metal hydrides: concerted electronic rearrangement and role of H···H interactions.

    PubMed

    Wolstenholme, David J; Roy, Matthew M D; Thomas, Michael E; McGrady, G Sean

    2014-04-14

    A theoretical study of the desorption of hydrogen from rhombic Group 1 metal hydride dimers reveals a concerted reorganisation of the electron density for the M-H and H-H moieties as the reaction coordinate is traversed and a closed-shell H···H interaction evolves into a covalent H2 bond. The central role played by homopolar dihydrogen bonding in this process is revealed and analysed.

  3. Concerted molecular displacements in a thermally-induced solid-state transformation in crystals of DL-norleucine.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Jamshed; Tuble, Sigrid C; Kendrick, John

    2007-03-07

    Martensitic transformations are of considerable technological importance, a particularly promising application being the possibility of using martensitic materials, possibly proteins, as tiny machines. For organic crystals, however, a molecular level understanding of such transformations is lacking. We have studied a martensitic-type transformation in crystals of the amino acid DL-norleucine using molecular dynamics simulation. The crystal structures of DL-norleucine comprise stacks of bilayers (formed as a result of strong hydrogen bonding) that translate relative to each other on transformation. The simulations reveal that the transformation occurs by concerted molecular displacements involving entire bilayers rather than on a molecule-by-molecule basis. These observations can be rationalized on the basis that at sufficiently high excess temperatures, the free energy barriers to concerted molecular displacements can be overcome by the available thermal energy. Furthermore, in displacive transformations, the molecular displacements can occur by the propagation of a displacement wave (akin to a kink in a carpet), which requires the molecules to overcome only a local barrier. Concerted molecular displacements are therefore considered to be a significant feature of all displacive transformations. This finding is expected to be of value toward developing strategies for controlling or modulating martensitic-type transformations.

  4. Variational transition state theory calculations of tunneling effects on concerted hydrogen motion in water clusters and formaldehyde/water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, B.C. ); Melius, C.F. )

    1990-08-01

    The direct participation of water molecules in aqueous phase reaction processes has been postulated to occur via both single-step mechanisms as well as concerted hydrogen atom or proton shifts. In the present work, simple prototypes of concerted hydrogen atom transfer processes are examined for small hydrogen-bonded water clusters -- cyclic trimers and tetramers -- and hydrogen-bonded clusters of formaldehyde with one and two water molecules. Rate constants for the rearrangement processes are computed using variational transition state theory, accounting for quantum mechanical tunneling effects by semiclassical ground-state adiabatic transmission coefficients. The variational transition state theory calculations directly utilize selected information about the potential energy surface along the minimum energy path as parameters of the reaction path Hamiltonian. The potential energy information is obtained from ab ignite electronic structure calculations with an empirical bond additivity correction (the BAC-MP4 method). Tunneling is found to be very important for these concerted rearrangement processes -- the semiclassical ground-state adiabatic transmission coefficients are estimated to be as high as four order of magnitude at room temperature. Effects of the size of the cluster (number of water molecules in the cyclic complex) are also dramatic -- addition of a water molecule is seen to change the calculated rates by orders of magnitude. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

  6. Influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion: Observation of a large incomplete fusion fraction at E {approx_equal}5-7 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B. P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati,; Singh, Devendra P.; Prasad, R.; Kumar, Rakesh; Golda, K. S.

    2008-01-15

    Experiments have been carried out to explore the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies. Excitation functions for {sup 168}Lu{sup m}, {sup 167}Lu, {sup 167}Yb, {sup 166}Tm, {sup 179}Re, {sup 177}Re, {sup 177}W, {sup 178}Ta, and {sup 177}Hf radio-nuclides populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 159}Tb and {sup 169}Tm have been studied over the wide projectile energy range E{sub proj}{approx_equal}75-95 MeV. Recoil-catcher technique followed by off-line {gamma}-spectrometry has been employed in the present measurements. Experimental data have been compared with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE2. The experimentally measured production cross sections of {alpha}-emitting channels were found to be larger as compared to the theoretical model predictions and may be attributed to incomplete fusion at these energies. During the analysis of experimental data, incomplete fusion has been found to be competing with complete fusion. As such, an attempt has been made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for both the systems, and has been found to be sensitive for projectile energy and mass asymmetry of interacting partners.

  7. Resolution of concerted versus sequential mechanisms in photo-induced double-proton transfer reaction in 7-azaindole H-bonded dimer

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Javier; del Valle, Juan Carlos; Kasha, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical bases for a synchronous or concerted double-proton transfer in centro-symmetric H-bonded electronically excited molecular dimers are presented. The prototype model is the 7-azaindole dimer. New research offers confirmation of a concerted mechanism for excited-state biprotonic transfer. Recent femtosecond photoionization and coulombic explosion techniques have given rise to time-of-flight MS observations suggesting sequential two-step biprotonic transfer for the same dimer. We interpret the overall species observed in the time-of-flight experiments as explicable without conflict with the concerted mechanism of proton transfer. PMID:10411876

  8. Habitat heterogeneity, disturbance, and productivity work in concert to regulate biodiversity in deep submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Barry, James P

    2010-04-01

    Habitat heterogeneity is a major structuring agent of ecological assemblages promoting beta diversity and ultimately contributing to overall higher global diversity. The exact processes by which heterogeneity increases diversity are scale dependent and encompass variation in other well-known processes, e.g., productivity, disturbance, and temperature. Thus, habitat heterogeneity likely triggers multiple and cascading diversity effects through ecological assemblages. Submarine canyons, a pervasive feature of the world's oceans, likely increase habitat heterogeneity at multiple spatial scales similar to their terrestrial analogues. However, our understanding of how processes regulating diversity, and the potential for cascading effects within these important topographic features, remains incomplete. Utilizing remote-operated vehicles (ROVs) for coring and video transects, we quantified faunal turnover in the deep-sea benthos at a rarely examined scale (1 m-1 km). Macrofaunal community structure, megafaunal density, carbon flux, and sediment characteristics were analyzed for the soft-bottom benthos at the base of cliff faces in Monterey Canyon (northeast Pacific Ocean) at three depths. We documented a remarkable degree of faunal turnover and changes in overall community structure at scales < 100 m, and often < 10 m, related to geographic features of a canyon complex. Ultimately, our findings indicated that multiple linked processes related to habitat heterogeneity, ecosystem engineering, and bottom-up dynamics are important to deep-sea biodiversity.

  9. Medical treatments for incomplete miscarriage (less than 24 weeks)

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, James P; Gyte, Gillian ML; Hickey, Martha; Vazquez, Juan C; Dou, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    Background Miscarriage occurs in 10% to 15% of pregnancies. The traditional treatment, after miscarriage, has been to perform surgery to remove any remaining pregnancy tissues in the uterus. However, it has been suggested that drug-based medical treatments, or expectant care (no treatment), may also be effective, safe and acceptable. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of any medical treatment for early incomplete miscarriage (before 24 weeks). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009) and reference lists of retrieved papers. We updated this search on 23 July 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing medical treatment with expectant care or surgery. Quasi-randomised trials were excluded. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Fifteen studies (2750 women) were included, there were no studies on women over 13 weeks’ gestation. Studies addressed a number of comparisons and data are therefore limited. Three trials compared misoprostol treatment (all vaginally administered) with expectant care. There was no significant difference in complete miscarriage (average risk ratio (RR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 2.10; two studies, 150 women), or in the need for surgical evacuation (average RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.26; two studies, 308 women). There were few data on ‘deaths or serious complications’. Nine studies involving 1766 women addressed the comparison of misoprostol (four oral, four vaginal, one vaginal + oral) with surgical evacuation. There was no statistically significant difference in complete miscarriage (average RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, eight studies, 1377 women) with success rate high for both methods

  10. Estimation from incomplete multinomial data. Ph.D. Thesis - Harvard Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    The vector of multinomial cell probabilities was estimated from incomplete data, incomplete in that it contains partially classified observations. Each such partially classified observation was observed to fall in one of two or more selected categories but was not classified further into a single category. The data were assumed to be incomplete at random. The estimation criterion was minimization of risk for quadratic loss. The estimators were the classical maximum likelihood estimate, the Bayesian posterior mode, and the posterior mean. An approximation was developed for the posterior mean. The Dirichlet, the conjugate prior for the multinomial distribution, was assumed for the prior distribution.

  11. Isomer ratio measurements as a probe of the dynamics of breakup and incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Peatey, T.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Newton, J. O.

    2006-12-15

    The incomplete fusion mechanism following breakup of {sup 6,7}Li and {sup 9}Be projectiles incident on targets of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb is investigated through isomer ratio measurements for the {sup 212}At and {sup 211}Po products. The phenomenological analysis presented in this paper indicates that incomplete fusion brings relatively more angular momentum into the system than equivalent reactions with a direct beam of the fused fragment. This is attributed to the trajectories of breakup fragments. Calculations with a 3D classical trajectory model support this. Isomer ratio measurements for incomplete fusion reactions can provide a test of new theoretical models of breakup and fusion.

  12. Physically sound parameterization of incomplete ionization in aluminum-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkemper, Heiko; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Incomplete ionization is an important issue when modeling silicon devices featuring aluminum-doped p+ (Al-p+) regions. Aluminum has a rather deep state in the band gap compared to boron or phosphorus, causing strong incomplete ionization. In this paper, we considerably improve our recent parameterization [Steinkemper et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 074504 (2015)]. On the one hand, we found a fundamental criterion to further reduce the number of free parameters in our fitting procedure. And on the other hand, we address a mistake in the original publication of the incomplete ionization formalism in Altermatt et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113715 (2006).

  13. Concerted proton-coupled electron transfers in aquo/hydroxo/oxo metal complexes: Electrochemistry of [OsII(bpy)2py(OH2)]2+ in water

    PubMed Central

    Costentin, Cyrille; Robert, Marc; Savéant, Jean-Michel; Teillout, Anne-Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of the successive oxidative cyclic voltammetric responses of [OsII(bpy)2py(OH2)]2+ in buffered water, together with determination of H/D isotope effects, has allowed the determination of the mechanisms of the successive proton-coupled electron transfers that convert the OsII-aquo complex into the OsIII-hydroxo complex and the later into the OsIV-oxo complex. The stepwise pathways prevail over the concerted pathway in the first case. However, very large concentrations of a base, such as acetate, trigger the beginning of a concerted reaction. The same trend appears, but to a much larger extent, when high local concentration of carboxylates are attached close to the Os complex. The OsIII-hydroxo/OsIV-oxo couple is globally much slower and concerted pathways predominate over the stepwise pathways. Water is, however, not an appropriate proton acceptor in this respect. Other bases, such as citrate or phosphate, are instead quite effective for triggering concerted pathways. Here, we suggest factors causing these contrasting behaviors, providing a practical illustration of the prediction that concerted processes are an efficient way of avoiding high-energy intermediates. Observation of a strong decelerating effect of inactive ions together with the positive role of high local concentrations of carboxylates to initiate a concerted route underscores the variety of structural and medium factors that may operate to modulate and control the occurrence of concerted pathways. These demonstrations and analyses of the occurrence of concerted pathways in an aquo–hydroxo–oxo series are expected to serve as guidelines for studies in term of methodology and factor analysis. PMID:19584254

  14. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  15. Numerical evaluation of the incomplete airy functions and their application to high frequency scattering and diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The incomplete Airy integrals serve as canonical functions for the uniform ray optical solutions to several high frequency scattering and diffraction problems that involve a class of integrals characterized by two stationary points that are arbitrarily close to one another or to an integration endpoint. Integrals of such analytical properties describe transition region phenomena associated with composite shadow boundaries. An efficient and accurate method for computing the incomplete Airy functions would make the solutions to such problems useful for engineering purposes. Here, a convergent series solution form for the incomplete Airy functions is derived. Asymptotic expansions involving several terms were also developed and serve as large argument approximations. The combination of the series solution form with the asymptotic formulae provides for an efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions. Validation of accuracy is accomplished using direct numerical integration data.

  16. Incomplete deployment of the Vena Tech LP filter--case series and concerns.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Sohail; Esmaeili, Azadeh; Reina, Diego; Deitch, Edwin

    2011-05-01

    The Vena Tech LP vena cava filter (B Braun, Evanston, Illinois) has been FDA approved since 2001 and is a permanent vena cava filtration device. It replaced the previous Vena tech LGM filter also manufactured by B Braun. The LGM filter had 2 case series reporting a high incidence of incomplete deployment of the filter, especially when placed from a jugular approach. Design changes were made to this device and the LP filter introduced. The LP filter has also been reported to have incompletely deployed both in peer reviewed literature as well as the FDA MAUDE website. We present here 3 cases of incomplete deployment of the Vena Tech LP filter and review the cases previously described as well as attempt to present possible etiologies for incomplete deployment.

  17. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  18. Coincidence of Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell and Meningomyelocele in a Dizygotic Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Timur, Hakan; Tokmak, Aytekin; Bayram, Hatice; Şükran Çakar, Esra; Danışman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell is an extremely rare and lethal syndrome. Ectopia cordis is frequently found in fetuses with POC but not required for incomplete forms. Likewise, meningomyelocele is a relatively uncommon neural tube defect affecting central nervous system and associated with neurological problems. Herein, we presented a woman with dizygotic twin pregnancy having coincidence of incomplete POC and MMC in each individual fetus, which has never been reported previously. PMID:26421202

  19. The incomplete inverse and its applications to the linear least squares problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morduch, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    A modified matrix product is explained, and it is shown that this product defiles a group whose inverse is called the incomplete inverse. It was proven that the incomplete inverse of an augmented normal matrix includes all the quantities associated with the least squares solution. An answer is provided to the problem that occurs when the data residuals are too large and when insufficient data to justify augmenting the model are available.

  20. Direct Estimation of the Surface Location of Immobilized Functional Groups for Concerted Catalysis Using a Probe Molecule.

    PubMed

    Noda, Hiroto; Motokura, Ken; Wakabayashi, Yusuke; Sasaki, Kaori; Tajiri, Hiroo; Miyaji, Akimitsu; Yamaguchi, Sho; Baba, Toshihide

    2016-04-04

    The location of active sites during concerted catalysis by a metal complex and tertiary amine on a SiO2 surface is discussed based on the interaction between the functionalized SiO2 surface and a probe molecule, p-formyl phenylboronic acid. The interactions of the probe molecule with the surface functionalities, diamine ligand, and tertiary amine, were analyzed by FT-IR and solid-state (13)C and (11)B MAS NMR. For the catalyst exhibiting high 1,4-addition activity, the diamine ligand and tertiary amine base exist in closer proximity than in the catalyst with low activity.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of one- and two-step incomplete and complete excavations.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S; Dörfer, C E

    2013-10-01

    The treatment of deep caries lesions carries significant risks for the integrity of the pulp and often initiates a cascade of re-interventions. Incomplete caries removal may reduce these risks and avoid or delay re-treatment. The present study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of one- and two-step incomplete as well as complete excavations. We used Markov models to simulate treatment of a molar tooth with a deep caries lesion in a 15-year-old patient. Retention of the tooth and its vitality as effectiveness measures as well as accruing costs were analyzed over the patient's lifetime. The model adopted a public-private-payer perspective within German health care. Transition probabilities were calculated based on literature reviews. Monte-Carlo microsimulations were performed with 6-month cycles. One-step incomplete excavation resulted in lower long-term costs and in longer-retained teeth and their vitality (means: 53.5 and 41.0 yrs) compared with two-step incomplete (52.5 and 37.5 yrs) and complete excavations (49.5 and 31.0 yrs), and dominated the other strategies in 70% to 100% of simulations. Regardless of the assumed willingness-to-pay ceiling value, one-step incomplete excavation had the highest probability of being cost-effective. Despite limited evidence levels of input data, we expect one-step incomplete excavation to reduce costs while retaining deeply carious teeth and their vitality for longer.

  2. Estimate of true incomplete exchanges using fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the frequency of true incomplete exchanges in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma-rays. Chromosome aberrations were studied using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome-specific probes, together with human telomere probes. Chromosomes 2 and 4 were chosen in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of incomplete exchanges was 27% when telomere signals were not considered. After excluding false incomplete exchanges identified by the telomere signals, the percentage of incomplete exchanges decreased to 11%. Since telomere signals appear on about 82% of the telomeres, the percentage of true incomplete exchanges should be even lower and was estimated to be 3%. This percentage was similar for chromosomes 2 and 4 and for doses of both 2 Gy and 5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of true incomplete exchanges is significantly lower in gamma-irradiated human lymphocytes than the frequencies reported in the literature.

  3. Concerted stimuli regulating osteo-chondral differentiation from stem cells: phenotype acquisition regulated by microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Gordeladze, Jan O; Djouad, Farida; Brondello, Jean-Marc; Noël, Daniele; Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Apparailly, Florence; Jorgensen, Christian

    2009-10-01

    Bone and cartilage are being generated de novo through concerted actions of a plethora of signals. These act on stem cells (SCs) recruited for lineage-specific differentiation, with cellular phenotypes representing various functions throughout their life span. The signals are rendered by hormones and growth factors (GFs) and mechanical forces ensuring proper modelling and remodelling of bone and cartilage, due to indigenous and programmed metabolism in SCs, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, as well as osteoclasts and other cell types (eg T helper cells).This review focuses on the concerted action of such signals, as well as the regulatory and/or stabilizing control circuits rendered by a class of small RNAs, designated microRNAs. The impact on cell functions evoked by transcription factors (TFs) via various signalling molecules, also encompassing mechanical stimulation, will be discussed featuring microRNAs as important members of an integrative system. The present approach to cell differentiation in vitro may vastly influence cell engineering for in vivo tissue repair.

