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Sample records for cycas incomplete concerted

  1. Maternal inheritance of plastids and mitochondria in Cycas L. (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Rong; Li, Nan; Qian, Dan; Jin, Jian-Hua; Chen, Tao

    2011-12-01

    Cycas is often considered a living fossil, thereby providing a unique model for revealing the evolution of spermatophytes. To date, the genetic inheritance of these archaic plants is not fully understood. The present study seeks to document the process of organelle inheritance in an interspecific cross of Cycas species. Extranuclear organelle DNA from chloroplasts and mitochondria was analyzed using both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and microscopy. Here, we show that the chloroplasts and mitochondria in the progeny of interspecific crosses between Cycas taitungensis and Cycas ferruginea were exclusively inherited from the female parent. Epifluorescence microscopic analyses of the pollen cells from Cycas elongata indicated that there was a significant degradation of organelle DNA in male reproductive cells following maturation; the DNA fluorescent signals were only seen after pollen mitosis two, but not detectable at mature stage. Lack of organelle DNA fluorescent signal in prothallial cells was confirmed by the absence of plastids and mitochondria in electronic microscopic images. In conclusion, these data suggest that the maternal plastid and mitochondrial inheritance in Cycas, native to the old world, are the same as seen in seed plants.

  2. Concerts for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Louie

    2008-01-01

    Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…

  3. Programming the Perfect Concert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Provides suggestions for developing a successful concert. Covers aspects of the performance such as literature selections, the sequence of the songs within the concert, the needs of the audience, appearance of the students, and appropriate concert length for all grades levels. (CMK)

  4. Astonishing 35S rDNA diversity in the gymnosperm species Cycas revoluta Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wencai; Ma, Lu; Becher, Hannes; Garcia, Sònia; Kovarikova, Alena; Leitch, Ilia J; Leitch, Andrew R; Kovarik, Ales

    2016-09-01

    In all eukaryotes, the highly repeated 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences encoding 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) typically show high levels of intragenomic uniformity due to homogenisation processes, leading to concerted evolution of 35S rDNA repeats. Here, we compared 35S rDNA divergence in several seed plants using next generation sequencing and a range of molecular and cytogenetic approaches. Most species showed similar 35S rDNA homogeneity indicating concerted evolution. However, Cycas revoluta exhibits an extraordinary diversity of rDNA repeats (nucleotide sequence divergence of different copies averaging 12 %), influencing both the coding and non-coding rDNA regions nearly equally. In contrast, its rRNA transcriptome was highly homogeneous suggesting that only a minority of genes (<20 %) encode functional rRNA. The most common SNPs were C > T substitutions located in symmetrical CG and CHG contexts which were also highly methylated. Both functional genes and pseudogenes appear to cluster on chromosomes. The extraordinary high levels of 35S rDNA diversity in C. revoluta, and probably other species of cycads, indicate that the frequency of repeat homogenisation has been much lower in this lineage, compared with all other land plant lineages studied. This has led to the accumulation of methylation-driven mutations and pseudogenisation. Potentially, the reduced homology between paralogs prevented their elimination by homologous recombination, resulting in long-term retention of rDNA pseudogenes in the genome.

  5. Astonishing 35S rDNA diversity in the gymnosperm species Cycas revoluta Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wencai; Ma, Lu; Becher, Hannes; Garcia, Sònia; Kovarikova, Alena; Leitch, Ilia J; Leitch, Andrew R; Kovarik, Ales

    2016-09-01

    In all eukaryotes, the highly repeated 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences encoding 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) typically show high levels of intragenomic uniformity due to homogenisation processes, leading to concerted evolution of 35S rDNA repeats. Here, we compared 35S rDNA divergence in several seed plants using next generation sequencing and a range of molecular and cytogenetic approaches. Most species showed similar 35S rDNA homogeneity indicating concerted evolution. However, Cycas revoluta exhibits an extraordinary diversity of rDNA repeats (nucleotide sequence divergence of different copies averaging 12 %), influencing both the coding and non-coding rDNA regions nearly equally. In contrast, its rRNA transcriptome was highly homogeneous suggesting that only a minority of genes (<20 %) encode functional rRNA. The most common SNPs were C > T substitutions located in symmetrical CG and CHG contexts which were also highly methylated. Both functional genes and pseudogenes appear to cluster on chromosomes. The extraordinary high levels of 35S rDNA diversity in C. revoluta, and probably other species of cycads, indicate that the frequency of repeat homogenisation has been much lower in this lineage, compared with all other land plant lineages studied. This has led to the accumulation of methylation-driven mutations and pseudogenisation. Potentially, the reduced homology between paralogs prevented their elimination by homologous recombination, resulting in long-term retention of rDNA pseudogenes in the genome. PMID:26637996

  6. Genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria in Cycas revoluta (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shuntaro; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Miyashita, Hideaki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-09-01

    The diversity of cyanobacterial species within the coralloid roots of an individual and populations of Cycas revoluta was investigated based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sixty-six coralloid roots were collected from nine natural populations of cycads on Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands, covering the entire distribution range of the species. Approximately 400 bp of the 5'-end of 16S rRNA genes was amplified, and each was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Most coralloid roots harbored only one cyanobiont, Nostoc, whereas some contained two or three, representing cyanobiont diversity within a single coralloid root isolated from a natural habitat. Genotypes of Nostoc within a natural population were occasionally highly diverged and lacked DNA sequence similarity, implying genetic divergence of Nostoc. On the other hand, Nostoc genotypes showed no phylogeographic structure across the distribution range, while host cycads exhibited distinct north-south differentiation. Cycads may exist in symbiosis with either single or multiple Nostoc strains in natural soil habitats. PMID:22537413

  7. Genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria in Cycas revoluta (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shuntaro; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Miyashita, Hideaki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-09-01

    The diversity of cyanobacterial species within the coralloid roots of an individual and populations of Cycas revoluta was investigated based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sixty-six coralloid roots were collected from nine natural populations of cycads on Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands, covering the entire distribution range of the species. Approximately 400 bp of the 5'-end of 16S rRNA genes was amplified, and each was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Most coralloid roots harbored only one cyanobiont, Nostoc, whereas some contained two or three, representing cyanobiont diversity within a single coralloid root isolated from a natural habitat. Genotypes of Nostoc within a natural population were occasionally highly diverged and lacked DNA sequence similarity, implying genetic divergence of Nostoc. On the other hand, Nostoc genotypes showed no phylogeographic structure across the distribution range, while host cycads exhibited distinct north-south differentiation. Cycads may exist in symbiosis with either single or multiple Nostoc strains in natural soil habitats.

  8. Improving Young People's Concerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Harvey

    1998-01-01

    Stresses that symphony orchestras and other professional arts organizations need to improve young people's concerts by accounting for student learning and becoming partners with music educators. Provides an experience hierarchy that helps artists and arts organizations benefit from music teachers' knowledge and a list of five elements to consider…

  9. Teaching Bioinformatics in Concert

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anya L.; Dekhtyar, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students. PMID:25411792

  10. Teaching bioinformatics in concert.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anya L; Dekhtyar, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students. PMID:25411792

  11. Teaching bioinformatics in concert.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anya L; Dekhtyar, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students.

  12. [RAPD and SCAR molecular markers linked to the sexuality of cycads (Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang)].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian-Zhou; Jin, Hong; Li, Dong-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA fragment, aiming at finding markers linked to the sex trait in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang. A total number of 160 random primers were screened in the RAPD-PCR and more than 2500 RAPD fragments were generated from the male or the female plants. One fragment of about 500 bp was amplified steadily and repeatedly by the S0465 (CCCCGGTAAC) primer only from female plants but not male plants. The RAPD marker was then converted into female-linked dominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) marker named STQC-S465-483. The development of this sex-linked SCAR marker provides a possibility of identifying the sex of Cycas tanqingii before sexual maturation, which is very important to in situ or ex situ conservation. PMID:18257243

  13. [RAPD and SCAR molecular markers linked to the sexuality of cycads (Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang)].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian-Zhou; Jin, Hong; Li, Dong-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA fragment, aiming at finding markers linked to the sex trait in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang. A total number of 160 random primers were screened in the RAPD-PCR and more than 2500 RAPD fragments were generated from the male or the female plants. One fragment of about 500 bp was amplified steadily and repeatedly by the S0465 (CCCCGGTAAC) primer only from female plants but not male plants. The RAPD marker was then converted into female-linked dominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) marker named STQC-S465-483. The development of this sex-linked SCAR marker provides a possibility of identifying the sex of Cycas tanqingii before sexual maturation, which is very important to in situ or ex situ conservation.

  14. Developmental regulation of CYCA2s contributes to tissue-specific proliferation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Steffen; Coppens, Frederik; Lee, Eunkyoung; Donner, Tyler J; Xie, Zidian; Van Isterdael, Gert; Dhondt, Stijn; De Winter, Freya; De Rybel, Bert; Vuylsteke, Marnik; De Veylder, Lieven; Friml, Jiří; Inzé, Dirk; Grotewold, Erich; Scarpella, Enrico; Sack, Fred; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Beeckman, Tom

    2011-07-19

    In multicellular organisms, morphogenesis relies on a strict coordination in time and space of cell proliferation and differentiation. In contrast to animals, plant development displays continuous organ formation and adaptive growth responses during their lifespan relying on a tight coordination of cell proliferation. How developmental signals interact with the plant cell-cycle machinery is largely unknown. Here, we characterize plant A2-type cyclins, a small gene family of mitotic cyclins, and show how they contribute to the fine-tuning of local proliferation during plant development. Moreover, the timely repression of CYCA2;3 expression in newly formed guard cells is shown to require the stomatal transcription factors FOUR LIPS/MYB124 and MYB88, providing a direct link between developmental programming and cell-cycle exit in plants. Thus, transcriptional downregulation of CYCA2s represents a critical mechanism to coordinate proliferation during plant development.

  15. Chilades pandava mothers discriminate among Cycas species during oviposition choice tests, but only in an endemic naïve population.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Paris N

    2016-08-01

    Host and non-host plant species communicate with insect herbivores to influence oviposition decisions. We studied if Chilades pandava female adults expressed oviposition preferences among host Cycas species in 2 choice tests, counting 39,420 eggs among assays from 4 butterfly populations. A naïve butterfly population from Cycas nongnoochiae habitat oviposited 2.2-fold more eggs on leaves of Cycas species that are susceptible to butterfly herbivory than on leaves of its native host Cycas nongnoochiae. In contrast, Chilades pandava populations experienced with novel Cycas species in Thailand, Philippines, and Guam exhibited no preference in choice tests between leaves of susceptible versus leaves of minimally damaged Cycas species. The results indicated that oviposition deterrents and/or stimulants partly mediate the sustainable relationship between an endemic Cycas species and the naïve Chilades pandava population from its habitat. Alternatively, differences in infochemicals among Cycas species do not enable discrimination in oviposition choices for Chilades pandava populations that have experienced Cycas species exhibiting no evolutionary history with Chilades pandava. PMID:27391307

  16. Chilades pandava mothers discriminate among Cycas species during oviposition choice tests, but only in an endemic naïve population.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Paris N

    2016-08-01

    Host and non-host plant species communicate with insect herbivores to influence oviposition decisions. We studied if Chilades pandava female adults expressed oviposition preferences among host Cycas species in 2 choice tests, counting 39,420 eggs among assays from 4 butterfly populations. A naïve butterfly population from Cycas nongnoochiae habitat oviposited 2.2-fold more eggs on leaves of Cycas species that are susceptible to butterfly herbivory than on leaves of its native host Cycas nongnoochiae. In contrast, Chilades pandava populations experienced with novel Cycas species in Thailand, Philippines, and Guam exhibited no preference in choice tests between leaves of susceptible versus leaves of minimally damaged Cycas species. The results indicated that oviposition deterrents and/or stimulants partly mediate the sustainable relationship between an endemic Cycas species and the naïve Chilades pandava population from its habitat. Alternatively, differences in infochemicals among Cycas species do not enable discrimination in oviposition choices for Chilades pandava populations that have experienced Cycas species exhibiting no evolutionary history with Chilades pandava.

  17. Nuclear Ribosomal ITS Functional Paralogs Resolve the Phylogenetic Relationships of a Late-Miocene Radiation Cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  18. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-Miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  19. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-Miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals.

  20. Species Delimitation of the Cycas segmentifida Complex (Cycadaceae) Resolved by Phylogenetic and Distance Analyses of Molecular Data

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiuyan; Liu, Jian; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    The Cycas segmentifida complex consists of eight species whose distributions overlap in a narrow region in Southwest China. These eight taxa are also morphologically similar and are difficult to be distinguished. Consequently, their taxonomic status has been a matter of discussion in recent years. To study this species complex, we sequenced four plastid intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear genes and genotyped 12 microsatellites for the eight taxa from 19 different localities. DNA sequences were analyzed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) method and Bayesian Inference (BI), and microsatellites were analyzed using the Neighbor-joining (NJ) and structure inference methods. Results of cpDNA, nuclear gene GTP and microsatellites all rejected the hypotheses that this complex consisted of eight taxa or one distinct lineage (species) but two previously described species were adopted: Cycas guizhouensis K. M. Lan et R. F. Zou and Cycas segmentifida D. Y. Wang et C. Y. Deng. Cycas longlinensis H. T. Chang et Y. C. Zhong was included in C. guizhouensis and the other five taxa were included in C. segmentifida. Our species delimitation inferred from molecular data largely corresponds to morphological differentiation. However, the other two nuclear genes were unable to resolve species boundaries for this complex independently. This study offered evidences from different genomes for dealing with the species boundaries and taxonomical treatment of the C. segmentifida complex in an integrated perspective. PMID:26913044

  1. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2001-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  2. Teacher's Guide for Young People's Concerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed to acquaint students with the Honolulu (Hawaii) Youth Symphony Concerts program, this booklet focuses on information and activities to help make concert attendance meaningful and enjoyable for students. Goals and learning concepts are described, and information about each of the symphony's musical instruments is included. The chronology…

  3. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR in Cycas elongata.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanting; Deng, Tian; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Shouzhou

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique used in gene expression studies. To achieve a reliable quantification of transcripts, appropriate reference genes are required for comparison of transcripts in different samples. However, few reference genes are available for non-model taxa, and to date, reliable reference genes in Cycas elongata have not been well characterized. In this study, 13 reference genes (ACT7, TUB, UBQ, EIF4, EF1, CLATHRIN1, PP2A, RPB2, GAPC2, TIP41, MAPK, SAMDC and CYP) were chosen from the transcriptome database of C. elongata, and these genes were evaluated in 8 different organ samples. Three software programs, NormFinder, GeNorm and BestKeeper, were used to validate the stability of the potential reference genes. Results obtained from these three programs suggested that CeGAPC2 and CeRPB2 are the most stable reference genes, while CeACT7 is the least stable one among the 13 tested genes. Further confirmation of the identified reference genes was established by the relative expression of AGAMOUSE gene of C. elongata (CeAG). While our stable reference genes generated consistent expression patterns in eight tissues, we note that our results indicate that an inappropriate reference gene might cause erroneous results. Our systematic analysis for stable reference genes of C. elongata facilitates further gene expression studies and functional analyses of this species.

  4. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR in Cycas elongata

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Tian; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Shouzhou

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique used in gene expression studies. To achieve a reliable quantification of transcripts, appropriate reference genes are required for comparison of transcripts in different samples. However, few reference genes are available for non-model taxa, and to date, reliable reference genes in Cycas elongata have not been well characterized. In this study, 13 reference genes (ACT7, TUB, UBQ, EIF4, EF1, CLATHRIN1, PP2A, RPB2, GAPC2, TIP41, MAPK, SAMDC and CYP) were chosen from the transcriptome database of C. elongata, and these genes were evaluated in 8 different organ samples. Three software programs, NormFinder, GeNorm and BestKeeper, were used to validate the stability of the potential reference genes. Results obtained from these three programs suggested that CeGAPC2 and CeRPB2 are the most stable reference genes, while CeACT7 is the least stable one among the 13 tested genes. Further confirmation of the identified reference genes was established by the relative expression of AGAMOUSE gene of C. elongata (CeAG). While our stable reference genes generated consistent expression patterns in eight tissues, we note that our results indicate that an inappropriate reference gene might cause erroneous results. Our systematic analysis for stable reference genes of C. elongata facilitates further gene expression studies and functional analyses of this species. PMID:27124298

  5. Cycas micronesica (Cycadales) plants devoid of endophytic cyanobacteria increase in beta-methylamino-L-alanine.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Snyder, Laura R; Shaw, Christopher A

    2010-09-15

    Cycads are among the most ancient of extant Spermatophytes, and are known for their pharmacologically active compounds. beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is one metabolite that been implicated as causal of human neurodegenerative diseases in Guam. We grew Cycas micronesica seedlings without endophytic cyanobacteria symbiosis, and quantified initial and ending BMAA in various plant tissues. BMAA increased 79% during nine months of seedling growth, and root tissue contained 75% of the ultimate BMAA pool. Endophytic cyanobacteria symbionts were not the source of BMAA increase in these seedlings, which contradicts previously reported claims that biosynthesis of this toxin by cyanobacteria initiates its accumulation in the Guam environment. The preferential loading of root tissue with BMAA does not support earlier reports that this toxin serves a defensive role against herbivory of leaf or seed tissues. The long history of conflicting results in Guam's cycad toxin research continues, and recent developments underscore the sense of urgency in continued research as this endangered cycad population approaches extirpation from the island.

  6. Cycas micronesica (Cycadales) plants devoid of endophytic cyanobacteria increase in beta-methylamino-L-alanine.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Snyder, Laura R; Shaw, Christopher A

    2010-09-15

    Cycads are among the most ancient of extant Spermatophytes, and are known for their pharmacologically active compounds. beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is one metabolite that been implicated as causal of human neurodegenerative diseases in Guam. We grew Cycas micronesica seedlings without endophytic cyanobacteria symbiosis, and quantified initial and ending BMAA in various plant tissues. BMAA increased 79% during nine months of seedling growth, and root tissue contained 75% of the ultimate BMAA pool. Endophytic cyanobacteria symbionts were not the source of BMAA increase in these seedlings, which contradicts previously reported claims that biosynthesis of this toxin by cyanobacteria initiates its accumulation in the Guam environment. The preferential loading of root tissue with BMAA does not support earlier reports that this toxin serves a defensive role against herbivory of leaf or seed tissues. The long history of conflicting results in Guam's cycad toxin research continues, and recent developments underscore the sense of urgency in continued research as this endangered cycad population approaches extirpation from the island. PMID:20570592

  7. Expressed sequence tag analysis in Cycas, the most primitive living seed plant

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eric D; Stevenson, Dennis W; McCombie, Richard W; Katari, Manpreet S; Rudd, Stephen A; Mayer, Klaus FX; Palenchar, Peter M; Runko, Suzan J; Twigg, Richard W; Dai, Guangwei; Martienssen, Rob A; Benfey, Phillip N; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2003-01-01

    Background Cycads are ancient seed plants (living fossils) with origins in the Paleozoic. Cycads are sometimes considered a 'missing link' as they exhibit characteristics intermediate between vascular non-seed plants and the more derived seed plants. Cycads have also been implicated as the source of 'Guam's dementia', possibly due to the production of S(+)-beta-methyl-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (BMAA), which is an agonist of animal glutamate receptors. Results A total of 4,200 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were created from Cycas rumphii and clustered into 2,458 contigs, of which 1,764 had low-stringency BLAST similarity to other plant genes. Among those cycad contigs with similarity to plant genes, 1,718 cycad 'hits' are to angiosperms, 1,310 match genes in gymnosperms and 734 match lower (non-seed) plants. Forty-six contigs were found that matched only genes in lower plants and gymnosperms. Upon obtaining the complete sequence from the clones of 37/46 contigs, 14 still matched only gymnosperms. Among those cycad contigs common to higher plants, ESTs were discovered that correspond to those involved in development and signaling in present-day flowering plants. We purified a cycad EST for a glutamate receptor (GLR)-like gene, as well as ESTs potentially involved in the synthesis of the GLR agonist BMAA. Conclusions Analysis of cycad ESTs has uncovered conserved and potentially novel genes. Furthermore, the presence of a glutamate receptor agonist, as well as a glutamate receptor-like gene in cycads, supports the hypothesis that such neuroactive plant products are not merely herbivore deterrents but may also serve a role in plant signaling. PMID:14659015

  8. Concert Programming: Tips from the Broadcasting Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Guy

    1978-01-01

    The author explains how music broadcasters codify musical selections by mood, tempo, and instrumentation, then arrange a sequence designed to maintain audience interest with a variety of listening experiences. Similar techniques are suggested for planning school concerts. (SJL)

  9. Tectonic and climatic impacts on the biota within the Red River Fault, evidence from phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla (Cycadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic crustal deformation and river incision in Southwest China induced by the Indo-Asian collision have long been argued to contribute to the complicated landscapes, heterogeneous environment and abundant biodiversity in this region. However, biological impacts in promoting intraspecific phylogeographical subdivision and divergence along the Red River Fault zone (RRF) remain poorly understood. To investigate the possible biological effects of tectonic movements and environment variations within the RRF, the phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla-an endemic but widely distributed Cycas in Southwest China and North Vietnam along the RRF were carried out based on four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear DNA sequences (nDNA) and 16 simple sequence repeat variations (SSR). Two different phylogeographical patterns were detected: a Southwest-Northeast break across the RRF disclosed by chlorotypes and a China-Vietnam separation revealed by SSR. A Bayesian skyline plot from cpDNA data demonstrated a historical increasing, but a recent declining, dynamic in population size during the Pleistocene. Consequently, we infer it is the local environmental variation during Cenozoic that contributed to the complex landscape and microclimate mosaics, facilitating speciation and divergence of C. dolichophylla. Subsequently, the Quaternary climatic fluctuations coupled with human activities profoundly influenced the genetic structure and demographic history of this species. PMID:27629063

  10. Tectonic and climatic impacts on the biota within the Red River Fault, evidence from phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic crustal deformation and river incision in Southwest China induced by the Indo-Asian collision have long been argued to contribute to the complicated landscapes, heterogeneous environment and abundant biodiversity in this region. However, biological impacts in promoting intraspecific phylogeographical subdivision and divergence along the Red River Fault zone (RRF) remain poorly understood. To investigate the possible biological effects of tectonic movements and environment variations within the RRF, the phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla-an endemic but widely distributed Cycas in Southwest China and North Vietnam along the RRF were carried out based on four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear DNA sequences (nDNA) and 16 simple sequence repeat variations (SSR). Two different phylogeographical patterns were detected: a Southwest-Northeast break across the RRF disclosed by chlorotypes and a China-Vietnam separation revealed by SSR. A Bayesian skyline plot from cpDNA data demonstrated a historical increasing, but a recent declining, dynamic in population size during the Pleistocene. Consequently, we infer it is the local environmental variation during Cenozoic that contributed to the complex landscape and microclimate mosaics, facilitating speciation and divergence of C. dolichophylla. Subsequently, the Quaternary climatic fluctuations coupled with human activities profoundly influenced the genetic structure and demographic history of this species. PMID:27629063

  11. Concert Band Instrumentation: Realities and Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests ways to solve problems resulting from imbalanced instrumentation in school concert bands. Identifies sources of imbalance. Encourages band directors to plan for correct instrumentation, to match students' characteristics and abilities to instruments, and to recruit students to play needed instruments. Discusses the benefits of balanced…

  12. Concert Halls of Chicago Under Theodore Thomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Dale A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the musical history of Chicago, which culminated in the creation of the Chicago Symphony and the construction of Orchestra Hall. Theodore Thomas spent 30 years introducing Chicagoans to symphonic music. He founded the Chicago Symphony and, in 1904, led the first concert in Orchestra Hall. (CS)

  13. The analysis of incomplete data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, H. O.; Hocking, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to provide a simple taxonomy for incomplete-data problems and at the same time develop unified methods of analysis. The emphasis is on techniques which are natural extensions of the complete-data analysis and which will handle rather general classes of incomplete-data problems as opposed to custom-made techniques for special problems. The principle of estimation is either maximum likelihood or is at least based on maximum likelihood.

  14. Concerted Signaling by Retinal Ganglion Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Markus; Lagnado, Leon; Baylor, Denis A.

    1995-11-01

    To analyze the rules that govern communication between eye and brain, visual responses were recorded from an intact salamander retina. Parallel observation of many retinal ganglion cells with a microelectrode array showed that nearby neurons often fired synchronously, with spike delays of less than 10 milliseconds. The frequency of such synchronous spikes exceeded the correlation expected from a shared visual stimulus up to 20-fold. Synchronous firing persisted under a variety of visual stimuli and accounted for the majority of action potentials recorded. Analysis of receptive fields showed that concerted spikes encoded information not carried by individual cells; they may represent symbols in a multineuronal code for vision.

  15. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into “Yuanjiang-Nanhun” basin and “Ejia-Jiepai” basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the

  16. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into "Yuanjiang-Nanhun" basin and "Ejia-Jiepai" basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the conservation

  17. Nonparametric Estimators for Incomplete Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caditz, David M.

    2016-11-01

    Nonparametric estimators, such as the 1/{V}\\max estimator and the {C}- estimator, have been applied extensively to estimate luminosity functions (LFs) of astronomical sources from complete, truncated survey data sets. Application of such estimators to incomplete data sets typically requires further truncation of data, separation into subsets of constant completeness, and/or correction for incompleteness-induced bias. In this paper, we derive generalizations of the above estimators designed for use with incomplete, truncated data sets. We compare these generalized nonparametric estimators, investigate some of their simple statistical properties, and validate them using Monte Carlo simulation methods. We apply a nonparametric estimator to data obtained from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to estimate the QSO LF for redshifts 0.68\\lt z\\lt 4.

  18. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by leaf extracts of Cycas circinalis, Ficus amplissima, Commelina benghalensis and Lippia nodiflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, I.; Prabu, H. Joy

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is a kind of bottom-up approach where the main reaction occurring is reduction. Since silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used for infection prevention in medical field, it is more relevant to reduce their size using ancient Indian herbal plants. This method is good in anti-microbial efficiency against bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms and hence clearly enhances the medicinal usage of AgNPs. This type of green biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly technologies for nano-materials synthesis. In the process of synthesizing AgNPs, we observed a rapid reduction of silver ions leading to the formation of stable crystalline AgNPs in the solution. Plant extracts from Cycas circinalis, Ficus amplissima, Commelina benghalensis and Lippia nodiflora were used for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate solution. AgNPs were characterized by different techniques.

  19. Asymmetric introgression in the horticultural living fossil cycas sect. Asiorientales using a genome-wide scanning approach.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct. PMID:23591840

  20. Asymmetric introgression in the horticultural living fossil cycas sect. Asiorientales using a genome-wide scanning approach.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-04-15

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.

  1. Incomplete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Elizabeth Parker's reflection on her experience as a musician educator working with children in an urban non-profit context is an uncomfortable read for me. In a courageous act, Parker makes public her private misgivings about her past experience and allows scrutiny of them in the form of two public commentaries as well as the private musings of…

  2. Genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of Cycas simplicipinna (Cycadaceae) assessed by DNA sequences and SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cycas simplicipinna (T. Smitinand) K. Hill. (Cycadaceae) is an endangered species in China. There were seven populations and 118 individuals that we could collect were genotyped in this study. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of this species. Results Analyses of data of DNA sequences (two maternally inherited intergenic spacers of chloroplast, cpDNA and one biparentally inherited internal transcribed spacer region ITS4-ITS5, nrDNA) and sixteen microsatellite loci (SSR) were conducted in the species. Of the 118 samples, 86 individuals from the seven populations were used for DNA sequencing and 115 individuals from six populations were used for the microsatellite study. We found high genetic diversity at the species level, low genetic diversity within each of the seven populations and high genetic differentiation among the populations. There was a clear genetic structure within populations of C. simplicipinna. A demographic history inferred from DNA sequencing data indicates that C. simplicipinna experienced a recent population contraction without retreating to a common refugium during the last glacial period. The results derived from SSR data also showed that C. simplicipinna underwent past effective population contraction, likely during the Pleistocene. Conclusions Some genetic features of C. simplicipinna such as having high genetic differentiation among the populations, a clear genetic structure and a recent population contraction could provide guidelines for protecting this endangered species from extinction. Furthermore, the genetic features with population dynamics of the species in our study would help provide insights and guidelines for protecting other endangered species effectively. PMID:25016306

  3. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-08-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children.

  4. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870

  5. Listening to the acoustics in concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, Leo L.; Griesinger, David

    2001-05-01

    How does acoustics affect the symphonic music performed in a concert hall? The lecture begins with an illustrated discussion of the architectural features that influence the acoustics. Boston Symphony Hall, which was built in 1900 when only one facet of architectural design was known, now rates as one of the world's great halls. How this occurred will be presented. Music is composed with some acoustical environment in mind and this varies with time from the Baroque to the Romantic to the Modern musical period. Conductors vary their interpretation according to the hall they are in. Well-traveled listeners and music critics have favorite halls. The lecture then presents a list of 58 halls rank ordered according to their acoustical quality based on interviews of music critics and conductors. Modern acoustical measurements made in these halls are compared with their rankings. Music recordings will be presented that demonstrate how halls sound that have different measured acoustical parameters. Photographs of a number of recently built halls are shown as examples of how these known acoustical factors have been incorporated into architectural design.

  6. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

  7. YOUNG PEOPLE'S CONCERTS BY THE PHOENIX SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA. TEACHING MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, GUY

    THE PHOENIX SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA PRESENTED CONCERTS TO 64,000 ARIZONA ELEMENTARY PUPILS ON 12 DIFFERENT DAYS LAST YEAR. THE CONCERTS INCLUDED 2 DIFFERENT PROGRAMS, 1 FOR GRADES 1-4 AND 1 FOR GRADES 5-8, WHICH ARE OUTLINED IN THIS DOCUMENT. THE 4 SECTIONS OF A SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA AND THE VARIOUS INSTRUMENTS INCLUDED IN EACH SECTION ARE DISCUSSED. A…

  8. New Light on a Prism: The Concert for All Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linaberry, Robin

    2004-01-01

    The prism concert concept was introduced in this country at the Eastman School of Music in 1975. The development of Eastman's inaugural prism concert is commonly attributed to Donald Hunsberger and Gustav Meier, conductors of the wind ensemble and orchestra, respectively. The basic idea is that different styles of music performed by different…

  9. Mini-Concerts: Creating Space for Student-Initiated Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Cody; Johnson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Mini-concerts are regularly occurring, low-stakes curricular events in the classroom where students perform music of their choice for their peers. An idea generated by music educators in domestic and international K-12 schools who strive to meet the needs of diverse student populations, mini-concerts have helped generate student excitement and…

  10. Incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring

    SciTech Connect

    Granstroem, Helena

    2007-09-15

    A particular incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring, suggested by Appleby [Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 36, 1 (2005)] in dimension three, is generalized to arbitrary dimension. We investigate its effectivity as a function of dimension, using two different measures. A limit is derived for the fraction of the sphere that can be colored using the generalized Appleby construction as the number of dimensions approaches infinity. The second, and physically more relevant measure of effectivity, is to look at the fraction of properly colored ON bases. Using this measure, we derive a ''lower bound for the upper bound'' in three and four real dimensions.

  11. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  12. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  13. A concert of music by Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.; Hammer, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Orchester Göttinger Musikfreunde presented an evening of music in the magnificent Aula of the University as one of the social events of the conference. The astronomical highlights of the concert were two symphonic works by Sir William Herschel, including an oboe solo by a member of the LOC (W. Glatzel). This is the text from the concert programme. A recording of the concert is included in this proceedings. Programme --------- Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Symphony No. 13 in D Major (1762) W. A. Mozart (1756-1791): Piano Concerto No. 27 in B Major (KV 595), C. Hammer (piano) Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Fragment of an Oboe Concerto in C Major (MS790), W. Glatzel (oboe) J. Haydn (1732-1809): Symphony No. 91 E-flat Major We would like to acknowledge the Sparkasse Göttingen and the Versicherungsgesellschaft Hannover for generously making this concert possible.

  14. Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Britt, D.T.; Rovers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.

    2010-01-22

    We document the size distributions and locations of voids present within five highly porous equilibrated ordinary chondrites using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) and helium pycnometry. We found total porosities ranging from {approx}10 to 20% within these chondrites, and with {mu}CT we show that up to 64% of the void space is located within intergranular voids within the rock. Given the low (S1-S2) shock stages of the samples and the large voids between mineral grains, we conclude that these samples experienced unusually low amounts of compaction and shock loading throughout their entire post accretionary history. With Fe metal and FeS metal abundances and grain size distributions, we show that these chondrites formed naturally with greater than average porosities prior to parent body metamorphism. These materials were not 'fluffed' on their parent body by impact-related regolith gardening or events caused by seismic vibrations. Samples of all three chemical types of ordinary chondrites (LL, L, H) are represented in this study and we conclude that incomplete compaction is common within the asteroid belt.

  15. Indirect reciprocity under incomplete observation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-07-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient.