  4. Concerted stimuli regulating osteo-chondral differentiation from stem cells: phenotype acquisition regulated by microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gordeladze, Jan O; Djouad, Farida; Brondello, Jean-Marc; Noël, Daniele; Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Apparailly, Florence; Jorgensen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Bone and cartilage are being generated de novo through concerted actions of a plethora of signals. These act on stem cells (SCs) recruited for lineage-specific differentiation, with cellular phenotypes representing various functions throughout their life span. The signals are rendered by hormones and growth factors (GFs) and mechanical forces ensuring proper modelling and remodelling of bone and cartilage, due to indigenous and programmed metabolism in SCs, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, as well as osteoclasts and other cell types (eg T helper cells). This review focuses on the concerted action of such signals, as well as the regulatory and/or stabilizing control circuits rendered by a class of small RNAs, designated microRNAs. The impact on cell functions evoked by transcription factors (TFs) via various signalling molecules, also encompassing mechanical stimulation, will be discussed featuring microRNAs as important members of an integrative system. The present approach to cell differentiation in vitro may vastly influence cell engineering for in vivo tissue repair. PMID:19801995

  5. Incomplete resection rate of cold snare polypectomy: a prospective single-arm observational study.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Noriko; Takeuchi, Yoji; Yamashina, Takeshi; Ito, Takashi; Aoi, Kenji; Nagai, Kengo; Kanesaka, Takashi; Matsui, Fumi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ito, Yuri; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Uedo, Noriya

    2017-03-01

    Background and study aims Cold snare polypectomy (CSP) is considered to be safe for the removal of subcentimeter colorectal polyps. This study aimed to determine the rate of incomplete CSP resection for subcentimeter neoplastic polyps at our center. Patients and methods Patients with small or diminutive adenomas (diameter 1 - 9 mm) were recruited to undergo CSP until no polyp was visible. After CSP, a 1 - 3 mm margin around the resection site was removed using endoscopic mucosal resection. The polyps and resection site marginal specimens were microscopically evaluated. Incomplete resection was defined as the presence of neoplastic tissue in the marginal specimen. We also calculated the frequency at which the polyp lateral margins could be assessed for completeness of resection. Results A total of 307 subcentimeter neoplastic polyps were removed from 120 patients. The incomplete resection rate was 3.9 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.7 % - 6.1 %); incomplete resection was not associated with polyp size, location, morphology, or operator experience. The polyp lateral margins could not be assessed adequately for 206 polyps (67.1 %). Interobserver agreement between incomplete resection and lateral polyp margins that were inadequate for assessment was poor (κ = 0.029, 95 %CI 0 - 0.04). Female sex was an independent risk factor for incomplete resection (odds ratio 4.41, 95 %CI 1.26 - 15.48; P  = 0.02). Conclusions At our center, CSP resection was associated with a moderate rate of incomplete resection, which was not associated with polyp characteristics. However, adequate evaluation of resection may not be routinely possible using the lateral margin from subcentimeter polyps that were removed using CSP.Trial registered at University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN 000010879).

  6. Series expansions for the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integral Je 0(a, z)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechaik, Mehdi M.; Dvorak, Steven L.

    1995-09-01

    Bessel series expansions are derived for the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integralJe0(a, z). These expansions are obtained by using contour integration techniques to evaluate the inverse Laplace transform representation for Je0(a, z). It is shown that one of the expansions can be used as a convergent series expansion for one definition of the branch cut and as an asymptotic expansion if the branch cut is chosen differently. The effects of the branch cuts are demonstrated by plotting the terms in the series for interesting special cases. The Laplace transform technique used in this paper simplifies the derivation of the series expansions, provides information about the resulting branch cuts, yields integral representations for Je0(a, z), and allows the series expansions to be extended to complex values of z. These series expansions can be used together with the expansions for Ye0(a, z), which are obtained in a separate paper, to compute numerous other special functions, encountered in electromagnetic applications. These include: incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals of the Hankel and modified Bessel form, incomplete cylindrical functions of Poisson form (incomplete Bessel, Struve, Hankel, and Macdonald functions), and incomplete Weber integrals (Lommel functions of two variables).

  7. Bayesian model selection for incomplete data using the posterior predictive distribution.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Michael J; Chatterjee, Arkendu S; Wang, Chenguang

    2012-12-01

    We explore the use of a posterior predictive loss criterion for model selection for incomplete longitudinal data. We begin by identifying a property that most model selection criteria for incomplete data should consider. We then show that a straightforward extension of the Gelfand and Ghosh (1998, Biometrika, 85, 1-11) criterion to incomplete data has two problems. First, it introduces an extra term (in addition to the goodness of fit and penalty terms) that compromises the criterion. Second, it does not satisfy the aforementioned property. We propose an alternative and explore its properties via simulations and on a real dataset and compare it to the deviance information criterion (DIC). In general, the DIC outperforms the posterior predictive criterion, but the latter criterion appears to work well overall and is very easy to compute unlike the DIC in certain classes of models for missing data.

  8. Exploring the potential for neural recovery after incomplete tetraplegia through nonsurgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Backus, Deborah

    2010-12-01

    Persons with tetraplegia resulting from a cervical spinal cord injury believe that increasing upper limb (UL) function will improve their quality of life. Various lines of evidence demonstrate that persons with incomplete tetraplegia have the potential for improvements in both neural plasticity and function of the arms and hands. Therefore treatment to improve UL function in persons with incomplete tetraplegia should focus on improving motor control, not just compensation for the paralysis and sensory loss that follows a spinal cord injury. This article highlights the principles that underlie the facilitation of neural plasticity and functional changes: intensity, repeated practice, attention, and somatosensory augmentation. Evidence is presented for the application of these principles through the use of activity-based interventions in persons with tetraplegia and the hypothesis is proposed that the use of activity-based interventions will lead to greater, more beneficial neural plasticity as well as gains in UL function, in persons with incomplete tetraplegia.

  9. Workshop on Incomplete Network Data Held at Sandia National Labs – Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Soundarajan, Sucheta; Wendt, Jeremy D.

    2016-06-01

    While network analysis is applied in a broad variety of scientific fields (including physics, computer science, biology, and the social sciences), how networks are constructed and the resulting bias and incompleteness have drawn more limited attention. For example, in biology, gene networks are typically developed via experiment -- many actual interactions are likely yet to be discovered. In addition to this incompleteness, the data-collection processes can introduce significant bias into the observed network datasets. For instance, if you observe part of the World Wide Web network through a classic random walk, then high degree nodes are more likely to be found than if you had selected nodes at random. Unfortunately, such incomplete and biasing data collection methods must be often used.

  10. Regression with incomplete covariates and left-truncated time-to-event data.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua; Cook, Richard J

    2013-03-15

    Studies of chronic diseases routinely sample individuals subject to conditions on an event time of interest. In epidemiology, for example, prevalent cohort studies aiming to evaluate risk factors for survival following onset of dementia require subjects to have survived to the point of screening. In clinical trials designed to assess the effect of experimental cancer treatments on survival, patients are required to survive from the time of cancer diagnosis to recruitment. Such conditions yield samples featuring left-truncated event time distributions. Incomplete covariate data often arise in such settings, but standard methods do not deal with the fact that individuals' covariate distributions are also affected by left truncation. We describe an expectation-maximization algorithm for dealing with incomplete covariate data in such settings, which uses the covariate distribution conditional on the selection criterion. We describe an extension to deal with subgroup analyses in clinical trials for the case in which the stratification variable is incompletely observed.

  11. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  12. Experimental study of incomplete oxidation of methane in a ring channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. V.; Vitovsky, O. V.; Gasenko, O. A.

    2007-09-01

    Chemical transformations at incomplete methane oxidation in the air medium were studied experimentally at reaction activation on the wall of an annular microchannel. Methane was oxidized incompletely on a rhodium catalyst deposited on an inner wall of the channel. Concentrations of the products of chemical transformations were measured in the outlet gas mixture for different reactor temperatures and stay times. We have determined the range of channel wall temperatures and stay times of the mixture corresponding to an increase in the portion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide indicating transition from predominant methane combustion to cascade chemical reactions with activation of steam and carbon dioxide methane conversions. It is shown that the kinetic model of chemical transformations of methane in the air medium depends significantly on the temperature of channel walls and stay time of the mixture. The effect of outer diffusion deceleration on the rate of chemical transformations at incomplete methane oxidation under the strained conditions is determined.

  13. Design of incomplete derivative fuzzy PID control system for fast-steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Zhiwei; Tan, Yi; Wu, Qiongyan; Ren, Ge; Tan, Yufen; Zhu, Nengbing; Zhu, Fuyin

    2016-10-01

    The structure parameters of fast-steering mirror (FSM) might change with time goes by. In order to reduce the impact of this change on the output performance of FSM system, an incomplete derivative fuzzy PID control system is proposed. This control system can effectively improve the time domain quality of FSM system by optimizing the PID control parameters online. First, the dynamic model of FSM is established. Second, the initial parameters of the incomplete derivative PID control system are designed according to the frequency domain quality of the closed-loop system. Then, the rules and related factors of the fuzzy controller are designed on the basis of the initial parameters. Finally, simulation experiments are carried out. The results show that the incomplete derivative PID control system has shorter adjustment time, less overshoot and lower dependence on the parameters of FSM when compared with the fixed parameters PID control system.

  14. Multiplicative consistency-based decision support system for incomplete linguistic preference relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Meimei; Xu, Zeshui; Wang, Zhong

    2014-03-01

    The experts may have difficulty in expressing all their preferences over alternatives or criteria, and produce the incomplete linguistic preference relation. Consistency plays an important role in estimating unknown values from an incomplete linguistic preference relation. Many methods have been developed to obtain a complete linguistic preference relation based on additive consistency, but some unreasonable values may be produced in the estimation process. To overcome this issue, we propose a new characterisation about multiplicative consistency of the linguistic preference relation, present an algorithm to estimate missing values from an incomplete linguistic preference relation, and establish a decision support system for aiding the experts to complete their linguistic preference relations in a more consistent way. Some examples are also given to illustrate the proposed methods.

  15. Polarized localization of voltage-gated Na+ channels is regulated by concerted FGF13 and FGF14 action.

    PubMed

    Pablo, Juan Lorenzo; Wang, Chaojian; Presby, Matthew M; Pitt, Geoffrey S

    2016-05-10

    Clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) within the neuronal axon initial segment (AIS) is critical for efficient action potential initiation. Although initially inserted into both somatodendritic and axonal membranes, VGSCs are concentrated within the axon through mechanisms that include preferential axonal targeting and selective somatodendritic endocytosis. How the endocytic machinery specifically targets somatic VGSCs is unknown. Here, using knockdown strategies, we show that noncanonical FGF13 binds directly to VGSCs in hippocampal neurons to limit their somatodendritic surface expression, although exerting little effect on VGSCs within the AIS. In contrast, homologous FGF14, which is highly concentrated in the proximal axon, binds directly to VGSCs to promote their axonal localization. Single-point mutations in FGF13 or FGF14 abrogating VGSC interaction in vitro cannot support these specific functions in neurons. Thus, our data show how the concerted actions of FGF13 and FGF14 regulate the polarized localization of VGSCs that supports efficient action potential initiation.

  16. SiCN nanofibers with a diameter below 100 nm synthesized via concerted block copolymer formation, microphase separation, and crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Saravana K T; Kretschmer, Winfried P; Denner, Christine; Motz, Günter; Hund, Markus; Fery, Andreas; Trebbin, Martin; Förster, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2013-04-08

    SiCN fibers with a mean diameter of 50 nm and an aspect ratio of up to 100 are produced in a two-step process by R. Kempe and co-workers. The key step to fabricate the longitudinal and cross-sectional views of the mesofibers shown here is a concerted block-copolymer synthesis, microphase separation, and cross linking at 140 °C followed by pyrolysis at 1100 °C. Inexpensive components like a commercially available silazane and polyethylene are linked. The fibers may find application in electronic devices, as components of ceramic matrix composites, as fiber beds in high-temperature nano-filtering like diesel fine dust removal, or as thermally robust and chemically inert catalyst supports. Furthermore, the SiCN nanofibers introduced on page 984 are a promising alternative to ultrathin carbon fibers, due to their oxidation resistance.

  17. Polarized localization of voltage-gated Na+ channels is regulated by concerted FGF13 and FGF14 action

    PubMed Central

    Pablo, Juan Lorenzo; Wang, Chaojian; Presby, Matthew M.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) within the neuronal axon initial segment (AIS) is critical for efficient action potential initiation. Although initially inserted into both somatodendritic and axonal membranes, VGSCs are concentrated within the axon through mechanisms that include preferential axonal targeting and selective somatodendritic endocytosis. How the endocytic machinery specifically targets somatic VGSCs is unknown. Here, using knockdown strategies, we show that noncanonical FGF13 binds directly to VGSCs in hippocampal neurons to limit their somatodendritic surface expression, although exerting little effect on VGSCs within the AIS. In contrast, homologous FGF14, which is highly concentrated in the proximal axon, binds directly to VGSCs to promote their axonal localization. Single-point mutations in FGF13 or FGF14 abrogating VGSC interaction in vitro cannot support these specific functions in neurons. Thus, our data show how the concerted actions of FGF13 and FGF14 regulate the polarized localization of VGSCs that supports efficient action potential initiation. PMID:27044086

  18. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  19. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears.

    PubMed

    Ushenko, Yu A

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients--healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer--is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  20. Stepwise Excavation Allows Apexogenesis in Permanent Molars with Deep Carious Lesions and Incomplete Root Formation.

    PubMed

    Hernandéz-Gatón, Patrícia; Serrano, César Ruiz; Nelson Filho, Paulo; De Castañeda, Esther Ruiz; Lucisano, Marília P; Silva, Raquel A B da; Silva, Léa A B da

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the stepwise excavation technique in 138 permanent molars with deep carious lesions and incomplete root formation within a 24-month clinical and radiographic follow-up period. In 96.7% of the cases, success was observed (no pain, integrity of restoration margins, absence of radiographic alterations and apexogenesis). The cases of failure (3.3%) were due to the loss of the temporary restoration. In conclusion, the stepwise excavation is a promising technique for permanent teeth with deep carious lesions and incomplete root formation as a minimally invasive approach because it allows the preservation of pulp vitality and occurrence of apexogenesis.

  1. Graph Embedding Techniques for Bounding Condition Numbers of Incomplete Factor Preconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guattery, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    We extend graph embedding techniques for bounding the spectral condition number of preconditioned systems involving symmetric, irreducibly diagonally dominant M-matrices to systems where the preconditioner is not diagonally dominant. In particular, this allows us to bound the spectral condition number when the preconditioner is based on an incomplete factorization. We provide a review of previous techniques, describe our extension, and give examples both of a bound for a model problem, and of ways in which our techniques give intuitive way of looking at incomplete factor preconditioners.

  2. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sabir; Ahmad, Tauseeef; Kumar, Kamal; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Chaubey, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ≈ 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs) populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  3. Spontaneous Regression of Aneurysm Remnant after Incomplete Surgical Clipping in a Patient with Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyo Sub; Ahn, JunHyong; Song, Joon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Cases of spontaneous regression of cerebral aneurysm remnant after incomplete surgical clipping have been rarely reported. This paper reports the regression of an aneurysm remnant after incomplete surgical clipping during postsurgical follow-up. A 50-year-old male presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage because of rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. An emergency clipping of the aneurysm was performed. A cerebral angiography, which was performed two weeks postoperatively, revealed an aneurysm remnant. The patient refused additional treatment and was discharged without apparent neurological deficit. One-year follow up cerebral angiography demonstrated a partially regressed aneurysm remnant. PMID:28184353

  4. Dependence of low energy incomplete fusion on projectile's α-Q-value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Kumar, P.; Shuaib, Mohd; Sharma, Vijay R.; Bala, Indu; Singh, D. P.; Gupta, Sunita; Gupta, U.; Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2015-06-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the effect of entrance-channel parameters on low-energy incomplete fusion and a strong projectile dependence in terms of projectile's α-Q-value has been observed. In the present work, the excitation functions of 16O,13,12C+159Tb systems have been measured and compared with PACE4 predictions to study the involvement of different reaction processes. The strength of incomplete fusion reactions for all the studied systems have been extraced and compared to find out the systematics.

  5. Concerted O atom–proton transfer in the O—O bond forming step in water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J.; Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao; Hoertz, Paul G.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As the terminal step in photosystem II, and a potential half-reaction for artificial photosynthesis, water oxidation (2H2O → O2 + 4e- + 4H+) is key, but it imposes a significant mechanistic challenge with requirements for both 4e-/4H+ loss and O—O bond formation. Significant progress in water oxidation catalysis has been achieved recently by use of single-site Ru metal complex catalysts such as [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine]. When oxidized from to RuV = O3+, these complexes undergo O—O bond formation by O-atom attack on a H2O molecule, which is often the rate-limiting step. Microscopic details of O—O bond formation have been explored by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations the results of which provide detailed insight into mechanism and a strategy for enhancing catalytic rates. It utilizes added bases as proton acceptors and concerted atom–proton transfer (APT) with O-atom transfer to the O atom of a water molecule in concert with proton transfer to the base (B). Base catalyzed APT reactivity in water oxidation is observed both in solution and on the surfaces of oxide electrodes derivatized by attached phosphonated metal complex catalysts. These results have important implications for catalytic, electrocatalytic, and photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation. PMID:20360565

  6. Concerted O atom-proton transfer in the O—O bond forming step in water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier C.; Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao; Hoertz, Paul G.; Meyer, Thomas J

    2010-04-20

    As the terminal step in photosystem II, and a potential half-reaction for artificial photosynthesis, water oxidation (2H2O → O2 + 4e- + 4H+) is key, but it imposes a significant mechanistic challenge with requirements for both 4e-/4H- loss and O—O bond formation. Significant progress in water oxidation catalysis has been achieved recently by use of single-site Ru metal complex catalysts such as [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine]. When oxidized from RuII-OH22+ to RuV = O3+, these complexes undergo O—O bond formation by O-atom attack on a H2O molecule, which is often the rate-limiting step. Microscopic details of O—O bond formation have been explored by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations the results of which provide detailed insight into mechanism and a strategy for enhancing catalytic rates. It utilizes added bases as proton acceptors and concerted atom–proton transfer (APT) with O-atom transfer to the O atom of a water molecule in concert with proton transfer to the base (B). Base catalyzed APT reactivity in water oxidation is observed both in solution and on the surfaces of oxide electrodes derivatized by attached phosphonated metal complex catalysts. These results have important implications for catalytic, electrocatalytic, and photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation.

  7. Intersubunit Concerted Cooperative and cis-Type Mechanisms Modulate Allosteric Gating in Two-Pore-Domain Potassium Channel TREK-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Ren-Gong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Hai-Tao; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Quan; Wei, Xiao-Li; Ma, Xiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In response to diverse stimuli, two-pore-domain potassium channel TREK-2 regulates cellular excitability, and hence plays a key role in mediating neuropathic pain, mood disorders and ischemia through. Although more and more input modalities are found to achieve their modulations via acting on the channel, the potential role of subunit interaction in these modulations remains to be explored. In the current study, the deletion (lack of proximal C-terminus, ΔpCt) or point mutation (G312A) was introduced into TREK-2 subunits to limit K+ conductance and used to report subunit stoichiometry. The constructs were then combined with wild type (WT) subunit to produce concatenated dimers with defined composition, and the gating kinetics of these channels to 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and extracellular pH (pHo) were characterized. Our results show that combination of WT and ΔpCt/G312A subunits reserves similar gating properties to that of WT dimmers, suggesting that the WT subunit exerts dominant and positive effects on the mutated one, and thus the two subunits controls channel gating via a concerted cooperative manner. Further introduction of ΔpCt into the latter subunit of heterodimeric channel G312A-WT or G312A-G312A attenuated their sensitivity to 2-APB and pHo alkalization, implicating that these signals were transduced by a cis-type mechanism. Together, our findings elucidate the mechanisms for how the two subunits control the pore gating of TREK-2, in which both intersubunit concerted cooperative and cis-type manners modulate the allosteric regulations induced by 2-APB and pHo alkalization. PMID:27242438

  8. Molecular characterization and concerted evolution of two genes encoding RING-C2 type proteins in rice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Gyo; Lim, Sung Don; Hwang, Sun-Goo; Jang, Cheol Seong

    2012-08-15

    RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger proteins are believed to play a critical role in mediating the transfer of ubiquitin to heterogeneous substrate(s). While the two canonical types, RING-H2 and RING-HC, have been well-characterized, the molecular functions of the modified types, particularly the RING-C2 types, remain elusive. We isolated two rice genes harboring the RING-C2 domain on the distal parts of rice chromosomes 11 and 12, termed OsRINGC2-1 and OsRINGC2-2, respectively. A comparison of sequence divergences between 10 duplicate pairs on the distal parts of rice chromosomes 11 and 12 and randomly selected duplicate pairs suggested that OsRINGC2-1 and OsRINGC2-2 have evolved in concert via gene conversion. An in vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that both proteins possess E3 ligase activity, suggesting that the innate functions of these RING domains have not been affected by their modifications during evolution. Subcellular localizations were strikingly different; OsRINGC2-1 was found only in the cytoplasm with many punctate complexes, whereas OsRINGC2-2 was observed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The expression patterns of both genes showed striking differences in response to salt stress, whereas plants heterogeneous for both genes mediated salt tolerance in Arabidopsis, supporting the notion of concerted evolution. These results shed light on the molecular functions of OsRINGC2-1 and OsRINGC2-2 and provide insight into their molecular evolution.

  9. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Esboui, Mounir

    2015-07-21

    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″({sup 1}πσ{sup ∗}) and A′({sup 1}nσ{sup ∗}) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A′({sup 1}ππ{sup ∗}) and A″({sup 1}nπ{sup ∗}) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two {sup 1}ππ{sup ∗}-{sup 1}πσ{sup ∗} conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect.

  10. Evidence of positive selection and concerted evolution in the rapidly evolving PRDM9 zinc finger domain in goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, S; Sharma, P; Sharma, R; Arora, R; Verma, N K; Brahma, B; Mishra, P; De, S

    2016-12-01

    Meiotic recombination contributes to augmentation of genetic diversity, exclusion of deleterious alleles and proper segregation of chromatids. PRDM9 has been identified as the gene responsible for specifying the location of recombination hotspots during meiosis and is also the only known vertebrate gene associated with reproductive isolation between species. PRDM9 encodes a protein with a highly variable zinc finger (ZF) domain that varies between as well as within species. In the present study, the ZF domain of PRDM9 on chromosome 1 was characterized for the first time in 15 goat breeds and 25 sheep breeds of India. A remarkable variation in the number and sequence of ZF domains was observed. The number of ZF repeats in the ZF array varied from eight to 12 yielding five homozygous and 10 heterozygous genotypes. The number of different ZF domains was 84 and 52 producing 36 and 26 unique alleles in goats and sheep respectively. The posterior mean of dN/dS or omega values were calculated using the codeml tool of pamlx to identify amino acids that are evolving positively in goats and sheep, as positions -1, +3 and +6 in the ZF domain have been reported to experience strong positive selection across different lineages. Our study identified sites -5, -1, +3, +4 and +6 to be experiencing positive selection. Small ruminant zinc fingers were also found to be evolving under concerted evolution. Our results demonstrate the existence of a vast diversity of PRDM9 in goats and sheep, which is in concert with reports in many metazoans.

  11. Top-down Proteomics Reveals Concerted Reductions in Myofilament and Z-disc Protein Phosphorylation after Acute Myocardial Infarction*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Valeja, Santosh G.; Zhang, Han; Cai, Wenxuan; Chen, Yi-Chen; Guner, Huseyin; Chen, Albert J.; Schwahn, Denise J.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Liu, Xiaowen; Ge, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is most often precipitated by myocardial infarction. However, the molecular changes driving cardiac dysfunction immediately after myocardial infarction remain poorly understood. Myofilament proteins, responsible for cardiac contraction and relaxation, play critical roles in signal reception and transduction in HF. Post-translational modifications of myofilament proteins afford a mechanism for the beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac function. Thus it is of paramount importance to gain a comprehensive understanding of post-translational modifications of myofilament proteins involved in regulating early molecular events in the post-infarcted myocardium. We have developed a novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based top-down proteomics strategy to comprehensively assess the modifications of key cardiac proteins in the myofilament subproteome extracted from a minimal amount of myocardial tissue with high reproducibility and throughput. The entire procedure, including tissue homogenization, myofilament extraction, and on-line LC/MS, takes less than three hours. Notably, enabled by this novel top-down proteomics technology, we discovered a concerted significant reduction in the phosphorylation of three crucial cardiac proteins in acutely infarcted swine myocardium: cardiac troponin I and myosin regulatory light chain of the myofilaments and, unexpectedly, enigma homolog isoform 2 (ENH2) of the Z-disc. Furthermore, top-down MS allowed us to comprehensively sequence these proteins and pinpoint their phosphorylation sites. For the first time, we have characterized the sequence of ENH2 and identified it as a phosphoprotein. ENH2 is localized at the Z-disc, which has been increasingly recognized for its role as a nodal point in cardiac signaling. Thus our proteomics discovery opens up new avenues for the investigation of concerted signaling between myofilament and Z-disc in the early

  12. Incomplete Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale test scores are the most visible representation of what happens in schools in the U.S. The prevailing notion is that they will tell people most of what they need to know about a school, including the quality of instruction and the effectiveness of the teaching and administrative staff. Americans put credence in test scores despite the…

  13. Back to Basics: Incomplete Knowledge of Differential Object Marking in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Bowles, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The obligatory use of the preposition a with animate, specific direct objects in Spanish ("Juan conoce a Maria" "Juan knows Maria") is a well-known instance of Differential Object Marking (DOM; Torrego, 1998; Leonetti, 2004). Recent studies have documented the loss and/or incomplete acquisition of several grammatical features in Spanish heritage…

  14. TOPSIS-based consensus model for group decision-making with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2014-08-01

    Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises.

  15. Identifying Useful Auxiliary Variables for Incomplete Data Analyses: A Note on a Group Difference Examination Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This research note contributes to the discussion of methods that can be used to identify useful auxiliary variables for analyses of incomplete data sets. A latent variable approach is discussed, which is helpful in finding auxiliary variables with the property that if included in subsequent maximum likelihood analyses they may enhance considerably…

  16. Obtaining Paired Comparisons Data from Multiple Rank Orders Using Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straton, Ralph G.

    1975-01-01

    Complete paired comparisons data was obtained by use of multiple rank order (MRO) in the context of gathering rank order preferences of grade six students, their parents, and teachers for instructional objectives. Partially balanced incomplete block designs with two associate classes were used in the MRO instruments instead of the usual balanced…

  17. Incomplete Reporting: Addressing the Prevalence of Outcome-Reporting Bias in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Brian; Polanin, Joshua; Williams, Ryan; Pigott, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Outcome reporting bias refers to the practice of omitting from primary studies outcomes that were actually collected. When primary studies do not report on all the outcomes assessed, there is an incomplete understanding of a phenomenon that may be compounded when the study is included in a systematic review of research. Outcome reporting bias is…

  18. Double propensity-score adjustment: A solution to design bias or bias due to incomplete matching

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term “bias due to incomplete matching” to describe the bias that can occur when some treated subjects are excluded from the matched sample because no appropriate control subject was available. The presence of incomplete matching raises important questions around the generalizability of estimated treatment effects to the entire population of treated subjects. We describe an analytic solution to address the bias due to incomplete matching. Our method is based on using optimal or nearest neighbor matching, rather than caliper matching (which frequently results in the exclusion of some treated subjects). Within the sample matched on the propensity score, covariate adjustment using the propensity score is then employed to impute missing potential outcomes under lack of treatment for each treated subject. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the proposed method resulted in estimates of treatment effect that were essentially unbiased. This method resulted in decreased bias compared to caliper matching alone and compared to either optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone. Caliper matching alone resulted in design bias or bias due to incomplete matching, while optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone resulted in bias due to residual confounding. The proposed method also tended to result in estimates with decreased mean squared error compared to when caliper matching was used. PMID:25038071

  19. The Devil Is in the Details: Incomplete Reporting in Preclinical Animal Research.

    PubMed

    Avey, Marc T; Moher, David; Sullivan, Katrina J; Fergusson, Dean; Griffin, Gilly; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hutton, Brian; Lalu, Manoj M; Macleod, Malcolm; Marshall, John; Mei, Shirley H J; Rudnicki, Michael; Stewart, Duncan J; Turgeon, Alexis F; McIntyre, Lauralyn

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete reporting of study methods and results has become a focal point for failures in the reproducibility and translation of findings from preclinical research. Here we demonstrate that incomplete reporting of preclinical research is not limited to a few elements of research design, but rather is a broader problem that extends to the reporting of the methods and results. We evaluated 47 preclinical research studies from a systematic review of acute lung injury that use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a treatment. We operationalized the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) reporting guidelines for pre-clinical studies into 109 discrete reporting sub-items and extracted 5,123 data elements. Overall, studies reported less than half (47%) of all sub-items (median 51 items; range 37-64). Across all studies, the Methods Section reported less than half (45%) and the Results Section reported less than a third (29%). There was no association between journal impact factor and completeness of reporting, which suggests that incomplete reporting of preclinical research occurs across all journals regardless of their perceived prestige. Incomplete reporting of methods and results will impede attempts to replicate research findings and maximize the value of preclinical studies.

  20. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  1. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  2. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  3. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  4. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  5. Review of "Incomplete: How Middle Class Schools Aren't Making the Grade". Think Tank Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    "Incomplete: How Middle Class Schools Aren't Making the Grade" is a new report from Third Way, a Washington, D.C.-based policy think tank. The report aims to convince parents, taxpayers and policymakers that they should be as concerned about middle-class schools not making the grade as they are about the failures of the nation's large, poor, urban…

  6. Primary repair of a large incomplete sternal cleft in an asymptomatic infant with Prolene mesh.

    PubMed

    Baqain, Eyad B; Lataifeh, Isam M; Khriesat, Wadah M; Fraiwan, Nayef M; Armooti, Mohamed A

    2008-10-01

    A cleft of the sternum is a rare congenital anomaly, often diagnosed as an asymptomatic condition at birth. We present a case of a large incomplete sternal cleft in a full-term baby boy. Surgical repair of the sternum with the use of Prolene mesh was performed during the neonatal period without cardiac compression.

  7. PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM DIRECT BURNING OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL-TREATED WOOD WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify potential air pollution problems from the combustion of waste wood treated with pentachlorophenol preservative for energy production in a boiler. The study emphasized the characterization of the products of incomplete combustion (PI...

  8. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  9. The Logical Heart of a Classic Proof Revisited: A Guide to Godel's "Incompleteness" Theorems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The study of Kurt Godel's proof of the "incompleteness" of a formal system such as "Principia Mathematica" is a great way to stimulate students' thinking and creative processes and interest in mathematics and its important developments. This article describes salient features of the proof together with ways to deal with potential difficulties for…

  10. The (Il)logical Problem of Heritage Speaker Bilingualism and Incomplete Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabo, Diego Pascual Y.; Rothman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This Forum challenges and problematizes the term "incomplete acquisition," which has been widely used to describe the state of competence of heritage speaker (HS) bilinguals for well over a decade (see, e.g., Montrul, 2008). It is suggested and defended that HS competence, while often different from monolingual peers, is in fact not incomplete…

  11. 15 CFR 30.47 - Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete manifest. 30.47 Section 30.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  12. 15 CFR 30.47 - Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete manifest. 30.47 Section 30.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  13. 15 CFR 30.47 - Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete manifest. 30.47 Section 30.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  14. SparseNCA: Sparse Network Component Analysis for Recovering Transcription Factor Activities with Incomplete Prior Information.

    PubMed

    Noor, Amina; Ahmad, Aitzaz; Serpedin, Erchin

    2015-10-27

    Network component analysis (NCA) is an important method for inferring transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) and recovering transcription factor activities (TFAs) using gene expression data, and the prior information about the connectivity matrix. The algorithms currently available crucially depend on the completeness of this prior information. However, inaccuracies in the measurement process may render incompleteness in the available knowledge about the connectivity matrix. Hence, computationally efficient algorithms are needed to overcome the possible incompleteness in the available data. We present a sparse network component analysis algorithm (sparseNCA), which incorporates the effect of incompleteness in the estimation of TRNs by imposing an additional sparsity constraint using the `1 norm, which results in a greater estimation accuracy. In order to improve the computational efficiency, an iterative re-weighted `2 method is proposed for the NCA problem which not only promotes sparsity but is hundreds of times faster than the `1 norm based solution. The performance of sparseNCA is rigorously compared to that of FastNCA and NINCA using synthetic data as well as real data. It is shown that sparseNCA outperforms the existing state-of-the-art algorithms both in terms of estimation accuracy and consistency with the added advantage of low computational complexity. The performance of sparseNCA compared to its predecessors is particularly pronounced in case of incomplete prior information about the sparsity of the network. Subnetwork analysis is performed on the E.coli data which reiterates the superior consistency of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Tests of Homoscedasticity, Normality, and Missing Completely at Random for Incomplete Multivariate Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamshidian, Mortaza; Jalal, Siavash

    2010-01-01

    Test of homogeneity of covariances (or homoscedasticity) among several groups has many applications in statistical analysis. In the context of incomplete data analysis, tests of homoscedasticity among groups of cases with identical missing data patterns have been proposed to test whether data are missing completely at random (MCAR). These tests of…

  16. Examining the Missing Completely at Random Mechanism in Incomplete Data Sets: A Multiple Testing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Paulson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A multiple testing procedure for examining implications of the missing completely at random (MCAR) mechanism in incomplete data sets is discussed. The approach uses the false discovery rate concept and is concerned with testing group differences on a set of variables. The method can be used for ascertaining violations of MCAR and disproving this…

  17. Estimation of the KR20 Reliability Coefficient When Data Are Incomplete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh

    Three techniques for estimating Kuder Richardson reliability (KR20) coefficients for incomplete data are contrasted. The methods are: (1) Henderson's Method 1 (analysis of variance, or ANOVA); (2) Henderson's Method 3 (FITCO); and (3) Koch's method of symmetric sums (SYSUM). A Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the precision of the three…

  18. Double propensity-score adjustment: A solution to design bias or bias due to incomplete matching.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C

    2017-02-01

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term "bias due to incomplete matching" to describe the bias that can occur when some treated subjects are excluded from the matched sample because no appropriate control subject was available. The presence of incomplete matching raises important questions around the generalizability of estimated treatment effects to the entire population of treated subjects. We describe an analytic solution to address the bias due to incomplete matching. Our method is based on using optimal or nearest neighbor matching, rather than caliper matching (which frequently results in the exclusion of some treated subjects). Within the sample matched on the propensity score, covariate adjustment using the propensity score is then employed to impute missing potential outcomes under lack of treatment for each treated subject. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the proposed method resulted in estimates of treatment effect that were essentially unbiased. This method resulted in decreased bias compared to caliper matching alone and compared to either optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone. Caliper matching alone resulted in design bias or bias due to incomplete matching, while optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone resulted in bias due to residual confounding. The proposed method also tended to result in estimates with decreased mean squared error compared to when caliper matching was used.