  16. Concert halls with strong lateral reflections enhance musical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Robinson, Philip W; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-03-25

    One of the most thrilling cultural experiences is to hear live symphony-orchestra music build up from a whispering passage to a monumental fortissimo. The impact of such a crescendo has been thought to depend only on the musicians' skill, but here we show that interactions between the concert-hall acoustics and listeners' hearing also play a major role in musical dynamics. These interactions contribute to the shoebox-type concert hall's established success, but little prior research has been devoted to dynamic expression in this three-part transmission chain as a complete system. More forceful orchestral playing disproportionately excites high frequency harmonics more than those near the note's fundamental. This effect results in not only more sound energy, but also a different tone color. The concert hall transmits this sound, and the room geometry defines from which directions acoustic reflections arrive at the listener. Binaural directional hearing emphasizes high frequencies more when sound arrives from the sides of the head rather than from the median plane. Simultaneously, these same frequencies are emphasized by higher orchestral-playing dynamics. When the room geometry provides reflections from these directions, the perceived dynamic range is enhanced. Current room-acoustic evaluation methods assume linear behavior and thus neglect this effect. The hypothesis presented here is that the auditory excitation by reflections is emphasized with an orchestra forte most in concert halls with strong lateral reflections. The enhanced dynamic range provides an explanation for the success of rectangularly shaped concert-hall geometry.

  17. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  18. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  19. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  20. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  1. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  2. Multimodal interaction in real and virtual concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Pontus; Västfjäll, Daniel; Kleiner, Mendel

    2001-05-01

    Recently, researchers within the field of room acoustics have shown an increased interest for the understanding of how different modalities, especially vision and audition, interact in the concert hall experience. Computer auralization and virtual reality technology have brought means to efficiently study such auditory-visual interaction phenomena in concert halls. However, an important question to address is to what extent the results from such studies agree with real, unmediated situations. In this paper, we discuss some of the auditory-visual cross-modal effects discovered in previous experiments, and an account of cross-modal phenomena in room acoustic perception is proposed. Moreover, the importance of measuring simulation fidelity when performing cross-modal experiments in virtual concert halls is discussed. The conclusions are that one can expect auditory-visual interaction effects to occur in both real and virtual rooms, but that simulation fidelity might affect the results when performing experiments in virtual conditions.

  3. Concerted Cultivation and Music Learning: Global Issues and Local Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    "Concerted cultivation" has been described as a common, urban middle-class practice concerning the enrollment of children in a variety of age-specific activities that may promote the learning of valuable life skills as well as the development of individual abilities (Lareau, 2003). Music is one such activity. This study investigated the…

  4. A Theoretical Structure of High School Concert Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify a theoretical structure for high school concert band performance and to test that structure for viability, generality, and invariance. A total of 101 university students enrolled in two different bands rated two high school band performances (a "first"…

  5. Family Music Concerts: Bringing Families, Music Students, and Music Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how conductors of the top performing groups and music education faculty at one university collaborated to create a Family Concert Series for parents and children of all ages, including infants in arms. Recognizing the conflict between "The first three years of life are the most important for educating a young child in…

  6. Parenting Priorities and Pressures: Furthering Understanding of "Concerted Cultivation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Maxwell, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-examines the purposes of a planned and intentional parenting style--"concerted cultivation"--for different middle-class groups, highlighting that social class fraction, ethnicity, and also individual family disposition, guides understandings of the purposes of enrolling children in particular enrichment activities. We…

  7. Mosaic and Concerted Evolution in the Visual System of Birds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Moore, Bret A.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Corfield, Jeremy R.; Krilow, Justin M.; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Wylie, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Two main models have been proposed to explain how the relative size of neural structures varies through evolution. In the mosaic evolution model, individual brain structures vary in size independently of each other, whereas in the concerted evolution model developmental constraints result in different parts of the brain varying in size in a coordinated manner. Several studies have shown variation of the relative size of individual nuclei in the vertebrate brain, but it is currently not known if nuclei belonging to the same functional pathway vary independently of each other or in a concerted manner. The visual system of birds offers an ideal opportunity to specifically test which of the two models apply to an entire sensory pathway. Here, we examine the relative size of 9 different visual nuclei across 98 species of birds. This includes data on interspecific variation in the cytoarchitecture and relative size of the isthmal nuclei, which has not been previously reported. We also use a combination of statistical analyses, phylogenetically corrected principal component analysis and evolutionary rates of change on the absolute and relative size of the nine nuclei, to test if visual nuclei evolved in a concerted or mosaic manner. Our results strongly indicate a combination of mosaic and concerted evolution (in the relative size of nine nuclei) within the avian visual system. Specifically, the relative size of the isthmal nuclei and parts of the tectofugal pathway covary across species in a concerted fashion, whereas the relative volume of the other visual nuclei measured vary independently of one another, such as that predicted by the mosaic model. Our results suggest the covariation of different neural structures depends not only on the functional connectivity of each nucleus, but also on the diversity of afferents and efferents of each nucleus. PMID:24621573

  8. Concert halls with strong lateral reflections enhance musical dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Robinson, Philip W.; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    One of the most thrilling cultural experiences is to hear live symphony-orchestra music build up from a whispering passage to a monumental fortissimo. The impact of such a crescendo has been thought to depend only on the musicians’ skill, but here we show that interactions between the concert-hall acoustics and listeners’ hearing also play a major role in musical dynamics. These interactions contribute to the shoebox-type concert hall’s established success, but little prior research has been devoted to dynamic expression in this three-part transmission chain as a complete system. More forceful orchestral playing disproportionately excites high frequency harmonics more than those near the note’s fundamental. This effect results in not only more sound energy, but also a different tone color. The concert hall transmits this sound, and the room geometry defines from which directions acoustic reflections arrive at the listener. Binaural directional hearing emphasizes high frequencies more when sound arrives from the sides of the head rather than from the median plane. Simultaneously, these same frequencies are emphasized by higher orchestral-playing dynamics. When the room geometry provides reflections from these directions, the perceived dynamic range is enhanced. Current room-acoustic evaluation methods assume linear behavior and thus neglect this effect. The hypothesis presented here is that the auditory excitation by reflections is emphasized with an orchestra forte most in concert halls with strong lateral reflections. The enhanced dynamic range provides an explanation for the success of rectangularly shaped concert-hall geometry. PMID:24591584

  9. Even Incomplete Steroid Treatment Helps Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161404.html Even Incomplete Steroid Treatment Helps Preemies: Study Fewer deaths, complications for ... MONDAY, Oct. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even partial steroid treatment before birth can improve survival odds for ...

  10. Chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of Cycas taitungensis and 56 cp protein-coding genes of Gnetum parvifolium: insights into cpDNA evolution and phylogeny of extant seed plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Wang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Shu-Mei; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2007-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the 5 groups of extant seed plants are presently unsettled. To reexamine this long-standing debate, we determine the complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of Cycas taitungensis and 56 protein-coding genes encoded in the cpDNA of Gnetum parvifolium. The cpDNA of Cycas is a circular molecule of 163,403 bp with 2 typical large inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,074 bp each. We inferred phylogenetic relationships among major seed plant lineages using concatenated 56 protein-coding genes in 37 land plants. Phylogenies, generated by the use of 3 independent methods, provide concordant and robust support for the monophylies of extant seed plants, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Within the modern gymnosperms are 2 highly supported sister clades: Cycas-Ginkgo and Gnetum-Pinus. This result agrees with both the "gnetifer" and "gnepines" hypotheses. The sister relationships in Cycas-Ginkgo and Gnetum-Pinus clades are further reinforced by cpDNA structural evidence. Branch lengths of Cycas-Ginkgo and Gnetum were consistently the shortest and the longest, respectively, in all separate analyses. However, the Gnetum relative rate test revealed this tendency only for the 3rd codon positions and the transversional sites of the first 2 codon positions. A PsitufA located between psbE and petL genes is here first detected in Anthoceros (a hornwort), cycads, and Ginkgo. We demonstrate that the PsitufA is a footprint descended from the chloroplast tufA of green algae. The duplication of ycf2 genes and their shift into IRs should have taken place at least in the common ancestor of seed plants more than 300 MYA, and the tRNAPro-GGG gene was lost from the angiosperm lineage at least 150 MYA. Additionally, from cpDNA structural comparison, we propose an alternative model for the loss of large IR regions in black pine. More cpDNA data from non-Pinaceae conifers are necessary to justify whether the gnetifer or gnepines hypothesis is valid and to generate solid structural

  11. Middle-Upper Pleistocene climate changes shaped the divergence and demography of Cycas guizhouensis (Cycadaceae): Evidence from DNA sequences and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zheng, Ying; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Climatic oscillations in the Pleistocene have had profound effects on the demography and genetic diversity of many extant species. Cycas guizhouensis Lan & R.F. Zou is an endemic and endangered species in Southwest China that is primarily distributed along the valleys of the Nanpan River. In this study, we used four chloroplast DNAs (cpDNA), three nuclear genes (nDNA) and 13 microsatellite (SSR) loci to investigate the genetic structure, divergence time and demographic history of 11 populations of C. guizhouensis. High genetic diversity and high levels of genetic differentiation among the populations were observed. Two evolutionary units were revealed based on network and Structure analysis. The divergence time estimations suggested that haplotypes of C. guizhouensis were diverged during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene. Additionally, the demographic histories deduced from different DNA sequences were discordant, but overall indicated that C. guizhouensis had experienced a recent population expansion during the post-glacial period. Microsatellite data revealed that there was a contraction in effective population size in the past. These genetic features allow conservation measures to be taken to ensure the protection of this endangered species from extinction. PMID:27270859

  12. Relative seed and fruit toxicity of the Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica: further evidence for a megafaunal seed dispersal syndrome in cycads, and its possible antiquity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Walter, G H

    2014-08-01

    An apparent contradiction in the ecology of cycad plants is that their seeds are known to be highly poisonous, and yet they seem well adapted for seed dispersal by animals, as shown by their visually conspicuous seed cones and large seeds presented within a brightly colored fleshy "fruit" of sarcotesta. We tested if this sarcotesta could function as a reward for cycad seed dispersal fauna, by establishing if the toxic compound cycasin, known from the seeds, is absent from the sarcotesta. The Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica were tested (N = 10 individuals per species) using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Cycasin was detected at 0.34 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of M. miquelii and 0.28 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of C. ophiolitica. Cycasin was absent from the sarcotesta of the same propagules (none detected in the case of M. miquelii, and trace quantities detected in sarcotesta of only four of the ten C. ophiolitica propagules). This laboratory finding was supported by field observations of native animals eating the sarcotesta of these cycads but discarding the toxic seed intact. These results suggest cycads are adapted for dispersal fauna capable of swallowing the large, heavy propagules whole, digesting the non-toxic sarcotesta flesh internally, and then voiding the toxic seed intact. Megafauna species such as extant emus or cassowaries, or extinct Pleistocene megafauna such as Genyornis, are plausible candidates for such dispersal. Cycads are an ancient lineage, and the possible antiquity of their megafaunal seed dispersal adaptations are discussed. PMID:25172315

  13. Relative seed and fruit toxicity of the Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica: further evidence for a megafaunal seed dispersal syndrome in cycads, and its possible antiquity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Walter, G H

    2014-08-01

    An apparent contradiction in the ecology of cycad plants is that their seeds are known to be highly poisonous, and yet they seem well adapted for seed dispersal by animals, as shown by their visually conspicuous seed cones and large seeds presented within a brightly colored fleshy "fruit" of sarcotesta. We tested if this sarcotesta could function as a reward for cycad seed dispersal fauna, by establishing if the toxic compound cycasin, known from the seeds, is absent from the sarcotesta. The Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica were tested (N = 10 individuals per species) using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Cycasin was detected at 0.34 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of M. miquelii and 0.28 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of C. ophiolitica. Cycasin was absent from the sarcotesta of the same propagules (none detected in the case of M. miquelii, and trace quantities detected in sarcotesta of only four of the ten C. ophiolitica propagules). This laboratory finding was supported by field observations of native animals eating the sarcotesta of these cycads but discarding the toxic seed intact. These results suggest cycads are adapted for dispersal fauna capable of swallowing the large, heavy propagules whole, digesting the non-toxic sarcotesta flesh internally, and then voiding the toxic seed intact. Megafauna species such as extant emus or cassowaries, or extinct Pleistocene megafauna such as Genyornis, are plausible candidates for such dispersal. Cycads are an ancient lineage, and the possible antiquity of their megafaunal seed dispersal adaptations are discussed.

  14. Middle-Upper Pleistocene climate changes shaped the divergence and demography of Cycas guizhouensis (Cycadaceae): Evidence from DNA sequences and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zheng, Ying; Gong, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Climatic oscillations in the Pleistocene have had profound effects on the demography and genetic diversity of many extant species. Cycas guizhouensis Lan &R.F. Zou is an endemic and endangered species in Southwest China that is primarily distributed along the valleys of the Nanpan River. In this study, we used four chloroplast DNAs (cpDNA), three nuclear genes (nDNA) and 13 microsatellite (SSR) loci to investigate the genetic structure, divergence time and demographic history of 11 populations of C. guizhouensis. High genetic diversity and high levels of genetic differentiation among the populations were observed. Two evolutionary units were revealed based on network and Structure analysis. The divergence time estimations suggested that haplotypes of C. guizhouensis were diverged during the Middle-Upper Pleistocene. Additionally, the demographic histories deduced from different DNA sequences were discordant, but overall indicated that C. guizhouensis had experienced a recent population expansion during the post-glacial period. Microsatellite data revealed that there was a contraction in effective population size in the past. These genetic features allow conservation measures to be taken to ensure the protection of this endangered species from extinction. PMID:27270859

  15. Concerted reactions of polynuclear metalloenzymes and their functional chemical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, A. E.

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms of the many-electron oxidation of water by a chemical model of the manganese oxidase cofactor in photosynthesis photosystem II (manganese(IV) clusters) and nitrogen reduction in chemical models of nitrogenase cofactor (vanadium(II) and molybdenum(III) clusters) were considered. The hypothesis was suggested according to which polynuclear enzyme cofactors and their functional chemical models performed two important functions, catalyzed noncomplementary processes and effected many-substrate concerted reactions with decreased activation energies.

  16. Reaction mechanism of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, concerted or step-wise

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Bruice, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics investigation of the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase catalyzed reaction, which shows that proton transfer from guanidinoacetate (GAA) to Asp-134 and methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to GAA are concerted. By self-consistent-charge density functional tight binding/molecular mechanics, the bond lengths in the concerted mechanism's transition state are 1.26 Å for both the OD1 (Asp-134)–HE (GAA) and HE (GAA)–NE (GAA) bonds, and 2.47 and 2.03 Å for the S8 (AdoMet)–C9 (AdoMet) and C9 (AdoMet)–NE (GAA) bonds, respectively. The potential-energy barrier (ΔE‡) determined by single-point B3LYP/6–31+G*//MM is 18.9 kcal/mol. The contributions of the entropy (−TΔS‡) and zero-point energy corrections Δ(ZPE)‡ by normal mode analysis are 2.3 kcal/mol and −1.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the activation enthalpy of this concerted mechanism is predicted to be ΔH‡ = ΔE‡ + Δ(ZPE)‡ = 17.2 kcal/mol. The calculated free-energy barrier for the concerted mechanism is ΔG‡ = 19.5 kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with the value of 19.0 kcal/mol calculated from the experimental rate constant (3.8 ± 0.2·min−1). PMID:17053070

  17. Concerted orientation induced unidirectional water transport through nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rongzheng; Lu, Hangjun; Li, Jinyuan; Bao, Jingdong; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping

    2009-11-14

    The dynamics of water inside nanochannels is of great importance for biological activities as well as for the design of molecular sensors, devices, and machines, particularly for sea water desalination. When confined in specially sized nanochannels, water molecules form a single-file structure with concerted dipole orientations, which collectively flip between the directions along and against the nanotube axis. In this paper, by using molecular dynamics simulations, we observed a net flux along the dipole-orientation without any application of an external electric field or external pressure difference during the time period of the particular concerted dipole orientations of the molecules along or against the nanotube axis. We found that this unique special-directional water transportation resulted from the asymmetric potential of water-water interaction along the nanochannel, which originated from the concerted dipole orientation of the water molecules that breaks the symmetry of water orientation distribution along the channel within a finite time period. This finding suggests a new mechanism for achieving high-flux water transportation, which may be useful for nanotechnology and biological applications.

  18. Concert hall acoustics assessment with individually elicited attributes.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari

    2011-08-01

    Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor.

  19. Incomplete fusion dynamics by spin distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, M. K.; Singh, B. P.; Babu, K. Surendra; Sinha, Rishi K.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2010-02-15

    Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 124}Sn at 6.3 MeV/nucleon have been measured, using charged particles (Z=1,2)-{gamma} coincidence technique. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with 'fast'{alpha}- and 2{alpha}-emission channels observed in the 'forward cone' are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. Moreover, 'fast'{alpha}-particles that arise from larger angular momentum in the entrance channel are populated at relatively higher driving input angular momentum than those produced through complete fusion. The incomplete fusion residues are populated in a limited, higher-angular-momentum range, in contrast to the complete fusion products, which are populated over a broad spin range.

  20. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R.; Gallivan, K.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  1. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown.

    PubMed

    Nah, Kyung-Soo

    2013-12-01

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown. PMID:24380070

  2. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  3. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  4. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  5. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  6. Subjective ranking of concert halls substantiated through orthogonal objective parameters.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Salvador; Giménez, Alicia; Cibrián, Rosa; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global subjective assessment, obtained from mean values of the results of surveys addressed to members of the audience of live concerts in Spanish auditoriums, through the mean values of the three orthogonal objective parameters (Tmid, IACCE3, and LEV), expressed in just noticeable differences (JNDs), regarding the best-valued hall. Results show that a linear combination of the relative variations of orthogonal parameters can largely explain the overall perceived quality of the sample. However, the mean values of certain orthogonal parameters are not representative, which shows that an alternative approach to the problem is necessary. Various possibilities are proposed.

  7. Subjective ranking of concert halls substantiated through orthogonal objective parameters.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Salvador; Giménez, Alicia; Cibrián, Rosa; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global subjective assessment, obtained from mean values of the results of surveys addressed to members of the audience of live concerts in Spanish auditoriums, through the mean values of the three orthogonal objective parameters (Tmid, IACCE3, and LEV), expressed in just noticeable differences (JNDs), regarding the best-valued hall. Results show that a linear combination of the relative variations of orthogonal parameters can largely explain the overall perceived quality of the sample. However, the mean values of certain orthogonal parameters are not representative, which shows that an alternative approach to the problem is necessary. Various possibilities are proposed. PMID:25697992

  8. Concerted hydrogen atom exchange between three HF molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komornicki, Andrew; Dixon, David A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    The termolecular reaction involving concerted hydrogen-atom exchange between three HF molecules was investigated with particular attention given to the effects of correlation at the various stationary points along the reaction. Using large segmented Gaussian basis sets to locate the (HF)3 stationary points at the SCF level, the geometries of the stable hydrogen-bonded trimer, which is of C(3h) symmetry, were located, together with the transition state for hydrogen exchange, which is of D(3h) symmetry. Then, using a large atomic natural orbital basis and correlating all valence electrons, the energetics of the exchange reaction were evaluated at the correlated level.

  9. Architectural shape and early acoustic efficiency in concert halls (L).

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Yann; Wulfrank, Thomas; Kahle, Eckhard

    2012-09-01

    Supplying sufficient early reflections to audience members is an important prerequisite to good acoustic quality in performing arts spaces. However, the relationship between the geometry of a room and its acoustic efficiency in terms of early energy has rarely been investigated using basic geometrical principles. The present study demonstrates the possibility of predicting the average value of early reflected energy across the audience area using solid angles. The formulas obtained display the influence of various factors on average early energy; in particular, the direction of arrival of early reflections is found to play a significant role, which highlights interesting implications for the acoustic design of concert halls.

  10. When North and South don't mix: genetic connectivity of a recently endangered oceanic cycad, Cycas micronesica, in Guam using EST-microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Cibrián-Jaramillo, Angélica; Daly, A C; Brenner, E; Desalle, R; Marler, T E

    2010-06-01

    Subject to environmental changes and recurrent isolation in the last ca. 250 Ma, cycads are often described as relicts of a previously common lineage, with populations characterized by low genetic variation and restricted gene flow. We found that on the island of Guam, the endemic Cycas micronesica has most of the genetic variation of 14 EST-microsatellites distributed within each of 18 genetic populations, from 24 original sampling sites. There were high levels of genetic variation in terms of total number of alleles and private alleles, and moderate levels of inbreeding. Restricted but ongoing gene flow among populations within Guam reveals a genetic mosaic, probably more typical of cycads than previously assumed. Contiguous cycad populations in the north of Guam had higher self-recruitment rates compared to fragmented populations in the south, with no substantial connection between them except for one population. Guam's genetic mosaic may be explained by the influence of forest continuity, seed size, edaphic differences, and human transport of cycads. Also important are the extent of synchrony among flushes of reproductive female seed-bearing sporophylls and restricted pollen movement by an obligate mutualist and generalist insects. An NADH EST-locus under positive selection may reflect pressure from edaphic differences across Guam. This and three other loci are ideal candidates for ecological genomic studies. Given this species' vulnerability due to the recent introduction of the cycad aulacaspis scale, we also identify priority populations for ex situ conservation, and provide a genetic baseline for understanding the effects of invasive species on cycads in the Western Pacific, and islands in general. PMID:20497328

  11. When North and South don't mix: genetic connectivity of a recently endangered oceanic cycad, Cycas micronesica, in Guam using EST-microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Cibrián-Jaramillo, Angélica; Daly, A C; Brenner, E; Desalle, R; Marler, T E

    2010-06-01

    Subject to environmental changes and recurrent isolation in the last ca. 250 Ma, cycads are often described as relicts of a previously common lineage, with populations characterized by low genetic variation and restricted gene flow. We found that on the island of Guam, the endemic Cycas micronesica has most of the genetic variation of 14 EST-microsatellites distributed within each of 18 genetic populations, from 24 original sampling sites. There were high levels of genetic variation in terms of total number of alleles and private alleles, and moderate levels of inbreeding. Restricted but ongoing gene flow among populations within Guam reveals a genetic mosaic, probably more typical of cycads than previously assumed. Contiguous cycad populations in the north of Guam had higher self-recruitment rates compared to fragmented populations in the south, with no substantial connection between them except for one population. Guam's genetic mosaic may be explained by the influence of forest continuity, seed size, edaphic differences, and human transport of cycads. Also important are the extent of synchrony among flushes of reproductive female seed-bearing sporophylls and restricted pollen movement by an obligate mutualist and generalist insects. An NADH EST-locus under positive selection may reflect pressure from edaphic differences across Guam. This and three other loci are ideal candidates for ecological genomic studies. Given this species' vulnerability due to the recent introduction of the cycad aulacaspis scale, we also identify priority populations for ex situ conservation, and provide a genetic baseline for understanding the effects of invasive species on cycads in the Western Pacific, and islands in general.

  12. The Historical Demography and Genetic Variation of the Endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae) in the Red River Region, Examined by Chloroplast DNA Sequences and Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yi-Qing; Zhan, Qing-Qing; Nguyen, Khang Sinh; Nguyen, Hiep Tien; Wang, Yue-Hua; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU). In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species. PMID:25689828

  13. Concerted hydrogen atom exchange between three HF molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komornicki, Andrew; Dixon, David A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the termolecular reaction involving concerted hydrogen exchange between three HF molecules, with particular emphasis on the effects of correlation at the various stationary points along the reaction. Using an extended basis, we have located the geometries of the stable hydrogen-bonded trimer, which is of C(sub 3h) symmetry, and the transition state for hydrogen exchange, which is of D(sub 3h) symmetry. The energies of the exchange reation were then evaluated at the correlated level, using a large atomic natural orbital basis and correlating all valence electrons. Several correlation treatments were used, namely, configration interaction with single and double excitations, coupled-pair functional, and coupled-cluster methods. We are thus able to measure the effect of accounting for size-extensivity. Zero-point corrections to the correlated level energetics were determined using analytic second derivative techniques at the SCF level. Our best calculations, which include the effects of connected triple excitations in the coupled-cluster procedure, indicate that the trimer is bound by 9 +/- 1 kcal/mol relative to three separate monomers, in excellent agreement with previous estimates. The barrier to concerted hydrogen exchange is 15 kcal/mol above the trimer, or only 4.7 kcal/mol above three separated monomers. Thus the barrier to hydrogen exchange between HF molecules via this termolecular process is very low.

  14. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... sector of Berlin) Hungary Iran Iraq Laos Latvia Libya Lithuania Mongolian People's Republic North...

  15. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... Polish People's Republic (Including Danzig) Rumania South Yemen Union of Soviet Socialist Republics...

  16. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  17. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  18. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  19. Incomplete Laplace integrals - uniform asymptotic expansion with application to the incomplete beta function

    SciTech Connect

    Temme, N.M.

    1987-11-01

    The analytical approach of Temme (1983 and 1985), based on uniform asymptotic expansions, is extended to an additional class of incomplete Laplace integrals. The terminology is introduced; the construction of the formal series is explained; representations for the remainders are derived; the asymptotic nature of the expansions is explored; and error bounds are determined. Numerical results are presented for the case of the incomplete beta function. 14 references.

  20. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu

    2014-06-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  1. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Il`in, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  2. One young woman's campaign: rock concerts and graffiti.

    PubMed

    Malewska, J

    1993-05-01

    Prevailing law and church dictum in 1989 Poland precluded talking about condoms and sex on the radio. Accordingly, a young woman who did a radio-theater drama with some friends about how to avoid HIV infection was thrown out of school. This youth, however, knew that her audience found the emission to be provocative and interesting, and that people were having unprotected sex at concerts in toilet stalls with unknown partners. The Ministry of Health nonetheless said funds were unavailable for condom distribution. Undeterred, the author, her younger brother, and 2 friends joined forces to make large banners with pictures of condoms, bought 500 condoms with their own money, and went to the largest rock festival in Warsaw. She described on stage what AIDS is and how to contract it while friends handed out condoms and leaflets. Their success how has them cooperating with 20 other groups and going to concerts to talk about AIDS and hand out condoms. They have also sprayed graffiti across Warsaw aimed at preventing HIV transmission and provide leaflets and condoms with money from France to ticket holders at area clubs; letters requesting cooperative action have been received. Despite the success of these activities, the Ministry of Health requires receipt of a project and budget proposal before they may consider funding. Graffiti, however, is illegal in Poland and the new Catholic government made is impossible to obtain cheap Polish condoms in shops. The activists continued to develop banners and graffiti, but failed to keep people from engaging in high risk sex with multiple partners. 3 of the author's attractive and healthy female friends therefore began going to concerts and night clubs where they feigned soliciting sexual relations and being HIV-seropositive. Unsuspecting takers without condoms were informed of the girls contrived HIV serostatus and told they must surely desire death if they are ready to have unprotected intercourse. The desire to use condoms has

  3. One young woman's campaign: rock concerts and graffiti.

    PubMed

    Malewska, J

    1993-05-01

    Prevailing law and church dictum in 1989 Poland precluded talking about condoms and sex on the radio. Accordingly, a young woman who did a radio-theater drama with some friends about how to avoid HIV infection was thrown out of school. This youth, however, knew that her audience found the emission to be provocative and interesting, and that people were having unprotected sex at concerts in toilet stalls with unknown partners. The Ministry of Health nonetheless said funds were unavailable for condom distribution. Undeterred, the author, her younger brother, and 2 friends joined forces to make large banners with pictures of condoms, bought 500 condoms with their own money, and went to the largest rock festival in Warsaw. She described on stage what AIDS is and how to contract it while friends handed out condoms and leaflets. Their success how has them cooperating with 20 other groups and going to concerts to talk about AIDS and hand out condoms. They have also sprayed graffiti across Warsaw aimed at preventing HIV transmission and provide leaflets and condoms with money from France to ticket holders at area clubs; letters requesting cooperative action have been received. Despite the success of these activities, the Ministry of Health requires receipt of a project and budget proposal before they may consider funding. Graffiti, however, is illegal in Poland and the new Catholic government made is impossible to obtain cheap Polish condoms in shops. The activists continued to develop banners and graffiti, but failed to keep people from engaging in high risk sex with multiple partners. 3 of the author's attractive and healthy female friends therefore began going to concerts and night clubs where they feigned soliciting sexual relations and being HIV-seropositive. Unsuspecting takers without condoms were informed of the girls contrived HIV serostatus and told they must surely desire death if they are ready to have unprotected intercourse. The desire to use condoms has

  4. The Organization, Administration and Presentation of Symphony Orchestra Youth Concert Activities for Music Educational Purposes in Selected Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas H.; Thompson, Helen M.

    This report on symphony orchestra concerts for students in 20 American cities provides information on (1) the history and development of youth concerts, and the artistic, cultural, and educational philosophies upon which they are based; (2) operating procedures and financing for youth concerts in each city; (3) utilization of the concerts by…

  5. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  6. Dynamic pattern matcher using incomplete data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G. (Inventor); Wang, Lui (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pattern matching systems, and more particularly to a method for dynamically adapting the system to enhance the effectiveness of a pattern match. Apparatus and methods for calculating the similarity between patterns are known. There is considerable interest, however, in the storage and retrieval of data, particularly, when the search is called or initiated by incomplete information. For many search algorithms, a query initiating a data search requires exact information, and the data file is searched for an exact match. Inability to find an exact match thus results in a failure of the system or method.

  7. Inflationary spacetimes are incomplete in past directions.

    PubMed

    Borde, Arvind; Guth, Alan H; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2003-04-18

    Many inflating spacetimes are likely to violate the weak energy condition, a key assumption of singularity theorems. Here we offer a simple kinematical argument, requiring no energy condition, that a cosmological model which is inflating--or just expanding sufficiently fast--must be incomplete in null and timelike past directions. Specifically, we obtain a bound on the integral of the Hubble parameter over a past-directed timelike or null geodesic. Thus inflationary models require physics other than inflation to describe the past boundary of the inflating region of spacetime.

  8. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  9. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chandre, C.

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  10. Rate-dependent incompleteness of earthquake catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainzl, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Important information about the earthquake generation process can be gained from instrumental earthquake catalogs, but this requires complete recordings to avoid biased results. The local completeness magnitude Mc is known to depend on general conditions such as the seismographic network and the environmental noise, which generally limit the possibility to detect small events. The detectability can be additionally reduced by an earthquake-induced increase of the noise-level leading to short-term variations of Mc, which cannot be resolved by traditional methods relying on the analysis of the frequency-magnitude distribution. Based on simple assumptions, I propose a new method to estimate such temporal excursions of Mc solely based on the estimation of the earthquake rate resulting in a high temporal resolution of Mc. The approach is shown to be in agreement with the apparent decrease of the estimated Gutenberg-Richter b-value in high-activity phases of recorded data sets and the observed incompleteness periods after mainshocks. Furthermore, an algorithm to estimate temporal changes of Mc is introduced and applied to empirical aftershock and swarm sequences from California and central Europe, indicating that observed b-value fluctuations are often related to rate-dependent incompleteness of the earthquake catalogs.

  11. Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-03-01

    As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

  12. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  13. Nanoclusters Synthesized by Synchrotron Radiolysis in Concert with Wet Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Oyanagi, Hiroyuki; Orimoto, Yuuichi; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Hatada, Keisuke; Sun, Zhihu; Zhang, Ling; Yamashita, Kenichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Masato; Fukano, Atsuyuki; Maeda, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Wet chemical reduction of metal ions, a common strategy for synthesizing metal nanoparticles, strongly depends on the electric potential of the metal, and its applications to late transition metal clusters have been limited to special cases. Here, we describe copper nanoclusters grown by synchrotron radiolysis in concert with wet chemistry. The local structure of copper aggregates grown by reducing Cu(II) pentanedionate using synchrotron x-ray beam was studied in situ by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A detailed analysis of the XANES and EXAFS spectra, compared with DFT calculations and full-potential non-muffin-tin multiple scattering calculations, identified the nanocluster as Cu13 with icosahedral symmetry. The novel “charged” nanoclusters tightly bound to electron-donating amido molecules, which formed as a result of photo-induced deprotonation of ligand amines, were stabilized by irradiation. Monodispersive deposition of nanoclusters was enabled by controlling the type and density of “monomers”, in remarkable contrast to the conventional growth of metallic nanoparticles. PMID:25425181

  14. Intramolecular Alkene Aminocarbonylation Using Concerted Cycloadditions of Amino-Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovich, Ryan A; Clavette, Christian; Vincent-Rocan, Jean-François; Roveda, Jean-Grégoire; Gorelsky, Serge I; Beauchemin, André M

    2016-06-01

    The ubiquity of nitrogen heterocycles in biologically active molecules challenges synthetic chemists to develop a variety of tools for their construction. While developing metal-free hydroamination reactions of hydrazine derivatives, it was discovered that carbazates and semicarbazides can also lead to alkene aminocarbonylation products if nitrogen-substituted isocyanates (N-isocyanates) are formed in situ as reactive intermediates. At first this reaction required high temperatures (150-200 °C), and issues included competing hydroamination and N-isocyanate dimerization pathways. Herein, improved conditions for concerted intramolecular alkene aminocarbonylation with N-isocyanates are reported. The use of βN-benzyl carbazate precursors allows the effective minimization of N-isocyanate dimerization. Diminished dimerization leads to higher yields of alkene aminocarbonylation products, to reactivity at lower temperatures, and to an improved scope for a reaction sequence involving alkene aminocarbonylation followed by 1,2-migration of the benzyl group. Furthermore, fine-tuning of the blocking (masking) group on the N-isocyanate precursor, and reaction conditions relying on base catalysis for N-isocyanate formation from simpler precursors resulted in room temperature reactivity, consequently minimizing the competing hydroamination pathway. Collectively, this work highlights that controlled reactivity of aminoisocyanates is possible, and provides a broadly applicable alkene aminocarbonylation approach to heterocycles possessing the β-aminocarbonyl motif. PMID:27112602

  15. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with 19F- and 18F-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Constanze N.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain 18F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a ‘leaving group’ leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant 18F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize 18F-PET probes. Selective 18F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of 18F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to 18F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry.