  19. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR TARGET ANALYTE LIST OF PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of pilot-scale incineration testing to develop a comprehensive list of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from hazardous waste combustion (HWC) systems. Project goals were to: (1) identify the total mass of organic compounds sufficiently to estimate...

  1. Probabilistic learning from incomplete data for recognition of activities of daily living in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; McClean, Sally I; Scotney, Bryan W

    2012-05-01

    Learning behavioral patterns for activities of daily living in a smart home environment can be challenged by the limited number of training data that may be available. This may be due to the infrequent repetition of routine activities (e.g., once daily), the expense of using observers to label activities, and the intrusion that would be caused by the presence of observers over long time periods. It is important, therefore, to make as much use of any labeled data that are collected, however, incomplete these data may be. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for learning behavioral patterns for multi-inhabitants living in a single smart home environment, by making full use of all limited labeled activities, including incomplete data resulting from unreliable low-level sensors in this environment. Through maximum-likelihood estimation, using Expectation-Maximization, we build a model that captures both environmental uncertainties from sensor readings and user uncertainties, including variations in how individuals carry out activities. Our algorithm outperforms models that cannot handle data incompleteness, with increasing performance gains as incompleteness increases. The approach also enables the impact of particular sensors to be assessed and can thus inform sensor maintenance and deployment.

  2. Thoracoscopic anterior ‘fissure first’ technique for left lung cancer with an incomplete fissure

    PubMed Central

    Samejima, Joji; Matsuura, Yosuke; Nakao, Masayuki; Uehara, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Ken; Masuda, Munetaka; Okumura, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Background Dealing with incomplete lung fissures during thoracoscopic surgery is difficult. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a thoracoscopic anterior ‘fissure first’ technique for dealing with incomplete left lung fissures. Methods One hundred and seventy patients underwent left upper lobectomy or left lower lobectomy between April 2008 and July 2014. Of these, 34 patients underwent surgery using a thoracoscopic anterior ‘fissure first’ technique for incomplete fissures (group A) and 136 underwent surgery using a conventional thoracoscopic method for unfused fissures (group B). A four-port complete thoracoscopic approach was used in all patients. After completion of the fissure, hilar lymphadenectomy was performed in the conventional manner. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in operating time, blood loss, or duration of chest tube drainage. Patients in group A required more staple cartridges than those in group B (mean number of cartridges, 2.4 vs. 1.1; P<0.01). The two groups did not significantly differ with regard to the prevalence of air leaks (12% vs. 4%; P=0.11), either prolonged or delayed. Conclusions We found that a thoracoscopic anterior ‘fissure first’ technique for left lung cancer with an incomplete fissure enabled hilar lymphadenectomy to be performed in the conventional manner without any increase in the prevalence of air leaks, operating time, or duration of chest tube drainage. This technique should be considered for use in left upper lobectomy or left lower lobectomy in patients with an incomplete fissure. PMID:28066589

  3. A Composite-Likelihood Method for Detecting Incomplete Selective Sweep from Population Genomic Data.

    PubMed

    Vy, Ha My T; Kim, Yuseob

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive evolution occurs as beneficial mutations arise and then increase in frequency by positive natural selection. How, when, and where in the genome such evolutionary events occur is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. It is possible to detect ongoing positive selection or an incomplete selective sweep in species with sexual reproduction because, when a beneficial mutation is on the way to fixation, homologous chromosomes in the population are divided into two groups: one carrying the beneficial allele with very low polymorphism at nearby linked loci and the other carrying the ancestral allele with a normal pattern of sequence variation. Previous studies developed long-range haplotype tests to capture this difference between two groups as the signal of an incomplete selective sweep. In this study, we propose a composite-likelihood-ratio (CLR) test for detecting incomplete selective sweeps based on the joint sampling probabilities for allele frequencies of two groups as a function of strength of selection and recombination rate. Tested against simulated data, this method yielded statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation that are higher than the iHS test and comparable to the more recently developed nSL test. This procedure was also applied to African Drosophila melanogaster population genomic data to detect candidate genes under ongoing positive selection. Upon visual inspection of sequence polymorphism, candidates detected by our CLR method exhibited clear haplotype structures predicted under incomplete selective sweeps. Our results suggest that different methods capture different aspects of genetic information regarding incomplete sweeps and thus are partially complementary to each other.

  4. The impact of incomplete knowledge on evaluation: an experimental benchmark for protein function prediction

    PubMed Central

    Huttenhower, Curtis; Hibbs, Matthew A.; Myers, Chad L.; Caudy, Amy A.; Hess, David C.; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Rapidly expanding repositories of highly informative genomic data have generated increasing interest in methods for protein function prediction and inference of biological networks. The successful application of supervised machine learning to these tasks requires a gold standard for protein function: a trusted set of correct examples, which can be used to assess performance through cross-validation or other statistical approaches. Since gene annotation is incomplete for even the best studied model organisms, the biological reliability of such evaluations may be called into question. Results: We address this concern by constructing and analyzing an experimentally based gold standard through comprehensive validation of protein function predictions for mitochondrion biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Specifically, we determine that (i) current machine learning approaches are able to generalize and predict novel biology from an incomplete gold standard and (ii) incomplete functional annotations adversely affect the evaluation of machine learning performance. While computational approaches performed better than predicted in the face of incomplete data, relative comparison of competing approaches—even those employing the same training data—is problematic with a sparse gold standard. Incomplete knowledge causes individual methods' performances to be differentially underestimated, resulting in misleading performance evaluations. We provide a benchmark gold standard for yeast mitochondria to complement current databases and an analysis of our experimental results in the hopes of mitigating these effects in future comparative evaluations. Availability: The mitochondrial benchmark gold standard, as well as experimental results and additional data, is available at http://function.princeton.edu/mitochondria Contact: ogt@cs.princeton.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19561015

  5. Kinetic Data and Quantum Chemical Calculation Studies on the Stepwise vs. Concerted Pathways for Reaction of Chlorosulfonyl Isocyanate Reactions with Monofluoroalkenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-17

    synthetic utility of CSI reactions with unreactive hydrocarbon and monofluoroalkenes is enhanced by running the reactions at a lower temperature where...public release; distribution unlimited. Free Energy vs. Reaction Coordinate Diagram Solid line: Pathways available to hydrocarbon alkenes with CSI...stepwise vs. concerted pathways for reaction of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate reactions with monofluoroalkenes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT

  6. An Investigation of the Relationship between Instructor and Institutional Characteristics and the Concert Report Assignment in Music in General Studies Courses in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kirsten Fedje

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between institutional and instructor characteristics and the assignment of the concert report within American college music in general studies courses. Four research questions were addressed: (1) Do significant differences exist in instructor practices regarding the assignment of, and…

  7. Concerted growth and ordering of cobalt nanorod arrays as revealed by tandem in situ SAXS-XAS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cormary, Benoit; Li, Tao; Liakakos, Nikos; Peres, Laurent; Fazzini, Pier -Francesco; Blon, Thomas; Respaud, Marc; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Chaudret, Bruno; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Mader, Elizabeth A.; Soulantica, Katerina

    2016-06-14

    The molecular and ensemble dynamics for the growth of hierarchical supercrystals of cobalt nanorods have been studied by in situ tandem X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy – Small Angle X-ray Scattering (XAS - SAXS). The super-crystals were obtained by reducing a Co(II) precursor under H2 in the presence of a long chain amine and a long chain carboxylic acid. Complementary time-dependent ex situ TEM studies were also performed. The experimental data provide critical insights into the nanorod growth mechanism, and unequivocal evidence for a concerted growth-organization process. Nanorod formation involves cobalt nucleation, a fast atom by atom anisotropic growth and a slower oriented attach-ment process that continues well after cobalt reduction is complete. As a result, smectic-like ordering of the nanorods appears very early in the process, as soon as nanoparticle elongation appears, and nanorod growth takes place inside organized super-lattices, which can be regarded as mesocrystals.

  8. Biomarkers for Uranium Risk Assessment for the Development of the CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) Molecular Epidemiological Protocol.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Yann; Roy, Laurence; Hornhardt, Sabine; Badie, Christophe; Hall, Janet; Baatout, Sarah; Pernot, Eileen; Tomasek, Ladislav; Laurent, Olivier; Ebrahimian, Teni; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Grison, Stephane; Kabacik, Sylwia; Laurier, Dominique; Gomolka, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial experimental and epidemiological research, there is limited knowledge of the uranium-induce health effects after chronic low-dose exposures in humans. Biological markers can objectively characterize pathological processes or environmental responses to uranium and confounding agents. The integration of such biological markers into a molecular epidemiological study would be a useful approach to improve and refine estimations of uranium-induced health risks. To initiate such a study, Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE) was established, and involves biologists, epidemiologists and dosimetrists. The aims of the biological work package of CURE were: 1. To identify biomarkers and biological specimens relevant to uranium exposure; 2. To define standard operating procedures (SOPs); and 3. To set up a common protocol (logistic, questionnaire, ethical aspects) to perform a large-scale molecular epidemiologic study in uranium-exposed cohorts. An intensive literature review was performed and led to the identification of biomarkers related to: 1. retention organs (lungs, kidneys and bone); 2. other systems/organs with suspected effects (cardiovascular system, central nervous system and lympho-hematopoietic system); 3. target molecules (DNA damage, genomic instability); and 4. high-throughput methods for the identification of new biomarkers. To obtain high-quality biological materials, SOPs were established for the sampling and storage of different biospecimens. A questionnaire was developed to assess potential confounding factors. The proposed strategy can be adapted to other internal exposures and should improve the characterization of the biological and health effects that are relevant for risk assessment.

  9. The evolution of increased competitive ability, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons act in concert for a tropical invader.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Long; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Callaway, Ragan M; Barclay, Gregor F; Pereyra, Carlos Silva; Feng, Yu-Long

    2013-02-01

    There are many non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic invasions but few studies have concurrently tested more than one hypothesis for the same species. Here, we tested the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis in two common garden experiments in which Chromolaena odorata plants originating from native and nonnative ranges were grown in competition with natives from each range, and the novel weapons hypothesis in laboratory experiments with leachates from C. odorata. Compared with conspecifics originating from the native range, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were stronger competitors at high nutrient concentrations in the nonnative range in China and experienced far more herbivore damage in the native range in Mexico. In both China and Mexico, C. odorata was more suppressed by species native to Mexico than by species native to China. Species native to China were much more inhibited by leaf extracts from C. odorata than species from Mexico, and this difference in allelopathic effects may provide a possible explanation for the biogeographic differences in competitive ability. Our results indicate that EICA, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons may act in concert to promote invasion by C. odorata, and emphasize the importance of exploring multiple, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for invasions.

  10. The Symbiosis-Related ERN Transcription Factors Act in Concert to Coordinate Rhizobial Host Root Infection1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cerri, Marion R.; Frances, Lisa; Kelner, Audrey; Middleton, Patrick H.; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Erard, Monique; Barker, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes improve their mineral nutrition through nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soil rhizobia. Rhizobial infection of legumes is regulated by a number of transcription factors, including ERF Required for Nodulation1 (ERN1). Medicago truncatula plants defective in ERN1 are unable to nodulate, but still exhibit early symbiotic responses including rhizobial infection. ERN1 has a close homolog, ERN2, which shows partially overlapping expression patterns. Here we show that ern2 mutants exhibit a later nodulation phenotype than ern1, being able to form nodules but with signs of premature senescence. Molecular characterization of the ern2-1 mutation reveals a key role for a conserved threonine for both DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In contrast to either single mutant, the double ern1-1 ern2-1 line is completely unable to initiate infection or nodule development. The strong ern1-1 ern2-1 phenotype demonstrates functional redundancy between these two transcriptional regulators and reveals the essential role of ERN1/ERN2 to coordinately induce rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis. While ERN1/ERN2 act in concert in the root epidermis, only ERN1 can efficiently allow the development of mature nodules in the cortex, probably through an independent pathway. Together, these findings reveal the key roles that ERN1/ERN2 play at the very earliest stages of root nodule development. PMID:27208242

  11. Platelet microparticles are internalized in neutrophils via the concerted activity of 12-lipoxygenase and secreted phospholipase A2-IIA.

    PubMed

    Duchez, Anne-Claire; Boudreau, Luc H; Naika, Gajendra S; Bollinger, James; Belleannée, Clémence; Cloutier, Nathalie; Laffont, Benoit; Mendoza-Villarroel, Raifish E; Lévesque, Tania; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Matthieu; Allaeys, Isabelle; Tremblay, Jacques J; Poubelle, Patrice E; Lambeau, Gérard; Pouliot, Marc; Provost, Patrick; Soulet, Denis; Gelb, Michael H; Boilard, Eric

    2015-07-07

    Platelets are anucleated blood elements highly potent at generating extracellular vesicles (EVs) called microparticles (MPs). Whereas EVs are accepted as an important means of intercellular communication, the mechanisms underlying platelet MP internalization in recipient cells are poorly understood. Our lipidomic analyses identified 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid [12(S)-HETE] as the predominant eicosanoid generated by MPs. Mechanistically, 12(S)-HETE is produced through the concerted activity of secreted phospholipase A2 IIA (sPLA2-IIA), present in inflammatory fluids, and platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), expressed by platelet MPs. Platelet MPs convey an elaborate set of transcription factors and nucleic acids, and contain mitochondria. We observed that MPs and their cargo are internalized by activated neutrophils in the endomembrane system via 12(S)-HETE. Platelet MPs are found inside neutrophils isolated from the joints of arthritic patients, and are found in neutrophils only in the presence of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO in an in vivo model of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. Using a combination of genetically modified mice, we show that the coordinated action of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO promotes inflammatory arthritis. These findings identify 12(S)-HETE as a trigger of platelet MP internalization by neutrophils, a mechanism highly relevant to inflammatory processes. Because sPLA2-IIA is induced during inflammation, and 12-LO expression is restricted mainly to platelets, these observations demonstrate that platelet MPs promote their internalization in recipient cells through highly regulated mechanisms.

  12. In Vitro Characterization and Concerted Function of Three Core Enzymes of a Glycyl Radical Enzyme - Associated Bacterial Microcompartment

    PubMed Central

    Zarzycki, Jan; Sutter, Markus; Cortina, Niña Socorro; Erb, Tobias J.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    Many bacteria encode proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) that encapsulate sequential enzymatic reactions of diverse metabolic pathways. Well-characterized BMCs include carboxysomes for CO2-fixation, and propanediol- and ethanolamine-utilizing microcompartments that contain B12-dependent enzymes. Genes required to form BMCs are typically organized in gene clusters, which promoted their distribution across phyla by horizontal gene transfer. Recently, BMCs associated with glycyl radical enzymes (GREs) were discovered; these are widespread and comprise at least three functionally distinct types. Previously, we predicted one type of these GRE-associated microcompartments (GRMs) represents a B12-independent propanediol-utilizing BMC. Here we functionally and structurally characterize enzymes of the GRM of Rhodopseudomonas palustris BisB18 and demonstrate their concerted function in vitro. The GRM signature enzyme, the GRE, is a dedicated 1,2-propanediol dehydratase with a new type of intramolecular encapsulation peptide. It forms a complex with its activating enzyme and, in conjunction with an aldehyde dehydrogenase, converts 1,2-propanediol to propionyl-CoA. Notably, homologous GRMs are also encoded in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Our high-resolution crystal structures of the aldehyde dehydrogenase lead to a revised reaction mechanism. The successful in vitro reconstitution of a part of the GRM metabolism provides insights into the metabolic function and steps in the assembly of this BMC. PMID:28202954

  13. Concerted growth and ordering of cobalt nanorod arrays as revealed by tandem in situ SAXS-XAS studies

    DOE PAGES

    Cormary, Benoit; Li, Tao; Liakakos, Nikos; ...

    2016-06-14

    The molecular and ensemble dynamics for the growth of hierarchical supercrystals of cobalt nanorods have been studied by in situ tandem X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy – Small Angle X-ray Scattering (XAS - SAXS). The super-crystals were obtained by reducing a Co(II) precursor under H2 in the presence of a long chain amine and a long chain carboxylic acid. Complementary time-dependent ex situ TEM studies were also performed. The experimental data provide critical insights into the nanorod growth mechanism, and unequivocal evidence for a concerted growth-organization process. Nanorod formation involves cobalt nucleation, a fast atom by atom anisotropic growth and a slowermore » oriented attach-ment process that continues well after cobalt reduction is complete. As a result, smectic-like ordering of the nanorods appears very early in the process, as soon as nanoparticle elongation appears, and nanorod growth takes place inside organized super-lattices, which can be regarded as mesocrystals.« less

  14. Evaluation of the TRCRtest NV-W for norovirus detection in stools by the Transcription-Reverse Transcription Concerted method.

    PubMed

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; Albonetti, Valeria; Pinardi, Federica; Ferraglia, Francesca; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Calderaro, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    A novel molecular assay, TRCRtest NV-W, based on a transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC) for isothermal amplification and real-time detection of norovirus in stools was assessed and compared with an RT-nPCR. Archived stools positive for either different types or variants of norovirus genogroups I and II or other enteric viruses were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the novel assay. The TRC assay was 100% specific since it detected all the noroviruses tested and it did not display cross reactivity with other enteric viruses. When screening a collection of 387 stools with the TRC and RT-nPCR assays, the TRC displayed concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 96.6%, 81%, 99.7%, 98.1%, and 96.3%, respectively, after retesting the negative specimens. Additional PCRs and/or sequencing, used to understand inconsistent results between TRC and RT-nPCR, confirmed all positive results and did not reveal nucleotide variations in the TRC probe and primers binding sites. The TRC assay may be a rapid and ease of use tool for the detection of noroviruses in clinical virology laboratories even in the face of rapidly evolving noroviruses.

  15. Paul Wittgenstein's right arm and his phantom: the saga of a famous concert pianist and his amputation.

    PubMed

    Boller, François; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs have increased in recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems are still poorly understood and are considered rather mysterious, and they are difficult to treat. In addition, they may shed light on brain physiology and neuropsychology. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Several artists have suffered from postamputation complications and this has influenced not only their personal life but also their artistic work. Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), a pianist whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert performer. His case provides insight into Post-World War I musical and political history. More specifically, the impact on the artistic life of this pianist illustrates various postamputation complications, such as phantom limb, stump pain, and especially moving phantom. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him develop the dexterity of his left hand. Wittgenstein played piano works that were written especially for him (the most famous being Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand) and composed some of his own. Additionally, several famous composers had previously written for the left hand.

  16. Concerted Rattling in CsAg5 Te3 Leading to Ultralow Thermal Conductivity and High Thermoelectric Performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua; Tan, Gangjian; Shen, Jin-Ni; Hao, Shiqiang; Wu, Li-Ming; Calta, Nicholas; Malliakas, Christos; Wang, Si; Uher, Ctirad; Wolverton, Christopher; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-09-12

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials convert heat energy directly into electricity, and introducing new materials with high conversion efficiency is a great challenge because of the rare combination of interdependent electrical and thermal transport properties required to be present in a single material. The TE efficiency is defined by the figure of merit ZT=(S(2) σ) T/κ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, κ is the total thermal conductivity, and T is the absolute temperature. A new p-type thermoelectric material, CsAg5 Te3 , is presented that exhibits ultralow lattice thermal conductivity (ca. 0.18 Wm(-1)  K(-1) ) and a high figure of merit of about 1.5 at 727 K. The lattice thermal conductivity is the lowest among state-of-the-art thermoelectrics; it is attributed to a previously unrecognized phonon scattering mechanism that involves the concerted rattling of a group of Ag ions that strongly raises the Grüneisen parameters of the material.

  17. Concerted action of endogenous and heterologous phytase on phytic acid degradation in seed of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Hatzack, Frank; Sørensen, Lisbeth D; Holm, Preben B

    2003-12-01

    Expression of heterologous phytases in crops offers a great potential for improving phosphate and mineral bioavailability in food and feed. In this context it is of relevance to describe the concerted action of endogenous and hetrologous phytases on the transgenic seed inositol phosphate profile. Here we report metal-dye detection HPLC analysis of inositol phosphate degradation in flour from transgenic wheat materials possessing wheat endogenous 6-phytase [EC 3.1.3.26] and Aspergillus 3-phytase [EC 3.1.3.8] activities under the control of the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter and the wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1DX5 promoter respectively. During 50 min incubation there is an accumulation of InsP5 to InsP2 breakdown products in non-transgenic material. Aspergillus niger phytase specific breakdown products are transiently detected in transgenic material but after 50 min incubation virtually all InsP5, InsP4 and InsP3 isomers are hydrolysed.

  18. Mean-free-paths in concert and chamber music halls and the correct method for calibrating dodecahedral sound sources.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L; Nishihara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    The Eyring/Sabine equations assume that in a large irregular room a sound wave travels in straight lines from one surface to another, that the surfaces have an average sound absorption coefficient αav, and that the mean-free-path between reflections is 4 V/Stot where V is the volume of the room and Stot is the total area of all of its surfaces. No account is taken of diffusivity of the surfaces. The 4 V/Stot relation was originally based on experimental determinations made by Knudsen (Architectural Acoustics, 1932, pp. 132-141). This paper sets out to test the 4 V/Stot relation experimentally for a wide variety of unoccupied concert and chamber music halls with seating capacities from 200 to 5000, using the measured sound strengths Gmid and reverberation times RT60,mid. Computer simulations of the sound fields for nine of these rooms (of varying shapes) were also made to determine the mean-free-paths by that method. The study shows that 4 V/Stot is an acceptable relation for mean-free-paths in the Sabine/Eyring equations except for halls of unusual shape. Also demonstrated is the proper method for calibrating the dodecahedral sound source used for measuring the sound strength G, i.e., the reverberation chamber method.

  19. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

  20. Mechanism of Deletion Removing All Dystrophin Exons in a Canine Model for DMD Implicates Concerted Evolution of X Chromosome Pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    VanBelzen, D Jake; Malik, Alock S; Henthorn, Paula S; Kornegay, Joe N; Stedman, Hansell H

    2017-03-17

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked, muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the large, 2.4-Mb dystrophin gene. The majority of DMD-causing mutations are sporadic, multi-exon, frameshifting deletions, with the potential for variable immunological tolerance to the dystrophin protein from patient to patient. While systemic gene therapy holds promise in the treatment of DMD, immune responses to vectors and transgenes must first be rigorously evaluated in informative preclinical models to ensure patient safety. A widely used canine model for DMD, golden retriever muscular dystrophy, expresses detectable amounts of near full-length dystrophin due to alternative splicing around an intronic point mutation, thereby confounding the interpretation of immune responses to dystrophin-derived gene therapies. Here we characterize a naturally occurring deletion in a dystrophin-null canine, the German shorthaired pointer. The deletion spans 5.6 Mb of the X chromosome and encompasses all coding exons of the DMD and TMEM47 genes. The sequences surrounding the deletion breakpoints are virtually identical, suggesting that the deletion occurred through a homologous recombination event. Interestingly, the deletion breakpoints are within loci that are syntenically conserved among mammals, yet the high homology among this subset of ferritin-like loci is unique to the canine genome, suggesting lineage-specific concerted evolution of these atypical sequence elements.

  1. Colonisation and competition dynamics can explain incomplete sterilisation parasitism in ant-plant symbioses.

    PubMed

    Tarnita, Corina E; Palmer, Todd M; Pringle, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    Sterilisation of parasites prevents host reproduction, thereby diverting host resources to their own benefit. Previous theory predicts that parasites should evolve maximum virulence, yet hosts are often incompletely sterilised. Whereas prior attempts to resolve this paradox have sought evolutionary explanations, we present theory and experiments showing that incomplete sterilisation can arise from ecologically driven fluctuations in parasite load. The African ant-plant Acacia drepanolobium reproduced more when occupied by small colonies of the sterilising symbiont Crematogaster nigriceps. In nature, small colonies result from interference competition between ant colonies; these territorial conflicts thus provide intermittent windows of opportunity for host reproduction. Our mean-field model shows that numerical insufficiency of parasites can produce partial sterilisation of host populations, creating the appearance of reduced virulence even if ants have evolved to sterilise completely. This general framework helps explain both the apparent ubiquity of partial sterilisation parasitism and the ability of these symbiotic associations to persist.

  2. A Ranking Procedure by Incomplete Pairwise Comparisons Using Information Entropy and Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dongbo; Lu, Xi; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making, as a way to discover the preference of ranking, has been used in various fields. However, owing to the uncertainty in group decision-making, how to rank alternatives by incomplete pairwise comparisons has become an open issue. In this paper, an improved method is proposed for ranking of alternatives by incomplete pairwise comparisons using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and information entropy. Firstly, taking the probability assignment of the chosen preference into consideration, the comparison of alternatives to each group is addressed. Experiments verified that the information entropy of the data itself can determine the different weight of each group's choices objectively. Numerical examples in group decision-making environments are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, the divergence of ranking mechanism is analyzed briefly in conclusion section. PMID:25250393

  3. Imaging a boa constrictor--the incomplete double aortic arch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rajeev L; Kanwar, Anubhav; Jacobi, Adam; Sanz, Javier

    2012-11-01

    Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare anomaly resulting from atresia rather than complete involution in the distal left arch resulting in a non-patent fibrous cord between the left arch and descending thoracic aorta. This anatomic anomaly may cause symptomatic vascular rings, leading to stridor, wheezing, or dysphagia, requiring surgical transection of the fibrous cord. Herein, we describe an asymptomatic 59 year-old man presenting for contrast-enhanced CT angiography to assess cardiac anatomy prior to radiofrequency ablation, who was incidentally found to have an incomplete double aortic arch with hypoplasia of the left arch segment and an aortic diverticulum. Recognition of this abnormality by imaging is important to inform both corrective surgery in symptomatic patients, as well as assist in the planning of percutaneous coronary and vascular interventions.

  4. Application of games with incomplete information for pricing electricity in deregulated power pools

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrero, R.W.; Rivera, J.F.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a game theoretical approach to the problem of pricing electricity in deregulated energy marketplaces. They assume that an Independent System Operator receives bids by Pool participants and defines transactions among participants by looking for the minimum price that satisfies the demand in the Pool. The competition among Pool participants is modeled as a non-cooperative game with incomplete information. They assume that each Pool participant knows its own operation costs but does not know his opponents` operation costs. The game with incomplete information is transformed into a game with complete, but imperfect, information and solved using the Nash equilibrium idea. The approach presented in this paper is geared towards providing support for pricing electricity in deregulated Pools.

  5. BECN1-dependent CASP2 incomplete autophagy induction by binding to rabies virus phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Hailong; Gu, Jinyan; Deng, Tingjuan; Yuan, Zhuangchuan; Hu, Boli; Xu, Yunbin; Yan, Yan; Zan, Jie; Liao, Min; DiCaprio, Erin; Li, Jianrong; Su, Shuo; Zhou, Jiyong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is an essential component of host immunity and used by viruses for survival. However, the autophagy signaling pathways involved in virus replication are poorly documented. Here, we observed that rabies virus (RABV) infection triggered intracellular autophagosome accumulation and results in incomplete autophagy by inhibiting autophagy flux. Subsequently, we found that RABV infection induced the reduction of CASP2/caspase 2 and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-AKT-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and AMPK-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways. Further investigation revealed that BECN1/Beclin 1 binding to viral phosphoprotein (P) induced an incomplete autophagy via activating the pathways CASP2-AMPK-AKT-MTOR and CASP2-AMPK-MAPK by decreasing CASP2. Taken together, our data first reveals a crosstalk of BECN1 and CASP2-dependent autophagy pathways by RABV infection. PMID:28129024

  6. Multiple imputation for high-dimensional mixed incomplete continuous and binary data.

    PubMed

    He, Ren; Belin, Thomas

    2014-06-15

    It is common in applied research to have large numbers of variables measured on a modest number of cases. Even with low rates of missingness of individual variables, such data sets can have a large number of incomplete cases with a mix of data types. Here, we propose a new joint modeling approach to address the high-dimensional incomplete data with a mix of continuous and binary data. Specifically, we propose a multivariate normal model encompassing both continuous variables and latent variables corresponding to binary variables. We apply a parameter-extended Metropolis–Hastings algorithm to generate the covariance matrix of a mixture of continuous and binary variables. We also introduce prior distribution families for unstructured covariance matrices to reduce the dimension of the parameter space. In several simulation settings, the method is compared with available-case analysis, a rounding method, and a sequential regression method.

  7. When is incomplete epigenetic resetting in germ cells favoured by natural selection?

    PubMed Central

    Uller, Tobias; English, Sinead; Pen, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Resetting of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, in germ cells or early embryos is not always complete. Epigenetic states may therefore persist, decay or accumulate across generations. In spite of mounting empirical evidence for incomplete resetting, it is currently poorly understood whether it simply reflects stochastic noise or plays an adaptive role in phenotype determination. Here, we use a simple model to show that incomplete resetting can be adaptive in heterogeneous environments. Transmission of acquired epigenetic states prevents mismatched phenotypes when the environment changes infrequently relative to generation time and when maternal and environmental cues are unreliable. We discuss how these results may help to interpret the emerging data on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in plants and animals. PMID:26136447

  8. Nonparametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Analysis of Noisy and Incomplete Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Chen, Haojun; Paisley, John; Ren, Lu; Li, Lingbo; Xing, Zhengming; Dunson, David; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Nonparametric Bayesian methods are considered for recovery of imagery based upon compressive, incomplete, and/or noisy measurements. A truncated beta-Bernoulli process is employed to infer an appropriate dictionary for the data under test and also for image recovery. In the context of compressive sensing, significant improvements in image recovery are manifested using learned dictionaries, relative to using standard orthonormal image expansions. The compressive-measurement projections are also optimized for the learned dictionary. Additionally, we consider simpler (incomplete) measurements, defined by measuring a subset of image pixels, uniformly selected at random. Spatial interrelationships within imagery are exploited through use of the Dirichlet and probit stick-breaking processes. Several example results are presented, with comparisons to other methods in the literature. PMID:21693421

  9. Electrochemotherapy increases local control after incomplete excision of a recurring penile fibrosarcoma in a stallion

    PubMed Central

    Spugnini, E.P.; Bolaffio, C.; Scacco, L.; Baldi, A.

    2016-01-01

    An eleven-year-old stallion was referred for adjuvant treatment of an incompletely excised, recurring penile fibrosarcoma. The horse was bright, alert and responsive with a 15 x 12 cm ulcerated lesion on the ventral side of the penis. The lesion was the tumor bed of an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma. After complete staging procedures, the owner elected to treat the horse with electrochemotherapy (ECT) using cisplatin as chemotherapy agent. Two sessions of ECT were performed at two-week intervals using local cisplatin followed by trains of biphasic electric pulses applied using different electrodes until complete coverage of the area was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated, and the patient is still disease free after 12 months. ECT resulted in improved local control and should be considered among the available adjuvant treatments in equines carrying soft tissue tumors. PMID:27995080

  10. Incomplete Kawasaki disease associated with complicated Streptococcus pyogenes pneumonia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Timothy Ronan; Cohen, Eyal; Allen, Upton D

    2012-01-01

    A three-year-old boy presented with community-acquired pneumonia complicated by empyema. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) was identified on culture of the pleural fluid. The patient improved with antibiotic therapy and drainage of the empyema. During his convalescence, the patient developed persistent fever, lethargy and anorexia. His inflammatory markers were elevated, and repeat cultures were negative. Although the patient had none of the classical mucocutaneous features of Kawasaki disease, an echocardiogram was performed, which revealed coronary artery dilation. The patient was diagnosed with incomplete Kawasaki disease and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose acetylsalicylic acid. The fever subsided within 48 h. To the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first report of Kawasaki disease associated with complicated S pyogenes pneumonia. It emphasizes the importance of considering incomplete Kawasaki disease among children with persistent fever, the role of echocardiography in diagnosis, and the potential link between Kawasaki disease and superantigen-producing organisms such as S pyogenes.

  11. Impact of observational incompleteness on the structural properties of protein interaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnt, Mathias; Glauche, Ingmar; Greiner, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The observed structure of protein interaction networks is corrupted by many false positive/negative links. This observational incompleteness is abstracted as random link removal and a specific, experimentally motivated (spoke) link rearrangement. Their impact on the structural properties of gene-duplication-and-mutation network models is studied. For the degree distribution a curve collapse is found, showing no sensitive dependence on the link removal/rearrangement strengths and disallowing a quantitative extraction of model parameters. The spoke link rearrangement process moves other structural observables, like degree correlations, cluster coefficient and motif frequencies, closer to their counterparts extracted from the yeast data. This underlines the importance to take a precise modeling of the observational incompleteness into account when network structure models are to be quantitatively compared to data.

  12. Retrieving treatment and control proportions from incomplete summary data in meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Olkin, Ingram

    2012-09-01

    One of the vexing problems often encountered when combining the results of independent studies in a meta-analysis is that the data provided in individual studies are incomplete. Some studies may provide only a risk difference and others only an odds ratio. Of course, if the proportions for treatment and control are reported, then the meta-analyst can carry out a variety of analyses, such as fixed or random effect estimates. Excluding studies with incomplete data carries a risk and should be avoided if it is possible to retrieve the original proportions. Inclusion criteria in some meta-analyses may require that studies contain full data. This requirement can be relaxed if the original data can be retrieved. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Incomplete optical shielding in cold atom traps: three-dimensional Landau-Zener theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yurovsky, V.A.; Ben-Reuven, A.

    1997-05-01

    Ultracold atom collisions in the presence of a linearly polarized blueshifted laser field are studied theoretically. An analytical solution is presented within the framework of the Landau-Zener approximation. The effect of incomplete shielding is mostly accounted for by incorporating the three-dimensional character of the collisions, using a partial-wave analysis with space degeneracy. A model of two electronic states, including effects of indistinguishability of the colliding atoms, is used. The model associates the incomplete shielding with a process involving two crossing points. The theory is applied to the case of metastable xenon traps, obtaining a fair agreement with the experimental data. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Conditional entropy for incomplete decision systems and its application in data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jianhua; Xu, Qing; Wang, Wentao; Tian, Haowei

    2012-10-01

    Rough set theory is a useful mathematic tool for dealing with vague and uncertain information. Shannon's entropy and its variants have been applied to measure uncertainty in rough set theory from the viewpoint of information theory. However, few studies have been carried out on information-theoretical measure of attribute importance in incomplete decision system (IDS) considering the relation between decision attribute and condition attributes. In this paper, we introduce the concept of conditional entropy together with entropy and joint entropy in IDSs. By using the new conditional entropy, we propose a measure for attribute importance. Based on the measure, a heuristic attribute reduction algorithm is presented. Some test experiments on real-lift data-sets show the effectiveness of the algorithm. The attribute importance measure and the attribute reduction algorithm can be used in data mining or machine learning for handling incomplete data.