  16. Alkane desaturation by concerted double hydrogen atom transfer to benzyne.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dawen; Willoughby, Patrick H; Woods, Brian P; Baire, Beeraiah; Hoye, Thomas R

    2013-09-26

    The removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from an alkane to produce an alkene is a challenge for synthetic chemists. In nature, desaturases and acetylenases are adept at achieving this essential oxidative functionalization reaction, for example during the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, gibberellins and carotenoids. Alkane-to-alkene conversion almost always involves one or more chemical intermediates in a multistep reaction pathway; these may be either isolable species (such as alcohols or alkyl halides) or reactive intermediates (such as carbocations, alkyl radicals, or σ-alkyl-metal species). Here we report a desaturation reaction of simple, unactivated alkanes that is mechanistically unique. We show that benzynes are capable of the concerted removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from a hydrocarbon. The discovery of this exothermic, net redox process was enabled by the simple thermal generation of reactive benzyne intermediates through the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder cycloisomerization reaction of triyne substrates. We are not aware of any single-step, bimolecular reaction in which two hydrogen atoms are simultaneously transferred from a saturated alkane. Computational studies indicate a preferred geometry with eclipsed vicinal C-H bonds in the alkane donor.

  17. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with (19)F(-) and (18)F(-).

    PubMed

    Neumann, Constanze N; Hooker, Jacob M; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-05-18

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain (18)F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a 'leaving group' leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant (18)F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize (18)F-PET probes. Selective (18)F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of (18)F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to (18)F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry.

  18. Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Beldade, Patrícia; Brakefield, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    Developing organisms are thought to be modular in organization so that traits in different modules evolve independently whereas traits within a module change in a concerted manner. The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed. Several lines of evidence show that all eyespots in an individual butterfly are genetically integrated, suggesting that the whole pattern, rather than the separate eyespots, should be considered as a single character. However, despite the strong genetic correlations between the two eyespots on the dorsal forewing of B. anynana, there is great potential for independent changes. Here we use laboratory lines selected in different directions for the size of those eyespots to study correlated responses in the whole eyespot pattern. We show clear changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces, which depend on eyespot position along the anterior-posterior axis. There are also changes in the number of extra eyespots and in eyespot color composition but no changes in eyespot position relative to wing margin. Our analysis of eyespot pattern modularity is discussed in the light of what is known about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of eyespot formation and the great potential for evolutionary diversification in butterfly wing patterns. PMID:12622734

  19. Intramolecular Alkene Aminocarbonylation Using Concerted Cycloadditions of Amino-Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovich, Ryan A; Clavette, Christian; Vincent-Rocan, Jean-François; Roveda, Jean-Grégoire; Gorelsky, Serge I; Beauchemin, André M

    2016-06-01

    The ubiquity of nitrogen heterocycles in biologically active molecules challenges synthetic chemists to develop a variety of tools for their construction. While developing metal-free hydroamination reactions of hydrazine derivatives, it was discovered that carbazates and semicarbazides can also lead to alkene aminocarbonylation products if nitrogen-substituted isocyanates (N-isocyanates) are formed in situ as reactive intermediates. At first this reaction required high temperatures (150-200 °C), and issues included competing hydroamination and N-isocyanate dimerization pathways. Herein, improved conditions for concerted intramolecular alkene aminocarbonylation with N-isocyanates are reported. The use of βN-benzyl carbazate precursors allows the effective minimization of N-isocyanate dimerization. Diminished dimerization leads to higher yields of alkene aminocarbonylation products, to reactivity at lower temperatures, and to an improved scope for a reaction sequence involving alkene aminocarbonylation followed by 1,2-migration of the benzyl group. Furthermore, fine-tuning of the blocking (masking) group on the N-isocyanate precursor, and reaction conditions relying on base catalysis for N-isocyanate formation from simpler precursors resulted in room temperature reactivity, consequently minimizing the competing hydroamination pathway. Collectively, this work highlights that controlled reactivity of aminoisocyanates is possible, and provides a broadly applicable alkene aminocarbonylation approach to heterocycles possessing the β-aminocarbonyl motif.

  20. Operational modal analysis applied to the concert harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomette, B.; Le Carrou, J.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) methods are useful to extract modal parameters of operating systems. These methods seem to be particularly interesting to investigate the modal basis of string instruments during operation to avoid certain disadvantages due to conventional methods. However, the excitation in the case of string instruments is not optimal for OMA due to the presence of damped harmonic components and low noise in the disturbance signal. Therefore, the present study investigates the least-square complex exponential (LSCE) and the modified least-square complex exponential methods in the case of a string instrument to identify modal parameters of the instrument when it is played. The efficiency of the approach is experimentally demonstrated on a concert harp excited by some of its strings and the two methods are compared to a conventional modal analysis. The results show that OMA allows us to identify modes particularly present in the instrument's response with a good estimation especially if they are close to the excitation frequency with the modified LSCE method.

  1. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with (19)F(-) and (18)F(-).

    PubMed

    Neumann, Constanze N; Hooker, Jacob M; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-06-16

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain (18)F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a 'leaving group' leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant (18)F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize (18)F-PET probes. Selective (18)F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of (18)F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to (18)F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry. PMID:27281221

  2. Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Beldade, Patrícia; Brakefield, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    Developing organisms are thought to be modular in organization so that traits in different modules evolve independently whereas traits within a module change in a concerted manner. The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed. Several lines of evidence show that all eyespots in an individual butterfly are genetically integrated, suggesting that the whole pattern, rather than the separate eyespots, should be considered as a single character. However, despite the strong genetic correlations between the two eyespots on the dorsal forewing of B. anynana, there is great potential for independent changes. Here we use laboratory lines selected in different directions for the size of those eyespots to study correlated responses in the whole eyespot pattern. We show clear changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces, which depend on eyespot position along the anterior-posterior axis. There are also changes in the number of extra eyespots and in eyespot color composition but no changes in eyespot position relative to wing margin. Our analysis of eyespot pattern modularity is discussed in the light of what is known about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of eyespot formation and the great potential for evolutionary diversification in butterfly wing patterns.

  3. Objective Measures and Musician Preference for Concert Stage Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Daniel C.

    The purpose of this research was to examine musician preference for various stage enclosures in an actual concert hall setting and to determine the extent to which preference relates to objective measures of reflected energy and on -stage sound pressure levels. Twelve string and brass trios performed standard musical selections in four stage shell configurations and gave preference ratings for the configurations based on Ease of Ensemble, Ability to Hear Oneself, and Ability to Hear the Other Players. The judgments indicate differences in preference between string and brass players for Ease of Ensemble, and a stage preference across all subjects for Ability to Hear Oneself. Objective measurements of reflected energy ratios conducted in the performance spaces indicate relatively low degrees of correlation with subjective preference, with approximately 29% as the highest level of subjective variance accounted for by the ratios. Stage shell configuration had minimal effect on sound pressure levels within the four stages. It was determined that, in terms of the influence of stage shell configuration, reflected energy ratios are preferred over measures of sound pressure level as indicators of musician preference.

  4. Reassortment and concerted evolution in banana bunchy top virus genomes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jer-Ming; Fu, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hua; Su, Hong-Ji; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2007-02-01

    The nanovirus Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has six standard components in its genome and occasionally contains components encoding additional Rep (replication initiation protein) genes. Phylogenetic network analysis of coding sequences of DNA 1 and 3 confirmed the two major groups of BBTV, a Pacific and an Asian group, but show evidence of web-like phylogenies for some genes. Phylogenetic analysis of 102 major common regions (CR-Ms) from all six components showed a possible concerted evolution within the Pacific group, which is likely due to recombination in this region. The CR-M of additional Rep genes is close to that of DNA 1 and 2. Comparison of tree topologies constructed with DNA 1 and DNA 3 coding sequences of 14 BBTV isolates showed distinct phylogenetic histories based on Kishino-Hasegawa and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. The results of principal component analysis of amino acid and codon usages indicate that DNA 1 and 3 have a codon bias different from that of all other genes of nanoviruses, including all currently known additional Rep genes of BBTV, which suggests a possible ancient genome reassortment event between distinctive nanoviruses.

  5. Enhanced photoabsorption efficiency of incomplete nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Dastidar, Sudipta G; Bharath, P; Roy, Arindam; Ghosh, Anupam

    2013-09-01

    The rather low scattering or extinction efficiency of small nanoparticles, metallic and otherwise, is significantly enhanced when they are adsorbed on a larger core particle. But the photoabsorption by particles with varying surface area fractions on a larger core particle is found to be limited by saturation. It is found that the core-shell particle can have a lower absorption efficiency than a dielectric core with its surface partially nucleated with absorbing particles-an "incomplete nanoshell" particle. We have both numerically and experimentally studied the optical efficiencies of titania (TiO2) nucleated in various degrees on silica (SiO2) nanospheres. We show that optimal surface nucleation over cores of appropriate sizes and optical properties will have a direct impact on the applications exploiting the absorption and scattering properties of such composite particles. PMID:23988933

  6. Enhanced photoabsorption efficiency of incomplete nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Dastidar, Sudipta G; Bharath, P; Roy, Arindam; Ghosh, Anupam

    2013-09-01

    The rather low scattering or extinction efficiency of small nanoparticles, metallic and otherwise, is significantly enhanced when they are adsorbed on a larger core particle. But the photoabsorption by particles with varying surface area fractions on a larger core particle is found to be limited by saturation. It is found that the core-shell particle can have a lower absorption efficiency than a dielectric core with its surface partially nucleated with absorbing particles-an "incomplete nanoshell" particle. We have both numerically and experimentally studied the optical efficiencies of titania (TiO2) nucleated in various degrees on silica (SiO2) nanospheres. We show that optimal surface nucleation over cores of appropriate sizes and optical properties will have a direct impact on the applications exploiting the absorption and scattering properties of such composite particles.

  7. Introducing Children to the Symphony: Experimental Study of Pre-Concert Preparation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Peter

    This field experiment examined three responses of ninth and tenth grade students to attending symphony performances at school. Responses were attitudes toward the performance, later information seeking about the art form, and interest in obtaining a recording of symphonic works offered four weeks after the concert. Pre-concert experimental…

  8. What Did You Do to Teach Good Concert Behavior at Your School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she taught concert etiquette to her students. The author started by having her students research concert etiquette online. She then created a music Web site bibliography, beginning with the MENC site (www.menc.org/guides/etiquette /etiquette_home.html). She relates that the teaching approach she used has…

  9. The 2003 Music in Our School's Month and World's Largest Concert Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    On March 13, 2003 millions of school children, teachers, and citizens from around the world participate simultaneously in the "World's Largest Concert" (WLC). This concert, a sing-along program, is broadcast on PBS and the Armed Forces Radio and Television Network overseas. Participating in the WLC is a way to celebrate Music in Our Schools Month.…

  10. "Iitaohkanao'pi--The Meeting Place Project": An Alternative Approach to Young People's Concerts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasiak, Edwin B.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored alternative approaches to young people's concerts aimed at extending musical appreciations and cultural understandings while promoting interest in concert attendance among upper elementary students. The project, an artistic and cross-cultural collaboration grounded in a spirit of mutual respect, consisted of three components:…

  11. Science 101: How Do Acoustics Dictate the Design of a Concert Hall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This column provides background science information for elementary teachers. When the author was young he used to think that the ideal design for a concert hall would contain walls that were composed of sound-absorbing material, like foam or egg cartons or such. He noticed, though, that this was not the case. Most concert halls contain curtains…

  12. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    PubMed

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm

  13. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  14. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  15. WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Diels–Alder Reactions of Allene with Benzene and Butadiene: Concerted, Stepwise, and Ambimodal Transition States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Multiconfigurational complete active space methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) have been used to investigate the (4 + 2) cycloadditions of allene with butadiene and with benzene. Both concerted and stepwise radical pathways were examined to determine the mechanism of the Diels–Alder reactions with an allene dienophile. Reaction with butadiene occurs via a single ambimodal transition state that can lead to either the concerted or stepwise trajectories along the potential energy surface, while reaction with benzene involves two separate transition states and favors the concerted mechanism relative to the stepwise mechanism via a diradical intermediate. PMID:25216056

  17. Diels-Alder reactions of allene with benzene and butadiene: concerted, stepwise, and ambimodal transition states.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung V; Houk, K N

    2014-10-01

    Multiconfigurational complete active space methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) have been used to investigate the (4 + 2) cycloadditions of allene with butadiene and with benzene. Both concerted and stepwise radical pathways were examined to determine the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reactions with an allene dienophile. Reaction with butadiene occurs via a single ambimodal transition state that can lead to either the concerted or stepwise trajectories along the potential energy surface, while reaction with benzene involves two separate transition states and favors the concerted mechanism relative to the stepwise mechanism via a diradical intermediate.

  18. Incomplete fusion in 16O+159Tb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, S.; Singh, D. P.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    In heavy-ion induced reactions, incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be a process of greater importance and of distinct nature even at slightly above the barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be dominant. However, the studies are limited to a few projectile target combinations only. To confirm the distinctly different decay patterns observed in case of CF and ICF residues, and to understand the role of high ℓ-values in the onset of ICF, a particle-γ-coincidence technique has been employed to measure spin-distributions and feeding intensity profiles of CF and ICF residues populated via xn / pxn / αxn-channels in 16O+159Tb interactions at Elab ≈ 83.5 ± 1.5, 88.5 ± 1.5, 93.5 ± 1.5 and 97.6 ± 1.4 MeV. The Gamma Detector Array and the Charged Particles Detector Array have been used to detect prompt γ-rays in coincidence with charged particles (p and α). CF-α and ICF-α channels have been identified from backward (B)- and forward (F)-α-gated-γ-spectra, respectively. Reaction dependent decay patterns (thus, the feeding intensity profiles) have been observed in different α emitting channels. The CF channels are found to be widely populated and strongly fed over a broad spin range. In case of ICF-α channels, narrow range feeding was observed only for high-spin states or the low spin states were not populated. The mean ℓ-values involved in the production of ICF- αxn-channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of CF- αxn-channels associated with fusion-evaporation reactions.

  19. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

  20. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  2. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  3. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  4. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  5. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  6. Optimizing Balanced Incomplete Block Designs for Educational Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Carlson, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A popular design in large-scale educational assessments as well as any other type of survey is the balanced incomplete block design. The design is based on an item pool split into a set of blocks of items that are assigned to sets of "assessment booklets." This article shows how the problem of calculating an optimal balanced incomplete block…

  7. Treatment of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Cardiac Extension following Incomplete Resection.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Mathew P; Li, Annette; Villanueva, Claudia I; Peeceeyen, Sheen C S; Cooper, Michael G; Hanel, Kevin C; Fermanis, Gary G; Robertson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) with cardiac extension (CE) is a rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. Incomplete resection has a recurrence rate of over 30%. Different hormonal treatments have been described following incomplete resection; however no standard therapy currently exists. We review the literature for medical treatments options following incomplete resection of IVL with CE. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for all studies reporting IVL with CE. These studies were then searched for reports of patients with inoperable or incomplete resection and any further medical treatments. Our database was searched for patients with medical therapy following incomplete resection of IVL with CE and their results were included. Results. All studies were either case reports or case series. Five literature reviews confirm that surgery is the only treatment to achieve cure. The uses of progesterone, estrogen modulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonism, and aromatase inhibition have been described following incomplete resection. Currently no studies have reviewed the outcomes of these treatments. Conclusions. Complete surgical resection is the only means of cure for IVL with CE, while multiple hormonal therapies have been used with varying results following incomplete resection. Aromatase inhibitors are the only reported treatment to prevent tumor progression or recurrence in patients with incompletely resected IVL with CE. PMID:26783463

  8. Reducing Unnecessary Accumulation of Incomplete Grades: A Quality Improvement Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domocmat, Maria Carmela L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been noted that there is an increasing percentage of students accumulating incomplete (INC) grades. This paper aims to identify the factors that contribute to the accumulation of incomplete grades of students and, utilizing the best practices of various universities worldwide, it intends to recommend solutions in limiting the number of…

  9. Treatment of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Cardiac Extension following Incomplete Resection

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Mathew P.; Li, Annette; Villanueva, Claudia I.; Peeceeyen, Sheen C. S.; Cooper, Michael G.; Hanel, Kevin C.; Fermanis, Gary G.; Robertson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) with cardiac extension (CE) is a rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. Incomplete resection has a recurrence rate of over 30%. Different hormonal treatments have been described following incomplete resection; however no standard therapy currently exists. We review the literature for medical treatments options following incomplete resection of IVL with CE. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for all studies reporting IVL with CE. These studies were then searched for reports of patients with inoperable or incomplete resection and any further medical treatments. Our database was searched for patients with medical therapy following incomplete resection of IVL with CE and their results were included. Results. All studies were either case reports or case series. Five literature reviews confirm that surgery is the only treatment to achieve cure. The uses of progesterone, estrogen modulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonism, and aromatase inhibition have been described following incomplete resection. Currently no studies have reviewed the outcomes of these treatments. Conclusions. Complete surgical resection is the only means of cure for IVL with CE, while multiple hormonal therapies have been used with varying results following incomplete resection. Aromatase inhibitors are the only reported treatment to prevent tumor progression or recurrence in patients with incompletely resected IVL with CE. PMID:26783463

  10. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hruschka, Daniel  J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric  D.; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2014-12-18

    Background: Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicon—a phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Results: Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular sound change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elements—such as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traits—can change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group.

  11. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, K R

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  12. Systematics for low energy incomplete fusion: Still a puzzle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Shuaib, Mohd; Aggarwal, Abhay V.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Bala, Indu; Singh, D. P.; Singh, P. P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-05-01

    In order to have a better and clear picture of incomplete fusion reactions at energies ≈4-7MeV/nucleon, the excitation function measurements have been performed for 18O+159Tb system. The experimental data have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay. The cross-section for xn/pxn-channels are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, which suggest their production via complete fusion process. However, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. The incomplete fusion fractions have been deduced at each studied energy and compared with other nearby systems for better insight into the underlying dynamics. The incomplete fusion fraction has been found to be sensitive to the projectile's energy and α-Q-value.

  13. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.085-20 Incomplete...

  14. Concert halls with strong and lateral sound increase the emotional impact of orchestra music.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-03-01

    An audience's auditory experience during a thrilling and emotive live symphony concert is an intertwined combination of the music and the acoustic response of the concert hall. Music in itself is known to elicit emotional pleasure, and at best, listening to music may evoke concrete psychophysiological responses. Certain concert halls have gained a reputation for superior acoustics, but despite the continuous research by a multitude of objective and subjective studies on room acoustics, the fundamental reason for the appreciation of some concert halls remains elusive. This study demonstrates that room acoustic effects contribute to the overall emotional experience of a musical performance. In two listening tests, the subjects listen to identical orchestra performances rendered in the acoustics of several concert halls. The emotional excitation during listening is measured in the first experiment, and in the second test, the subjects assess the experienced subjective impact by paired comparisons. The results showed that the sound of some traditional rectangular halls provides greater psychophysiological responses and subjective impact. These findings provide a quintessential explanation for these halls' success and reveal the overall significance of room acoustics for emotional experience in music performance. PMID:27036257

  15. Incomplete nested dissection for solving n by n grid problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voigt, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Nested dissection orderings are known to be very effective for solving sparse positive definite linear systems which arise from n by n grid problems. In this paper we consider incomplete nested dissection, an ordering which corresponds to the premature termination of nested dissection. Analyses of the arithmetic and storage requirements for incomplete nested dissection are given and the ordering is shown to be competitive with nested dissection with regard to arithmetic operations and superior to that ordering in storage requirements.

  16. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Hruschka, Daniel  J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric  D.; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2014-12-18

    Background: Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicon—a phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Results: Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular soundmore » change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elements—such as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traits—can change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group.« less

  17. The significance of incomplete skull fracture in the birth injury.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Keun; Yoon, Soo Han

    2010-05-01

    Vaginal delivery is accomplished by the force of the labor overcoming the resistance forces of birth canal. During this process, the fetal head passes through the birth canal and the skull receives pressure on the lateral aspect, resulting in molding, the convex shaping of the cranium. Also, the infant's skull is compressed by the mother's pelvic bony structures. These forces may lead to skull fractures and brain injuries. The hypothesis by the authors is that many skull fractures of the newborn present as incomplete fractures. The bony skull of the newborn is histologically primary bone tissue and which is incomplete in its ossification process. During birth the pressure forces upon the newborn's skull is gradual in one direction, rather than a sudden impact, and therefore it is thought that the skull fracture would be an incomplete fracture. However, it is very hard to ascertain the presence of incomplete fractures especially in incompletely ossified skulls with plain X-ray studies, and therefore it is possible that the real incidence of skull fractures in the newborn are higher than reported in the current and past literature. It is also probable that the external forces upon the skull that are sufficient to cause skull fractures, would also lead to significant brain injury more frequently than actually observed, and subsequently contribute to development of many brain disease later in children. The authors of this study propose that very close examination should be conducted to find incomplete fracture, and increased efforts should be made to establish the presence of possible accompanied brain injuries in babies with incomplete skull fracture. The definitive diagnosis and treatment, as well as close follow up of patients with brain injury will assist the clinician in determining the causes of neurological diseases especially in those with previously unknown etiologies, which may be due to birth injuries. Assistance may be also afforded in the early treatment

  18. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Abhishek Sharma, Vijay R. Singh, Devendra P. Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Sharma, M. K.

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  19. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M

    2014-10-26

    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information. PMID:25348676

  20. An Ethnomethodological Study of Concerted and Biographical Work Performed by Elderly Persons during Game Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangrum, Faye Gothard; Mangrum, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    Two groups of older adults were audio- and videotaped playing dominos. Their conversations were transcribed and analyzed, yielding three categories: biographical work, game-playing details, and concerted work. Games play a significant role for the elderly and can be used to learn life-enhancing skills. (SK)

  1. Living Room vs. Concert Hall: Patterns of Music Consumption in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roose, Henk; Stichele, Alexander Vander

    2010-01-01

    In this article we probe the interplay between public and private music consumption using a large-scale survey of the Flemish population in Belgium. We analyze whether public and private music consumption have different correlates and to what extent there is convergence between the genres that people listen to at home and at concerts. Results show…

  2. Carbon Based Lifeforms @ Cosmonova: A Concert in Sight and Sound for IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callen, T.

    2012-05-01

    Replacing its conventional analogue planetarium with a digital fulldome system, the Cosmonova theatre at the Swedish Museum of Natural History sought to come up with a variety of public offerings for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. Besides several fulldome shows it was decided that a concert of live music would both celebrate the year as well as attempt to attract a new audience.

  3. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  4. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  5. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Summary The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  6. A novel method to assess incompleteness of mammography reports.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Francisco J; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Rubin, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Mammography has been shown to improve outcomes of women with breast cancer, but it is subject to inter-reader variability. One well-documented source of such variability is in the content of mammography reports. The mammography report is of crucial importance, since it documents the radiologist's imaging observations, interpretation of those observations in terms of likelihood of malignancy, and suggested patient management. In this paper, we define an incompleteness score to measure how incomplete the information content is in the mammography report and provide an algorithm to calculate this metric. We then show that the incompleteness score can be used to predict errors in interpretation. This method has 82.6% accuracy at predicting errors in interpretation and can possibly reduce total diagnostic errors by up to 21.7%. Such a method can easily be modified to suit other domains that depend on quality reporting.

  7. A Novel Method to Assess Incompleteness of Mammography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Francisco J.; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography has been shown to improve outcomes of women with breast cancer, but it is subject to inter-reader variability. One well-documented source of such variability is in the content of mammography reports. The mammography report is of crucial importance, since it documents the radiologist’s imaging observations, interpretation of those observations in terms of likelihood of malignancy, and suggested patient management. In this paper, we define an incompleteness score to measure how incomplete the information content is in the mammography report and provide an algorithm to calculate this metric. We then show that the incompleteness score can be used to predict errors in interpretation. This method has 82.6% accuracy at predicting errors in interpretation and can possibly reduce total diagnostic errors by up to 21.7%. Such a method can easily be modified to suit other domains that depend on quality reporting. PMID:25954448

  8. Incomplete defect filling after third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Matthias F.; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Gülecyüz, Mehmet F.; Hammerschmid, Florian; Müller, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a suitable method for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee joint. However, knowledge about the development of graft thickness and the clinical relevance of incomplete defect filling in the postoperative course is low. This prospective study analyses the graft integration into the surrounding cartilage, with special consideration of the graft thickness. Material and methods A total of 71 consecutive patients with 79 cartilage defects were treated with third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (NOVOCART 3D) in the knee. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 years. Graft thickness was measured compared to the surrounding healthy cartilage. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring system and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for clinical evaluation. Cartilage defect filling was classified as the percentage of the surrounding cartilage. Results The average graft thickness showed a significant increase between 3 and 6 months after autologous chondrocyte implantation. Incomplete defect filling occurred in 44 (55.7%) cases. Of these, 33 cases showed incomplete defect filling grade I (> 75%), 10 cases were grade II (> 50%) and one case grade III (> 25%). Incomplete defect filling grade IV (< 25%) was not observed. Incomplete defect filling occurred significantly more often in women (p = 0.021), without worse clinical results. Conclusions Graft thickness after third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation shows increasing graft thickness over the period of 2 years postoperatively. A high rate of incomplete defect filling in the surrounding cartilage was observed, without worse clinical results. PMID:27478460

  9. Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, Stéphane

    2003-01-01

    The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.

  10. Concerted Services in New Mexico: An Evaluation of Developmental Change. Center Research and Development Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holemon, Richard L.; And Others

    Concerted Services in Training and Education was conceived as one way to minimize the dysfunctional effects of technological developments on rural communities. Three pilot projects were established to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a concerted approach to solving the training problem and other needs of rural people. One project was…

  11. An insight into the Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular aminocyanation and oxycyanation of alkenes: a concerted or stepwise mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiyang; Wang, Guoqiang; Li, Shuhua

    2015-10-28

    Density functional theory investigations reveal that the intramolecular additions of N-CN bonds to alkenes proceed in a novel asynchronous and concerted mechanism, while the intramolecular addition of O-CN bonds to alkenes may occur by both concerted and stepwise pathways.

  12. Loss-of-Function Mutants and Overexpression Lines of the Arabidopsis Cyclin CYCA1;2/TARDY ASYNCHRONOUS MEIOSIS Exhibit Different Defects in Prophase-I Meiocytes but Produce the Same Meiotic Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixing; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, loss-of-function mutations in the A-type cyclin CYCA1;2/TARDY ASYNCHRONOUS MEIOSIS (TAM) gene lead to the production of abnormal meiotic products including triads and dyads. Here we report that overexpression of TAM by the ASK1:TAM transgene also led to the production of triads and dyads in meiosis, as well as shriveled seeds, in a dominant fashion. However, the partial loss-of-function mutant tam-1, an ASK1:TAM line, and the wild type differed in dynamic changes in chromosome thread thickness from zygotene to diplotene. We also found that the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions in male meiocytes in tam-1 and tam-2 (a null allele) frequently formed a tight cluster at the pachytene and diplotene stages, in contrast to the infrequent occurrences of such clusters in the wild type and the ASK1:TAM line. Immunolocalization studies of the chromosome axial component ASY1 revealed that ASY1 was highly expressed at the appropriate male meiotic stages but not localized to the chromosomes in tam-2. The level of ASY1, however, was greatly reduced in another ASK1:TAM line with much overexpressed TAM. Our results indicate that the reduction and increase in the activity of TAM differentially affect chromosomal morphology and the action of ASY1 in prophase I. Based on these results, we propose that either the different meiotic defects or a common defect such as missing ASY1 on the chromosomal axes triggers a hitherto uncharacterized cell cycle checkpoint in the male meiocytes in the tam mutants and ASK1:TAM lines, leading to the production of the same abnormal meiotic products. PMID:25402453

  13. Loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines of the Arabidopsis cyclin CYCA1;2/Tardy Asynchronous Meiosis exhibit different defects in prophase-i meiocytes but produce the same meiotic products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixing; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, loss-of-function mutations in the A-type cyclin CYCA1;2/Tardy Asynchronous Meiosis (TAM) gene lead to the production of abnormal meiotic products including triads and dyads. Here we report that overexpression of TAM by the ASK1:TAM transgene also led to the production of triads and dyads in meiosis, as well as shriveled seeds, in a dominant fashion. However, the partial loss-of-function mutant tam-1, an ASK1:TAM line, and the wild type differed in dynamic changes in chromosome thread thickness from zygotene to diplotene. We also found that the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions in male meiocytes in tam-1 and tam-2 (a null allele) frequently formed a tight cluster at the pachytene and diplotene stages, in contrast to the infrequent occurrences of such clusters in the wild type and the ASK1:TAM line. Immunolocalization studies of the chromosome axial component ASY1 revealed that ASY1 was highly expressed at the appropriate male meiotic stages but not localized to the chromosomes in tam-2. The level of ASY1, however, was greatly reduced in another ASK1:TAM line with much overexpressed TAM. Our results indicate that the reduction and increase in the activity of TAM differentially affect chromosomal morphology and the action of ASY1 in prophase I. Based on these results, we propose that either the different meiotic defects or a common defect such as missing ASY1 on the chromosomal axes triggers a hitherto uncharacterized cell cycle checkpoint in the male meiocytes in the tam mutants and ASK1:TAM lines, leading to the production of the same abnormal meiotic products. PMID:25402453

  14. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22... as other non-monetized costs when appropriate, such as social costs, delays, opportunity costs,...

  15. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22 apply, bureaus must consider all costs to obtain information. These costs include monetary costs as well as other non-monetized costs when appropriate, such as social costs, delays, opportunity costs,...

  16. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22 apply, bureaus must consider all costs to obtain information. These costs include monetary costs as well as other non-monetized costs when appropriate, such as social costs, delays, opportunity costs,...

  17. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22 apply, bureaus must consider all costs to obtain information. These costs include monetary costs as well as other non-monetized costs when appropriate, such as social costs, delays, opportunity costs,...

  18. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22 apply, bureaus must consider all costs to obtain information. These costs include monetary costs as...

  19. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incomplete vehicles, classification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...

  20. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  1. Conceptual versus Perceptual Priming in Incomplete Picture Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsukawa, Junko; Snodgrass, Joan Gay; Doniger, Glen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined conceptual versus perceptual priming in identification of incomplete pictures by using a short-term priming paradigm, in which information that may be useful in identifying a fragmented target is presented just prior to the target's presentation. The target was a picture that slowly and continuously became complete and the…

  2. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURERS OF MULTISTAGE... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  3. A qualitative model for temporal reasoning with incomplete information

    SciTech Connect

    Geffner, H.

    1996-12-31

    We develop a qualitative framework for temporal reasoning with incomplete information that features a modeling language based on rules and a semantics based on infinitesimal probabilities. The framework relates logical and probabilistical models, and accommodates in a natural way features that have been found problematic in other models like non-determinism, action qualifications, parallel actions, and abduction to actions and fluents.

  4. Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but…

  5. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  6. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  7. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  8. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Gintautas, Vadas; Pepe, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  9. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  10. The Concert system - Compiler and runtime technology for efficient concurrent object-oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Andrew A.; Karamcheti, Vijay; Plevyak, John; Sahrawat, Deepak

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented languages, particularly fine-grained approaches, reduce the difficulty of large scale concurrent programming by providing modularity through encapsulation while exposing large degrees of concurrency. Despite these programmability advantages, such languages have historically suffered from poor efficiency. This paper describes the Concert project whose goal is to develop portable, efficient implementations of fine-grained concurrent object-oriented languages. Our approach incorporates aggressive program analysis and program transformation with careful information management at every stage from the compiler to the runtime system. The paper discusses the basic elements of the Concert approach along with a description of the potential payoffs. Initial performance results and specific plans for system development are also detailed.

  11. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  12. Surface Activation of Electrocatalysis at Oxide Electrodes. Concerted Electron-Proton Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Jurss, Jonah W.; Thorp, H. Holden; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-03-21

    Dramatic rate enhancements are observed for the oxidation of phenols, including tyrosine, at indium-tin oxide electrodes modified by the addition of the electron-transfer relays [MII(bpy)2(4,4'-(HO)2P(O)CH2)2bpy)]2+ (M = Ru, Os) with clear evidence for the importance of proton-coupled electron transfer and concerted electron-proton transfer.