  15. Analysis of incomplete charge transfer effects in a CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liqiang, Han; Suying, Yao; Jiangtao, Xu; Chao, Xu; Zhiyuan, Gao

    2013-05-01

    A method to judge complete charger transfer is proposed for a four-transistor CMOS image sensor with a large pixel size. Based on the emission current theory, a qualitative photoresponse model is established to the preliminary prediction. Further analysis of noise for incomplete charge transfer predicts the noise variation. The test pixels were fabricated in a specialized 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process and two different processes of buried N layer implantation are compared. The trend prediction corresponds with the test results, especially as it can distinguish an unobvious incomplete charge transfer. The method helps us judge whether the charge transfer time satisfies the requirements of the readout circuit for the given process especially for pixels of a large size.

  16. The optimization of low specific speed centrifugal pump based on incomplete sensitivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. H.; Zheng, K.; Yao, L. H.; Shi, F. X.

    2012-11-01

    In this research, the optimization method for low specific speed centrifugal pump impeller based on incomplete sensitivities was proposed. The main feature of the algorithm is that it avoids solving the flow field repeatedly in one optimization cycle in finite difference method and it avoids solving the adjoint equation in adjoint method. The blade meridional plan is considered as constant, and the blade camber line was parameterize by Taylor function. The coefficients in the Taylor function were taken as the control variable. The moment acting on the blade was considered as the objective function. With the incomplete sensitivities we can get the gradient of the objective function with respect to the control variable easily, and the blade shape can be renewed according to the inverse direction of the gradient. We will find the optimum design when the objective function is minimized. The computational cost is greatly reduced. The calculation cases show that the proposed theory and method is rotational.

  17. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (<40 years) with CHD from both sexes, who had previously undergone biventricular corrective therapeutic interventions (n = 73), and non-CHD control participants (n = 76) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The CHD group was further divided according to the absence/presence of significant anatomical residua on a resting echocardiogram ("complete"/"incomplete" repair groups). Aerobic fitness and cardiac function were compared between groups using linear regression and analysis of covariance. Peak oxygen consumption, O2 pulse and ventilatory threshold were significantly lower in CHD patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Compared with the complete repair group, the incomplete repair group had a significantly lower mean peak work rate, age-adjusted O2 pulse (expressed as % predicted) and a higher VE/VCO2 ratio (all p ≤ 0.05). Peak oxygen consumption was comparable between the subgroups. Patients after corrected CHD have lower peak and submaximal exercise parameters. Patients with incomplete repair of their heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  18. Incomplete Infection of Secondarily Infected Potato Plants - an Environment Dependent Underestimated Mechanism in Plant Virology.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, Lukas; Bühler, Lukas; Dupuis, Brice; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Forbes, Gregory A; Keller, Ernst R; Scheidegger, Urs C; Struik, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a.s.l. in Peru during two growing seasons. In these experiments, the percentage of infected daughter tubers produced by seed tubers that were infected with either potato potexvirus X (PVX), potato Andean mottle comovirus (APMoV), potato potyvirus Y (PVY) (jointly infected with PVX) or potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) was determined. Incomplete autoinfection was found in all cases, as the percentage of virus infected daughter tubers harvested from secondarily infected plants was invariably less than 100%, with the lowest percentage of infection being 30%. Changing the growing site to higher altitudes decreased autoinfection for all viruses. Therefore, the assumption of complete autoinfection of secondarily infected plants were rejected, while the hypothesis of environmentally dependent incomplete autoinfection was accepted. The findings help explain the occurrence of traditional seed management practices in the Andes and may help to develop locally adapted seed systems in environments of the world that have no steady access to healthy seed tubers coming from a formally certified seed system. The results obtained almost three decades ago are discussed in light of most recent knowledge on epigenetic regulation of host plant - virus interactions which allow for speculating about the underlying biological principles of the incomplete autoinfection. A research roadmap is proposed for achieving explicit experimental

  19. Investigation of incomplete fusion dynamics at energy 4-8 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Harish; Tali, Suhail A.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Singh, D.; Ali, Rahbar; Kumar, Kamal; Sathik, N. P. M.; Parashari, Siddharth; Ali, Asif; Dubey, R.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.

    2017-04-01

    The recoil-catcher activation technique followed by the offline γ-ray spectroscopy has been adopted for the excitation function measurement of residues populated in 12,13C induced reactions with 175Lu target at lower projectile energies ≈ 4- 8 MeV /nucleon. The independent cross-sections for some of the populated residues have been estimated by subtracting the contributions of higher charge precursor isobars from the measured cumulative cross-sections. The measured excitation functions are compared with theoretical predictions based on statistical model code PACE-4. This comparison reveals that complete fusion process solely contributes in the formation of xn-pxn channels and an enhancement in the measured cross-sections of α-emitting channels from the theoretical predictions may be attributed to the incomplete fusion process. The incomplete fusion probability is found to be higher in case of 12C than for a one neutron rich projectile 13C throughout the incident energy region. Present findings obtained for 12,13C + 175Lu systems have been compared with informations extracted from previously studied systems and projectile structure is found to strongly affect the incomplete fusion dynamics in terms of projectile α-Q-value along with projectile-target mass-asymmetry. Moreover, it may be pointed out that Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematic is probably the projectile structure dependent systematic. A substantial contribution to incomplete fusion coming from collision trajectories with ℓ ≤ℓcrit is also observed, contrary to the SUMRULE model assumptions.

  20. Incomplete Infection of Secondarily Infected Potato Plants – an Environment Dependent Underestimated Mechanism in Plant Virology

    PubMed Central

    Bertschinger, Lukas; Bühler, Lukas; Dupuis, Brice; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Forbes, Gregory A.; Keller, Ernst R.; Scheidegger, Urs C.; Struik, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a.s.l. in Peru during two growing seasons. In these experiments, the percentage of infected daughter tubers produced by seed tubers that were infected with either potato potexvirus X (PVX), potato Andean mottle comovirus (APMoV), potato potyvirus Y (PVY) (jointly infected with PVX) or potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) was determined. Incomplete autoinfection was found in all cases, as the percentage of virus infected daughter tubers harvested from secondarily infected plants was invariably less than 100%, with the lowest percentage of infection being 30%. Changing the growing site to higher altitudes decreased autoinfection for all viruses. Therefore, the assumption of complete autoinfection of secondarily infected plants were rejected, while the hypothesis of environmentally dependent incomplete autoinfection was accepted. The findings help explain the occurrence of traditional seed management practices in the Andes and may help to develop locally adapted seed systems in environments of the world that have no steady access to healthy seed tubers coming from a formally certified seed system. The results obtained almost three decades ago are discussed in light of most recent knowledge on epigenetic regulation of host plant – virus interactions which allow for speculating about the underlying biological principles of the incomplete autoinfection. A research roadmap is proposed for achieving explicit

  1. HIFI: a computer code for projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    A brief summary of a model proposed to describe projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion and the instructions for the use of the computer code HIFI are given. The code HIFI calculates single inclusive spectra, coincident spectra and excitation functions resulting from particle-induced reactions. It is a multipurpose program which can calculate any type of coincident spectra as long as the reaction is assumed to take place in two steps.

  2. The turbulent wall jet: a triple-layered structure and incomplete similarity.

    PubMed

    Barenblatt, G I; Chorin, A J; Prostokishin, V M

    2005-06-21

    We demonstrate using the high-quality experimental data that turbulent wall jet flows consist of two self-similar layers: a top layer and a wall layer, separated by a mixing layer where the velocity is close to maximum. The top and wall layers are significantly different from each other, and both exhibit incomplete similarity, i.e., a strong influence of the width of the slot that had previously been neglected.

  3. Predicting urinary creatinine excretion and its usefulness to identify incomplete 24 h urine collections.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Huybrechts, Inge; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Geelen, Anouk; Crispim, Sandra; Hulshof, Paul J M; Andersen, Lene F; Řehůřková, Irena; Ruprich, Jiří; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Van Maele, Georges; Slimani, Nadia; van't Veer, Pieter; de Boer, Evelien; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-09-28

    Studies using 24 h urine collections need to incorporate ways to validate the completeness of the urine samples. Models to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCE) have been developed for this purpose; however, information on their usefulness to identify incomplete urine collections is limited. We aimed to develop a model for predicting UCE and to assess the performance of a creatinine index using para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a reference. Data were taken from the European Food Consumption Validation study comprising two non-consecutive 24 h urine collections from 600 subjects in five European countries. Data from one collection were used to build a multiple linear regression model to predict UCE, and data from the other collection were used for performance testing of a creatinine index-based strategy to identify incomplete collections. Multiple linear regression (n 458) of UCE showed a significant positive association for body weight (β = 0·07), the interaction term sex × weight (β = 0·09, reference women) and protein intake (β = 0·02). A significant negative association was found for age (β = -0·09) and sex (β = -3·14, reference women). An index of observed-to-predicted creatinine resulted in a sensitivity to identify incomplete collections of 0·06 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·20) and 0·11 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·22) in men and women, respectively. Specificity was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·97, 0·98) in men and 0·98 (95 % CI 0·98, 0·99) in women. The present study shows that UCE can be predicted from weight, age and sex. However, the results revealed that a creatinine index based on these predictions is not sufficiently sensitive to exclude incomplete 24 h urine collections.

  4. Incomplete phase-space method to reveal time delay from scalar time series.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengli; Gan, Lu

    2016-11-01

    A computationally quick and conceptually simple method to recover time delay of the chaotic system from scalar time series is developed in this paper. We show that the orbits in the incomplete two-dimensional reconstructed phase-space will show local clustering phenomenon after the component reordering procedure proposed in this work. We find that information captured by the incomplete two-dimensional reconstructed phase-space is related to the time delay τ_{0} present in the system, and will be transferred to the reordered component by the procedure of component reordering. We then propose the segmented mean variance (SMV) from the reordered component to identify the time delay τ_{0} of the system. The proposed SMV shows clear maximum when the embedding delay τ of the incomplete reconstruction matches the time delay τ_{0} of the chaotic system. Numerical data generated by a time-delay system based on the Mackey-Glass equation operating in the chaotic regime are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed SMV. Experimental results show that the proposed SMV is robust to additive observational noise and is able to recover the time delay of the chaotic system even though the amount of data is relatively small and the feedback strength is weak. Moreover, the time complexity of the proposed method is quite low.

  5. Effect of Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation in Incompletely Treated Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Nam Kyu; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Hyung Jun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with incompletely treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and to evaluate possible prognostic factors for this therapy. Subjects and Methods Thirty nine patients with incompletely treated single HCC (≤ 5 cm) after TACE were treated with RF ablation. All patients were evaluated for complete tumor ablation rate, local recurrence-free rate, overall survival rate, and complications. Local recurrence-free rate and overall survival rate were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The possible prognostic factors of local recurrence-free rate and survival rate were analyzed using Cox proportional-hazards regression model. Results The complete tumor ablation rate was 92.3%. Local recurrence-free rates for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-years were 81.7%, 63.1%, 53.6%, and 35.7%, respectively. One-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 96.9%, 82.9%, 67.8%, and 48.4%, respectively. Among prognostic factors included in the analysis, only tumor diameter (≤ 2 cm versus > 2 cm) was statistically significant in terms of predicting local recurrence. Complications were observed in two patients, one with liver abscess and the other with portal venous thrombosis. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided RF ablation could be effective and safe in treating incompletely treated HCC after TACE. The diameter of HCC was a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence. PMID:22563280

  6. Estimating inbreeding rates in natural populations: addressing the problem of incomplete pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark P; Haig, Susan M; Ballou, Jonathan D; Steel, E Ashley

    2017-04-07

    Understanding and estimating inbreeding is essential for managing threatened and endangered wildlife populations. However, determination of inbreeding rates in natural populations is confounded by incomplete parentage information. We present an approach for quantifying inbreeding rates for populations with incomplete parentage information. The approach exploits knowledge of pedigree configurations that lead to inbreeding coefficients of F = 0.25 and F = 0.125, allowing for quantification of Pr(I|k): the probability of observing pedigree I given the fraction of known parents (k). We developed analytical expressions under simplifying assumptions that define properties and behavior of inbreeding rate estimators for varying values of k. We demonstrated that inbreeding is overestimated if Pr(I|k) is not taken into consideration and that bias is primarily influenced by k. By contrast, our new estimator, incorporating Pr(I|k), is unbiased over a wide range of values of k that may be observed in empirical studies. Stochastic computer simulations that allowed complex inter- and intra-generational inbreeding produced similar results. We illustrate the effects that accounting for Pr(I|k) can have in empirical data by revisiting published analyses of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and Red deer (Cervus elaphus). Our results demonstrate that incomplete pedigrees are not barriers for quantifying inbreeding in wild populations. Application of our approach will permit a better understanding of the role that inbreeding plays in the dynamics of populations of threatened and endangered species and may help refine our understanding of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the wild.

  7. Application of orthogonal sampling to incomplete data interferometric tomography: numerical simulation and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Hongbing, Yao; Yongkang, Zhang; Xia, Ye; Anzhi, He

    2008-05-01

    Orthogonal projection sampling mode was proposed to reconstruct the incomplete-data flow field in optical computerized tomography (OCT). With numerical simulation technique, a two-peak plane symmetric flow field was reconstructed in different sampling modes and discussed in simulated results is the reconstructive accuracy with error indexes, such as mean square error (MSE) and peak error (PE). The corresponding experiments were researched with a Fabry-Perot rotary interferometer. The results indicated that the errors were drastically reduced and the precision was improved when orthogonal projection sampling mode was adopted in the reconstruction of the incomplete data field. The MSE obtained with orthogonal sampling mode was decreased 72.81% from that of the sequential projection sampling mode (the difference between the MSE obtained with the orthogonal sampling mode and that with the sequential sampling mode divided by the MSE of the sequential sampling mode) and the PE was decreased by 73.97%. The precision obtained from the experimental results reached 10%, which showed the orthogonal projection sampling could be a practicable sampling mode for the incomplete data field reconstruction in OCT and could provide some guidance for the flow-field measurement and apparatus design in the practical situation.

  8. Handling incomplete correlated continuous and binary outcomes in meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Manuel; Hatfield, Laura; Normand, Sharon-Lise

    2016-09-20

    Meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) is increasingly utilised to improve the estimation of treatment effects, particularly among different participant subgroups. An important concern in IPD meta-analysis relates to partially or completely missing outcomes for some studies, a problem exacerbated when interest is on multiple discrete and continuous outcomes. When leveraging information from incomplete correlated outcomes across studies, the fully observed outcomes may provide important information about the incompleteness of the other outcomes. In this paper, we compare two models for handling incomplete continuous and binary outcomes in IPD meta-analysis: a joint hierarchical model and a sequence of full conditional mixed models. We illustrate how these approaches incorporate the correlation across the multiple outcomes and the between-study heterogeneity when addressing the missing data. Simulations characterise the performance of the methods across a range of scenarios which differ according to the proportion and type of missingness, strength of correlation between outcomes and the number of studies. The joint model provided confidence interval coverage consistently closer to nominal levels and lower mean squared error compared with the fully conditional approach across the scenarios considered. Methods are illustrated in a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator devices alone to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator combined with cardiac resynchronisation therapy for treating patients with chronic heart failure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of cypermethrin on memory, movement activity and coordination in mice after transient incomplete cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzecki, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid widely used as an insecticide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effect of 0.1 LD50 of cypermethrin on memory, movement activity and co-ordination in mice exposed to transient incomplete cerebral ischemia. Transient occlusion of both carotid arteries (BCCA) in adult female mice was performed under ketamine + xylazine anesthesia. Intraperitoneal LD50 for cypermethrin was calculated to be 169.9 mg/kg. Memory retention was evaluated in a step-through passive avoidance task (PA), working spatial memory in a Y-maze, spontaneous movement activity in an automated device fitted with two photocells and a counter in two subsequent 30-min periods, and movement co-ordination on a rod spinning at the rate of 10 rotations/min. Neither memory nor movement co-ordination were significantly affected by transient incomplete cerebral ischemia or cypermethrin. BCCA itself did not impair movement activity in the examined mice. Cypermethrin decreased exploratory motor activity in the mice, and the effect was exacerbated by BCCA. These results show that transient incomplete cerebral ischemia combined with exposure to subtoxic doses of cypermethrin do not impair memory, but do affect behavior, producing transient reduction of spontaneous horizontal movement in mice.

  10. Augmented multisensory feedback enhances locomotor adaptation in humans with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Landry, Jill M; Wu, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Different forms of augmented feedback may engage different motor learning pathways, but it is unclear how these pathways interact with each other, especially in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to test whether augmented multisensory feedback could enhance aftereffects following short term locomotor training (i.e., adaptation) in patients with incomplete SCI. A total of 10 subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to perform locomotor adaptation. Three types of augmented feedback were provided during the adaptation: (a) computerized visual cues showing the actual and target stride length (augmented visual feedback); (b) a swing resistance applied to the leg (augmented proprioceptive feedback); (c) a combination of the visual cues and resistance (augmented multisensory feedback). The results showed that subjects' stride length increased in all conditions following the adaptation, but the increase was greater and retained longer in the multisensory feedback condition. The multisensory feedback provided in this study may engage both explicit and implicit learning pathways during the adaptation and in turn enhance the aftereffect. The results implied that multisensory feedback may be used as an adjunctive approach to enhance gait recovery in humans with SCI.