  13. Collective Motion of Humans in Mosh and Circle Pits at Heavy Metal Concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse L.; Bierbaum, Matthew; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-05-01

    Human collective behavior can vary from calm to panicked depending on social context. Using videos publicly available online, we study the highly energized collective motion of attendees at heavy metal concerts. We find these extreme social gatherings generate similarly extreme behaviors: a disordered gaslike state called a mosh pit and an ordered vortexlike state called a circle pit. Both phenomena are reproduced in flocking simulations demonstrating that human collective behavior is consistent with the predictions of simplified models.

  14. Identifying concerted evolution and gene conversion in mammalian gene pairs lasting over 100 million years

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Andrew R; Scherer, Stephen W

    2009-01-01

    Background Concerted evolution occurs in multigene families and is characterized by stretches of homogeneity and higher sequence similarity between paralogues than between orthologues. Here we identify human gene pairs that have undergone concerted evolution, caused by ongoing gene conversion, since at least the human-mouse divergence. Our strategy involved the identification of duplicated genes with greater similarity within a species than between species. These genes were required to be present in multiple mammalian genomes, suggesting duplication early in mammalian divergence. To eliminate genes that have been conserved due to strong purifying selection, our analysis also required at least one intron to have retained high sequence similarity between paralogues. Results We identified three human gene pairs undergoing concerted evolution (BMP8A/B, DDX19A/B, and TUBG1/2). Phylogenetic investigations reveal that in each case the duplication appears to have occurred prior to eutherian mammalian radiation, with exactly two paralogues present in all examined species. This indicates that all three gene duplication events were established over 100 million years ago. Conclusion The extended duration of concerted evolution in multiple distant lineages suggests that there has been prolonged homogenization of specific segments within these gene pairs. Although we speculate that selection for homogenization could have been utilized in order to maintain crucial homo- or hetero- binding domains, it remains unclear why gene conversion has persisted for such extended periods of time. Through these analyses, our results demonstrate additional examples of a process that plays a definite, although unspecified, role in molecular evolution. PMID:19583854

  15. Palladium(II)-catalyzed direct alkoxylation of arenes: evidence for solvent-assisted concerted metalation deprotonation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Megha; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2011-09-16

    Density functional theory investigations on the mechanism of palladium acetate catalyzed direct alkoxylation of N-methoxybenzamide in methanol reveal that the key steps involve solvent-assisted N-H as well as C-H bond activations. The transition state for the critical palladium-carbon bond formation through a concerted metalation deprotonation (CMD) process leading to a palladacycle intermediate has been found to be more stable in the methanol-assisted pathway as compared to an unassisted route.

  16. The link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in Tremblaya princeps

    PubMed Central

    López-Madrigal, Sergio; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. The betaproteobacterium “Candidatus Tremblaya” maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which are classified in subfamilies Phenacoccinae and Pseudococcinae. Most Phenacoccinae mealybugs have “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola” as their unique endosymbiont, while most Pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed inside another one) where every “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” cell harbors several cells of a gammaproteobacterium. Genomic characterization of the endosymbiotic consortium from Planococcus citri, composed by “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia,” unveiled several atypical features of the former's genome, including the concerted evolution of paralogous loci. Its comparison with the genome of “Ca. Tremblaya phenacola” PAVE, single endosymbiont of Phenacoccus avenae, suggests that the atypical reductive evolution of “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” could be linked to the acquisition of “Ca. Moranella endobia,” which possess an almost complete set of genes encoding proteins involved in homologous recombination. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed comparative genomics between “Ca. Tremblaya phenacola” and “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” and searched for the co-occurrence of concerted evolution and homologous recombination genes in endosymbiotic consortia from four unexplored mealybug species, Dysmicoccus boninsis, Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus longispinus, and Pseudococcus viburni. Our results support a link between concerted evolution and nested endosymbiosis. PMID:26161080

  17. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of concerted (U5/U3) integration

    PubMed Central

    Grandgenett, Duane P.; Bera, Sibes; Pandey, Krishan K.; Vora, Ajaykumar C.; Zahm, Jacob; Sinha, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    Retrovirus integrase (IN) integrates the viral linear DNA genome (~10 kb) into a host chromosome, a step which is essential for viral replication. Integration occurs via a nucleoprotein complex, termed the preintegration complex (PIC). This article focuses on the reconstitution of synaptic complexes from purified components whose molecular properties mirror those of the PIC, including the efficient concerted integration of two ends of linear viral DNA into target DNA. The methods described herein permit the biochemical and biophysical analyses of concerted integration. The methods enable: 1) the study of interactions between purified recombinant IN and its viral DNA substrates at the molecular level; 2) the identification and characterization of nucleoprotein complexes involved in the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) concerted integration pathway; 3) the determination of the multimeric state of IN within these complexes; 4) dissection of the interaction between HIV-1 IN and cellular proteins such as lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75); 5) the examination of HIV-1 Class II and strand transfer inhibitor resistant IN mutants; and 6) the mechanisms associated with strand transfer inhibitors directed against HIV-1 IN that have clinical relevance in the treatment of HIV-1/AIDS. PMID:19049878

  18. Disentangling preference ratings of concert hall acoustics using subjective sensory profiles.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari

    2012-11-01

    Subjective evaluation of acoustics was studied by recording nine concert halls with a simulated symphony orchestra on a seat 12 m from the orchestra. The recorded music was spatially reproduced for subjective listening tests and individual vocabulary profiling. In addition, the preferences of the assessors and objective parameters were gathered. The results show that concert halls were discriminated using perceptual characteristics, such as Envelopment/Loudness, Reverberance, Bassiness, Proximity, Definition, and Clarity. With these perceptual dimensions the preference ratings can be explained. Seventeen assessors were divided into two groups based on their preferences. The first group preferred concert halls with relatively intimate sound, in which it is quite easy to hear individual instruments and melody lines. In contrast, the second group preferred a louder and more reverberant sound with good envelopment and strong bass. Even though all halls were recorded exactly at the same distance, the preference is best explained with subjective Proximity and with Bassiness, Envelopment, and Loudness to some extent. Neither the preferences nor the subjective ratings could be fully explained by objective parameters (ISO3382-1:2009), although some correlations were found.

  19. Relationships between preference ratings, sensory profiles, and acoustical measurements in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of concert hall acoustics are explored with preference mapping. The investigation is performed on previously gathered data from individual vocabulary profiling of nine concert halls and three pieces of symphonic music, namely, excerpts of compositions by Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mozart. Individual preferences are regressed onto a latent three-dimensional sensory space obtained by multiple factor analysis of descriptive sensory data. Overlaying individually estimated preference surfaces onto one another produces preference maps which illustrates both the overall preference of the stimuli as well as differences between individual listeners. A comparison of the maps between music motifs illustrates how each music signal affects the weighting of different acoustical qualities in preference judgments. Differences in preferences between individuals are pronounced in the excerpts of Beethoven and Bruckner, while the responses are more homogeneous for Mozart music motif. Overall, proximity is identified as the main aspect associated with preference, but also loudness, envelopment, and bass are important. A correlation analysis of objective parameters and subjective perceptions substantiates the importance of lateral sound energy for good concert hall acoustics. Particularly, the lateral early energy fraction at high frequencies is found to be associated with the perception of proximity, and hence, also with preference.

  20. Concerted evolution at the population level: pupfish HindIII satellite DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Elder, J F; Turner, B J

    1994-01-01

    The canonical monomers (approximately 170 bp) of an abundant (1.9 x 10(6) copies per diploid genome) satellite DNA sequence family in the genome of Cyprinodon variegatus, a "pupfish" that ranges along the Atlantic coast from Cape Cod to central Mexico, are divergent in base sequence in 10 of 12 samples collected from natural populations. The divergence involves substitutions, deletions, and insertions, is marked in scope (mean pairwise sequence similarity = 61.6%; range = 35-95.9%), is largely confined to the 3' half of the monomer, and is not correlated with the distance among collecting sites. Repetitive cloning and direct genomic sequencing experiments failed to detect intrapopulation and intraindividual variation, suggesting high levels of sequence homogeneity within populations. The satellite sequence has therefore undergone "concerted evolution," at the level of the local population. Concerted evolution has previously almost always been discussed in terms of the divergence of species or higher taxa; its intraspecific occurrence apparently has not been reported previously. The generality of the observation is difficult to evaluate, for although satellite DNAs from a large number of organisms have been studied in detail, there appear to be little or no other data on their sequence variation in natural populations. The relationship (if any) between concerted, population level, satellite DNA divergence and the extent of gene flow/genetic isolation among conspecific natural populations remains to be established. Images PMID:8302879

  1. Relationships between preference ratings, sensory profiles, and acoustical measurements in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of concert hall acoustics are explored with preference mapping. The investigation is performed on previously gathered data from individual vocabulary profiling of nine concert halls and three pieces of symphonic music, namely, excerpts of compositions by Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mozart. Individual preferences are regressed onto a latent three-dimensional sensory space obtained by multiple factor analysis of descriptive sensory data. Overlaying individually estimated preference surfaces onto one another produces preference maps which illustrates both the overall preference of the stimuli as well as differences between individual listeners. A comparison of the maps between music motifs illustrates how each music signal affects the weighting of different acoustical qualities in preference judgments. Differences in preferences between individuals are pronounced in the excerpts of Beethoven and Bruckner, while the responses are more homogeneous for Mozart music motif. Overall, proximity is identified as the main aspect associated with preference, but also loudness, envelopment, and bass are important. A correlation analysis of objective parameters and subjective perceptions substantiates the importance of lateral sound energy for good concert hall acoustics. Particularly, the lateral early energy fraction at high frequencies is found to be associated with the perception of proximity, and hence, also with preference. PMID:24437764

  2. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For inoperable patients, argon plasma coagulation can be used as an alternative endoscopic treatment. Immediately after the incomplete resection or residual tumor has been confirmed by the pathologist, clinicians should also decide upon any additional treatment to be carried out during the follow-up period. PMID:27435699

  3. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Cemal; Losurdo, John; Brown, Michael D; Oosterveen, Scott; Rahimi, Robert; Keshavarzian, Ali; Bozorgnia, Leila; Mutlu, Ece

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP), 70 in-patient (IP)], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU) vs general medical floor (GMF)] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL). Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07). The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001), while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively). Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB) in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04). The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70) of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264) of OP examinations (P < 0.001). The mean gastric transit time (GTT) was delayed in IPs compared to

  4. Investigations on the Incompletely Developed Plane Diagonal-Tension Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1940-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation on the incompletely developed diagonal-tension field. Actual diagonal-tension beams work in an intermediate stage between pure shear and pure diagonal tension; the theory developed by wagner for diagonal tension is not directly applicable. The first part of the paper reviews the most essential items of the theory of pure diagonal tension as well as previous attempts to formulate a theory of incomplete diagonal tension. The second part of the paper describes strain measurement made by the N. A. C. A. to obtain the necessary coefficients for the proposed theory. The third part of the paper discusses the stress analysis of diagonal-tension beams by means of the proposed theory.

  5. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For inoperable patients, argon plasma coagulation can be used as an alternative endoscopic treatment. Immediately after the incomplete resection or residual tumor has been confirmed by the pathologist, clinicians should also decide upon any additional treatment to be carried out during the follow-up period. PMID:27435699

  6. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest – essential in determining reward and penalty – is frequently an ambiguous task due to the incomplete (partially filled) nature of competition networks. Here we introduce the “Natural Ranking,” an unambiguous ranking method applicable to a round robin tournament, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula for inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in resolving important issues of ranking by applying it to real-world competition networks. PMID:25163528

  7. Survey incompleteness and the evolution of the QSO luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Kron, Richard G.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Smetanka, John J.; Koo, David C.

    1993-01-01

    We concentrate on a type of QSO survey which depends on selecting QSO candidates based on combinations of colors. Since QSO's have emission lines and power-law continua, they are expected to yield broadband colors unlike those of stellar photospheres. Previously, the fraction of QSO's expected to be hiding (unselected) within the locus of stellar (U-J, J-F) colors was estimated at about 15 percent. We have now verified that the KK88 survey is at least 11 percent incomplete, but have determined that it may be as much as 34 percent incomplete. The 'missing' QSO's are expected to be predominantly at z less than or = 2.2. We have studied the proper motion and variability properties of all stellar objects with J less than or = 22.5 or F less than or = 21.5 in the SA 57 field which has previously been surveyed with a multicolor QSO search by KK88.

  8. A statistical analysis of acetylcholine receptor activation in Xenopus myocytes: stepwise versus concerted models of gating.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, A

    1993-01-01

    1. The kinetic properties of single channel currents from fetal-type acetylcholine receptors in embryonic Xenopus myocytes (60 h old) have been analysed by a maximum-likelihood method. 2. At very high acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations (up to 5 mM) the effective opening rate appears to saturate at approximately 30,000 s-1. 3. The kinetics were analysed according to the standard concerted scheme that postulates a single channel-opening conformational change after two agonists are bound, and a rarely invoked stepwise scheme that postulates semi-independent conformational changes in two distinct gating domains. Both models assume that agonist cannot escape from a channel (or domain) that is in its activated conformation. 4. With either activation scheme the kinetic analyses indicate that ACh binds at a rate of approximately 2 x 10(8) s-1 M-1 and dissociates from doubly liganded receptors at a rate of approximately 28,000 s-1, and that the activation process is asymmetric, i.e. the binding (concerted model) or gating (stepwise model) transitions are not equal and independent. 5. In eighteen of twenty-seven file-by-file comparisons, the likelihood of the stepwise model was greater than that of the concerted model. In seven such comparisons, the likelihood of the concerted model was greater than that of the stepwise model, and in two there was no difference. Log likelihood ratio distributions were obtained from three files (those with the most events) by multiple cycles of resampling and fitting. The means of these distributions were significantly greater than zero, indicating that the stepwise scheme was as good as, or better than, the concerted scheme in describing receptor activation. 6. According to the stepwise view, two binding sites must be occupied and two 'gates' activated for conduction to occur. Although equivalent binding is not an essential aspect of stepwise activation, the binding sites can be identical and have a low affinity for ACh (Kd approximately 130

  9. Relationship Between Type of Bow Holding and Propagation of Performed Sound in Small Concert Hall in Violin Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2005-03-01

    The propagation of violin sound performed by eight amateur players was compared in the front and rear seats of a small concert hall. It was found that the propagation of the performed sound in the hall is different according to the type of bow holding of the players and the difference of the instrument. The relationship between the player and the instrument influences the listeners’ impressions in the concert hall. It is important to perform a sound that is adjusted to the characteristics of the concert hall to minimize the decrease in the sound level in the rear seats of the hall.

  10. Contributions to the theory of incomplete tension bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schapitz, E

    1937-01-01

    The present report offers an approximate theory for the stress and deformation condition after buckling of the skin in reinforced panels and shells loaded in simple shear and compression and under combined stresses. The theory presents a unified scheme for stresses of these types. It is based upon the concept of a nonuniform stress distribution in the metal panel and its marked power of resistance against compressive stresses ("incomplete" tension bay).

  11. A probabilistic approach to quantum Bayesian games of incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Chappell, James M.; Li, Qiang; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

    2014-12-01

    A Bayesian game is a game of incomplete information in which the rules of the game are not fully known to all players. We consider the Bayesian game of Battle of Sexes that has several Bayesian Nash equilibria and investigate its outcome when the underlying probability set is obtained from generalized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments. We find that this probability set, which may become non-factorizable, results in a unique Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the game.

  12. Effects of incomplete adaptation and disturbance in adaptive control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    In this paper consideration is given to the effects of disturbance and incomplete parameter adaptation on the performance of adaptive control systems in which Liapunov theory is used in deriving the control law. A design equation for the bounded error is derived. It is further shown that parameters in the adaptive controller may not converge in the presence of disturbance unless the input signal has a rich enough frequency constant. Design examples are presented.

  13. Abducens nerve palsy in a girl with incomplete Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Melike; Alkan, Gulsum; Kartal, Ayse; Cimen, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that can involve the nervous system, including the cranial nerves. Central nervous system findings, especially irritability, lethargy, and aseptic meningitis, occur in 1-30 % of KD patients (1). Cranial nerve palsies are seen rarely, and abducens nerve palsy has been reported in only three children. We describe a 2.5-year-old girl with incomplete KD who developed transient abducens nerve palsy after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment.

  14. An automatic ordering method for incomplete factorization iterative solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, W.P. . Dept. of Computer Science); D'Azevedo, E.F.D. )

    1991-01-01

    The minimum discarded fill (MDF) ordering strategy for incomplete factorization iterative solvers is developed. MDF ordering is demonstrated for several model son-symmetric problems, as well as a water-flooding simulation which uses an unstructured grid. The model problems show a three to five fold decrease in the number of iterations compared to natural orderings. Greater than twofold improvement was observed for the waterflooding simulation. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Abducens nerve palsy in a girl with incomplete Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Melike; Alkan, Gulsum; Kartal, Ayse; Cimen, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that can involve the nervous system, including the cranial nerves. Central nervous system findings, especially irritability, lethargy, and aseptic meningitis, occur in 1-30 % of KD patients (1). Cranial nerve palsies are seen rarely, and abducens nerve palsy has been reported in only three children. We describe a 2.5-year-old girl with incomplete KD who developed transient abducens nerve palsy after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. PMID:27329470

  16. Introducing misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dah, Talemoh; Akiode, Akinsewa; Awah, Paschal; Fetters, Tamara; Okoh, Mathew; Ujah, Innocent; Oji, Ejike

    2011-12-01

    Despite legal restriction, induced abortions and resulting complications are common in Nigeria. Misoprostol administration for incomplete abortion was introduced in 3 Nigerian hospitals. The feasibility of the hospitals, patient and provider acceptability were assessed using questionnaire and interview guides administered to 205 women and 17 providers respectively. Amongst the women, 194 (95%) were satisfied and very satisfied with misoprostol, 176 (86%) would choose misoprostol again if another incomplete abortion occurred and 191 (93%) would recommend it to another woman in a similar situation. Providers were highly satisfied with misoprostol. The ease of use and ability to redirect surgical resources to more complicated issues were positive features cited by them. The providers agreed that integration of misoprostol was straightforward and required few resources. Therefore, misoprostol for incomplete abortion is safe, efficacious and acceptable to providers and patients. In remote areas of Nigeria with limited post-abortion care (PAC), misoprostol administration is an important potential PAC treatment modality. Features of misoprostol-low cost, room temperature stability, and ease of introduction-render it an important treatment option, particularly in low resource and rural settings.

  17. The analysis of incomplete cost data due to dropout.

    PubMed

    Oostenbrink, Jan B; Al, Maiwenn J

    2005-08-01

    Incomplete data due to premature withdrawal (dropout) constitute a serious problem in prospective economic evaluations that has received only little attention to date. The aim of this simulation study was to investigate how standard methods for dealing with incomplete data perform when applied to cost data with various distributions and various types of dropout. Selected methods included the product-limit estimator of Lin et al. the expectation maximisation (EM-) algorithm, several types of multiple imputation (MI) and various simple methods like complete case analysis and mean imputation. Almost all methods were unbiased in the case of dropout completely at random (DCAR), but only the product-limit estimator, the EM-algorithm and the MI approaches provided adequate estimates of the standard error (SE). The best estimates of the mean and SE for dropout at random (DAR) were provided by the bootstrap EM-algorithm, MI regression and MI Monte Carlo Markov chain. These methods were able to deal with skewed cost data in combination with DAR and only became biased when costs also included the costs of expensive events. None of the methods were able to deal adequately with informative dropout. In conclusion, the EM-algorithm with bootstrap, MI regression and MI MCMC are robust to the multivariate normal assumption and are the preferred methods for the analysis of incomplete cost data when the assumption of DCAR is not justified. PMID:15729743

  18. Incomplete mixing and reactions in laminar shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paster, A.; Aquino, T.; Bolster, D.

    2015-07-01

    Incomplete mixing of reactive solutes is well known to slow down reaction rates relative to what would be expected from assuming perfect mixing. In purely diffusive systems, for example, it is known that small initial fluctuations in reactant concentrations can lead to reactant segregation, which in the long run can reduce global reaction rates due to poor mixing. In contrast, nonuniform flows can enhance mixing between interacting solutes. Thus, a natural question arises: Can nonuniform flows sufficiently enhance mixing to restrain incomplete mixing effects and, if so, under what conditions? We address this question by considering a specific and simple case, namely, a laminar pure shear reactive flow. Two solution approaches are developed: a Lagrangian random walk method and a semianalytical solution. The results consistently highlight that if shear effects in the system are not sufficiently strong, incomplete mixing effects initially similar to purely diffusive systems will occur, slowing down the overall reaction rate. Then, at some later time, dependent on the strength of the shear, the system will return to behaving as if it were well mixed, but represented by a reduced effective reaction rate.

  19. Exposure and materiality of the secondary room and its impact on the impulse response of coupled-volume concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty

    2005-06-01

    How does sound decay when one room is partially exposed to another (acoustically coupled)? More specifically, this research aims to quantify how operational and design decisions impact sound fields in the design of concert halls with acoustical coupling. By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer, and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study a coupled-volume shoebox concert hall is conceived with a fixed geometric volume, form, and primary-room sound absorption. Aperture size and secondary-room sound absorption levels are established as variables. Statistical analysis of sound decay in this simulated hall suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and (1) architectural composition, as defined by the aperture size exposing the chamber and (2) materiality, as defined by the sound absorptance in the coupled volume. The theoretical, mathematical predictions are compared with coupled-volume concert hall field measurements and guidelines are suggested for future designs of coupled-volume concert halls.

  20. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social

  1. A Coordinated Emergency Response: A Color Dust Explosion at a 2015 Concert in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, nearly 500 concert attendees suffered injuries from smoke inhalation and severe burns following a color-dust explosion at a waterpark in Taiwan. We report on the progressions of the incident and government responses, share cross-departmental mobilization and case management lessons, and reflect on clinical and complex policy issues emerged. The timely and coordinated emergency responses, a high-quality universal health care system, and dedicated clinicians voluntarily working overtime resulted in an unprecedented 2.4% mortality rate (international statistics predicted 26.8%). PMID:27459446

  2. Observation of Metastable Structural Excitations and Concerted Atomic Motions on a Crystal Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Golovchenko, Jene

    1992-11-01

    The addition of a small number of lead atoms to a germanium(111) surface reduces the energy barrier for activated processes, and with a tunneling microscope it is possible to observe concerted atomic motions and metastable structures on this surface near room temperature. The formation and annihilation of these metastable structural surface excitations is associated with the shift in position of large numbers of germanium surface atoms along a specific row direction like beads on an abacus. The effect provides a mechanism for understanding the transport of atoms on a semiconductor surface.

  3. Crown lengthening to facilitate restorative treatment in the presence of incomplete passive eruption.

    PubMed

    Hempton, T J; Esrason, F

    1999-01-01

    The following clinical case involves subgingival caries noted in the presence of incomplete passive eruption in the maxillary anterior sextant. Understand the clinical entity known as incomplete passive eruption and discover utilization of crown lengthening surgery to treat this condition.

  4. Analytical Solution for Reactive Solute Transport Considering Incomplete Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellin, A.; Chiogna, G.

    2013-12-01

    The laboratory experiments of Gramling et al. (2002) showed that incomplete mixing at the pore scale exerts a significant impact on transport of reactive solutes and that assuming complete mixing leads to overestimation of product concentration in bimolecular reactions. We consider here the family of equilibrium reactions for which the concentration of the reactants and the product can be expressed as a function of the mixing ratio, the concentration of a fictitious non reactive solute. For this type of reactions we propose, in agreement with previous studies, to model the effect of incomplete mixing at scales smaller than the Darcy scale assuming that the mixing ratio is distributed within an REV according to a Beta distribution. We compute the parameters of the Beta model by imposing that the mean concentration is equal to the value that the concentration assumes at the continuum Darcy scale, while the variance decays with time as a power law. We show that our model reproduces the concentration profiles of the reaction product measured in the Gramling et al. (2002) experiments using the transport parameters obtained from conservative experiments and an instantaneous reaction kinetic. The results are obtained applying analytical solutions both for conservative and for reactive solute transport, thereby providing a method to handle the effect of incomplete mixing on multispecies reactive solute transport, which is simpler than other previously developed methods. Gramling, C. M., C. F. Harvey, and L. C. Meigs (2002), Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(11), 2508-2514.

  5. Incomplete shored exit wounds: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Druid, H; Ward, M E

    2000-09-01

    Typical and atypical exit wounds are well described in the forensic literature. Included in the descriptions of atypical exit wounds are perforating, "shored" exit wounds, in which the perforation of the skin is associated with an abrasion, whether or not the bullet fully exits the body. The authors describe an atypical, incomplete, shored exit wound in which the skin was abraded by supporting material at the site the bullet was recovered, but there was no associated perforation of the skin. Recognition of this injury pattern can be important in reconstruction of the crime scene in relation to the victim at the time of the shooting. PMID:10990280

  6. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  7. A Supernodal Approach to Incomplete LU Factorization with Partial Pivoting

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoye Sherry; Shao, Meiyue

    2009-06-25

    We present a new supernode-based incomplete LU factorization method to construct a preconditioner for solving sparse linear systems with iterative methods. The new algorithm is primarily based on the ILUTP approach by Saad, and we incorporate a number of techniques to improve the robustness and performance of the traditional ILUTP method. These include the new dropping strategies that accommodate the use of supernodal structures in the factored matrix. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate that our new method is competitive with the other ILU approaches and is well suited for today's high performance architectures.

  8. Familial occurrence of congenital incomplete prepyloric mucosal diaphragm.

    PubMed Central

    Gahukamble, D B

    1998-01-01

    Incomplete prepyloric mucosal diaphragm (IPMD) is an uncommon congenital anomaly that leads to gastric outlet obstruction in infancy and childhood. This report describes the occurrence of IPMD in six children in a closely knit tribal family from a geographically isolated desert town with a small population in the Sahara. Their records showed similarities of clinical, radiological, operative, and histopathological features. These features, as well as its occurrence in brothers, sisters, and cousins, suggest that this unusual anomaly is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Images PMID:9863605

  9. Chronic incomplete atrioventricular block induced by radiofrequency catheter ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.K.; Bharati, S.; Graham, A.R.; Gorman, G.; Lev, M. )

    1989-10-01

    To determine if catheter ablation of the atrioventricular (AV) junction with radiofrequency energy can induce chronic incomplete (first- and second-degree) AV block to avoid the need for a permanent pacemaker, 20 closed-chest dogs were studied. Group 1 (10 dogs) received radiofrequency energy (750 kHz) with a fixed power setting (5 or 10 W) while increasing the pulse duration from 10 to 50 seconds for each application. Group 2 (10 dogs) received energy with a fixed pulse duration (20 or 30 seconds) while increasing the power setting from 5 to 10 W or from 10 to 20 W during each energy delivery. Radiofrequency energy was delivered between a chest-patch electrode and the distal electrode of a regular 7F tripolar His bundle catheter. For each application, the energy delivery was interrupted when (1) the PR interval prolonged (greater than 50%) or (2) second-degree or complete AV block occurred and persisted up to 5 seconds. The ablation procedure ended when there was (1) persistent PR prolongation (greater than 50%) or persistent second-degree AV block (lasting greater than 30 minutes) after ablation, (2) occurrence of two consecutive transient (less than 1 minute) complete AV blocks after each energy delivery, or (3) complete AV block (lasting greater than 2 minutes) after ablation. Of seven dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which incomplete AV block was achieved 1 hour after the procedure, six in group 1 and five in group 2 remained in incomplete AV block 2-3 months after ablation. One dog in group 1 progressed into complete AV block. Of the remaining three dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which complete AV block was initially achieved 1 hour after ablation, two in group 1 and four in group 2 continued to have complete AV block, whereas one in each group had AV conduction returned to incomplete at 1-2 months of follow-up.

  10. Effects of incomplete adaption and disturbance in adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation focused attention on the fact that the synthesis of adaptive control systems has often been discussed in the framework of idealizations which may represent over simplifications. A condition for boundedness of the tracking error has been derived for the case in which incomplete adaption and disturbance are present. When using Parks' design it is shown that instability of the adaptive gains can result due to the presence of disturbance. The theory has been applied to a nontrivial example in order to illustrate the concepts involved.

  11. Rough set approach to incomplete multiscale information system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xibei; Qi, Yong; Yu, Dongjun; Yu, Hualong; Song, Xiaoning; Yang, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale information system is a new knowledge representation system for expressing the knowledge with different levels of granulations. In this paper, by considering the unknown values, which can be seen everywhere in real world applications, the incomplete multiscale information system is firstly investigated. The descriptor technique is employed to construct rough sets at different scales for analyzing the hierarchically structured data. The problem of unravelling decision rules at different scales is also addressed. Finally, the reduct descriptors are formulated to simplify decision rules, which can be derived from different scales. Some numerical examples are employed to substantiate the conceptual arguments. PMID:25276852

  12. A computer program for estimation from incomplete multinomial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    Coding is given for maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation of the vector p of multinomial cell probabilities from incomplete data. Also included is coding to calculate and approximate elements of the posterior mean and covariance matrices. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the Control Data CYBER 170 series digital computer system with network operating system (NOS) 1.1. The program requires approximately 44000 octal locations of core storage. A typical case requires from 72 seconds to 92 seconds on CYBER 175 depending on the value of the prior parameter.

  13. A model of incomplete chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A new mathematical model of chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors across changes in illumination is formulated and tested. This model consists of a modified von Kries transform that accounts for incomplete levels of adaptation. The model predicts that adaptation will be less complete as the saturation of the adapting stimulus increases and more complete as the luminance of the adapting stimulus increases. The model is tested with experimental results from two different studies and found to be significantly better at predicting corresponding colors than other proposed models. This model represents a first step toward the specification of color appearance across varying conditions. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Incompletely fractured teeth--a survey of endodontists.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, E H; Braly, B V; Eakle, W S

    1986-01-01

    By means of questionnaires, 303 endodontists were asked about their experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of incompletely fractured teeth. The present article discloses the results relative to which teeth are most likely to fracture, which predisposing factors involve higher or lower risk, how endodontists prefer to treat root-fractured teeth, and the success rate they have had with them. The endodontists also reported the frequency of endodontic treatment failures attributable to root fractures. These results are discussed with respect to the potential implications for clinical dental practice. PMID:3456133

  15. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Hua

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  16. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Napov, Artem

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  17. Onset of incomplete momentum transfer in fusion-like processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.; Chan, Y.; Murphy, M.; Tserruya, I.; Wald, S.; Budzanowski, A.

    1983-03-01

    Velocity spectra of evaporation residues from the reactions /sup 16/O + Al, Ca, and Ni have been measured at bombarding energies of 8.8, 13.6, and 19.6 MeV/u. Comparison with statistical model predictions shows clear evidence for the onset of incomplete momentum transfer at about 5 MeV/u above the interaction barrier. To first order, the results are similar for all targets, suggesting that the missing momentum is mainly associated with the projectile. The fraction of transferred linear momentum appears to decrease linearly with increasing relative velocity of the colliding nuclei at the barrier.

  18. Bayesian model updating using incomplete modal data without mode matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates a new probabilistic strategy for model updating using incomplete modal data. A hierarchical Bayesian inference is employed to model the updating problem. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-work steps is used to draw parameter samples for uncertainty quantification. Mode matching between measured and predicted modal quantities is not required through model reduction. We employ an iterated improved reduced system technique for model reduction. The reduced model retains the dynamic features as close as possible to those of the model before reduction. The proposed algorithm is finally validated by an experimental example.

  19. 7 CFR 1924.11 - District Director's review of incomplete development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... observations and recommendations regarding incomplete development. The report may be included in the District... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District Director's review of incomplete development... and Other Development § 1924.11 District Director's review of incomplete development. During...

  20. Photodissociation of phosgene: Theoretical evidence for the ultrafast and synchronous concerted three-body process

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Qiu; Zhang Feng; Shen Lin; Fang Weihai; Luo Yi

    2009-10-28

    The potential energy surfaces for Cl{sub 2}CO dissociation into CO+Cl+Cl in the lowest two electronic singlet states (S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}) have been determined by the complete active space self-consistent field, coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (CCSD), and equation-of-motion CCSD calculations, which are followed by direct ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to explore its photodissociation dynamics at 230 nm. It is found that the C-O stretching mode is initially excited upon irradiation and the excess internal energies are transferred to the C-Cl symmetric stretching mode within 200 fs. On average, the first and the second C-Cl bonds break completely within subsequent 60 and 100 fs, respectively. Electronic structure and dynamics calculations have thus provided a strong evidence that the photoinitiated dissociation of Cl{sub 2}CO at 230 nm or shorter wavelengths is an ultrafast, adiabatic, and concerted three-body process. Since the two C-Cl bonds begin to break at the same time and the time interval between the two C-Cl bond broken fully is very short ({approx}40 fs), the photoinitiated dissociation of Cl{sub 2}CO to CO+2Cl can be considered as the synchronous concerted process.

  1. Duplication and concerted evolution in a master sex determiner under balancing selection

    PubMed Central

    Privman, Eyal; Wurm, Yannick; Keller, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is a key regulator in the signalling hierarchy controlling all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila and other insects. Here, we show that six of the seven sequenced ants have two copies of tra. Surprisingly, the two paralogues are always more similar within species than among species. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that this pattern is owing to the ongoing concerted evolution after an ancestral duplication rather than independent duplications in each of the six species. In particular, there was strong support for inter-locus recombination between the paralogues of the ant Atta cephalotes. In the five species where the location of paralogues is known, they are adjacent to each other in four cases and separated by only few genes in the fifth case. Because there have been extensive genomic rearrangements in these lineages, this suggests selection acting to conserve their synteny. In three species, we also find a signature of positive selection in one of the paralogues. In three bee species where information is available, the tra gene is also duplicated, the copies are adjacent and in at least one species there was recombination between paralogues. These results suggest that concerted evolution plays an adaptive role in the evolution of this gene family. PMID:23466984

  2. Bringing Astronomy Directly to New Audiences (50,000 People) at Outdoor Concerts and Music Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2014-07-01

    My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While < 50% of the participants took part in a science museum or activity in the past year (survey result), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). Taking science directly to people is effective in promoting science education!

  3. Stepwise Versus Concerted Mechanisms in General-Base Catalysis by Serine Proteases.

    PubMed

    Uritsky, Neta; Shokhen, Michael; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-01-26

    General-base catalysis in serine proteases still poses mechanistic challenges despite decades of research. Whether proton transfer from the catalytic Ser to His and nucleophilic attack on the substrate are concerted or stepwise is still under debate, even for the classical Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad. To address these key catalytic steps, the transformation of the Michaelis complex to tetrahedral complex in the covalent inhibition of two prototype serine proteases was studied: chymotrypsin (with the catalytic triad) inhibition by a peptidyl trifluoromethane and GlpG rhomboid (with Ser-His dyad) inhibition by an isocoumarin derivative. The sampled MD trajectories of averaged pKa  values of catalytic residues were QM calculated by the MD-QM/SCRF(VS) method on molecular clusters simulating the active site. Differences between concerted and stepwise mechanisms are controlled by the dynamically changing pKa  values of the catalytic residues as a function of their progressively reduced water exposure, caused by the incoming ligand.

  4. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  5. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes.

    PubMed

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured.

  6. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes.

    PubMed

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  7. Comparison of tests for association and linkage in incomplete families.

    PubMed

    Cervino, A C; Hill, A V

    2000-07-01

    To analyze incomplete families, the following statistical tests can be used: LRAT-a simple likelihood-based association test, TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT. We compared these four tests, for the diallelic case, on simulated data sets. The comparisons focused on the power to detect linkage and association when different familial structures, resistance to population stratification, resistance to misclassification of the disease status of the healthy sib, and the effect of nonpaternity were considered. The simulations lead to the following conclusions. The type I errors of TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT were not affected by population stratification. LRAT showed bias under strong population stratification. High nonpaternity rates can lead to inflated type I errors, highlighting the importance of identification of half sibs. Under different homogeneous models, the power of TRANSMIT was very similar to that of LRAT, and, similarly, no difference in power was observed between SIBASSOC/STDT and RCTDT. Under various recessive and additive models, TRANSMIT was slightly more powerful than SIBASSOC/STDT when monoparental families with one affected and one unaffected sib were analyzed. Under various dominant models, SIBASSOC/STDT was slightly more powerful than TRANSMIT. Misclassification of the disease status of healthy sibs, as well as the discarding of incomplete families, resulted in a consistent loss of power.

  8. Comparison of Tests for Association and Linkage in Incomplete Families

    PubMed Central

    Cervino, A. C. L.; Hill, A. V. S.

    2000-01-01

    To analyze incomplete families, the following statistical tests can be used: LRAT—a simple likelihood-based association test, TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT. We compared these four tests, for the diallelic case, on simulated data sets. The comparisons focused on the power to detect linkage and association when different familial structures, resistance to population stratification, resistance to misclassification of the disease status of the healthy sib, and the effect of nonpaternity were considered. The simulations lead to the following conclusions. The type I errors of TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT were not affected by population stratification. LRAT showed bias under strong population stratification. High nonpaternity rates can lead to inflated type I errors, highlighting the importance of identification of half sibs. Under different homogenous models, the power of TRANSMIT was very similar to that of LRAT, and, similarly, no difference in power was observed between SIBASSOC/STDT and RCTDT. Under various recessive and additive models, TRANSMIT was slightly more powerful than SIBASSOC/STDT when monoparental families with one affected and one unaffected sib were analyzed. Under various dominant models, SIBASSOC/STDT was slightly more powerful than TRANSMIT. Misclassification of the disease status of healthy sibs, as well as the discarding of incomplete families, resulted in a consistent loss of power. PMID:10841813

  9. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  10. Evolutionary ultimatum game on complex networks under incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Xianyu; Yang, Jianmei

    2010-03-01

    This paper studies the evolutionary ultimatum game on networks when agents have incomplete information about the strategies of their neighborhood agents. Our model assumes that agents may initially display low fairness behavior, and therefore, may have to learn and develop their own strategies in this unknown environment. The Genetic Algorithm Learning Classifier System (GALCS) is used in the model as the agent strategy learning rule. Aside from the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network and its variations, the present paper also extends the spatial ultimatum game to the Barabási-Albert (BA) scale-free network. Simulation results show that the fairness level achieved is lower than in situations where agents have complete information about other agents’ strategies. The research results display that fairness behavior will always emerge regardless of the distribution of the initial strategies. If the strategies are randomly distributed on the network, then the long-term agent fairness levels achieved are very close given unchanged learning parameters. Neighborhood size also has little effect on the fairness level attained. The simulation results also imply that WS small-world and BA scale-free networks have different effects on the spatial ultimatum game. In ultimatum game on networks with incomplete information, the WS small-world network and its variations favor the emergence of fairness behavior slightly more than the BA network where agents are heterogeneously structured.

  11. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*

    PubMed Central

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  12. Treadmill training in incomplete spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, K; Metz, G A; Merkler, D; Dietz, V; Schwab, M E

    2000-10-01

    Treadmill training has been shown to accelerate locomotor recovery and to improve weight bearing during treadmill walking in spinal cats. In human patients treadmill training is increasingly used in rehabilitation after incomplete spinal cord injury. In this study we examined training effects in spinal cord injured rats with an incomplete dorsal lesion. Recovery was examined with an open field locomotor score, kinematic analysis on the treadmill, and several functional tests (i.e. foot print evaluation, narrow beam crossing, grid walking, open field exploratory activity). During the course of 5 weeks after the injury, a substantial amount of recovery occurred in the treadmill trained as well as in the untrained rats. If compared to the control lesioned rats, which showed a high level of spontaneous hindlimb movements at 7-14 days post lesion, no additional beneficial effect of a 5-week daily treadmill training on the locomotor outcome could be detected in the trained group. The only change observed was a slightly larger exploratory activity of the trained rats. It is probable that the spared ventral and ventro-lateral fibers allowed spontaneous recovery and 'self-training' to occur to such an extend that systematic treadmill training did not provide additional improvement. PMID:10996413

  13. Concerted Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondria of Species of the Flatfish Family Bothidae (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-He; Shi, Wei; Munroe, Thomas A; Gong, Li; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mitogenomes of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) exhibit the greatest diversity of gene rear-rangements in teleostean fishes. Duplicate control regions (CRs) have been found in the mito-genomes of two flatfishes, Samariscus latus (Samaridae) and Laeops lanceolata (Bothidae), which is rare in teleosts. It has been reported that duplicate CRs have evolved in a concerted fashion in fishes and other animals, however, whether concerted evo-lution exists in flatfishes remains unknown. In this study, based on five newly sequenced and six previously reported mitogenomes of lefteye flounders in the Bothidae, we explored whether duplicate CRs and concerted evolution exist in these species. Results based on the present study and previous reports show that four out of eleven bothid species examined have duplicate CRs of their mitogenomes. The core regions of the duplicate CRs of mitogenomes in the same species have identical, or nearly identical, sequences when compared to each other. This pattern fits the typical characteristics of concerted evolution. Additionally, phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis also provided evidence to support the hypothesis that duplicate CRs evolved concertedly. The core region of concerted evolution is situated at the conserved domains of the CR of the mitogenome from the termination associated sequences (TASs) to the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Commonly, this region is con-sidered to regulate mitochondrial replication and transcription. Thus, we hypothesize that the cause of concerted evolution of the duplicate CRs in the mtDNAs of these four bothids may be related to some function of the conserved sequences of the CRs during mitochondrial rep-lication and transcription. We hope our results will provide fresh insight into the molecular mechanisms related to replication and evolution of mitogenomes.

  14. Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kärenlampi, Petri P

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system. PMID:24965155

  15. Management of the Patient with Incomplete Response to PPI Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Smout, Andre JPM

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remove most of the acid from the gastroesophageal refluxate. However, PPIs do not eliminate reflux and the response of specific GERD symptoms to PPI therapy depends on the degree to which acid drives those symptoms. PPIs are progressively less effective for heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain and extra-esophageal symptoms. Hence, with an incomplete PPI response, obtaining an accurate history, detailing which symptoms are ‘refractory’ and exactly what evidence exists linking these symptoms to GERD is paramount. Reflux can continue to cause symptoms despite PPI therapy because of persistent acid reflux or weakly acidic reflux. Given these possibilities, diagnostic testing (pH or pH-impedance monitoring) becomes essential. Antireflux surgery is an alternative in patients if a clear relationship is established between persistent symptoms, particularly regurgitation, and reflux. Treating visceral hypersensitivity may also benefit the subset of GERD patients whose symptoms are driven by this mechanism. PMID:23998978

  16. Spectral ordering techniques for incomplete LU preconditoners for CG methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clift, Simon S.; Simon, Horst D.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of an incomplete LU (ILU) factorization as a preconditioner for the conjugate gradient method can be highly dependent on the ordering of the matrix rows during its creation. Detailed justification for two heuristics commonly used in matrix ordering for anisotropic problems is given. The bandwidth reduction and weak connection following heuristics are implemented through an ordering method based on eigenvector computations. This spectral ordering is shown to be a good representation of the heuristics. Analysis and test cases in two and three dimensional diffusion problems demonstrate when ordering is important, and when an ILU decomposition will be ordering insensitive. The applicability of the heuristics is thus evaluated and placed on a more rigorous footing.

  17. Incomplete and noisy network data as a percolation process

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Wiuf, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the ramifications of noisy and incomplete observations of network data on the existence of a giant connected component (GCC). The existence of a GCC in a random graph can be described in terms of a percolation process, and building on general results for classes of random graphs with specified degree distributions we derive percolation thresholds above which GCCs exist. We show that sampling and noise can have a profound effect on the perceived existence of a GCC and find that both processes can destroy it. We also show that the absence of a GCC puts a theoretical upper bound on the false-positive rate and relate our percolation analysis to experimental protein–protein interaction data. PMID:20378609

  18. Spatial reasoning with incomplete information on relative positioning.

    PubMed

    Dehak, Sidi Mohammed Réda; Bloch, Isabelle; Maître, Henri

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic method of inferring the position of a point with respect to a reference point knowing their relative spatial position to a third point. We address this problem in the case of incomplete information where only the angular spatial relationships are known. The use of probabilistic representations allows us to model prior knowledge. We derive exact formulae expressing the conditional probability of the position given the two known angles, in typical cases: uniform or Gaussian random prior distributions within rectangular or circular regions. This result is illustrated with respect to two different simulations: The first is devoted to the localization of a mobile phone using only angular relationships, the second, to geopositioning within a city. This last example uses angular relationships and some additional knowledge about the position. PMID:16173189

  19. Incomplete dominant osteochondrodysplasia in heterozygous Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Takanosu, T; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    2008-04-01

    This report describes an autosomal incomplete dominant pattern of inheritance for osteochondrodysplasia in the Scottish Fold cats. A three-generation pedigree was analysed. Cats with folded ears were mated with cats with normal ears. All cats with folded ears, which were presumably heterozygous for the mutated allele, developed osteochondrodysplasia in distal fore- and hindlimbs but not in other bones, including the tail in which bone deformity had been demonstrated in previous studies. The severity of the skeletal lesions of osteochondrodysplasia was different in each affected cat. Most of the cats with severe osteochondrodysplasia showed some clinical signs, but cats with mild disease were clinically unaffected. All Scottish Fold-related cats with folded-ear phenotype, even if heterozygotes, suffered from some degree of osteochondrodysplasia of the distal limbs. PMID:18339089

  20. Quantum Tomography from Incomplete Data via MaxEnt Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bužek, Vladimír

    We show how the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle can be efficiently used for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from incomplete tomographic data. This MaxEnt reconstruction scheme can be in specific cases several orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard inverse Radon transformation or the reconstruction via direct sampling using pattern functions. We apply the MaxEnt algorithm for a reconstruction of motional quantum states of neutral atoms. As an example we analyze the experimental data obtained by the group of C. Salomon at the ENS in Paris and we reconstruct Wigner functions of motional quantum states of Cs atoms trapped in an optical lattice. We also reconstruct Wigner functions of a cavity field based on a measurement of the parity operator. We analyze in detail experimental data obtained by the group of S. Haroche at the ENS in Paris.

  1. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  2. A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware. PMID:24650922

  3. Reconciliation of mass-asymmetry systematics for incomplete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Singh, B. P.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.; AMU-IUAC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The onset and strength of incomplete fusion (ICF) has been studied in the framework of Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The fraction of ICF has been deduced in 12C+169Tm system at energies ranging from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb (Vb = 54.94 MeV from the analysis of excitation functions (EFs). It has been found that the ICF starts influencing complete fusion at noticeably lower, β-values (i.e., 0.025 or 2. 5% of c) than that proposed by Morgenstern (i.e., ≈ 6% of c). The fraction of ICF increases with entrance channel mass-asymmetry for individual projectiles, termed as projectile dependent mass-asymmetry (ProMass-) systematics. The proposed ProMass- systematics has withstood all tests that have been done for fairly large number of systems to verify its validness.

  4. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  5. Incomplete lineage sorting is common in extant gibbon genera.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Kim, Sung K; Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R; de Jong, Pieter J; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis.

  6. Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kärenlampi, Petri P

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system.

  7. A Framework for Fast Image Deconvolution With Incomplete Observations.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Miguel; Almeida, Luis B; Bioucas-Dias, Jose; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2016-11-01

    In image deconvolution problems, the diagonalization of the underlying operators by means of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) usually yields very large speedups. When there are incomplete observations (e.g., in the case of unknown boundaries), standard deconvolution techniques normally involve non-diagonalizable operators, resulting in rather slow methods or, otherwise, use inexact convolution models, resulting in the occurrence of artifacts in the enhanced images. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution framework for images with incomplete observations that allows us to work with diagonalized convolution operators, and therefore is very fast. We iteratively alternate the estimation of the unknown pixels and of the deconvolved image, using, e.g., an FFT-based deconvolution method. This framework is an efficient, high-quality alternative to existing methods of dealing with the image boundaries, such as edge tapering. It can be used with any fast deconvolution method. We give an example in which a state-of-the-art method that assumes periodic boundary conditions is extended, using this framework, to unknown boundary conditions. Furthermore, we propose a specific implementation of this framework, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We provide a proof of convergence for the resulting algorithm, which can be seen as a "partial" ADMM, in which not all variables are dualized. We report experimental comparisons with other primal-dual methods, where the proposed one performed at the level of the state of the art. Four different kinds of applications were tested in the experiments: deconvolution, deconvolution with inpainting, superresolution, and demosaicing, all with unknown boundaries.

  8. A Framework for Fast Image Deconvolution With Incomplete Observations.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Miguel; Almeida, Luis B; Bioucas-Dias, Jose; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2016-11-01

    In image deconvolution problems, the diagonalization of the underlying operators by means of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) usually yields very large speedups. When there are incomplete observations (e.g., in the case of unknown boundaries), standard deconvolution techniques normally involve non-diagonalizable operators, resulting in rather slow methods or, otherwise, use inexact convolution models, resulting in the occurrence of artifacts in the enhanced images. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution framework for images with incomplete observations that allows us to work with diagonalized convolution operators, and therefore is very fast. We iteratively alternate the estimation of the unknown pixels and of the deconvolved image, using, e.g., an FFT-based deconvolution method. This framework is an efficient, high-quality alternative to existing methods of dealing with the image boundaries, such as edge tapering. It can be used with any fast deconvolution method. We give an example in which a state-of-the-art method that assumes periodic boundary conditions is extended, using this framework, to unknown boundary conditions. Furthermore, we propose a specific implementation of this framework, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We provide a proof of convergence for the resulting algorithm, which can be seen as a "partial" ADMM, in which not all variables are dualized. We report experimental comparisons with other primal-dual methods, where the proposed one performed at the level of the state of the art. Four different kinds of applications were tested in the experiments: deconvolution, deconvolution with inpainting, superresolution, and demosaicing, all with unknown boundaries. PMID:27576251

  9. Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci

  10. Concerted and asynchronous mechanism of ground state proton transfer in alcohol mediated 7-hydroxyquinoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Baotao; Jang, Du-Jeon; Lee, Jin Yong

    2015-07-01

    Alcohols mediated 7-hydroxyquinoline (7-HQ) complex has received enormous attractions on the issue of proton transfer reaction in the ground and excited states. In the present paper, concentrating on the ground state proton transfer (GSPT), density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to investigate the intrinsic insight into the reaction mechanism. We found that the GSPT is concerted and asynchronous process and can be accelerated by more acidic alcohol. Such GSPT was initiated by the proton transfer from alcohol to keto group of 7-HQ and finished by the proton transfer from nitrogen to alcohol. Our findings were in agreement with experimental conclusions quite well. Our results would be helpful to understand the proton transfer reaction for 7-HQ and related systems.

  11. Is the Beckmann rearrangement a concerted or stepwise reaction? A computational study.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Shinichi; Tsuchida, Noriko; Yamazaki, Shoko

    2005-12-23

    [reaction: see text] RB3LYP calculations were performed on the Beckman rearrangement by the use of three substrates, acetone oxime (1), acetophenone oxime (2), and cyclohexanone oxime (3). Acidic solvents were modeled by H+ (CH3COOH)3 and H3O+ (H2O)6, and reaction paths were determined precisely. For 1, a two-step process involving a sigma-type cationic complex was obtained. For 2, a three-step process with pi- and sigma-type complexes was found in H+ (CH3COOH)3 and a two-step process involving a sigma-type cationic complex was obtained in H3O+ (H2O)6. However, for 3, a concerted process without pi and sigma complexes was calculated, which leads to the product, epsilon-caprolactam. Three different mechanisms were explained in terms of FMO theory.

  12. An analysis of concert saxophone vibrato through the examination of recordings by eight prominent soloists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinninger, Thomas

    This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.

  13. Pyridine as proton acceptor in the concerted proton electron transfer oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Julien; Costentin, Cyrille; Robert, Marc; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Taking pyridine as a prototypal example of biologically important nitrogen bases involved in proton-coupled electron transfers, it is shown with the example of the photochemically triggered oxidation of phenol by Ru(III)(bpy)(3) that this proton acceptor partakes in a concerted pathway whose kinetic characteristics can be extracted from the overall kinetic response. The treatment of these data, implemented by the results of a parallel study carried out in heavy water, allowed the determination of the intrinsic kinetic characteristics of this proton acceptor. Comparison of the reorganization energies and of the pre-exponential factors previously derived for hydrogen phosphate and water (in water) as proton acceptors suggests that, in the case of pyridine, the proton charge is delocalized over a primary shell of water molecules firmly bound to the pyridinium cation. PMID:21499600

  14. Pyridine as proton acceptor in the concerted proton electron transfer oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Julien; Costentin, Cyrille; Robert, Marc; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Taking pyridine as a prototypal example of biologically important nitrogen bases involved in proton-coupled electron transfers, it is shown with the example of the photochemically triggered oxidation of phenol by Ru(III)(bpy)(3) that this proton acceptor partakes in a concerted pathway whose kinetic characteristics can be extracted from the overall kinetic response. The treatment of these data, implemented by the results of a parallel study carried out in heavy water, allowed the determination of the intrinsic kinetic characteristics of this proton acceptor. Comparison of the reorganization energies and of the pre-exponential factors previously derived for hydrogen phosphate and water (in water) as proton acceptors suggests that, in the case of pyridine, the proton charge is delocalized over a primary shell of water molecules firmly bound to the pyridinium cation.

  15. Conformation and concerted dynamics of the integrin-binding site and the C-terminal region of echistatin revealed by homonuclear NMR

    PubMed Central

    Monleón, Daniel; Esteve, Vicent; Kovacs, Helena; Calvete, Juan J.; Celda, Bernardo

    2004-01-01

    Echistatin is a potent antagonist of the integrins αvβ3, α5β1 and αIIbβ3. Its full inhibitory activity depends on an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif expressed at the tip of the integrin-binding loop and on its C-terminal tail. Previous NMR structures of echistatin showed a poorly defined integrin-recognition sequence and an incomplete C-terminal tail, which left the molecular basis of the functional synergy between the RGD loop and the C-terminal region unresolved. We report a high-resolution structure of echistatin and an analysis of its internal motions by off-resonance ROESY (rotating-frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy). The full-length C-terminal polypeptide is visible as a β-hairpin running parallel to the RGD loop and exposing at the tip residues Pro43, His44 and Lys45. The side chains of the amino acids of the RGD motif have well-defined conformations. The integrin-binding loop displays an overall movement with maximal amplitude of 30°. Internal angular motions in the 100–300 ps timescale indicate increased flexibility for the backbone atoms at the base of the integrin-recognition loop. In addition, backbone atoms of the amino acids Ala23 (flanking the R24GD26 tripeptide) and Asp26 of the integrin-binding motif showed increased angular mobility, suggesting the existence of major and minor hinge effects at the base and the tip, respectively, of the RGD loop. A strong network of NOEs (nuclear Overhauser effects) between residues of the RGD loop and the C-terminal tail indicate concerted motions between these two functional regions. A full-length echistatin–αvβ3 docking model suggests that echistatin's C-terminal amino acids may contact αv-subunit residues and provides new insights to delineate structure–function correlations. PMID:15535803

  16. An efficient algorithm to perform local concerted movements of a chain molecule.

    PubMed

    Zamuner, Stefano; Rodriguez, Alex; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the "local backbone volume", related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations. PMID:25825903

  17. An Efficient Algorithm to Perform Local Concerted Movements of a Chain Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Zamuner, Stefano; Rodriguez, Alex; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the “local backbone volume”, related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations. PMID:25825903

  18. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  19. Collagen studies in newborn rat kidneys with incomplete ureteric obstruction.

    PubMed

    Haralambous-Gasser, A; Chan, D; Walker, R G; Powell, H R; Becker, G J; Jones, C L

    1993-09-01

    Collagen studies in newborn rats with incomplete ureteric obstruction were performed to describe and quantify changes in collagen deposition resulting from urinary tract obstruction at an early developmental age. Incomplete ureteric obstruction was created in three-day-old rats by placing the left ureter in a tunnel formed by the psoas muscle, and sham-operated controls underwent a laparotomy. The rats were sacrificed at 10, 17, 24 or 31 days. Collagen types I, III, IV, and V were localized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, the total collagen content of the kidney was quantitated using hydroxyproline analysis, and collagen types I and III were quantitated using cyanogen bromide (CNBr) peptide analysis. Increased immunofluorescent staining for all of the collagens was found in the diffusely widened medullary interstitium of the obstructed kidney, and more focally in the cortical interstitium. Collagen types I, III and V, but not collagen type IV, were also found in bands in the interstitium at the junction of the cortex with the medulla. Increased staining for collagen type IV was found in thickened and tortuous tubular basement membranes (TBM) of the obstructed kidneys. The total collagen content of the obstructed kidney was significantly increased compared to the amounts in both the contralateral kidneys and in the kidneys from sham-operated controls at 24 and 31 days of age (P < 0.01 in each case, Wilcoxon matched pairs rank sum test and Mann Whitney U-test, respectively). The amount of collagen in the kidneys correlated with the degree of hydronephrosis (Spearman correlation test, r = 0.78, P < 0.02). CNBr peptide analysis demonstrated that over 50% of the collagen in the normal neonatal rat kidney was collagen type I and approximately 25% was collagen type III. In the obstructed kidneys most of the collagen was also collagen type I and collagen type III, although the proportion of total collagen comprised by these collagen types was decreased compared

  20. [Age and aging as incomplete architecture of human ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1999-12-01

    The focus is on the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development across the life span. The starting point is the frame provided by past evolutionary forces. A first conclusion is that for modern times and the relative brevity of the time windows involved in modernity, further change in human functioning is primarily dependent on the evolution of new cultural forms of knowledge rather than evolution-based changes in the human genome. A second conclusion concerns the general architecture of the life course. Three governing lifespan developmental principles coexist. First, because long-term evolutionary selection evince a negative age correlation, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity and negative effects associated with some principles of learning (e.g., negative transfer), the efficiency of culture is reduced as lifespan development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Three examples are given to illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture outlined. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes and their age-related dynamics: Selection, optimization, and compensation. The second example is theory and research on lifespan intelligence that distinguishes between the biology-based mechanics and culture-based pragmatics of intelligence and specifies distinct age gradients for the two categories of intellectual functioning. The third example considers the goal of evolving a positive biological and cultural scenario for the last phase of life (fourth age). Because of the general lifespan architecture outlined, this objective becomes

  1. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  2. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  3. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment from Incomplete and Uncertain Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Ansie; Kijko, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    A question that frequently arises with seismic hazard assessment is why are our assessments so poor? Often the answer is that in many cases the standard applied methodologies do not take into account the nature of seismic event catalogs. In reality these catalogues are incomplete with uncertain magnitude estimates and a significant discrepancy between the empirical data and applied occurrence model. Most probabilistic seismic hazard analysis procedures require knowledge of at least three seismic source parameters: the mean seismic activity rate λ, the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, and the area-characteristic (seismogenic source) maximum possible earthquake magnitude Mmax. In almost all currently used seismic hazard assessment procedures utilizing these three parameters, it's explicitly assumed that all three remain constant over a specified time and space. However, closer examination of most earthquake catalogues indicates that there are significant spatial and temporal variations in the seismic activity rate λ as well as the Gutenberg-Richter b-value. In the proposed methodology the maximum likelihood estimation of these earthquake hazard parameters takes into account the incompleteness of catalogues, uncertainty in the earthquake magnitude determination as well as the uncertainty associated with the applied earthquake occurrence models. The uncertainty in the earthquake occurrence models are introduced by assuming that both, the mean, seismic activity rate λ and the b-value of Gutenberg-Richter are random variables, each described by the Gamma distribution. The approach results in the extension of the classic frequency-magnitude Gutenberg-Richter relation and the Poisson distribution of number of earthquakes, with their compounded counterparts. The proposed procedure is applied in the estimation of the seismic parameters for the area of Ceres-Tulbagh, South Africa, which experienced the strongest earthquake in the country's recorded history. In this example it is

  4. An Iterative Reweighted Method for Tucker Decomposition of Incomplete Tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Linxiao; Fang, Jun; Li, Hongbin; Zeng, Bing

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of low-rank decomposition of incomplete multiway tensors. Since many real-world data lie on an intrinsically low dimensional subspace, tensor low-rank decomposition with missing entries has applications in many data analysis problems such as recommender systems and image inpainting. In this paper, we focus on Tucker decomposition which represents an Nth-order tensor in terms of N factor matrices and a core tensor via multilinear operations. To exploit the underlying multilinear low-rank structure in high-dimensional datasets, we propose a group-based log-sum penalty functional to place structural sparsity over the core tensor, which leads to a compact representation with smallest core tensor. The method for Tucker decomposition is developed by iteratively minimizing a surrogate function that majorizes the original objective function, which results in an iterative reweighted process. In addition, to reduce the computational complexity, an over-relaxed monotone fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding technique is adapted and embedded in the iterative reweighted process. The proposed method is able to determine the model complexity (i.e. multilinear rank) in an automatic way. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm offers competitive performance compared with other existing algorithms.

  5. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Sperling, J; Bartley, T J; Donati, G; Barbieri, M; Jin, X-M; Datta, A; Vogel, W; Walmsley, I A

    2016-08-19

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors. PMID:27588857

  6. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J.; Bartley, T. J.; Donati, G.; Barbieri, M.; Jin, X.-M.; Datta, A.; Vogel, W.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  7. Incomplete restoration of homeostatic shear stress within arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Eugene Zierler, R; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are surgically created to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is, in part, a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. We present computational hemodynamic simulations in four patient-specific models of mature arteriovenous fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Our results suggest that these mature fistulae have remodeled to return to ''normal'' shear stresses away from the anastomoses: about 1.0 Pa in the outflow veins and about 2.5 Pa in the inflow arteries. Large parts of the anastomoses were found to be under very high shear stresses >15 Pa, over most of the cardiac cycle. These results suggest that the remodeling process works toward restoring mechanical homeostasis in the fistulae, but that the process is limited or incomplete, even in mature fistulae, as evidenced by the elevated shear at or near the anastomoses. Based on the long term clinical viability of these dialysis accesses, we hypothesize that the elevated nonhomeostatic shear stresses in some portions of the vessels were not detrimental to fistula patency. PMID:23363216

  8. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks with Maximum Pseudolikelihood under Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Ané, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are necessary to represent the tree of life expanded by edges to represent events such as horizontal gene transfers, hybridizations or gene flow. Not all species follow the paradigm of vertical inheritance of their genetic material. While a great deal of research has flourished into the inference of phylogenetic trees, statistical methods to infer phylogenetic networks are still limited and under development. The main disadvantage of existing methods is a lack of scalability. Here, we present a statistical method to infer phylogenetic networks from multi-locus genetic data in a pseudolikelihood framework. Our model accounts for incomplete lineage sorting through the coalescent model, and for horizontal inheritance of genes through reticulation nodes in the network. Computation of the pseudolikelihood is fast and simple, and it avoids the burdensome calculation of the full likelihood which can be intractable with many species. Moreover, estimation at the quartet-level has the added computational benefit that it is easily parallelizable. Simulation studies comparing our method to a full likelihood approach show that our pseudolikelihood approach is much faster without compromising accuracy. We applied our method to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among swordtails and platyfishes (Xiphophorus: Poeciliidae), which is characterized by widespread hybridizations. PMID:26950302

  9. Plant Development, Auxin, and the Subsystem Incompleteness Theorem

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Karl J.; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the “subsystem incompleteness theorem,” which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective. PMID:22645582

  10. Can restoring incomplete microcirculatory reperfusion improve stroke outcome after thrombolysis?

    PubMed Central

    Dalkara, Turgay; Arsava, Ethem Murat

    2012-01-01

    Substantial experimental data and recent clinical evidence suggesting that tissue reperfusion is a better predictor of outcome after thrombolysis than recanalization necessitate that patency of microcirculation after recanalization should be reevaluated. If indeed microcirculatory blood flow cannot be sufficiently reinstituted despite complete recanalization as commonly observed in coronary circulation, it may be one of the factors contributing to low efficacy of thrombolysis in stroke. Although microvascular no-reflow is considered an irreversible process that prevents tissue recovery from injury, emerging evidence suggests that it might be reversed with pharmacological agents administered early during recanalization. Therefore, therapeutic approaches aiming at reducing microvascular obstructions may improve success rate of recanalization therapies. Importantly, promoting oxygen delivery to the tissue, where entrapped erythrocytes cannot circulate in capillaries, with ongoing serum flow may improve survival of the underreperfused tissue. Altogether, these developments bring about the exciting possibility that benefit of reperfusion therapies can be further improved by restoring microcirculatory function because survival in the penumbra critically depends on adequate blood supply. Here, we review the available evidence suggesting presence of an ‘incomplete microcirculatory reperfusion' (IMR) after focal cerebral ischemia and discuss potential means that may help investigate IMR in stroke patients after recanalization therapies despite technical limitations. PMID:23047270

  11. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors.

  12. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  13. Incomplete water securitization in coupled hydro-human production sytems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, B.; Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the dynamics, the externalities and the contingencies involved in managing local water resource for production, the water allocation at basin-level is a subtle balance between laws of nature (gravity; flux) and laws of economics (price; productivity). We study this balance by looking at inter-temporal basin-level water resource allocations in which subbasins enjoy a certain degree of autonomy. Each subbasin is represented as an economic agent i, following a gravity ordering with i=1 representing the most upstream area and i=I the downstream boundary. The water allocation is modeled as a decentralized equilibrium in a coupled conceptual hydro-human production system. Agents i=1,2,...,I in the basin produce a composite good according to a technology that requires water as a main input and that is specific to the subbasin. Agent i manages her use Xi and her storage Si, conceptualizing surface and subsurface water, of water with the purpose of maximizing the utility derived from consumption Ci of the composite good, where Ci is a scalar and Xi and Si are vectors which are composed of one element for each time period and for each contingency. A natural way to consume the good would be to absorb the own production. Yet, the agent may have two more option, namely, she might get a social transfer from other agents or she could use an income from trading water securities with her contiguous neighbors. To study these options, we compare water allocations (Ci, Xi, Si) all i=1,2,...,I for three different settings. We look at allocations without water securitization (water autarky equilibrium EA) first. Next, we describe the imaginary case of full securitization (contingent water markets equilibrium ECM) and, in between, we study limited securitization (incomplete water security equilibrium EWS). We show that allocations under contingent water markets ECM are efficient in the sense that, for the prevailing production technologies, no other allocation exists that is at

  14. Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qibin; Zhang, Liqing; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization of incomplete data is a powerful technique for tensor completion through explicitly capturing the multilinear latent factors. The existing CP algorithms require the tensor rank to be manually specified, however, the determination of tensor rank remains a challenging problem especially for CP rank . In addition, existing approaches do not take into account uncertainty information of latent factors, as well as missing entries. To address these issues, we formulate CP factorization using a hierarchical probabilistic model and employ a fully Bayesian treatment by incorporating a sparsity-inducing prior over multiple latent factors and the appropriate hyperpriors over all hyperparameters, resulting in automatic rank determination. To learn the model, we develop an efficient deterministic Bayesian inference algorithm, which scales linearly with data size. Our method is characterized as a tuning parameter-free approach, which can effectively infer underlying multilinear factors with a low-rank constraint, while also providing predictive distributions over missing entries. Extensive simulations on synthetic data illustrate the intrinsic capability of our method to recover the ground-truth of CP rank and prevent the overfitting problem, even when a large amount of entries are missing. Moreover, the results from real-world applications, including image inpainting and facial image synthesis, demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for both tensor factorization and tensor completion in terms of predictive performance.