  11. Clinicopathological characteristics of patients who underwent additional gastrectomy after incomplete endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Nayoung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and factors that lead to residual tumors in patients who underwent additional gastrectomy for incomplete endoscopic resection (ER) for early gastric cancer (EGC). Between 2003 and 2013, the medical records of patients underwent additional gastrectomy after incomplete ER were retrospectively reviewed. Those diagnosed with the presence of histologic residual tumor in specimens obtained by gastrectomy were assigned to the residual tumor (RT) group (n = 47); those diagnosed with the absence of histologic residual tumor were assigned to the nonresidual tumor (NRT) group (n = 33). In the multivariate analysis, endoscopic piecemeal resection, Helicobacter pylori infection, large tumor size (>2 cm), and both (lateral and vertical) marginal involvement were independent factors of the presence of residual tumor in additional gastrectomy after incomplete resection ER for EGC and the rates of independent factors were significantly higher in the RT group than in the NRT group (P < 0.05). Before ER, preexamination to accurately determine the GC invasion depth and the presence of LN metastasis is very important. During ER, surgeons should attempt to perform en bloc resection and to resect the mucous membrane with adequate safety margins to prevent tumor invasion into the lateral and vertical margins. PMID:28207556

  12. Inference and sample size calculation for clinical trials with incomplete observations of paired binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; Cao, Jing; Ahn, Chul

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the estimation of intervention effect and sample size determination for experiments where subjects are supposed to contribute paired binary outcomes with some incomplete observations. We propose a hybrid estimator to appropriately account for the mixed nature of observed data: paired outcomes from those who contribute complete pairs of observations and unpaired outcomes from those who contribute either pre-intervention or post-intervention outcomes. We theoretically prove that if incomplete data are evenly distributed between the pre-intervention and post-intervention periods, the proposed estimator will always be more efficient than the traditional estimator. A numerical research shows that when the distribution of incomplete data is unbalanced, the proposed estimator will be superior when there is moderate-to-strong positive within-subject correlation. We further derive a closed-form sample size formula to help researchers determine how many subjects need to be enrolled in such studies. Simulation results suggest that the calculated sample size maintains the empirical power and type I error under various design configurations. We demonstrate the proposed method using a real application example. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Fault diagnosis strategy for incompletely described samples and its application to refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Neng; Liang, Jun; Gu, Bo; Han, Hua

    2008-02-01

    Fault diagnosis (FD) plays a very important role in the operation and maintenance of mechanical system and equipment. Existing FD methods are not capable of effectively dealing with incompletely described samples. In this paper, a strategy for FD using the incompletely described samples is presented. It is actualized in two steps, namely the determination of the values of unknown features which is the key step of the presented FD strategy, and the utilization of the regenerated completely described samples to diagnose the system based on support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. And the first step is mainly implemented by the following three sub-steps: (1) with the help of domain knowledge, the similarity transformation matrix of partial problem description (PPD)—problems with incomplete feature description—is generated based on the historical database; (2) the unknown features of the samples are transformed to related known features, through which generates a new retrieval feature vector; (3) the values of unknown features are assigned by the optimal cases which can be retrieved by measuring and comparing similarities between the retrieval feature vector and the completely described samples in the historical database. Finally, the presented FD strategy was applied to a real refrigeration system, and achieved satisfying results.

  14. Thinking-in-Concert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…

  15. Factors associated with incomplete gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection due to misdiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Masau; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Saito, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely accepted for treating early gastric cancer (EGC); however, there can be cases of incomplete resection due to not only technical problems, but also misdiagnosis. Our aim was to identify factors associated with incomplete gastric ESD due to misdiagnosis. Patients and methods: A total of 2,268 patients with solitary EGCs at initial onset underwent ESD with curative intent at our hospital from 1999 to 2008. We retrospectively assessed the clinicopathological factors by comparing the two groups of incomplete ESD cases due to misdiagnosis (cases with a positive lateral margins [LM] [Group A] or those with a positive vertical margins [VM] [Group B]) with complete ESD cases using multivariable analysis. Results: Complete ESD was achieved in 2,097 patients. The 171 patients with incomplete ESDs were divided into 109 with a positive LM and 80 with a positive VM (overlapped). Except 49 cases with a positive LM due to technical problems, a positive LM due to misdiagnosis was identified in 60 cases (Group A). Excluding 32 cases with a positive VM due to technical problems, a positive VM due to misdiagnosis was found in 48 cases (Group B). Significant independent factors (odds ratios [OR]; 95 % confidence intervals [CI]) for each group were as follows: Group A: size > 20 mm (5.4; 3.0 – 9.9), undifferentiated-type (4.1; 1.8 – 9.0), submucosal invasion (2.0; 1.1 – 3.4) and location of upper/middle (1.9; 1.0 – 3.6); Group B: size > 20 mm (3.0; 1.6 – 5.5), undifferentiated-type (3.0; 1.1 – 8.0) and location of upper/middle (2.4; 1.2 – 4.8). Conclusions: Endoscopists must be aware of these factors associated with incomplete gastric ESD due to misdiagnosis to further decrease their incidence. PMID:27556097

  16. Effect of basic site substituents on concerted proton-electron transfer in hydrogen-bonded pyridyl-phenols.

    PubMed

    Markle, Todd F; Tronic, Tristan A; DiPasquale, Antonio G; Kaminsky, Werner; Mayer, James M

    2012-12-20

    Separated concerted proton-electron transfer (sCPET) reactions of two series of phenols with pendent substituted pyridyl moieties are described. The pyridine is either attached directly to the phenol (HOAr-pyX) or connected through a methylene linker (HOArCH(2)pyX) (X = 4-NO(2), 5-CF(3), 4-CH(3), and 4-NMe(2)). Electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents have a substantial effect on the chemical environment of the transferring proton, as indicated by IR and (1)H NMR spectra, X-ray structures, and computational studies. One-electron oxidation of the phenols occurs concomitantly with proton transfer from the phenolic oxygen to the pyridyl nitrogen. The oxidation potentials vary linearly with the pK(a) of the free pyridine (pyX), with slopes slightly below the Nerstian value of 59 mV/pK(a). For the HOArCH(2)pyX series, the rate constants k(sCPET) for oxidation by NAr(3)(•+) or [Fe(diimine)(3)](3+) vary primarily with the thermodynamic driving force (ΔG°(sCPET)), whether ΔG° is changed by varying the potential of the oxidant or the substituent on the pyridine, indicating a constant intrinsic barrier λ. In contrast, the substituents in the HOAr-pyX series affect λ as well as ΔG°(sCPET), and compounds with electron-withdrawing substituents have significantly lower reactivity. The relationship between the structural and spectroscopic properties of the phenols and their CPET reactivity is discussed.

  17. Probing quantum and dynamic effects in concerted proton-electron transfer reactions of phenol-base compounds.

    PubMed

    Markle, Todd F; Tenderholt, Adam L; Mayer, James M

    2012-01-12

    The oxidation of three phenols, which contain an intramolecular hydrogen bond to a pendent pyridine or amine group, has been shown, in a previous experimental study, to undergo concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET). In this reaction, the electron is transferred to an outer-sphere oxidant, and the proton is transferred from the oxygen to nitrogen atom. In the present study, this reaction is studied computationally using a version of Hammes-Schiffer's multistate continuum theory where CPET is formulated as a transmission frequency between neutral and cation vibrational-electronic states. The neutral and cation proton vibrational wave functions are computed from one-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the transferring proton in a fixed heavy atom framework. The overlap integrals for these neutral/cation wave functions, considering several initial (i.e., neutral) and final (i.e., cation) vibrational states, are used to evaluate the relative rates of oxidation. The analysis is extended to heavy atom configurations with various proton donor-acceptor (i.e., O-N) distances to assess the importance of heavy atom "gating". Such changes in d(ON) dramatically affect the nature of the proton PESs and wave functions. Surprisingly, the most reactive configurations have similar donor-acceptor distances despite the large (~0.2 Å) differences in the optimized structures. These theoretical results qualitatively reproduce the experimental faster reactivity of the reaction of the pyridyl derivative 1 versus the CH(2)-pyridyl 2, but the computed factor of 5 is smaller than the experimental 10(2). The amine derivative is calculated to react similarly to 1, which does not agree with the experiments, likely due to some of the simplifying assumptions made in applying the theory. The computed kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and their temperature dependence are in agreement with experimental results.

  18. The climate impact from contrails and cirrus clouds - overview from the CONCERT (CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT) campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Christiane; Schumann, Ulrich; Gayet, Jean Francois; Petzold, Andreas; Krämer, Martina; Schlager, Hans; Borrmann, Stephan; Jurkat, Tina; Jeßberger, Philipp; Schäuble, Dominik

    2010-05-01

    Contrails and cirrus clouds were detected during the CONCERT-2CONTRAILS campaign (CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT) in November 2008 with the research aircraft Falcon. The Falcon was equipped with instruments to measure particle properties such as particle size distribution, extinction and particle shape as well as trace gas distributions of ozone, reactive nitrogen and halogen species and sulfur dioxide. During 5 mission flights over Western Europe numerous cirrus clouds and contrails were probed at altitudes between 9 and 11.5 km and temperatures between 213 and 237 K. 22 contrails from 11 different aircraft with ages below 10 minutes were detected in the vortex and early dispersion regime near and slightly below ice saturation. The contrail data are compared to nearby cirrus observations in terms of particle size distribution, shape, optical depth and extinction to discuss differences in their climate impact. In particular we present new observations of the contrail from a large aircraft, the A380. The evolution of the A380 contrail within its first 6 minutes of its lifetime has been observed. The A380 contrail observations are compared to contrail measurements from smaller aircraft in order to investigate the influence of the aircraft type on climate active contrail properties under similar meteorological conditions. Further, the specific climate impact from each of the measured contrail cases is assessed with the help of a new contrail cirrus prediction tool (CoCiP). The model computes the integral of the radiative forcing of the contrail over the computed life-time of the contrail and is tested with the detected contrails. It will be shown that the climate impact of contrails depends on both aircraft and meteorological parameters.

  19. Galectin-3 and soluble fibrinogen act in concert to modulate neutrophil activation and survival: involvement of alternative MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Gabriela C; Ilarregui, Juan M; Rubel, Carolina J; Toscano, Marta A; Gómez, Sonia A; Beigier Bompadre, Macarena; Isturiz, Martín A; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Palermo, Marina S

    2005-05-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a member of a family of highly conserved carbohydrate-binding proteins, has recently emerged as a novel cellular modulator at inflammatory foci. Here we investigated the effects of Gal-3 on central effector functions of human neutrophils, including phagocytosis, exocytosis of secretory granules, and survival. We examined the effects of Gal-3 alone or in combination with soluble fibrinogen (sFbg), an extracellular mediator that plays a key role during the early phase of the inflammatory response through binding to integrin receptors. In addition we evaluated the intracellular signals triggered by these mediators in human neutrophils. Human neutrophils incubated with recombinant Gal-3 alone increased their phagocytic activity and CD66 surface expression. In contrast to the known antiapoptotic effect of Gal-3 on many cellular types, Gal-3 enhanced PMN apoptotic rate. Preincubation with Gal-3 primed neutrophils to the effects of sFbg, resulting in a synergistic action on degranulation. On the other hand, Gal-3 and sFbg had opposite effects on PMN survival, and the simultaneous action of both agonists partially counteracted the proapoptotic effects of Gal-3. In addition, although sFbg induced its effects through the activation of the ERKs, Gal-3 led to p38 phosphorylation. Disruption of this signaling pathway abrogated Gal-3-mediated modulation of neutrophil degranulation, phagocytosis, and apoptosis. Together, our results support the notion that Gal-3 and sFbg are two physiological mediators present at inflammatory sites that activate different components of the MAPK pathway and could be acting in concert to modulate the functionality and life span of neutrophils.

  20. Promoted reduction of tellurite and formation of extracellular tellurium nanorods by concerted reaction between iron and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hun; Kim, Min-Gyu; Jiang, Shenghua; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2013-08-06

    The reduction of tellurite (Te(IV)) by dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, was promoted in the presence of Fe(III) in comparison with Te(IV) bioreduction in the absence of Fe(III). Electron microscopic analyses revealed that iron promoted Te(IV) reduction led to form exclusively extracellular crystalline Te(0) nanorods, as compared to the mostly intracellular formation of Te(0) nanorods in the absence of Fe(III). The Te K-edge X-ray absorption spectrometric analyses demonstrated that S. oneidensis MR-1 in the presence of Fe(III) reduced Te(IV) to less harmful metallic Te(0) nanorods through the precipitation of tellurite (Te(IV)Ox) complex by the bacterial respiration of Fe(III) to Fe(II) under anaerobic conditions. However, Fe(II) ion itself was only able to precipitate the solid tellurite (Te(IV)Ox) complex from the Te(IV) solution, which was not further reduced to Te(0). The results clearly indicated that bacterial S. oneidensis MR-1 plays important roles in the reduction and crystallization of Te(0) nanorods by as yet undetermined biochemical mechanisms. As compared to the slow bacterial Te(IV) reduction in the absence of Fe(III), the rapid reduction of Te(IV) to Te(0) by the concerted biogeochemical reaction between Fe(II) and S. oneidensis MR-1 could be applied for the sequestration and detoxification of Te(IV) in the environments as well as for the preparation of extracellular Te(0) nanorod structures.

  1. Treatable high homocysteine alone or in concert with five other thrombophilias in 1014 patients with thrombotic events.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Smith, Domonique; Gandhi, Niral; Hemachandra, Kailash; Shah, Parth; Wang, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In 1014 patients with thrombotic events, we determined how often treatable high serum homocysteine alone, or in concert with five other thrombophilias, was associated with thrombotic events. We studied 1014 outpatients sequentially referred for evaluation of thrombotic events, all having six measures of thrombophilia--three PCR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T-A1298C, factor V Leiden G506A, prothrombin G20210A), and three serologic (factors VIII, XI, homocysteine). Of the 1014 patients, 198 (20%) had atherothrombosis, 199 (20%) ocular vascular thrombosis, 211 (21%) osteonecrosis, 180 (18%) pseudotumor cerebri, and 123 (12%) recurrent miscarriage. In 434 of 1014 (43%) patients, all six thrombophilic measures were normal. High homocysteine, present in 126 of 1014 patients (12.4%), was the sole thrombophilia in 50 (5%), accompanied only by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase homozygosity-compound heterozygosity in 22 (2.2%), and accompanied by other thrombophilias in 54 (5%). Patients were more likely than 110 healthy controls to have high homocysteine (12 vs. 5%; P = 0.02) and high factor VIII (21 vs. 7%; P = 0.0003). On treatment for a median of 18 months with L-methyl folate (5 mg), vitamin B6 (100 mg), and vitamin B12 (2 mg/day), in 74 homocysteinemic patients, median homocysteine fell from 15.6 to 10.0 μmol/l (P < 0.0001), and in 56 (76%), homocysteine fell to normal on treatment. When homocysteinemia was the sole thrombophilia, normalization of homocysteine was accompanied by freedom from new thrombotic events in 38 of 41 patients (93%). In evaluation of 1014 patients with thrombotic events, 126 (12%) had treatable high serum homocysteine, and in 50 (5%), high homocysteine was the sole treatable thrombophilia.

  2. Platelet microparticles are internalized in neutrophils via the concerted activity of 12-lipoxygenase and secreted phospholipase A2-IIA

    PubMed Central

    Duchez, Anne-Claire; Boudreau, Luc H.; Naika, Gajendra S.; Bollinger, James; Belleannée, Clémence; Cloutier, Nathalie; Laffont, Benoit; Mendoza-Villarroel, Raifish E.; Lévesque, Tania; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Matthieu; Allaeys, Isabelle; Tremblay, Jacques J.; Poubelle, Patrice E.; Lambeau, Gérard; Pouliot, Marc; Provost, Patrick; Soulet, Denis; Gelb, Michael H.; Boilard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are anucleated blood elements highly potent at generating extracellular vesicles (EVs) called microparticles (MPs). Whereas EVs are accepted as an important means of intercellular communication, the mechanisms underlying platelet MP internalization in recipient cells are poorly understood. Our lipidomic analyses identified 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid [12(S)-HETE] as the predominant eicosanoid generated by MPs. Mechanistically, 12(S)-HETE is produced through the concerted activity of secreted phospholipase A2 IIA (sPLA2-IIA), present in inflammatory fluids, and platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), expressed by platelet MPs. Platelet MPs convey an elaborate set of transcription factors and nucleic acids, and contain mitochondria. We observed that MPs and their cargo are internalized by activated neutrophils in the endomembrane system via 12(S)-HETE. Platelet MPs are found inside neutrophils isolated from the joints of arthritic patients, and are found in neutrophils only in the presence of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO in an in vivo model of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. Using a combination of genetically modified mice, we show that the coordinated action of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO promotes inflammatory arthritis. These findings identify 12(S)-HETE as a trigger of platelet MP internalization by neutrophils, a mechanism highly relevant to inflammatory processes. Because sPLA2-IIA is induced during inflammation, and 12-LO expression is restricted mainly to platelets, these observations demonstrate that platelet MPs promote their internalization in recipient cells through highly regulated mechanisms. PMID:26106157

  3. Concerted Trafficking Regulation of Kv2.1 and KATP Channels by Leptin in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Shyng, Show-Ling; Chen, Pei-Chun

    2015-12-11

    In pancreatic β-cells, voltage-gated potassium 2.1 (Kv2.1) channels are the dominant delayed rectifier potassium channels responsible for action potential repolarization. Here, we report that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes known to inhibit insulin secretion, causes a transient increase in surface expression of Kv2.1 channels in rodent and human β-cells. The effect of leptin on Kv2.1 surface expression is mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK mimics whereas inhibition of AMPK occludes the effect of leptin. Inhibition of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β, a known upstream kinase of AMPK, also blocks the effect of leptin. In addition, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is involved in Kv2.1 channel trafficking regulation. Inhibition of PKA prevents leptin or AMPK activators from increasing Kv2.1 channel density, whereas stimulation of PKA is sufficient to promote Kv2.1 channel surface expression. The increased Kv2.1 surface expression by leptin is dependent on actin depolymerization, and pharmacologically induced actin depolymerization is sufficient to enhance Kv2.1 surface expression. The signaling and cellular mechanisms underlying Kv2.1 channel trafficking regulation by leptin mirror those reported recently for ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, which are critical for coupling glucose stimulation with membrane depolarization. We show that the leptin-induced increase in surface KATP channels results in more hyperpolarized membrane potentials than control cells at stimulating glucose concentrations, and the increase in Kv2.1 channels leads to a more rapid repolarization of membrane potential in cells firing action potentials. This study supports a model in which leptin exerts concerted trafficking regulation of KATP and Kv2.1 channels to coordinately inhibit insulin secretion.