  15. Incomplete Maternal Transmission of Mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, R.; Satta, Y.; Matsuura, E. T.; Ishiwa, H.; Takahata, N.; Chigusa, S. I.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of incomplete maternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Drosophila, previously suggested by the presence of heteroplasmy, was examined by intra- and interspecific backcrosses of Drosophila simulans and its closest relative, Drosophila mauritiana. mtDNAs of offspring in these crosses were characterized by Southern hybridization with two α-(32)P-labeled probes that are specific to paternal mtDNAs. This method could detect as little as 0.03% paternal mtDNA, if present, in a sample. Among 331 lines that had been backcrossed for ten generations, four lines from the interspecific cross D. simulans (female) X D. mauritiana (male) showed clear evidence for paternal leakage of mtDNA. In three of these the maternal type was completely replaced while the fourth was heteroplasmic. Since in this experiment the total number of fertilization is known to be 331 X 10 = 3310, the proportion of paternal mtDNA per fertilization was estimated as about 0.1%. The mechanisms and evolutionary significance for paternal leakage are discussed in light of this finding. PMID:2249764

  16. Probabilistic updating of building models using incomplete modal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates a new probabilistic strategy for Bayesian model updating using incomplete modal data. Direct mode matching between the measured and the predicted modal quantities is not required in the updating process, which is realized through model reduction. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-walk steps is proposed to draw the samples for model parameter uncertainty quantification. The iterated improved reduced system technique is employed to update the prediction error as well as to calculate the likelihood function in the sampling process. Since modal quantities are used in the model updating, modal identification is first carried out to extract the natural frequencies and mode shapes through the acceleration measurements of the structural system. The proposed algorithm is finally validated by both numerical and experimental examples: a 10-storey building with synthetic data and a 8-storey building with shaking table test data. Results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and robust for parameter uncertainty quantification in probabilistic model updating of buildings.

  17. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. PMID:25704836

  18. Incomplete turgor adjustment in Cladophora rupestrisunder fluctuating salinity regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, Christian; Gorham, John; Tomos, Deri; Davenport, John

    1992-04-01

    Turgor pressure fluctuates strongly in Cladophora rupestrissubjected to low salinities and shows only a small tendency to readjust to the normal value in full seawater (incomplete turgor adjustment). This was revealed by direct turgor pressure measurements and by chemical analyses of osmotic solutes after exposure of upper and lower shore Cladophorato the different salinity regimes occurring in the intertidal zone or representing steady state osmotic acclimation. The main internal osmotic solutes were K +, Cl -, amino acids, NO 3-and glycine betaine. Na +, SO 42-and PO 43-were of less importance. The sum of the charges on the cations was similar to that for the anions. K +, Cl -and, to a lesser extent, amino acids were responsible for limited turgor pressure adjustment which did occur. The concentrations of the major osmotic solutes were influenced not only by salinity but also by light: those of amino acids and NO 3-were increased while those of K +and Cl -were decreased under illumination. Cladophorapopulations from the upper and lower shore differed in their ability to restore internal K +and Cl -levels on transfer to full seawater after long term exposure to low salinity. This may indicate ecotypic variation.

  19. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sahoo, Rudra N.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF) in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs) measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb)+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF) increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 %) has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027) in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern's systematics.

  20. Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-03-01

    We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques.

  1. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Sperling, J; Bartley, T J; Donati, G; Barbieri, M; Jin, X-M; Datta, A; Vogel, W; Walmsley, I A

    2016-08-19

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  2. A new approach to detection of incomplete antibodies using hydrogel chromatography medium.

    PubMed

    Wang, HongMei; Chen, YeZhou; Ding, ShaoHua; Duan, ShengBao; Tian, JingJing; Meng, QingLin; Wei, ShuangShi; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    In assays for incomplete antibody detection, several washing steps are required to remove unbound globulins which may cause false negatives. Here, we present an improved approach employing hydrogel chromatography medium (HCM) in the detection of incomplete antibodies. After a rapid single-step centrifugation, incomplete antibodies, attached to red blood cells (RBCs), were separated from the reaction mixture using HCM and sedimentation. This method obviates the need for multiple centrifugation steps found in conventional Tube-Coombs tests. The HCM-Coombs tests may have a wide range of applications for incomplete antibody detection.

  3. Sound Pressure Levels Measured in a University Concert Band: A Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nicholas V., III

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have reported public school band directors as experiencing noise-induced hearing loss. Little research has focused on collegiate band directors and university student musicians. The present study measures the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and compares sound levels with the criteria set by the…

  4. Teachers' Guide and Program Notes for Youth Symphony Concerts Grades 4-6. Honolulu Symphony, 1983-84 Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Marvin

    These resources and activities are intended to introduce intermediate grade students to and help them enjoy and appreciate the children's concerts sponsored by the Honolulu Symphony. The guide is for the program, "A Musical Space Trip," for children in grades 4-5. The instruments used by the symphony are outlined, and pre- and post-teaching…

  5. Teachers' Guide and Program Notes for Youth Symphony Concerts Grades K-3. Honolulu Symphony, 1983-84 Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Marvin

    These resources and activities are intended to introduce primary school children to and help them enjoy and appreciate the children's concerts sponsored by the Honolulu Symphony. The guide is for the symphony program, "It's Circus Time," for children in grades K-3. The instruments used by the symphony are outlined, and pre- and post-teaching…

  6. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  7. A Preliminary Appraisal of Concerted Services in Training and Education in Rural Areas. Occasional Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coster, John K.

    In order to gather information on which to base decisions regarding the continuation of the Concerted Services in Training and Education in Rural Areas, a preliminary appraisal was made of three pilot projects located in Arkansas, New Mexico, and Minnesota. Overall impressions and reactions to attainment of objectives were made, and some major…

  8. Warm-Up Activities of Middle and High School Band Directors Participating in State-Level Concert Band Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Justin P.; Hancock, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the warm-ups chosen by concert band directors participating in state-level performance assessments. We observed 29 middle and high school bands and coded the frequency and duration of warm-up activities and behaviors. Results indicated that most bands rehearsed music and played scales, long tones, and…

  9. Connected-diagram expansions of effective Hamiltonians in incomplete model spaces. I. Quasicomplete and isolated incomplete model spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzelnigg, Werner; Mukherjee, Debashis; Koch, Sigurd

    1987-11-01

    In this and the following paper, we formulate a Fock space theory for incomplete model spaces (IMS) that applies both to coupled-cluster expansions and to perturbation theory. We stress in this paper that the concept of the ``connected'' nature of extensive quantities like an effective Hamiltonian Heff is more fundamental than the ``linkedness'' that is conventionally used in many-body perturbation theory. The ``connectedness'' of Heff follows when the wave operator W is multiplicatively separable into noninteracting subsystems. This is ensured by writing W as an exponential Fock space operator with the exponent connected. It is demonstrated in particular that the connectedness of the exponent in W requires that the normalization condition of W be separable as well. Unlike the situation in a complete model space, the definition of ``diagonal'' or ``nondiagonal'' operators depends generally on the particular m-valence IMS. There are, however, special categories of IMS, the ``quasicomplete'' and the ``isolated'' model spaces, for which these definitions are possible without reference to the particular IMS. The formal properties of these IMS are discussed. It is shown that for the quasicomplete model space, the intermediate normalization is not separable, while it is so for the isolated model space.

  10. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  11. Potential associations between chronic whiplash and incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew C.; Parrish, Todd B.; Hoggarth, Mark A.; McPherson, Jacob G.; Tysseling, Vicki M.; Wasielewski, Marie; Kim, Hyosub E.; Hornby, T. George; Elliott, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This research utilized a cross-sectional design with control group inclusion. Objectives Preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of the patient population with chronic whiplash may have sustained spinal cord damage. Our hypothesis is that in some cases of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), observed muscle weakness in the legs will be associated with local signs of a partial spinal cord injury of the cervical spine. Setting University based laboratory in Chicago, IL, USA. Methods Five participants with chronic WAD were compared with five gender/age/height/weight/body mass index (BMI) control participants. For a secondary investigation, the chronic WAD group was compared with five unmatched participants with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Spinal cord motor tract integrity was assessed using magnetization transfer imaging. Muscle fat infiltration (MFI) was quantified using fat/water separation magnetic resonance imaging. Central volitional muscle activation of the plantarflexors was assessed using a burst superimposition technique. Results We found reduced spinal cord motor tract integrity, increased MFI of the neck and lower extremity muscles and significantly impaired voluntary plantarflexor muscle activation in five participants with chronic WAD. The lower extremity structural changes and volitional weakness in chronic WAD were comparable to participants with iSCI. Conclusion The results support the position that a subset of the chronic whiplash population may have sustained partial damage to the spinal cord. Sponsorship NIH R01HD079076-01A1, NIH T32 HD057845 and the Foundation for Physical Therapy Promotion of Doctoral Studies program.

  12. Normalization of relative and incomplete temporal expressions in clinical narratives

    PubMed Central

    Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Objective To improve the normalization of relative and incomplete temporal expressions (RI-TIMEXes) in clinical narratives. Methods We analyzed the RI-TIMEXes in temporally annotated corpora and propose two hypotheses regarding the normalization of RI-TIMEXes in the clinical narrative domain: the anchor point hypothesis and the anchor relation hypothesis. We annotated the RI-TIMEXes in three corpora to study the characteristics of RI-TMEXes in different domains. This informed the design of our RI-TIMEX normalization system for the clinical domain, which consists of an anchor point classifier, an anchor relation classifier, and a rule-based RI-TIMEX text span parser. We experimented with different feature sets and performed an error analysis for each system component. Results The annotation confirmed the hypotheses that we can simplify the RI-TIMEXes normalization task using two multi-label classifiers. Our system achieves anchor point classification, anchor relation classification, and rule-based parsing accuracy of 74.68%, 87.71%, and 57.2% (82.09% under relaxed matching criteria), respectively, on the held-out test set of the 2012 i2b2 temporal relation challenge. Discussion Experiments with feature sets reveal some interesting findings, such as: the verbal tense feature does not inform the anchor relation classification in clinical narratives as much as the tokens near the RI-TIMEX. Error analysis showed that underrepresented anchor point and anchor relation classes are difficult to detect. Conclusions We formulate the RI-TIMEX normalization problem as a pair of multi-label classification problems. Considering only RI-TIMEX extraction and normalization, the system achieves statistically significant improvement over the RI-TIMEX results of the best systems in the 2012 i2b2 challenge. PMID:25868462

  13. Potential associations between chronic whiplash and incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew C.; Parrish, Todd B.; Hoggarth, Mark A.; McPherson, Jacob G.; Tysseling, Vicki M.; Wasielewski, Marie; Kim, Hyosub E.; Hornby, T. George; Elliott, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This research utilized a cross-sectional design with control group inclusion. Objectives Preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of the patient population with chronic whiplash may have sustained spinal cord damage. Our hypothesis is that in some cases of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), observed muscle weakness in the legs will be associated with local signs of a partial spinal cord injury of the cervical spine. Setting University based laboratory in Chicago, IL, USA. Methods Five participants with chronic WAD were compared with five gender/age/height/weight/body mass index (BMI) control participants. For a secondary investigation, the chronic WAD group was compared with five unmatched participants with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Spinal cord motor tract integrity was assessed using magnetization transfer imaging. Muscle fat infiltration (MFI) was quantified using fat/water separation magnetic resonance imaging. Central volitional muscle activation of the plantarflexors was assessed using a burst superimposition technique. Results We found reduced spinal cord motor tract integrity, increased MFI of the neck and lower extremity muscles and significantly impaired voluntary plantarflexor muscle activation in five participants with chronic WAD. The lower extremity structural changes and volitional weakness in chronic WAD were comparable to participants with iSCI. Conclusion The results support the position that a subset of the chronic whiplash population may have sustained partial damage to the spinal cord. Sponsorship NIH R01HD079076-01A1, NIH T32 HD057845 and the Foundation for Physical Therapy Promotion of Doctoral Studies program. PMID:27630770

  14. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution. PMID:26337548

  15. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution.

  16. Evaluation of sound fields in a concert hall involving scattered reflections applying the subjective preference theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Yukio

    2003-08-01

    Convex tilted rear walls in a stage enclosure, an array of circular columns installed in front of walls, and triangular reflectors above the stage were newly adopted as scattering obstacles in an acoustic design of Tsuyama Music Cultural Hall, called ``Bell Fole‸t Tsuyama.'' The fundamental shape of the hall was designed using the theory of subjective preference. To calculate the effects of scattered reflections on a sound field in a real concert hall is extremely laborious. For this reason, the evaluation of effects of scattered reflections on the sound field in the hall was made experimentally by use of a 110 acoustical scale. After construction of the hall, therefore, sound fields of the hall, which involves scattered reflections caused by the tilted convex rear, by the array of circular columns, and by the triangular reflectors, were measured using four orthogonal physical factors (LL, Δt1, Tsub, IACC) described in the theory and the acoustical character of these scattering obstacles was clarified. Results clearly showed that these new attempts on scattered reflections substantially improved the quality of the sound field in the hall. Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from Yukio Suzumura. E-mail address: ysuzu11@lapis.plala.or.jp

  17. PKA activation in concert with ARIS and asterosap induces the acrosome reaction in starfish.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Sadiqul; Kawase, O; Hase, S; Hoshi, M; Matsumoto, M

    2006-11-01

    The acrosome reaction (AR) is a fundamental event for fertilization, which is induced in concert with acrosome reaction-inducing substance (ARIS) and asterosap, both of which are components of starfish egg jelly (EJ). During the AR, a spermatozoon undergoes a series of physiological changes, such as in intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP]i), pHi and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Affinity purification of cGMP-binding protein resulted in the isolation of a regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), suggesting the involvement of a cAMP-dependent pathway in the AR. By using a cAMP enzyme immunoassay, [cAMP]i was found to increase in starfish spermatozoa when stimulated with ARIS and asterosap. ARIS could also increase the [cAMP]i in the presence of high pH seawater. Pretreatment of spermatozoa with two specific and cell-permeable PKA inhibitors, H89 and KT5720, prevented the induction of the AR in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that PKA activity participates in the induction of the AR with ARIS and asterosap. To investigate this, we have cloned a gene that encodes a regulatory subunit of PKA that had been identified in starfish spermatozoa.

  18. Sperm Bindin Divergence under Sexual Selection and Concerted Evolution in Sea Stars.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Susana; Keever, Carson C; Sunday, Jennifer M; Popovic, Iva; Byrne, Maria; Hart, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    Selection associated with competition among males or sexual conflict between mates can create positive selection for high rates of molecular evolution of gamete recognition genes and lead to reproductive isolation between species. We analyzed coding sequence and repetitive domain variation in the gene encoding the sperm acrosomal protein bindin in 13 diverse sea star species. We found that bindin has a conserved coding sequence domain structure in all 13 species, with several repeated motifs in a large central region that is similar among all sea stars in organization but highly divergent among genera in nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence. More bindin codons and lineages showed positive selection for high relative rates of amino acid substitution in genera with gonochoric outcrossing adults (and greater expected strength of sexual selection) than in selfing hermaphrodites. That difference is consistent with the expectation that selfing (a highly derived mating system) may moderate the strength of sexual selection and limit the accumulation of bindin amino acid differences. The results implicate both positive selection on single codons and concerted evolution within the repetitive region in bindin divergence, and suggest that both single amino acid differences and repeat differences may affect sperm-egg binding and reproductive compatibility.

  19. [A concertation experience: prevention of WMSDs in workmanship of Parmigiano-Reggiano].

    PubMed

    Zecchi, G

    2012-01-01

    The dairy industry of Parmigiano-Reggiano represents in Emilia a resource and an important source of employment. A Protected Designation of Origin (DOP) regulates all stages of processing of milk into cheese "forms" in excess of 40 kg weight, favouring a "traditional" working which involves various manual steps tiring and stressful. From 2002 to 2008 the Service in charge of the Azienda USL of Reggio Emilia has developed a plan focused on musculoskeletal risks in this sector. The need for comparison on the conservation "craftsmanship" of the complex manufacturing process maintaining high attention to health and safety brought the AUSL of Reggio E. and later the AUSL of Modena and Parma, to choose the path of concertation with the social partners, aiming at substantial and non-formal application of the law. It is thus obtained the adoption of preventive measures in a sector so peculiar, complex and constantly changing. Conciliation remains privileged tool in relations between social partners and AUSL of Reggio E. in dairies. PMID:23405696

  20. Probabilistic models of expectation violation predict psychophysiological emotional responses to live concert music.

    PubMed

    Egermann, Hauke; Pearce, Marcus T; Wiggins, Geraint A; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a study testing the often-theorized role of musical expectations in inducing listeners' emotions in a live flute concert experiment with 50 participants. Using an audience response system developed for this purpose, we measured subjective experience and peripheral psychophysiological changes continuously. To confirm the existence of the link between expectation and emotion, we used a threefold approach. (1) On the basis of an information-theoretic cognitive model, melodic pitch expectations were predicted by analyzing the musical stimuli used (six pieces of solo flute music). (2) A continuous rating scale was used by half of the audience to measure their experience of unexpectedness toward the music heard. (3) Emotional reactions were measured using a multicomponent approach: subjective feeling (valence and arousal rated continuously by the other half of the audience members), expressive behavior (facial EMG), and peripheral arousal (the latter two being measured in all 50 participants). Results confirmed the predicted relationship between high-information-content musical events, the violation of musical expectations (in corresponding ratings), and emotional reactions (psychologically and physiologically). Musical structures leading to expectation reactions were manifested in emotional reactions at different emotion component levels (increases in subjective arousal and autonomic nervous system activations). These results emphasize the role of musical structure in emotion induction, leading to a further understanding of the frequently experienced emotional effects of music. PMID:23605956

  1. Concerted Breaking of Two Hydrogen Bonds in Water Hexamer Prism Revealed from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jeremy O.; Perez, Cristobal; Lobsiger, Simon; Reid, Adam A.; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Wales, David J.; Pate, Brooks; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, we have used H218O water substitution to determine the structures of water clusters by molecular rotational spectroscopy. In the case of the water hexamer, the energy difference between the cage and prism structures is calculated to be about 0.1 kcal/mol and this energy difference is of the order of the zero-point energy variation between the isomers. Using rotational spectroscopy we provided experimental evidence for three isomers, i.e, cage, prism and book and established their relative energy ordering. In the special case of the prism hexamer, cluster dynamics causes measurable splitting in rotational transitions resulting from tunneling between discernible equivalent minima. Multiple isotopic substitution measurements involving all 64 possible isotopologues of the water hexamer prism (H218O)n(H216O)6-n were performed in order to identify the water molecules involved in the tunneling motion. The analysis of these tunneling-rotation spectra suggests that there are two distinct tunneling paths that involve concerted motion of two water molecules, implying a prototype scenario involving the breaking of two hydrogen bonds. C. Pérez, et al, Science. 2012, 336 897-901 J. O. Richardson et al, Science. 2016, in press

  2. Rainforests as concert halls for birds: are reverberations improving sound transmission of long song elements?

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Erwin; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel; Winkler, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In forests reverberations have probably detrimental and beneficial effects on avian communication. They constrain signal discrimination by masking fast repetitive sounds and they improve signal detection by elongating sounds. This ambivalence of reflections for animal signals in forests is similar to the influence of reverberations on speech or music in indoor sound transmission. Since comparisons of sound fields of forests and concert halls have demonstrated that reflections can contribute in both environments a considerable part to the energy of a received sound, it is here assumed that reverberations enforce also birdsong in forests. Song elements have to be long enough to be superimposed by reflections and therefore longer signals should be louder than shorter ones. An analysis of the influence of signal length on pure tones and on song elements of two sympatric rainforest thrush species demonstrates that longer sounds are less attenuated. The results indicate that higher sound pressure level is caused by superimposing reflections. It is suggested that this beneficial effect of reverberations explains interspecific birdsong differences in element length. Transmission paths with stronger reverberations in relation to direct sound should favor the use of longer signals for better propagation.

  3. Analysis of Sabine and Eyring equations and their application to concert hall audience and chair absorption.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L

    2006-09-01

    Historically, two equations have been used for predicting reverberation times, Sabine and Eyring. A precise means is presented for determining Eyring absorption coefficients alpha(eyring) when the Sabine coefficients alpha(sabine) are known, and vice versa. Thus, either formula can be used provided the absorption coefficients for the Sabine formula are allowed to exceed 1.0. The Sabine formula is not an approximation to the Eyring equation and is not a shortcoming. Given low reverberation times, the ratio of alpha(sabine) to alpha(eyring) may become greater than 2.0. It is vital that, for correct prediction of reverberation times, the absorption coefficients used in either formula must have been determined in spaces similar in size and shape, with similar locations of high absorption (audience) areas, and with similar reverberation times. For concert halls, it is found that, when the audience area (fully occupied) and midfrequency reverberation time are postulated, the hall volume is directly proportional to the audience absorption coefficient. Approximately 6% greater room volumes are needed when choosing nonrectangular versus classical-rectangular shaped halls and approximately 10% greater volumes when choosing heavily upholstered versus medium upholstered chairs. Determinations of audience sound absorption coefficients are presented, based on published acoustical and architectural data for 20 halls.

  4. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N(2) fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N(2)-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N(2) fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism.

  5. Determining the Effect of Concerted Elimination Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Lignin Using Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, D.; Clark, J.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis is a significant impediment in forming liquid fuel from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at a higher temperature than other biomass components (ie cellulose, hemicellulose) and tends to form radicals which lead to cross linking and ultimately char formation. A primary step in advances biomass-to-fuel technology will be to discover mechanisms that can disassemble lignin at lower temperatures and depolymerize lignin into more stable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin ({beta}-O4, {alpha}-O4, {beta}-{beta}, {beta}-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to the usually-assumed bond homolysis reactions, we have investigated a variety of concerted elimination pathways that will tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  6. Concerted Hydrogen Atom and Electron Transfer Mechanism for Catalysis by Lysine-Specific Demethylase

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tao; Higashi, Masahiro; Cembran, Alessandro; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the free energy profile for the postulated hydride transfer reaction mechanism for the catalysis of lysine demethylation by lysine-specific demethylase LSD1. The potential energy surface is obtained by using combined electrostatically embedded multi-configuration molecular mechanics (EE-MCMM) and single-configuration molecular mechanics (MM). We employ a constant valence bond coupling term to obtain analytical energies and gradients of the EE-MCMM subsystem, which contains 45 QM atoms and which is parametrized with a density functional calculations employing specific reaction parameters obtained by matching high-level wave function calculations. In the MM region, we employ the Amber ff03 and TIP3P force fields. The free energy of activation at 300 K is calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) umbrella sampling on a system with 102090 atoms as the maximum of the free energy profile along the reaction coordinate as obtained by the weighted histogram analysis method with 17 umbrella sampling windows. This yields a free energy of activation of only 10 kcal/mol, showing that the previously postulated direct hydride transfer reaction mechanism is plausible, although we find that it is better interpreted as a concerted transfer of a hydrogen atom and an electron. PMID:23725223

  7. Concerted effects of substituents in the reaction of •OH radicals with aromatics: The hydroxybenzaldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarran, Guadalupe; Mendoza, Edith; Schuler, Robert H.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we have examined the distribution of products in the radiolytic hydroxylation of 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to obtain information on the concerted effect of the -CHO and -OH groups at the addition site of •OH radicals. The •OH radical was found to selectively add to the free positions of the aromatic ring. Furthermore, the •OH radical reacts by substitution at the ipso position followed by elimination of the substituent, producing dihydroxybenzene compounds. Additionally, the formation of carboxylic acids as an initial product has been conclusively identified by retention times and UV and mass spectra. These acids are formed as a result of the radiolytic oxidation of the initial radical formed by the addition reaction of the •OH radicals to the meso position (exocyclic carbon). The identification of the products, dihydroxybenzaldehydes, dihydroxybenzenes and hydroxybenzoic acids and calculation of their yields were achieved through HPLC. The G values of each product are given, which reflect the charge distributions in the hydroxybenzaldehydes, such that the formyl group modifies the ortho-para directing effect of the -OH substituent. The 3 and 5 positions in 2- and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde showed increased the electronic density compared to that of phenol, indicating that the formyl group has a significant effect on the electronic structure of those hydroxybenzaldehydes. In 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, the -OH substituent had a dominant ortho-directing effect similar to that observed for phenol.

  8. The Terebridae and teretoxins: Combining phylogeny and anatomy for concerted discovery of bioactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Conoidea superfamily, comprised of cone snails, terebrids, and turrids, is an exceptionally promising group for the discovery of natural peptide toxins. The potential of conoidean toxins has been realized with the distribution of the first Conus (cone snail) drug, Prialt (ziconotide), an analgesic used to alleviate chronic pain in HIV and cancer patients. Cone snail toxins (conotoxins) are highly variable, a consequence of a high mutation rate associated to duplication events and positive selection. As Conus and terebrids diverged in the early Paleocene, the toxins from terebrids (teretoxins) may demonstrate highly divergent and unique functionalities. Recent analyses of the Terebridae, a largely distributed family with more than 300 described species, indicate they have evolutionary and pharmacological potential. Based on a three gene (COI, 12S and 16S) molecular phylogeny, including ~50 species from the West-Pacific, five main terebrid lineages were discriminated: two of these lineages independently lost their venom apparatus, and one venomous lineage was previously unknown. Knowing the phylogenetic relationships within the Terebridae aids in effectively targeting divergent lineages with novel peptide toxins. Preliminary results indicate that teretoxins are similar in structure and composition to conotoxins, suggesting teretoxins are an attractive line of research to discover and develop new therapeutics that target ion channels and receptors. Using conotoxins as a guideline, and innovative natural products discovery strategies, such as the Concerted Discovery Strategy, the potential of the Terebridae and their toxins are explored as a pioneering pharmacological resource. PMID:20849634

  9. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction

    PubMed Central

    Aranjuelo, Iker

    2013-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N2 fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N2-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N2 fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism. PMID:23440170

  10. Probabilistic models of expectation violation predict psychophysiological emotional responses to live concert music.

    PubMed

    Egermann, Hauke; Pearce, Marcus T; Wiggins, Geraint A; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a study testing the often-theorized role of musical expectations in inducing listeners' emotions in a live flute concert experiment with 50 participants. Using an audience response system developed for this purpose, we measured subjective experience and peripheral psychophysiological changes continuously. To confirm the existence of the link between expectation and emotion, we used a threefold approach. (1) On the basis of an information-theoretic cognitive model, melodic pitch expectations were predicted by analyzing the musical stimuli used (six pieces of solo flute music). (2) A continuous rating scale was used by half of the audience to measure their experience of unexpectedness toward the music heard. (3) Emotional reactions were measured using a multicomponent approach: subjective feeling (valence and arousal rated continuously by the other half of the audience members), expressive behavior (facial EMG), and peripheral arousal (the latter two being measured in all 50 participants). Results confirmed the predicted relationship between high-information-content musical events, the violation of musical expectations (in corresponding ratings), and emotional reactions (psychologically and physiologically). Musical structures leading to expectation reactions were manifested in emotional reactions at different emotion component levels (increases in subjective arousal and autonomic nervous system activations). These results emphasize the role of musical structure in emotion induction, leading to a further understanding of the frequently experienced emotional effects of music.

  11. Investigation of auditory distance perception and preferences in concert halls by using virtual acoustics.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Lokki, Tapio

    2015-11-01

    Virtual acoustics with multichannel sound reproduction was used to study auditory distance perception in four concert halls with multiple sound sources on stage. Eight subjects reported apparent auditory distances in five seating positions from 10 to 26 m to the middle of the sources on stage. The distance estimates were collected by absolute distance estimation procedure as well as a free modulus estimation procedure including both within and between halls evaluations. In addition, pairwise preferences were collected for two positions within each hall and for one position between halls. Results reveal that the perception of distance is dependent on the hall acoustics and show how the strength factor G and direct-to-reverberant energy ratio covary in relation to perceptual distances in these halls. The results also indicate that in such large spaces the overestimation of short distances may continue up to and further than 10 m from the sound sources. Preference results show that closer seats were liked more than further ones and that the strength of this preference is associated with the difference in perceptual distances. PMID:26627788

  12. Sperm Bindin Divergence under Sexual Selection and Concerted Evolution in Sea Stars.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Susana; Keever, Carson C; Sunday, Jennifer M; Popovic, Iva; Byrne, Maria; Hart, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    Selection associated with competition among males or sexual conflict between mates can create positive selection for high rates of molecular evolution of gamete recognition genes and lead to reproductive isolation between species. We analyzed coding sequence and repetitive domain variation in the gene encoding the sperm acrosomal protein bindin in 13 diverse sea star species. We found that bindin has a conserved coding sequence domain structure in all 13 species, with several repeated motifs in a large central region that is similar among all sea stars in organization but highly divergent among genera in nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence. More bindin codons and lineages showed positive selection for high relative rates of amino acid substitution in genera with gonochoric outcrossing adults (and greater expected strength of sexual selection) than in selfing hermaphrodites. That difference is consistent with the expectation that selfing (a highly derived mating system) may moderate the strength of sexual selection and limit the accumulation of bindin amino acid differences. The results implicate both positive selection on single codons and concerted evolution within the repetitive region in bindin divergence, and suggest that both single amino acid differences and repeat differences may affect sperm-egg binding and reproductive compatibility. PMID:27189549

  13. Concerted intercalation and minor groove recognition of DNA by a homodimeric thiazole orange dye.

    PubMed

    Bunkenborg, J; Gadjev, N I; Deligeorgiev, T; Jacobsen, J P

    2000-01-01

    The thiazole orange dye TOTO binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by a sequence selective bis-intercalation. Each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a (5'-CpT-3'):(5'-ApG-3') site, and the linker spans two base pairs in the minor groove. We have used one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy to examine the dsDNA binding of an analogue of TOTO in which the linker has been modified to contain a bipyridyl group (viologen) that has minor groove binding properties. We have investigated the binding of this analogue, called TOTOBIPY, to three different dsDNA sequences containing a 5'-CTAG-3', a 5'-CTTAG-3', and a 5'-CTATAG-3' sites, respectively, demonstrating that TOTOBIPY prefers to span three base pairs. The many intermolecular NOE connectivities between TOTOBIPY and the d(CGCTTAGCG):d(CGCTAAGCG) oligonucleotide in the complex shows that the bipyridyl-containing linker is positioned in the minor groove and spans three base pairs. Consequently, we have succeeded in designing and synthesizing a ligand that recognizes an extended recognition sequence of dsDNA as the result of a concerted intercalation and minor groove binding mode.

  14. Concerted copy number variation balances ribosomal DNA dosage in human and mouse genomes.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, John G; Branco, Alan T; Godinho, Susana A; Yu, Shoukai; Lemos, Bernardo

    2015-02-24

    Tandemly repeated ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are among the most evolutionary dynamic loci of eukaryotic genomes. The loci code for essential cellular components, yet exhibit extensive copy number (CN) variation within and between species. CN might be partly determined by the requirement of dosage balance between the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays. The arrays are nonhomologous, physically unlinked in mammals, and encode functionally interdependent RNA components of the ribosome. Here we show that the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays exhibit concerted CN variation (cCNV). Despite 5S and 45S rDNA elements residing on different chromosomes and lacking sequence similarity, cCNV between these loci is strong, evolutionarily conserved in humans and mice, and manifested across individual genotypes in natural populations and pedigrees. Finally, we observe that bisphenol A induces rapid and parallel modulation of 5S and 45S rDNA CN. Our observations reveal a novel mode of genome variation, indicate that natural selection contributed to the evolution and conservation of cCNV, and support the hypothesis that 5S CN is partly determined by the requirement of dosage balance with the 45S rDNA array. We suggest that human disease variation might be traced to disrupted rDNA dosage balance in the genome.

  15. Concerted and differential actions of two enzymatic domains underlie Rad5 contributions to DNA damage tolerance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Koyi; Batke, Sabrina; Szakal, Barnabas; Lowther, Jonathan; Hao, Fanfan; Sarangi, Prabha; Branzei, Dana; Ulrich, Helle D; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2015-03-11

    Many genome maintenance factors have multiple enzymatic activities. In most cases, how their distinct activities functionally relate with each other is unclear. Here we examined the conserved budding yeast Rad5 protein that has both ubiquitin ligase and DNA helicase activities. The Rad5 ubiquitin ligase activity mediates PCNA poly-ubiquitination and subsequently recombination-based DNA lesion tolerance. Interestingly, the ligase domain is embedded in a larger helicase domain comprising seven consensus motifs. How features of the helicase domain influence ligase function is controversial. To clarify this issue, we use genetic, 2D gel and biochemical analyses and show that a Rad5 helicase motif important for ATP binding is also required for PCNA poly-ubiquitination and recombination-based lesion tolerance. We determine that this requirement is due to a previously unrecognized contribution of the motif to the PCNA and ubiquitination enzyme interaction, and not due to its canonical role in supporting helicase activity. We further show that Rad5's helicase-mediated contribution to replication stress survival is separable from recombination. These findings delineate how two Rad5 enzymatic domains concertedly influence PCNA modification, and unveil their discrete contributions to stress tolerance.

  16. Concerted Action of Two Formins in Gliding Motility and Host Cell Invasion by Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Wassim; Plattner, Fabienne; Carlier, Marie-France; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The invasive forms of apicomplexan parasites share a conserved form of gliding motility that powers parasite migration across biological barriers, host cell invasion and egress from infected cells. Previous studies have established that the duration and direction of gliding motility are determined by actin polymerization; however, regulators of actin dynamics in apicomplexans remain poorly characterized. In the absence of a complete ARP2/3 complex, the formin homology 2 domain containing proteins and the accessory protein profilin are presumed to orchestrate actin polymerization during host cell invasion. Here, we have undertaken the biochemical and functional characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii formins and established that they act in concert as actin nucleators during invasion. The importance of TgFRM1 for parasite motility has been assessed by conditional gene disruption. The contribution of each formin individually and jointly was revealed by an approach based upon the expression of dominant mutants with modified FH2 domains impaired in actin binding but still able to dimerize with their respective endogenous formin. These mutated FH2 domains were fused to the ligand-controlled destabilization domain (DD-FKBP) to achieve conditional expression. This strategy proved unique in identifying the non-redundant and critical roles of both formins in invasion. These findings provide new insights into how controlled actin polymerization drives the directional movement required for productive penetration of parasites into host cells. PMID:20949068

  17. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L; Herr, Andrew B; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-06-14

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses. PMID:27302953

  18. Folding and membrane insertion of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin occur as a concerted process.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Matthew R; Damianoglou, Angeliki; Rodger, Alison; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2008-11-01

    Many antibiotic peptides function by binding and inserting into membranes. Understanding this process provides an insight into the fundamentals of both membrane protein folding and antibiotic peptide function. For the first time, in this work, flow-aligned linear dichroism (LD) is used to study the folding of the antibiotic peptide gramicidin. LD provides insight into the combined processes of peptide folding and insertion and has the advantage over other similar techniques of being insensitive to off-membrane aggregation events. By combining LD data with conventional measurements of protein fluorescence and circular dichroism, the mechanism of gramicidin insertion is elucidated. The mechanism consists of five separately assignable steps that include formation of a water-insoluble gramicidin aggregate, dissociation from the aggregate, partitioning of peptide to the membrane surface, oligomerisation on the surface and concerted insertion and folding of the peptide to the double-helical form of gramicidin. Measurement of the rates of each step shows that although changes in the fluorescence signal cease 10 s after the initiation of the process, the insertion of the peptide into the membrane is actually not complete for a further 60 min. This last membrane insertion phase is only apparent by measurement of LD and circular dichroism signal changes. In summary, this study demonstrates the importance of multi-technique approaches, including LD, in studies of membrane protein folding.

  19. The Organization, Administration and Presentation of Symphony Orchestra Youth Concert Activities for Music Educational Purposes in Selected Cities, Part I--The Summary. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas H.; Thompson, Helen M.

    An in-depth examination of symphony orchestra youth concerts in 20 American cities was conducted under the auspices of the American University, Washington, D.C., and with the cooperation of the American Symphony Orchestra League, to determine the role of youth concerts in cultural education. Field teams, each consisting of a music education…

  20. Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

  1. Concerted evolution of life stage performances signals recent selection on yeast nitrogen use.

    PubMed

    Ibstedt, Sebastian; Stenberg, Simon; Bagés, Sara; Gjuvsland, Arne B; Salinas, Francisco; Kourtchenko, Olga; Samy, Jeevan K A; Blomberg, Anders; Omholt, Stig W; Liti, Gianni; Beltran, Gemma; Warringer, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Exposing natural selection driving phenotypic and genotypic adaptive differentiation is an extraordinary challenge. Given that an organism's life stages are exposed to the same environmental variations, we reasoned that fitness components, such as the lag, rate, and efficiency of growth, directly reflecting performance in these life stages, should often be selected in concert. We therefore conjectured that correlations between fitness components over natural isolates, in a particular environmental context, would constitute a robust signal of recent selection. Critically, this test for selection requires fitness components to be determined by different genetic loci. To explore our conjecture, we exhaustively evaluated the lag, rate, and efficiency of asexual population growth of natural isolates of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a large variety of nitrogen-limited environments. Overall, fitness components were well correlated under nitrogen restriction. Yeast isolates were further crossed in all pairwise combinations and coinheritance of each fitness component and genetic markers were traced. Trait variations tended to map to quantitative trait loci (QTL) that were private to a single fitness component. We further traced QTLs down to single-nucleotide resolution and uncovered loss-of-function mutations in RIM15, PUT4, DAL1, and DAL4 as the genetic basis for nitrogen source use variations. Effects of SNPs were unique for a single fitness component, strongly arguing against pleiotropy between lag, rate, and efficiency of reproduction under nitrogen restriction. The strong correlations between life stage performances that cannot be explained by pleiotropy compellingly support adaptive differentiation of yeast nitrogen source use and suggest a generic approach for detecting selection.

  2. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J; King, Simon J; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br(∗)), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br(∗) atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br(∗) images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br(∗), indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5 (+) from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br(+) molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation. PMID:27369520

  3. Asymmetric patterns of reassortment and concerted evolution in Cardamom bushy dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Savory, F R; Ramakrishnan, U

    2014-06-01

    Nanoviruses are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) plant viruses which have multipartite genomes consisting of discrete, individually encapsidated components. This multipartite strategy may lead to high rates of reassortment, whereby entire genome components are exchanged among different strains. However, few studies have explored the extent to which reassortment shapes the genetic diversity of nanovirus populations. Here we present an extensive analysis of reassortment among 163 Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV; Nanoviridae family, Babuvirus genus) isolates collected in Northeast India. We also examined evidence of recombination, which is known to play a role in the evolutionary dynamics of nanovirus populations. By sequencing six discrete genome components for each isolate, we demonstrate that over 40% of the isolates display evidence of at least one reassortment event during their evolutionary histories. Nevertheless, a bias in the frequencies at which different genome components reassort was observed, with the DNA-M and DNA-N components being the most predisposed to reassortment. This may reflect variation in the ability of different genome components to function efficiently in a foreign genomic background. Comparisons of the common regions of different genome components revealed signatures of concerted evolution mediated by frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This process, which has previously been reported in nanoviruses and other multipartite ssDNA viruses, may allow proteins which initiate replication to maintain control over distinct genome components. Notably, DNA-N, one of the genome components most prone to reassortment, also exhibited the most frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This supports the idea that inter-component homologous recombination may promote the efficient replication of novel components which are introduced into a genome via reassortment. PMID:24613431

  4. Dosage Sensitivity of RPL9 and Concerted Evolution of Ribosomal Protein Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Devis, Deborah; Firth, Sue M.; Liang, Zhe; Byrne, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome in higher eukaryotes is a large macromolecular complex composed of four rRNAs and eighty different ribosomal proteins. In plants, each ribosomal protein is encoded by multiple genes. Duplicate genes within a family are often necessary to provide a threshold dose of a ribosomal protein but in some instances appear to have non-redundant functions. Here, we addressed whether divergent members of the RPL9 gene family are dosage sensitive or whether these genes have non-overlapping functions. The RPL9 family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises two nearly identical members, RPL9B and RPL9C, and a more divergent member, RPL9D. Mutations in RPL9C and RPL9D genes lead to delayed growth early in development, and loss of both genes is embryo lethal, indicating that these are dosage-sensitive and redundant genes. Phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 as well as RPL4, RPL5, RPL27a, RPL36a, and RPS6 family genes in the Brassicaceae indicated that multicopy ribosomal protein genes have been largely retained following whole genome duplication. However, these gene families also show instances of tandem duplication, small scale deletion, and evidence of gene conversion. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 genes in angiosperm species showed that genes within a species are more closely related to each other than to RPL9 genes in other species, suggesting ribosomal protein genes undergo convergent evolution. Our analysis indicates that ribosomal protein gene retention following whole genome duplication contributes to the number of genes in a family. However, small scale rearrangements influence copy number and likely drive concerted evolution of these dosage-sensitive genes. PMID:26734020

  5. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J.; King, Simon J.; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br∗), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br∗ atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br∗ images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br∗, indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5+ from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br+ molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  6. Concerted Proton Transfer Mechanism of Clostridium thermocellum Ribose-5-phosphate Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi) catalyzes the interconversion of D-ribose-5-phosphate and D-ribulose-5-phosphate and plays an essential role in the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. RpiB, one of the two isoforms of Rpi, is also a potential drug target for some pathogenic bacteria. Clostridium thermocellum ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (CtRpi), belonging to RpiB family, has recently been employed to the industrial production of rare sugars because of it fast reactions kinetics and narrow substrate specificity. It is known this enzyme adopts proton transfer mechanism. It was suggested that the deprotonated Cys65 attracts the proton at C2 of substrate to initiate the isomerization reaction and this step is the rate-limiting step. However the elaborate catalytic mechanism is still unclear. We have performed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of this rate-limiting step of the reaction catalyzed by CtRpi with the substrate D-ribose. Our results demonstrate that the deprotonated Cys65 is not a stable reactant. Instead, our calculations revealed a concerted proton-transfer mechanism: Asp8, a highly conserved residue in the RpiB family performs as the base to abstract the proton at Cys65 and Cys65 in turn abstracts the proton of the D-ribose simultaneously. Moreover, we found Thr67 cannot catalyze the proton transfer from O2 to O1 of the D-ribose alone. Water molecule(s) may assist this proton transfer with Thr67. Our findings lead to a clear understanding of the catalysis mechanism of RpiB family and should guide the experiments to increase the catalysis efficiency. This study also highlights the importance of initial protonation states of cysteines. PMID:23875675

  7. Concerted electron-proton transfer in the optical excitation of hydrogen-bonded dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Westlake, Brittany C.; Brennaman, Kyle M.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Paul, Jared J.; Bettis, Stephanie E.; Hampton, Shaun D.; Miller, Stephen A.; Lebedeva, Natalia V.; Forbes, Malcolm D. E.; Moran, Andrew M.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Papanikolas, John M.

    2011-05-24

    The simultaneous, concerted transfer of electrons and protons—electron-proton transfer (EPT)—is an important mechanism utilized in chemistry and biology to avoid high energy intermediates. There are many examples of thermally activated EPT in ground-state reactions and in excited states following photoexcitation and thermal relaxation. Here we report application of ultrafast excitation with absorption and Raman monitoring to detect a photochemically driven EPT process (photo-EPT). In this process, both electrons and protons are transferred during the absorption of a photon. Photo-EPT is induced by intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) excitation of hydrogen-bonded-base adducts with either a coumarin dye or 4-nitro-4'-biphenylphenol. Femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements following ICT excitation reveal the appearance of two spectroscopically distinct states having different dynamical signatures. One of these states corresponds to a conventional ICT excited state in which the transferring H⁺ is initially associated with the proton donor. Proton transfer to the base (B) then occurs on the picosecond time scale. The other state is an ICT-EPT photoproduct. Upon excitation it forms initially in the nuclear configuration of the ground state by application of the Franck–Condon principle. However, due to the change in electronic configuration induced by the transition, excitation is accompanied by proton transfer with the protonated base formed with a highly elongated ⁺H–B bond. Coherent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of a vibrational mode corresponding to the protonated base in the optically prepared state.

  8. Asymmetric patterns of reassortment and concerted evolution in Cardamom bushy dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Savory, F R; Ramakrishnan, U

    2014-06-01

    Nanoviruses are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) plant viruses which have multipartite genomes consisting of discrete, individually encapsidated components. This multipartite strategy may lead to high rates of reassortment, whereby entire genome components are exchanged among different strains. However, few studies have explored the extent to which reassortment shapes the genetic diversity of nanovirus populations. Here we present an extensive analysis of reassortment among 163 Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV; Nanoviridae family, Babuvirus genus) isolates collected in Northeast India. We also examined evidence of recombination, which is known to play a role in the evolutionary dynamics of nanovirus populations. By sequencing six discrete genome components for each isolate, we demonstrate that over 40% of the isolates display evidence of at least one reassortment event during their evolutionary histories. Nevertheless, a bias in the frequencies at which different genome components reassort was observed, with the DNA-M and DNA-N components being the most predisposed to reassortment. This may reflect variation in the ability of different genome components to function efficiently in a foreign genomic background. Comparisons of the common regions of different genome components revealed signatures of concerted evolution mediated by frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This process, which has previously been reported in nanoviruses and other multipartite ssDNA viruses, may allow proteins which initiate replication to maintain control over distinct genome components. Notably, DNA-N, one of the genome components most prone to reassortment, also exhibited the most frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This supports the idea that inter-component homologous recombination may promote the efficient replication of novel components which are introduced into a genome via reassortment.

  9. Concerted proton transfer mechanism of Clostridium thermocellum ribose-5-phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao

    2013-08-15

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi) catalyzes the interconversion of D-ribose-5-phosphate and D-ribulose-5-phosphate and plays an essential role in the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. RpiB, one of the two isoforms of Rpi, is also a potential drug target for some pathogenic bacteria. Clostridium thermocellum ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (CtRpi), belonging to the RpiB family, has recently been employed in the industrial production of rare sugars because of its fast reaction kinetics and narrow substrate specificity. It is known that this enzyme adopts a proton transfer mechanism. It was suggested that the deprotonated Cys65 attracts the proton at C2 of the substrate to initiate the isomerization reaction, and this step is the rate-limiting step. However the elaborate catalytic mechanism is still unclear. We have performed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of this rate-limiting step of the reaction catalyzed by CtRpi with the substrate D-ribose. Our results demonstrate that the deprotonated Cys65 is not a stable reactant. Instead, our calculations revealed a concerted proton-transfer mechanism: Asp8, a highly conserved residue in the RpiB family, performs as the base to abstract the proton at Cys65 and Cys65 in turn abstracting the proton of the D-ribose simultaneously. Moreover, we found Thr67 cannot catalyze the proton transfer from O2 to O1 of the D-ribose alone. Water molecule(s) may assist this proton transfer with Thr67. Our findings lead to a clear understanding of the catalysis mechanism of the RpiB family and should guide experiments to increase the catalysis efficiency. This study also highlights the importance of initial protonation states of cysteines.

  10. A concerted action of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels regulates locus coeruleus pacemaking.

    PubMed

    Matschke, Lina A; Bertoune, Mirjam; Roeper, Jochen; Snutch, Terrance P; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Dysfunction of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is involved in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases and is an early hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). The analysis of ion channels underlying the autonomous electrical activity of LC neurons, which is ultimately coupled to cell survival signaling pathways, can lead to a better understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons. In LC neurons somatodendritic Ca(2+) oscillations, mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels, accompany spontaneous spiking and are linked to mitochondrial oxidant stress. However, the expression and functional implication of low-threshold activated T-type Ca(2+) channels in LC neurons were not yet studied. To this end we performed RT-PCR expression analysis in LC neurons. In addition, we utilized slice patch clamp recordings of in vitro brainstem slices in combination with L-type and T-type Ca(2+) channel blockers. We found the expression of a distinct set of L-type and T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes mediating a pronounced low-threshold activated Ca(2+) current component. Analyzing spike trains, we revealed that neither L-type Ca(2+) channel nor T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade alone leads to a change in firing properties. In contrast, a combined application of antagonists significantly decreased the afterhyperpolarization amplitude, resulting in an increased firing frequency. Hence, we report the functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in LC neurons and demonstrate their role in increasing the robustness of LC pacemaking by working in concert with Cav1 channels.

  11. Concerted Electronic and Nuclear Fluxes During Coherent Tunnelling in Asymmetric Double-Well Potentials.

    PubMed

    Bredtmann, Timm; Manz, Jörn; Zhao, Jian-Ming

    2016-05-19

    The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) during coherent periodic tunnelling from reactants (R) to products (P) and back to R in molecules with asymmetric double-well potentials is developed. The results are deduced from the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation as a coherent superposition of two eigenstates; here, these are the two states of the lowest tunnelling doublet. This allows the periodic time evolutions of the resulting electronic and nuclear probability densities (EPDs and NPDs) as well as the CENFs to be expressed in terms of simple sinusodial functions. These analytical results reveal various phenomena during coherent tunnelling in asymmetric double-well potentials, e.g., all EPDs and NPDs as well as all CENFs are synchronous. Distortion of the symmetric reference to a system with an asymmetric double-well potential breaks the spatial symmetry of the EPDs and NPDs, but, surprisingly, the symmetry of the CENFs is conserved. Exemplary application to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene shows that tunnelling of the ideal symmetric system can be suppressed by asymmetries induced by rather small external electric fields. The amplitude for the half tunnelling, half nontunnelling border is as low as 0.218 × 10(-8) V/cm. At the same time, the delocalized eigenstates of the symmetric reference, which can be regarded as Schrödinger's cat-type states representing R and P with equal probabilities, get localized at one or the other minima of the asymmetric double-well potential, representing either R or P.

  12. Influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion: Observation of a large incomplete fusion fraction at E {approx_equal}5-7 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B. P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati,; Singh, Devendra P.; Prasad, R.; Kumar, Rakesh; Golda, K. S.

    2008-01-15

    Experiments have been carried out to explore the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies. Excitation functions for {sup 168}Lu{sup m}, {sup 167}Lu, {sup 167}Yb, {sup 166}Tm, {sup 179}Re, {sup 177}Re, {sup 177}W, {sup 178}Ta, and {sup 177}Hf radio-nuclides populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 159}Tb and {sup 169}Tm have been studied over the wide projectile energy range E{sub proj}{approx_equal}75-95 MeV. Recoil-catcher technique followed by off-line {gamma}-spectrometry has been employed in the present measurements. Experimental data have been compared with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE2. The experimentally measured production cross sections of {alpha}-emitting channels were found to be larger as compared to the theoretical model predictions and may be attributed to incomplete fusion at these energies. During the analysis of experimental data, incomplete fusion has been found to be competing with complete fusion. As such, an attempt has been made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for both the systems, and has been found to be sensitive for projectile energy and mass asymmetry of interacting partners.

  13. [5 years of "concerted action dose reduction in CT" -- what has been achieved and what remains to be done?].

    PubMed

    Nagel, H D; Blobel, J; Brix, G; Ewen, K; Galanski, M; Höfs, P; Loose, R; Prokop, M; Schneider, K; Stamm, G; Stender, H-S; Süss, C; Türkay, S; Vogel, H; Wucherer, M

    2004-11-01

    In May 1998, the German "Concerted Action Dose Reduction in CT" was founded by all parties involved in CT. Its intention was to achieve a significant reduction of the radiation exposure caused by CT, a matter that has increasingly been considered a major challenge since the early nineties. As a result of a number of joint efforts, the essential preconditions have been established by now. The fifth anniversary of the Concerted Action gave rise for both retrospection and outlook on the tasks that have already been accomplished and those that still need to be done. For this purpose, a one-day symposium took place in Berlin on November 4, 2003. The contents of a total of 18 contributions will be outlined here in brief. PMID:15497088

  14. Concert hall acoustics: Repertoire, listening position, and individual taste of the listeners influence the qualitative attributes and preferences.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari

    2016-07-01

    Some studies of concert hall acoustics consider the acoustics in a hall as a single entity. Here, it is shown that the acoustics vary between different seats, and the choice of music also influences the perceived acoustics. The presented study compared the acoustics of six unoccupied concert halls with extensive listening tests, applying two different music excerpts on three different seats. Twenty eight assessors rated the halls according to the subjective preference of the assesors and individual attributes with a paired comparison method. Results show that assessors can be classified into two preference groups, which prioritize different perceptual factors. In addition, the individual attributes elicited by assessors were clustered into three latent classes. PMID:27475177

  15. Human PSENEN and U2AF1L4 genes are concertedly regulated by a genuine bidirectional promoter.

    PubMed

    Didych, D A; Shamsutdinov, M F; Smirnov, N A; Akopov, S B; Monastyrskaya, G S; Uspenskaya, N Y; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2013-02-15

    Head-to-head genes with a short distance between their transcription start sites may constitute up to 10% of all genes in the genomes of various species. It was hypothesized that this intergenic space may represent bidirectional promoters which are able to initiate transcription of both genes, but the true bidirectionality was proved only for a few of them. We present experimental evidence that, according to several criteria, a 269 bp region located between the PSENEN and U2AF1L4 human genes is a genuine bidirectional promoter regulating a concerted divergent transcription of these genes. Concerted transcription of PSENEN and U2AF1L4 can be necessary for regulation of T-cell activity. PMID:23246698

  16. Incomplete medication adherence of chronically ill patients in German primary care

    PubMed Central

    Hüther, Jakob; von Wolff, Alessa; Stange, Dorit; Härter, Martin; Baehr, Michael; Dartsch, Dorothee C; Kriston, Levente

    2013-01-01

    Background Incomplete medication adherence is a major problem in health care worldwide. Patients who adhere to medical treatment have a better prognosis and create fewer costs. Objective To assess the degree of incomplete adherence of chronically ill routine primary care patients in a German setting and analyze the association between incomplete medication adherence, as well as clinical and sociodemographic patient characteristics. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, chronically ill patients were asked to assess their adherence in primary care retrospectively using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-D) questionnaire. To investigate the association of incomplete adherence with sociodemographic and clinical data, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results In total, 62.1% of 190 patients were categorized as incompletely adherent. The mean MARS-D score was 23.5 (standard deviation = 2.7). Analyses revealed no statistically significant associations at P < 0.05 between degree of adherence and patient characteristics. The total explained variance amounted to 11.8% (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.118) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Previously reported results regarding associations of sociodemographic and clinical data with incomplete medication adherence could not be confirmed for this sample of chronically ill patients. In order to be able to provide guidelines for the reduction of incomplete medication adherence in German primary care, further research is needed. PMID:23569363

  17. Medical treatments for incomplete miscarriage (less than 24 weeks)

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, James P; Gyte, Gillian ML; Hickey, Martha; Vazquez, Juan C; Dou, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    Background Miscarriage occurs in 10% to 15% of pregnancies. The traditional treatment, after miscarriage, has been to perform surgery to remove any remaining pregnancy tissues in the uterus. However, it has been suggested that drug-based medical treatments, or expectant care (no treatment), may also be effective, safe and acceptable. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of any medical treatment for early incomplete miscarriage (before 24 weeks). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009) and reference lists of retrieved papers. We updated this search on 23 July 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing medical treatment with expectant care or surgery. Quasi-randomised trials were excluded. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Fifteen studies (2750 women) were included, there were no studies on women over 13 weeks’ gestation. Studies addressed a number of comparisons and data are therefore limited. Three trials compared misoprostol treatment (all vaginally administered) with expectant care. There was no significant difference in complete miscarriage (average risk ratio (RR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 2.10; two studies, 150 women), or in the need for surgical evacuation (average RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.26; two studies, 308 women). There were few data on ‘deaths or serious complications’. Nine studies involving 1766 women addressed the comparison of misoprostol (four oral, four vaginal, one vaginal + oral) with surgical evacuation. There was no statistically significant difference in complete miscarriage (average RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, eight studies, 1377 women) with success rate high for both methods

  18. Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

  19. Influences of word predictability and type of masker noise on intelligibility of sung text in live concerts.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Antje; Knight, Sarah; Hawkins, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Vocal music is often intended to convey meaning, but how effectively this is achieved is poorly understood. This study systematically assessed the influence of three non-phonetic factors on the intelligibility of sung words in six public concerts in different venues: word predictability from sentence context, type of masker noise (spoken babble, sung vowels, [∫(w)]), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Stimuli were sung live by a professional a cappella ensemble with one male singing target sentences and five others (two female) producing the masker sounds. The concert audiences (N = 319) reported the final word of each sentence using a handheld voting device, from four phonetically- and semantically-controlled written alternatives projected onto a screen after the sentence was sung. Although overall accuracy differed between performances, intelligibility patterns were robust across concerts. They included predicted main effects of masker noise type ([∫(w)] masking least disruptive, babble most), SNR (high > low), semantic predictability (high > low), listener age (young > old), and listener language status (native > non-native), and some strong interactions. These results suggest that, despite acoustic differences between sung and spoken words and the unusual and varied experimental venues, key findings from traditional speech research apply to sung words, given appropriate musical composition. PMID:26520319

  20. Influences of word predictability and type of masker noise on intelligibility of sung text in live concerts.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Antje; Knight, Sarah; Hawkins, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Vocal music is often intended to convey meaning, but how effectively this is achieved is poorly understood. This study systematically assessed the influence of three non-phonetic factors on the intelligibility of sung words in six public concerts in different venues: word predictability from sentence context, type of masker noise (spoken babble, sung vowels, [∫(w)]), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Stimuli were sung live by a professional a cappella ensemble with one male singing target sentences and five others (two female) producing the masker sounds. The concert audiences (N = 319) reported the final word of each sentence using a handheld voting device, from four phonetically- and semantically-controlled written alternatives projected onto a screen after the sentence was sung. Although overall accuracy differed between performances, intelligibility patterns were robust across concerts. They included predicted main effects of masker noise type ([∫(w)] masking least disruptive, babble most), SNR (high > low), semantic predictability (high > low), listener age (young > old), and listener language status (native > non-native), and some strong interactions. These results suggest that, despite acoustic differences between sung and spoken words and the unusual and varied experimental venues, key findings from traditional speech research apply to sung words, given appropriate musical composition.

  1. Isomer ratio measurements as a probe of the dynamics of breakup and incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Peatey, T.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Newton, J. O.

    2006-12-15

    The incomplete fusion mechanism following breakup of {sup 6,7}Li and {sup 9}Be projectiles incident on targets of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb is investigated through isomer ratio measurements for the {sup 212}At and {sup 211}Po products. The phenomenological analysis presented in this paper indicates that incomplete fusion brings relatively more angular momentum into the system than equivalent reactions with a direct beam of the fused fragment. This is attributed to the trajectories of breakup fragments. Calculations with a 3D classical trajectory model support this. Isomer ratio measurements for incomplete fusion reactions can provide a test of new theoretical models of breakup and fusion.

  2. Estimation from incomplete multinomial data. Ph.D. Thesis - Harvard Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    The vector of multinomial cell probabilities was estimated from incomplete data, incomplete in that it contains partially classified observations. Each such partially classified observation was observed to fall in one of two or more selected categories but was not classified further into a single category. The data were assumed to be incomplete at random. The estimation criterion was minimization of risk for quadratic loss. The estimators were the classical maximum likelihood estimate, the Bayesian posterior mode, and the posterior mean. An approximation was developed for the posterior mean. The Dirichlet, the conjugate prior for the multinomial distribution, was assumed for the prior distribution.

  3. Habitat heterogeneity, disturbance, and productivity work in concert to regulate biodiversity in deep submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Barry, James P

    2010-04-01

    Habitat heterogeneity is a major structuring agent of ecological assemblages promoting beta diversity and ultimately contributing to overall higher global diversity. The exact processes by which heterogeneity increases diversity are scale dependent and encompass variation in other well-known processes, e.g., productivity, disturbance, and temperature. Thus, habitat heterogeneity likely triggers multiple and cascading diversity effects through ecological assemblages. Submarine canyons, a pervasive feature of the world's oceans, likely increase habitat heterogeneity at multiple spatial scales similar to their terrestrial analogues. However, our understanding of how processes regulating diversity, and the potential for cascading effects within these important topographic features, remains incomplete. Utilizing remote-operated vehicles (ROVs) for coring and video transects, we quantified faunal turnover in the deep-sea benthos at a rarely examined scale (1 m-1 km). Macrofaunal community structure, megafaunal density, carbon flux, and sediment characteristics were analyzed for the soft-bottom benthos at the base of cliff faces in Monterey Canyon (northeast Pacific Ocean) at three depths. We documented a remarkable degree of faunal turnover and changes in overall community structure at scales < 100 m, and often < 10 m, related to geographic features of a canyon complex. Ultimately, our findings indicated that multiple linked processes related to habitat heterogeneity, ecosystem engineering, and bottom-up dynamics are important to deep-sea biodiversity. PMID:20462112

  4. Habitat heterogeneity, disturbance, and productivity work in concert to regulate biodiversity in deep submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Barry, James P

    2010-04-01

    Habitat heterogeneity is a major structuring agent of ecological assemblages promoting beta diversity and ultimately contributing to overall higher global diversity. The exact processes by which heterogeneity increases diversity are scale dependent and encompass variation in other well-known processes, e.g., productivity, disturbance, and temperature. Thus, habitat heterogeneity likely triggers multiple and cascading diversity effects through ecological assemblages. Submarine canyons, a pervasive feature of the world's oceans, likely increase habitat heterogeneity at multiple spatial scales similar to their terrestrial analogues. However, our understanding of how processes regulating diversity, and the potential for cascading effects within these important topographic features, remains incomplete. Utilizing remote-operated vehicles (ROVs) for coring and video transects, we quantified faunal turnover in the deep-sea benthos at a rarely examined scale (1 m-1 km). Macrofaunal community structure, megafaunal density, carbon flux, and sediment characteristics were analyzed for the soft-bottom benthos at the base of cliff faces in Monterey Canyon (northeast Pacific Ocean) at three depths. We documented a remarkable degree of faunal turnover and changes in overall community structure at scales < 100 m, and often < 10 m, related to geographic features of a canyon complex. Ultimately, our findings indicated that multiple linked processes related to habitat heterogeneity, ecosystem engineering, and bottom-up dynamics are important to deep-sea biodiversity.

  5. Quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes associated with adiabatic intramolecular processes.

    PubMed

    Bredtmann, Timm; Diestler, Dennis J; Li, Si-Dian; Manz, Jörn; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Tian, Wen-Juan; Wu, Yan-Bo; Yang, Yonggang; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2015-11-28

    An elementary molecular process can be characterized by the flow of particles (i.e., electrons and nuclei) that compose the system. The flow, in turn, is quantitatively described by the flux (i.e., the time-sequence of maps of the rate of flow of particles though specified surfaces of observation) or, in more detail, by the flux density. The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) associated with electronically adiabatic intramolecular processes is presented. In particular, it is emphasized how the electronic continuity equation can be employed to circumvent the failure of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which always predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). It is also shown that all CENFs accompanying coherent tunnelling between equivalent "reactant" and "product" configurations of isolated molecules are synchronous. The theory is applied to three systems of increasing complexity. The first application is to vibrating, aligned H2(+)((2)Σg(+)), or vibrating and dissociating H2(+)((2)Σg(+), J = 0, M = 0). The EFD maps manifest a rich and surprising structure in this simplest of systems; for example, they show that the EFD is not necessarily synchronous with the nuclear flux density and can alternate in direction several times over the length of the molecule. The second application is to coherent tunnelling isomerization in the model inorganic system B4, in which all CENFs are synchronous. The contributions of core and valence electrons to the EFD are separately computed and it is found that core electrons flow with the nuclei, whereas the valence electrons flow obliquely to the core electrons in distinctive patterns. The third application is to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, which also involves coherent tunnelling. An especially interesting discovery is that the so-called "pericyclic" electrons do not behave in the manner typically portrayed by the traditional Lewis structures with appended arrows. Indeed, it is

  6. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  7. Imaging Findings of a Patient with Incomplete Phenotypical Expression of the PHACES Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, B.; Altugan, F.S.; Firat, M.; Lasjaunias, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We present imaging findings of a patient with an incomplete form of the PHACES syndrome with dolichosegmental intracranial arteries as the predominant component, and discuss the etiopathological and clinical significance of this finding. PMID:20557791

  8. Spin-distribution measurement: A sensitive probe for incomplete fusion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B. P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati,; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. A.; Prasad, R.; Kumar, R.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2008-07-15

    Spin distributions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 169}Tm have been measured at projectile energy {approx_equal}5.6 MeV/nucleon. Particle (Z=1,2) {gamma}-coincidences have been employed to achieve the information about involved reaction modes on the basis of their entry state spin populations. The experimentally measured spin distributions for incomplete fusion products have been found to be distinctly different than those observed for complete fusion products. The driving input angular momenta associated with incomplete fusion products have been found to be relatively higher than complete fusion products, and increases with direct {alpha}-multiplicity. It has also been observed that incomplete fusion products are less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered, while complete fusion products indicating strong feeding over a broad spin range.