  4. Fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract parasitic phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2013-11-01

    Pseudacteon tricuspis, Pseudacteon obtusus and Pseudacteon curvatus are three species of parasitic phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae), which have been introduced as classical biological control agents of imported, Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the southern USA. Previous studies demonstrated the behavioral response of P. tricuspis to the venom alkaloids and alarm pheromone of the fire ant, S. invicta. In the present study, we compared the responses of P. tricuspis, P. obtusus and P. curvatus to Solenopsis invicta alarm pheromone, venom alkaloids, or a mixture of both chemicals in four-choice olfactometer bioassays. The main hypothesis tested was that the fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract Pseudacteon phorid flies. Both sexes of all three Pseudacteon species were attracted to low doses of the fire ant alarm pheromone or venom alkaloids (i.e. 1 ant worker equivalent) alone. However, the flies were significantly more attracted to a mixture of both chemicals (i.e., 1:1 mixture of alarm pheromone+alkaloids) than to either chemical. The results suggest an additive rather than a synergistic effect of combining both chemicals. Comparing the fly species, P. tricuspis showed relatively greater attraction to cis alkaloids, whereas the alkaloid mixture (cis+trans) was preferred by P. obtusus and P. curvatus. In general, no key sexual differences were recorded, although females of P. tricuspis and P. obtusus showed slightly higher response than conspecific males to lower doses of the alarm pheromone. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed, and a host location model is proposed for parasitic phorid flies involving the use of fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids as long range and short range attractants, respectively.

  5. The Villain Team-Up or how Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis alter innate immunity in concert

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina N; Buck, Olivia R; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fashemi, Titilayo; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Bisiayo; Hayes, Gary R; Beach, David H; Takagi, Yuko; Delaney, Mary L; Nibert, Max L; Singh, Bibhuti N; Onderdonk, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Complex interactions of vaginal microorganisms with the genital tract epithelium shape mucosal innate immunity, which holds the key to sexual and reproductive health. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a microbiome-disturbance syndrome prevalent in reproductive-age women, occurs commonly in concert with trichomoniasis, and both are associated with increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and viral infections, largely attributable to inflammation. To investigate the causative relationships among inflammation, BV and trichomoniasis, we established a model of human cervicovaginal epithelial cells colonised by vaginal Lactobacillus isolates, dominant in healthy women, and common BV species (Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia). Methods Colonised epithelia were infected with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or exposed to purified TV virulence factors (membrane lipophosphoglycan (LPG), its ceramide-phosphoinositol-glycan core (CPI-GC) or the endosymbiont Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV)), followed by assessment of bacterial colony-forming units, the mucosal anti-inflammatory microbicide secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and chemokines that drive pro-inflammatory, antigen-presenting and T cells. Results TV reduced colonisation by Lactobacillus but not by BV species, which were found inside epithelial cells. TV increased interleukin (IL)-8 and suppressed SLPI, likely via LPG/CPI-GC, and upregulated IL-8 and RANTES, likely via TVV as suggested by use of purified pathogenic determinants. BV species A vaginae and G vaginalis induced IL-8 and RANTES, and also amplified the pro-inflammatory responses to both LPG/CPI-GC and TVV, whereas P bivia suppressed the TV/TVV-induced chemokines. Conclusions These molecular host–parasite–endosymbiont–bacteria interactions explain epidemiological associations and suggest a revised paradigm for restoring vaginal immunity and preventing BV/TV-attributable inflammatory sequelae in women. PMID

  6. Concerted Motions Networking Pores and Distant Ferroxidase Centers Enable Bacterioferritin Function and Iron Traffic£ξ

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Huili; Rui, Huan; Kumar, Ritesh; Eshelman, Kate; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Im, Wonpil; Rivera, Mario

    2015-01-01

    X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and biochemistry were utilized to investigate the effect of introducing hydrophobic interactions in the 4-fold (N148L and Q151L) and B-pores (D34F) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin B (BfrB) on BfrB function. The structures show only local structural perturbations and confirm the anticipated hydrophobic interactions. Surprisingly, structures obtained after soaking crystals in Fe2+-containing crystallization solution revealed that although iron loads into the ferroxidase centers of the mutants, the side chains of ferroxidase ligands E51 and H130 do not reorganize to bind the iron ions, as is seen in the wt BfrB structures. Similar experiments with a double mutant (C89S/K96C) prepared to introduce changes outside the pores show competent ferroxidase centers that function akin to those in wt BfrB. MD simulations comparing wt BfrB with the D34F and N148L mutants show that the mutants exhibit significantly reduced flexibility, and reveal a network of concerted motions linking ferroxidase centers and 4-fold and B-pores, which are important for imparting ferroxidase centers in BfrB with the required flexibility to function efficiently. In agreement, the efficiency of Fe2+ oxidation and uptake of the 4-fold and B-pore mutants in solution is significantly compromised relative to wt or C89S/K96C BfrB. Finally, our structures show a large number of previously unknown iron binding sites in the interior cavity and B-pores of BfrB, which reveal in unprecedented detail conduits followed by iron and phosphate ions across the BfrB shell, as well as paths in the interior cavity that may facilitate nucleation of the iron phosphate mineral. PMID:25640193

  7. Kinetic Studies on the Reaction of Chlorosulfonyl Isocyanate with Monofluoralkenes: Experimental Evidence for Both Stepwise and Concerted Mechanisms, and a Pre-equilibrium Complex on the Reaction Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    lactams that are readily reduced to β-lactams. Substitution of a vinyl hydrogen for a vinyl fluorine changes the dynamics for reaction with CSI so...hydrogen for a vinyl fluorine changes the dynamics for reaction with CSI so that a concerted pathway is favored. Rate constants were measured for...step pathway has not been demonstrated experimentally.3c In a recent paper, we found that substituting a hydrogen for a fluorine on the π-bond of an

  8. Distance dependence of bidirectional concerted proton-electron transfer in phenol-Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)3(2+) dyads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Kuss-Petermann, Martin; Wenger, Oliver S

    2014-04-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) was investigated in three covalent donor-bridge-acceptor molecules with different bridge lengths. Upon photoexcitation of their Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) photosensitizer in acetonitrile, intramolecular long-range electron transfer from a phenolic unit to Ru(bpy)3(2+) occurs in concert with release of the phenolic proton to pyrrolidine base. The kinetics of this bidirectional concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) reaction were studied as a function of phenol-Ru(bpy)3(2+) distance by increasing the number of bridging p-xylene units. A distance decay constant (β) of 0.67±0.23 Å(-1) was determined. The distance dependence of the rates for CPET is thus not significantly steeper than that for ordinary (i.e., not proton coupled) electron transfer across the same bridges, despite the concerted motion of oppositely charged particles into different directions. Long-range bidirectional CPET is an important reaction in many proteins and plays a key role in photosynthesis; our results are relevant in the context of photoinduced separation of protons and electrons as a means of light-to-chemical energy conversion. This is the first determination of β for a bidirectional CPET reaction.

  9. Comparison of aminolysis of 2-pyridyl and 4-pyridyl x-substituted benzoates in acetonitrile: evidence for a concerted mechanism involving a cyclic transition state.

    PubMed

    Um, Ik-Hwan; Bae, Ae-Ri; Um, Tae-Il

    2014-02-07

    A kinetic study on reactions of 2-pyridyl X-substituted benzoates (6a-i) with a series of cyclic secondary amines in MeCN is reported. The Hammett plot for the reaction of 6a-i with piperidine consists of two intersecting straight lines while the Yukawa-Tsuno plot exhibits an excellent linear correlation with ρX = 1.28 and r = 0.63, indicating that the nonlinear Hammett plot is not caused by a change in the rate-determining step but rather by resonance stabilization of substrates possessing an electron-donating group (EDG) in the benzoyl moiety. The Brønsted-type plots are linear with βnuc = 0.59 ± 0.02, which is typical of reactions reported to proceed through a concerted mechanism. A cyclic transition state (TS), which forces the reaction to proceed through a concerted mechanism, is proposed. The deuterium kinetic isotope effect of 1.3 ± 0.1 is consistent with the proposed mechanism. Analysis of activation parameters reveals that ΔH(‡) increases linearly as the substituent X changes from an electron-withdrawing group (EWG) to an EDG, while TΔS(‡) remains nearly constant with a large negative value. The constant TΔS(‡) value further supports the proposal that the reaction proceeds through a concerted mechanism with a cyclic TS.

  10. Incomplete Protection against Dengue Virus Type 2 Re-infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Forshey, Brett M.; Reiner, Robert C.; Olkowski, Sandra; Morrison, Amy C.; Espinoza, Angelica; Long, Kanya C.; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Casanova, Wilma; Wearing, Helen J.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Stoddard, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk for dengue, yet no licensed vaccine or anti-viral drug is currently available. Dengue is caused by any of four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4), and infection by a DENV serotype is assumed to provide life-long protection against re-infection by that serotype. We investigated the validity of this fundamental assumption during a large dengue epidemic caused by DENV-2 in Iquitos, Peru, in 2010–2011, 15 years after the first outbreak of DENV-2 in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the age-dependent prevalence of serotype-specific DENV antibodies from longitudinal cohort studies conducted between 1993 and 2010. During the 2010–2011 epidemic, active dengue cases were identified through active community- and clinic-based febrile surveillance studies, and acute inapparent DENV infections were identified through contact tracing studies. Based on the age-specific prevalence of DENV-2 neutralizing antibodies, the age distribution of DENV-2 cases was markedly older than expected. Homologous protection was estimated at 35.1% (95% confidence interval: 0%–65.2%). At the individual level, pre-existing DENV-2 antibodies were associated with an incomplete reduction in the frequency of symptoms. Among dengue cases, 43% (26/66) exhibited elevated DENV-2 neutralizing antibody titers for years prior to infection, compared with 76% (13/17) of inapparent infections (age-adjusted odds ratio: 4.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–17.7). Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that protection from homologous DENV re-infection may be incomplete in some circumstances, which provides context for the limited vaccine efficacy against DENV-2 in recent trials. Further studies are warranted to confirm this phenomenon and to evaluate the potential role of incomplete homologous protection in DENV transmission dynamics. PMID:26848841

  11. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree inDrosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-28

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequencedspecies Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D.melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All threepossible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, thoughrecent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sisterspecies. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as thefour other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set outto investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D.melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the pastincongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D.yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespreadincongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions anddeletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two keyspeciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, theincongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supportingthe same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different treeswas found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes supportthe same tree most often in regions of low recombination andsubstitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on thesame scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineagesorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant androbust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. Weconclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster speciescomplex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting.Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence inmany comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct speciestree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methodsthat control for and/or utilize this information will be

  12. [Condition of cavernous tissue of the penis after unilateral incomplete proximal intracavernous falloprosthesis].

    PubMed

    Taurashvili, G I; Medvedev, V L; Chilov, S A; Kochov, V N; Taruashvili, I G

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral incomplete proximal intracavernous falloprosthesis (UIPIF) was followed by US-dopplerography of the intact penis and penis in medical erection induced by E1 prostoglandin introduction into the intact cavernous body. UIPIF preserves 89-90% of functionally active cavernous tissue with effective blood flow. Investigation 2 months and more after operation demonstrated that systolic blood flow rate in the cavernous artery of the cavernous tissue around the endoprosthersis can reach values registered in normal erection. The conclusion is made that after UIPIF quality of sexual life of the patient improves due to creation of additional density and axial stability of the trunk of the penis.

  13. Incubation time of heterogeneous growth of islands in the mode of incomplete condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    The incubation time necessary for the growth of surface islands on heterogeneous nucleation centers to begin has been theoretically analyzed depending on the material gas flow and surface temperature. It is shown that, under heterogeneous growth in the mode of incomplete condensation, the incubation time increases with temperature according to the Arrhenius law and is inversely proportional to the flow, irrespective of the mechanism of diffusion transport to islands. The results obtained have been qualitatively compared with the experimental data on the incubation time for three-dimensional GaN islands arising in the initial stage of self-induced growth of GaN nanowires.

  14. Analysis of the incomplete Galerkin method for modelling of smoothly-irregular transition between planar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakov, D.; Sevastianov, L.; Nikolaev, N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a numerical solution of the problem of waveguide propagation of polarized light in smoothly-irregular transition between closed regular waveguides using the incomplete Galerkin method. This method consists in replacement of variables in the problem of reduction of the Helmholtz equation to the system of differential equations by the Kantorovich method and in formulation of the boundary conditions for the resulting system. The formulation of the boundary problem for the ODE system is realized in computer algebra system Maple. The stated boundary problem is solved using Maples libraries of numerical methods.

  15. Analytic treatment of complete and incomplete geodesics in Taub-NUT space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Kagramanova, Valeria; Kunz, Jutta; Hackmann, Eva; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    2010-06-15

    We present the complete set of analytical solutions of the geodesic equation in Taub-NUT space-times in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic functions. We systematically study the underlying polynomials and characterize the motion of test particles by its zeros. Since the presence of the 'Misner string' in the Taub-NUT metric has led to different interpretations, we consider these in terms of the geodesics of the space-time. In particular, we address the geodesic incompleteness at the horizons discussed by Misner and Taub [C. W. Misner and A. H. Taub, Sov. Phys. JETP 28, 122 (1969) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 55, 233 (1968)

  16. Spinal epidural abscess caused by bacteroides fragilis group after dilation and curettage for incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Ohyagi, Masaki; Ohkubo, Takuya; Taniyama, Takashi; Tomizawa, Shoji; Okawa, Atsushi; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-04-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare infection complicated in patients who have some risk factors such as injection-drug use, diabetes mellitus, and several illnesses. However, no case of SEA associated with abortion has been reported. Here we report a case of SEA in a 30-year-old woman after dilation and curettage for incomplete abortion. The diagnosis of SEA was done by MRI and pus was drained after the cervical discectomy. Bacteroides fragilis group was cultured from the aspirated pus sample. The patient responded to surgical drainage and antibiotics.

  17. [Semax prevents elevation of nitric oxide generation caused by incomplete global ischemia in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Fadiukova, O E; Alekseev, A A; Bashkatova, V G; Tolordava, I A; Kuzenkov, V S; Mikoian, V D; Vanin, A F; Koshelev, V B; Raevskiĭ, K S

    2001-01-01

    A twofold increase in the nitric oxide (NO) production and a moderate increase in the content of secondary products of lipid peroxidation was observed in Wistar rats with incomplete global ischemia model induced by the bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries. A clear correlation was observed between the NO content in the rat brain and the level of neurological disturbance manifestations in the ischemized animals. The synthetic peptide semax (a fragment of ACTH4-7 Pro-Gly-Pro) in a dose of 0.3 mg/kg prevented from the development of both neurological disturbances and excess NO production in the rat brain cortex.

  18. Latent Class Analysis of Incomplete Data via an Entropy-Based Criterion.

    PubMed

    Larose, Chantal; Harel, Ofer; Kordas, Katarzyna; Dey, Dipak K

    2016-09-01

    Latent class analysis is used to group categorical data into classes via a probability model. Model selection criteria then judge how well the model fits the data. When addressing incomplete data, the current methodology restricts the imputation to a single, pre-specified number of classes. We seek to develop an entropy-based model selection criterion that does not restrict the imputation to one number of clusters. Simulations show the new criterion performing well against the current standards of AIC and BIC, while a family studies application demonstrates how the criterion provides more detailed and useful results than AIC and BIC.

  19. Burden of gastrointestinal cancers and problem of the incomplete information; how to make up the data?

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Abdolhamid; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Baghestani, Ahmadreza; Hajizadeh, Nastaran; Gholizadeh, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer registration is an important source for measuring the burden of cancer in a population. In practice, however, quite frequently incorrect patients are registered or data items can be inaccurately recorded or not recorded at all. Also the process or quality of these registrations varies among countries. In this paper, we briefly discussed some statistical techniques including; Mortality and Incidence Analysis Model (MIAMOD), Prevalence and Incidence Analysis Model (PIAMOD), Bayesian Inference and Capture-recapture methods, which provide tools to re-correct the incomplete or misclassified cancer statistics with regards to gastrointestinal cancers.

  20. Stabilization of the stochastically forced equilibria for nonlinear discrete-time systems with incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryashko, Lev

    2015-11-01

    A stabilization problem of the equilibrium of stochastically forced nonlinear discrete-time system with incomplete information is considered. Our approach uses a regulator which synthesizes the required stochastic sensitivity of the equilibrium. Mathematically, this problem is reduced to the solution of some quadratic matrix equations. A description of attainability sets and algorithms for regulators design is given. The general results are applied to the suppression of unwanted large-amplitude oscillations around the equilibria of the stochastically forced Verhulst model with noisy observations.