  9. Numerical evaluation of the incomplete airy functions and their application to high frequency scattering and diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The incomplete Airy integrals serve as canonical functions for the uniform ray optical solutions to several high frequency scattering and diffraction problems that involve a class of integrals characterized by two stationary points that are arbitrarily close to one another or to an integration endpoint. Integrals of such analytical properties describe transition region phenomena associated with composite shadow boundaries. An efficient and accurate method for computing the incomplete Airy functions would make the solutions to such problems useful for engineering purposes. Here, a convergent series solution form for the incomplete Airy functions is derived. Asymptotic expansions involving several terms were also developed and serve as large argument approximations. The combination of the series solution form with the asymptotic formulae provides for an efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions. Validation of accuracy is accomplished using direct numerical integration data.

  10. Crown lengthening to facilitate restorative treatment in the presence of incomplete passive eruption.

    PubMed

    Hempton, T J; Esrason, F

    2000-04-01

    Crown-lengthening surgery can be utilized to expose subgingival caries. In this clinical case, a patient presented with incomplete passive eruption in the maxillary anterior sextant. This case illustrates that when incomplete passive eruption is present and restorative treatment is necessary in the maxillary anterior sextant, crown-lengthening surgery not only provides exposure of subgingival caries but can also result in a more esthetic therapeutic outcome.

  11. Incomplete Augmented Lagrangian Preconditioner for Steady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun

    2013-01-01

    An incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented Lagrangian-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids. PMID:24235888

  12. Coincidence of Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell and Meningomyelocele in a Dizygotic Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Timur, Hakan; Tokmak, Aytekin; Bayram, Hatice; Şükran Çakar, Esra; Danışman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell is an extremely rare and lethal syndrome. Ectopia cordis is frequently found in fetuses with POC but not required for incomplete forms. Likewise, meningomyelocele is a relatively uncommon neural tube defect affecting central nervous system and associated with neurological problems. Herein, we presented a woman with dizygotic twin pregnancy having coincidence of incomplete POC and MMC in each individual fetus, which has never been reported previously. PMID:26421202

  13. Cost-effectiveness of one- and two-step incomplete and complete excavations.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S; Dörfer, C E

    2013-10-01

    The treatment of deep caries lesions carries significant risks for the integrity of the pulp and often initiates a cascade of re-interventions. Incomplete caries removal may reduce these risks and avoid or delay re-treatment. The present study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of one- and two-step incomplete as well as complete excavations. We used Markov models to simulate treatment of a molar tooth with a deep caries lesion in a 15-year-old patient. Retention of the tooth and its vitality as effectiveness measures as well as accruing costs were analyzed over the patient's lifetime. The model adopted a public-private-payer perspective within German health care. Transition probabilities were calculated based on literature reviews. Monte-Carlo microsimulations were performed with 6-month cycles. One-step incomplete excavation resulted in lower long-term costs and in longer-retained teeth and their vitality (means: 53.5 and 41.0 yrs) compared with two-step incomplete (52.5 and 37.5 yrs) and complete excavations (49.5 and 31.0 yrs), and dominated the other strategies in 70% to 100% of simulations. Regardless of the assumed willingness-to-pay ceiling value, one-step incomplete excavation had the highest probability of being cost-effective. Despite limited evidence levels of input data, we expect one-step incomplete excavation to reduce costs while retaining deeply carious teeth and their vitality for longer.

  14. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  15. Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Min-Da.

    1993-05-25

    A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

  16. Computations on the primary photoreaction of Br2 with CO2: stepwise vs concerted addition of Br atoms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kewei; Korter, Timothy M; Braiman, Mark S

    2015-04-01

    It was proposed previously that Br2-sensitized photolysis of liquid CO2 proceeds through a metastable primary photoproduct, CO2Br2. Possible mechanisms for such a photoreaction are explored here computationally. First, it is shown that the CO2Br radical is not stable in any geometry. This rules out a free-radical mechanism, for example, photochemical splitting of Br2 followed by stepwise addition of Br atoms to CO2-which in turn accounts for the lack of previously observed Br2+CO2 photochemistry in gas phases. A possible alternative mechanism in liquid phase is formation of a weakly bound CO2:Br2 complex, followed by concerted photoaddition of Br2. This hypothesis is suggested by the previously published spectroscopic detection of a binary CO2:Br2 complex in the supersonically cooled gas phase. We compute a global binding-energy minimum of -6.2 kJ mol(-1) for such complexes, in a linear geometry. Two additional local minima were computed for perpendicular (C2v) and nearly parallel asymmetric planar geometries, both with binding energies near -5.4 kJ mol(-1). In these two latter geometries, C-Br and O-Br bond distances are simultaneously in the range of 3.5-3.8 Å, that is, perhaps suitable for a concerted photoaddition under the temperature and pressure conditions where Br2 + CO2 photochemistry has been observed.

  17. Regulatory potential for concerted modulation of Nrf2- and Nfkb1-mediated gene expression in inflammation and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S; Doh, S T; Chan, J Y; Kong, A-N; Cai, L

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have implicated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB1 (Nfkb1) in inflammation and cancer. However, the regulatory potential for crosstalk between these two important transcription factors in inflammation and carcinogenesis has not been explored. To delineate conserved transcription factor-binding site signatures, we performed bioinformatic analyses on the promoter regions of human and murine Nrf2 and Nfkb1. We performed multiple sequence alignment of Nrf2 and Nfkb1 genes in five mammalian species – human, chimpanzee, dog, mouse and rat – to explore conserved biological features. We constructed a canonical regulatory network for concerted modulation of Nrf2 and Nfkb1 involving several members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and present a putative model for concerted modulation of Nrf2 and Nfkb1 in inflammation/carcinogenesis. Our results reflect potential for putative crosstalk between Nrf2 and Nfkb1 modulated through the MAPK cascade that may influence inflammation-associated etiopathogenesis of cancer. Taken together, the elucidation of potential relationships between Nrf2 and Nfkb1 may help to better understand transcriptional regulation, as well as transcription factor networks, associated with the etiopathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. PMID:19050705

  18. Judgments of noticeable differences in sound fields of concert halls caused by intensity variations in early reflections.

    PubMed

    Okano, Toshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In concert halls early reflections combine with the direct sound and with reverberation to determine the subjective rating of a room's acoustics. Of interest is how variations in the amplitudes of these early reflections are related to the subjectively just-noticeable differences (jnd) in several important acoustical parameters for their wide range encountered in existing halls. Investigated were four subjective parameters, apparent source width (ASW), loudness, intimacy and clarity, which are related to the physical measurements, [1-IACC(E3)], G, ITDG, and C80, defined mathematically in Beranek [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, New York, 1996)]. Forty-eight types of sound fields were chosen in which to make variations in the amplitudes of early reflections and were reproduced electro-acoustically by multiple loudspeakers in an anechoic chamber. The results indicate that ASW and loudness are more sensitive to changes in the levels of early reflections, and were the primary parameters investigated. Although the number of subjects available with enough experience in listening classical music is limited and the measured jnd is an initial estimation, the jnd of [1-IACC(E3)] is measured as 0.065+/-0.015 in variations of sound field structures and the jnd of G was measured as 0.25+/-0.15 dB, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. PMID:11831797

  19. Judgments of noticeable differences in sound fields of concert halls caused by intensity variations in early reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Toshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In concert halls early reflections combine with the direct sound and with reverberation to determine the subjective rating of a room's acoustics. Of interest is how variations in the amplitudes of these early reflections are related to the subjectively just-noticeable differences (jnd) in several important acoustical parameters for their wide range encountered in existing halls. Investigated were four subjective parameters, apparent source width (ASW), loudness, intimacy and clarity, which are related to the physical measurements, [1-IACCE3], G, ITDG, and C80, defined mathematically in Beranek [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, New York, 1996)]. Forty-eight types of sound fields were chosen in which to make variations in the amplitudes of early reflections and were reproduced electro-acoustically by multiple loudspeakers in an anechoic chamber. The results indicate that ASW and loudness are more sensitive to changes in the levels of early reflections, and were the primary parameters investigated. Although the number of subjects available with enough experience in listening classical music is limited and the measured jnd is an initial estimation, the jnd of [1-IACCE3] is measured as 0.065+/-0.015 in variations of sound field structures and the jnd of G was measured as 0.25+/-0.15 dB, which is consistent with the results of previous studies.

  20. A Case of Sudden Infant Death Due to Incomplete Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Daisuke; Shimizu, Keiko; Oka, Kumiko; Asari, Masaru; Maseda, Chikatoshi; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Shiono, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Seiji; Ogawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Although Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limiting disease, it may cause sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis of KD is principally based on clinical signs; however, some infant cases do not meet the criteria. Such cases are identified as incomplete KD. The sudden death risk in incomplete KD cases is similar to conventional KD. In our 5-month-old case, he had been admitted to a hospital for a fever and suppuration at the site of Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG) vaccination. However, after discharge from the hospital, his C-reactive protein (CRP) levels declined, he got indisposed and died suddenly. A medico-legal autopsy revealed myocarditis, coronaritis, platelet-aggregated emboli in coronary arteries, and myocardial degeneration, suggesting that the fatal myocardial infarction was due to thrombus emboli in the coronary arteries. Forensic pathologists therefore should pay attention to the cardiac pathology originated from incomplete KD as a potential cause in cases of sudden infant death. PMID:26347043

  1. Tear lipid layer deficiency associated with incomplete blinking: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meibomian gland obstruction induces hyposecretion of tear film lipids, which results in lipid layer deficiency and evaporative dry eye. Unfortunately, the importance of blinking in meibomian gland dysfunction has been largely overlooked, and it is not known whether incomplete blinking causes tear lipid deficiency, even in the unobstructed meibomian glands. Case presentation A 38-year-old woman suffering from foreign body sensations in her eyes was examined. The cornea was clear and tear secretion was normal. Lid margin abnormalities were not observed and the meibum was clear. However, the lipid layer was very thin, and the patient was given a diagnosis of incomplete blinking. The patient was made aware of her condition and asked to blink consciously and completely. After that, an immediate increase in lipid flow was observed. Conclusion Tear lipid layer deficiency can occur with incomplete blinking, even though meibomian gland structures are intact. This case highlights the importance of complete blinking. PMID:23855887

  2. Bulk chemical and Hf-W isotopic consequences of incomplete accretion during planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Christina A.; Nimmo, Francis; Chambers, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Late-stage accretion involves collisions which may result in complete or incomplete merging of the two objects, hit-and-run encounters, or mass loss from the target. We use a recent N-body study incorporating these different collision styles (Chambers, J.E. [2013]. Icarus 224, 43-56) to investigate how collision style affects the bulk chemical and isotopic outcomes of terrestrial planet formation. Compared with simulations in which all collisions result in perfect mergers, the variability in modeled silicate mass fraction and tungsten isotope anomaly is larger, especially for lower-mass planets. The final tungsten anomaly also shows a systematic reduction, because the timescale to finish planet growth is longer when incomplete mergers are included. Simulations including incomplete merging can reproduce the observed scatter in both tungsten anomaly and silicate mass fraction of the terrestrial planets.

  3. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  4. Electrical stimulation of the lumbrical muscles in an incomplete quadriplegic patient: case report.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S G; Bird, S F; Brown, D J

    1992-03-01

    The increasing number of incomplete cervical spinal cord injuries means that more attention needs to be focused on the rehabilitation of the incomplete quadriplegic hand. A case study, describing the application of electrical stimulation for strengthening the paretic lumbrical muscles, is presented. A 2 week strengthening program resulted in a 33% increase in the force produced by the lumbrical muscles. No loss of strength had occurred 4 weeks after cessation of the treatment. The magnitude and speed of this result should be of interest to those clinicians who seek to maximise patient independence in minimal time. PMID:1630853

  5. No-capture breakup and incomplete fusion reactions induced by stable weakly bound nucleus 9Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyyedi, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The reactions including the stable weakly bound nucleus 9Be have been studied using the classical trajectory model accompanied with the experimental breakup function and the Aage-Winther interaction potential (AW95). In these calculations, the no-capture breakup and the incomplete fusion cross-sections as well as their competition at around the Coulomb barrier have been investigated. Our calculations showed that at a given far-Coulomb-barrier energy the incomplete fusion reaction in different distributions of angular momentum and energies can dominate the no-capture breakup reaction. This dominating process is reversed at the near-barrier energies.

  6. Graph Embedding Techniques for Bounding Condition Numbers of Incomplete Factor Preconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guattery, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    We extend graph embedding techniques for bounding the spectral condition number of preconditioned systems involving symmetric, irreducibly diagonally dominant M-matrices to systems where the preconditioner is not diagonally dominant. In particular, this allows us to bound the spectral condition number when the preconditioner is based on an incomplete factorization. We provide a review of previous techniques, describe our extension, and give examples both of a bound for a model problem, and of ways in which our techniques give intuitive way of looking at incomplete factor preconditioners.

  7. On the efficient calculation of the incomplete Airy function with application to edge diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwik, Tom

    1988-12-01

    When the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) and its extensions are used to calculate fields across transition regions or in focal areas, various special functions are necessary to create uniform representations. One such transition function is the incomplete Airy function, which is applicable when two reflection points are arbitrarily close to each other and the endpoint of the domain considered. An efficient calculation of the incomplete Airy function is presented and shown to equal known asymptotic expansions when its argument is away from the critical point. By using these expansions, uniform field expressions are found which are consistent with the GTD and maintain its computational efficiency.

  8. Incomplete Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale test scores are the most visible representation of what happens in schools in the U.S. The prevailing notion is that they will tell people most of what they need to know about a school, including the quality of instruction and the effectiveness of the teaching and administrative staff. Americans put credence in test scores despite the…

  9. Incomplete Puzzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of a portion of the south polar residual cap of Mars. The large, relatively flat-lying, puzzle-like pieces in this scene are mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.5oS, 76.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  10. Unsymmetrical 1,1-diborated multisubstituted sp(3)-carbons formed via a metal-free concerted-asynchronous mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Ana B; Cid, Jessica; García-López, Diego; Carbó, Jorge J; Fernández, Elena

    2015-10-01

    We have experimentally proved the unsymmetrical 1,1-diboration of diazo compounds, formed in situ from aldehydes and cyclic and non-cyclic ketones, in the absence of any transition metal complex. The heterolytic cleavage of the mixed diboron reagent, Bpin-Bdan, and the formation of two geminal C-Bpin and C-Bdan bonds has been rationalised based on DFT calculations to occur via a concerted-asynchronous mechanism. Diastereoselection is attained on substituted cyclohexanones and DFT studies provide understanding on the origin of the selectivity. The alkoxide-assisted selective deborylation of Bpin from multisubstituted sp(3)-carbon and generation of a Bdan stabilized carbanion, easily conducts a selective protodeboronation sequence.

  11. Concerted action of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase in preventing redox cycling of dihydroxypyrimidines, and their role in antioxidant defence.

    PubMed

    Winterbourn, C C; Munday, R

    1990-01-01

    Dialuric Acid, the reduced form of the beta-cell toxin alloxan, and the related fava bean derivatives divicine and isouramil, autoxidize rapidly in neutral solution by a radical mechanism. GSH promotes redox cycling of each compound, with concomitant GSH oxidation and H2O2 production. With superoxide dismutase present, there is a lag period in which little oxidation occurs, followed by rapid oxidation. GSH extends this lag and decreases the subsequent rate of oxidation, so that with superoxide dismutase and a sufficient excess of GSH, coupled oxidation of GSH and each pyrimidine is almost completely suppressed. This mechanism may be a means whereby GSH in combination with superoxide dismutase protects against the cytotoxic effects of these reactive pyrimidines. Superoxide dismutase may also protect cells against oxidative stress in other situations where GSH acts as a radical scavenger, and we propose that the concerted action of GSH and superoxide dismutase constitutes an important antioxidant defence. PMID:2354807

  12. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS): from case reports to a call for concerted action against this neglected gynaecological disease.

    PubMed

    Christinet, Vanessa; Lazdins-Helds, Janis K; Stothard, J Russell; Reinhard-Rupp, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, control of neglected tropical diseases has been increasingly gaining momentum and interventions against schistosomiasis are being progressively scaled-up through expansion of donated praziquantel and preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, the public health importance of female genital schistosomiasis is not fully recognised nor its control is adequately addressed. Taking a clinical and anatomopathological perspective, we evaluated the available literature to highlight the importance of female genital schistosomiasis and its connections with two sexually transmitted infections of global importance, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human Papilloma Virus. Outside the long list of clinical descriptive reports beginning in 1899, there is presently a shocking gap in epidemiological assessment and a significant underestimation of the burden of FGS remains. The scarcity of integrated approaches to address female genital schistosomiasis calls for more concerted action in its detection, treatment and prevention alongside other concomitant women's health issues, otherwise female genital schistosomiasis will remain a neglected gynaecological disease. PMID:27063073

  13. The Polymerization of Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 O-Antigen LPS: Concerted Action of WecP and Wzy

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Gonzalez, Victor; Tomás, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    The repeat units of heteropolymeric O antigen are synthesized at the cytosolic side of the inner bacterial membrane via the Wzx/Wzy-dependent assembly pathway. After being translocated across the membrane by Wzx, each repeat unit is polymerized by Wzy to form a glycan chain. In this study, we demonstrate the need of the corresponding enzyme transferring the initial HexNAc to undecaprenol phosphate (lipid carrier), together with the corresponding O-antigen polymerase (Wzy), to produce the Aeromonas hydrophila O:34-antigen. We suggest, the concerted action of WecA or P enzyme (UDP-HexNAc: polyprenol-P HexNAc-1-P transferase) and Wzy is involved in the mechanism responsible for the A. hydrophila O-antigen polymerization. PMID:26161781

  14. Stepwise versus pseudo-concerted two-electron-transfer in a triarylamine-iridium dipyrrin-naphthalene diimide triad.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johannes H; Sunderland, Travis L; Kaufmann, Christina; Holzapfel, Marco; Schmiedel, Alexander; Lambert, Christoph

    2013-10-14

    A triad based on triarylamine donors, an iridium dipyrrin sensitiser and a naphthalene diimide acceptor is investigated using fs-pump-probe spectroscopy at two different pump wavelengths. Excitation of the naphthalene diimide induces a stepwise electron transfer process that yields within ca. 100 ps a charge separated state with 50-60% quantum yield in which one triarylamine is oxidised and the imide is reduced. Although being in the Marcus normal region, this state has a lifetime of 580 ns in MeCN. Excitation at the dipyrrin ligand centred absorption directly produces the charge separated state within ca. 1 ns however without formation of an intermediate. This pseudo-concerted two-electron transfer step was analysed with the help of a model dyad and a modified triad and is interpreted to be caused by inverted electron transfer rates. Although being much slower the latter process has a quantum yield of practically 100%. PMID:23959428

  15. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  16. Understanding the mechanism of non-polar Diels-Alder reactions. A comparative ELF analysis of concerted and stepwise diradical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Chamorro, Eduardo; Pérez, Patricia

    2010-12-21

    The electron-reorganization along the concerted and stepwise pathways associated with the non-polar Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene (Cp, 1) and ethylene (2) has been studied using the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. ELF results for the concerted mechanism stresses that the electron-reorganization demanded on the diene and ethylene reagents to reach two pseudo-diradical structures is responsible for the high activation energy. A comparative ELF analysis of some relevant points of the non-polar Diels-Alder reaction between Cp and styrene (10) suggests that these concerted mechanisms do not have a pericyclic electron-reorganization.

  17. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site. PMID:26143295

  18. 40 CFR 1037.620 - Shipment of incomplete vehicles to secondary vehicle manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shipment of incomplete vehicles to secondary vehicle manufacturers. 1037.620 Section 1037.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR...

  19. The Logical Heart of a Classic Proof Revisited: A Guide to Godel's "Incompleteness" Theorems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The study of Kurt Godel's proof of the "incompleteness" of a formal system such as "Principia Mathematica" is a great way to stimulate students' thinking and creative processes and interest in mathematics and its important developments. This article describes salient features of the proof together with ways to deal with potential difficulties for…

  20. Analysis of incomplete matrix factorizations as multigrid smoothers for vector and parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Axelsson, O.

    1986-07-01

    The cost of smoothing is usually a major expense in multigrid codes. Efficient vectorizable and parallelizable versions of incomplete block-matrix factorization methods used as smoothers for multigrid methods are discussed in this paper. The methods are particularly interesting for computers with parallel processors with pipelines, because both multitasking with little overhead and vectorization can be achieved. 21 references.

  1. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  2. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  3. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  4. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  5. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  6. The (Il)logical Problem of Heritage Speaker Bilingualism and Incomplete Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabo, Diego Pascual Y.; Rothman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This Forum challenges and problematizes the term "incomplete acquisition," which has been widely used to describe the state of competence of heritage speaker (HS) bilinguals for well over a decade (see, e.g., Montrul, 2008). It is suggested and defended that HS competence, while often different from monolingual peers, is in fact not incomplete…

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR TARGET ANALYTE LIST OF PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of pilot-scale incineration testing to develop a comprehensive list of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from hazardous waste combustion (HWC) systems. Project goals were to: (1) identify the total mass of organic compounds sufficiently to estimate...

  8. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  9. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  10. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  11. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  12. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  13. Review of "Incomplete: How Middle Class Schools Aren't Making the Grade". Think Tank Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    "Incomplete: How Middle Class Schools Aren't Making the Grade" is a new report from Third Way, a Washington, D.C.-based policy think tank. The report aims to convince parents, taxpayers and policymakers that they should be as concerned about middle-class schools not making the grade as they are about the failures of the nation's large, poor, urban…

  14. PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM DIRECT BURNING OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL-TREATED WOOD WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify potential air pollution problems from the combustion of waste wood treated with pentachlorophenol preservative for energy production in a boiler. The study emphasized the characterization of the products of incomplete combustion (PI...

  15. High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Gaby Pons; van der Kooi, Elly; Behin, Anthony; Smeets, Joep; Timmermans, Janneke; van der Maarel, Silvère; Padberg, George; Voermans, Nicol; van Engelen, Baziel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The exact prevalence and nature of cardiac involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is unknown. Nevertheless, the current opinion is that symptomatic cardiac disease is rare. We performed a cardiac screening [electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography in the event of ECG abnormalities] in 75 genetically confirmed, ambulant FSHD patients without cardiac symptoms, with an eight-year follow-up of 57 patients, and compared the findings with results of previously performed cardiac screenings in the normal population. Baseline ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, complete RBBB in 4%, and other minor abnormalities in 16%. Echocardiography showed no abnormalities. No significant changes were found after eight years of follow-up. Comparison with ECG abnormalities in the normal population showed a higher prevalence of incomplete RBBB (9.7 times higher) and of complete RBBB (4.8 times higher) in FSHD patients. This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID:25473735

  16. Double propensity-score adjustment: A solution to design bias or bias due to incomplete matching.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C

    2014-07-17

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term "bias due to incomplete matching" to describe the bias that can occur when some treated subjects are excluded from the matched sample because no appropriate control subject was available. The presence of incomplete matching raises important questions around the generalizability of estimated treatment effects to the entire population of treated subjects. We describe an analytic solution to address the bias due to incomplete matching. Our method is based on using optimal or nearest neighbor matching, rather than caliper matching (which frequently results in the exclusion of some treated subjects). Within the sample matched on the propensity score, covariate adjustment using the propensity score is then employed to impute missing potential outcomes under lack of treatment for each treated subject. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the proposed method resulted in estimates of treatment effect that were essentially unbiased. This method resulted in decreased bias compared to caliper matching alone and compared to either optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone. Caliper matching alone resulted in design bias or bias due to incomplete matching, while optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone resulted in bias due to residual confounding. The proposed method also tended to result in estimates with decreased mean squared error compared to when caliper matching was used.

  17. Back to Basics: Incomplete Knowledge of Differential Object Marking in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Bowles, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The obligatory use of the preposition a with animate, specific direct objects in Spanish ("Juan conoce a Maria" "Juan knows Maria") is a well-known instance of Differential Object Marking (DOM; Torrego, 1998; Leonetti, 2004). Recent studies have documented the loss and/or incomplete acquisition of several grammatical features in Spanish heritage…

  18. Incomplete photonic band gap as inferred from the speckle pattern of scattered light waves.

    PubMed

    Apalkov, V M; Raikh, M E; Shapiro, B

    2004-06-25

    Motivated by recent experiments on intensity correlations of the waves transmitted through disordered media, we demonstrate that the speckle pattern from disordered photonic crystal with incomplete band gap represents a sensitive tool for determination of the stop-band width. We establish the quantitative relation between this width and the angular anisotropy of the intensity correlation function.

  19. Identifying Useful Auxiliary Variables for Incomplete Data Analyses: A Note on a Group Difference Examination Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This research note contributes to the discussion of methods that can be used to identify useful auxiliary variables for analyses of incomplete data sets. A latent variable approach is discussed, which is helpful in finding auxiliary variables with the property that if included in subsequent maximum likelihood analyses they may enhance considerably…

  20. Incomplete fusion reactions at low energies in 13C+169Tm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Sharma, M. K.; Gupta, S.; Murlithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-03-01

    Aiming to investigate the incomplete fusion processes at low projectile energies, experiments have been carried out for the 13C + 169Tm system at ≈ 4-7 MeV/A. Excitation functions for several heavy residues likely to be populated via complete and incomplete fusion processes have been measured using heavy recoil residue catcher technique followed by γ- ray spectroscopy. The measured cross-sections for the complete fusion (xn and pxn) channels are compared with the statistical model code PACE4, consistently using the same set of parameters. The complete fusion channels are found to be consistent with the model calculations. However, the cross-sections for all the measured α-emitting channels are found to be significantly enhanced over the calculations. Analysis of data indicate a significant fraction of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as 17% above barrier. The present results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern's systematics. Incomplete fusion strength function is found to be relatively large for alpha cluster projectile i.e. for 12C as compared to one neutron excess 13C projectile.

  1. Examining the Missing Completely at Random Mechanism in Incomplete Data Sets: A Multiple Testing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Paulson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A multiple testing procedure for examining implications of the missing completely at random (MCAR) mechanism in incomplete data sets is discussed. The approach uses the false discovery rate concept and is concerned with testing group differences on a set of variables. The method can be used for ascertaining violations of MCAR and disproving this…

  2. Incomplete Reporting: Addressing the Prevalence of Outcome-Reporting Bias in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Brian; Polanin, Joshua; Williams, Ryan; Pigott, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Outcome reporting bias refers to the practice of omitting from primary studies outcomes that were actually collected. When primary studies do not report on all the outcomes assessed, there is an incomplete understanding of a phenomenon that may be compounded when the study is included in a systematic review of research. Outcome reporting bias is…

  3. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site.

  4. A walking disaster: a case of incomplete spinal cord injury with symptomatic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-10-01

    Eight months post-injury, an ambulatory 58-year-old male with an incomplete spinal cord injury experienced syncope and a 52-mmHg drop in his systolic blood pressure during a tilt-table assessment. This case study highlights the necessity to examine autonomic function in all cases of spinal cord injury, regardless of injury severity. PMID:26264838

  5. A walking disaster: a case of incomplete spinal cord injury with symptomatic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-10-01

    Eight months post-injury, an ambulatory 58-year-old male with an incomplete spinal cord injury experienced syncope and a 52-mmHg drop in his systolic blood pressure during a tilt-table assessment. This case study highlights the necessity to examine autonomic function in all cases of spinal cord injury, regardless of injury severity.

  6. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esboui, Mounir

    2015-07-01

    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH3)2 complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH3)2 cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″(1πσ∗) and A'(1nσ∗) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A'(1ππ∗) and A″(1nπ∗) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two 1ππ∗-1πσ∗ conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect.

  7. Intersubunit Concerted Cooperative and cis-Type Mechanisms Modulate Allosteric Gating in Two-Pore-Domain Potassium Channel TREK-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Ren-Gong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Hai-Tao; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Quan; Wei, Xiao-Li; Ma, Xiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In response to diverse stimuli, two-pore-domain potassium channel TREK-2 regulates cellular excitability, and hence plays a key role in mediating neuropathic pain, mood disorders and ischemia through. Although more and more input modalities are found to achieve their modulations via acting on the channel, the potential role of subunit interaction in these modulations remains to be explored. In the current study, the deletion (lack of proximal C-terminus, ΔpCt) or point mutation (G312A) was introduced into TREK-2 subunits to limit K+ conductance and used to report subunit stoichiometry. The constructs were then combined with wild type (WT) subunit to produce concatenated dimers with defined composition, and the gating kinetics of these channels to 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and extracellular pH (pHo) were characterized. Our results show that combination of WT and ΔpCt/G312A subunits reserves similar gating properties to that of WT dimmers, suggesting that the WT subunit exerts dominant and positive effects on the mutated one, and thus the two subunits controls channel gating via a concerted cooperative manner. Further introduction of ΔpCt into the latter subunit of heterodimeric channel G312A-WT or G312A-G312A attenuated their sensitivity to 2-APB and pHo alkalization, implicating that these signals were transduced by a cis-type mechanism. Together, our findings elucidate the mechanisms for how the two subunits control the pore gating of TREK-2, in which both intersubunit concerted cooperative and cis-type manners modulate the allosteric regulations induced by 2-APB and pHo alkalization. PMID:27242438

  8. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Esboui, Mounir

    2015-07-21

    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH3)2 complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH3)2 cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″((1)πσ*) and A'((1)nσ*) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A'((1)ππ*) and A″((1)nπ*) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two (1)ππ*-(1)πσ* conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect.

  9. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Esboui, Mounir

    2015-07-21

    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″({sup 1}πσ{sup ∗}) and A′({sup 1}nσ{sup ∗}) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A′({sup 1}ππ{sup ∗}) and A″({sup 1}nπ{sup ∗}) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two {sup 1}ππ{sup ∗}-{sup 1}πσ{sup ∗} conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect.

  10. Top-down Proteomics Reveals Concerted Reductions in Myofilament and Z-disc Protein Phosphorylation after Acute Myocardial Infarction*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Valeja, Santosh G.; Zhang, Han; Cai, Wenxuan; Chen, Yi-Chen; Guner, Huseyin; Chen, Albert J.; Schwahn, Denise J.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Liu, Xiaowen; Ge, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is most often precipitated by myocardial infarction. However, the molecular changes driving cardiac dysfunction immediately after myocardial infarction remain poorly understood. Myofilament proteins, responsible for cardiac contraction and relaxation, play critical roles in signal reception and transduction in HF. Post-translational modifications of myofilament proteins afford a mechanism for the beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac function. Thus it is of paramount importance to gain a comprehensive understanding of post-translational modifications of myofilament proteins involved in regulating early molecular events in the post-infarcted myocardium. We have developed a novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based top-down proteomics strategy to comprehensively assess the modifications of key cardiac proteins in the myofilament subproteome extracted from a minimal amount of myocardial tissue with high reproducibility and throughput. The entire procedure, including tissue homogenization, myofilament extraction, and on-line LC/MS, takes less than three hours. Notably, enabled by this novel top-down proteomics technology, we discovered a concerted significant reduction in the phosphorylation of three crucial cardiac proteins in acutely infarcted swine myocardium: cardiac troponin I and myosin regulatory light chain of the myofilaments and, unexpectedly, enigma homolog isoform 2 (ENH2) of the Z-disc. Furthermore, top-down MS allowed us to comprehensively sequence these proteins and pinpoint their phosphorylation sites. For the first time, we have characterized the sequence of ENH2 and identified it as a phosphoprotein. ENH2 is localized at the Z-disc, which has been increasingly recognized for its role as a nodal point in cardiac signaling. Thus our proteomics discovery opens up new avenues for the investigation of concerted signaling between myofilament and Z-disc in the early

  11. Concerted O atom–proton transfer in the O—O bond forming step in water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J.; Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao; Hoertz, Paul G.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As the terminal step in photosystem II, and a potential half-reaction for artificial photosynthesis, water oxidation (2H2O → O2 + 4e- + 4H+) is key, but it imposes a significant mechanistic challenge with requirements for both 4e-/4H+ loss and O—O bond formation. Significant progress in water oxidation catalysis has been achieved recently by use of single-site Ru metal complex catalysts such as [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine]. When oxidized from to RuV = O3+, these complexes undergo O—O bond formation by O-atom attack on a H2O molecule, which is often the rate-limiting step. Microscopic details of O—O bond formation have been explored by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations the results of which provide detailed insight into mechanism and a strategy for enhancing catalytic rates. It utilizes added bases as proton acceptors and concerted atom–proton transfer (APT) with O-atom transfer to the O atom of a water molecule in concert with proton transfer to the base (B). Base catalyzed APT reactivity in water oxidation is observed both in solution and on the surfaces of oxide electrodes derivatized by attached phosphonated metal complex catalysts. These results have important implications for catalytic, electrocatalytic, and photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation. PMID:20360565

  12. Concerted evolution at a multicopy locus in the protozoan parasite Theileria parva: extreme divergence of potential protein-coding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R; Musoke, A; Morzaria, S; Sohanpal, B; Gobright, E

    1997-01-01

    Concerted evolution of multicopy gene families in vertebrates is recognized as an important force in the generation of biological novelty but has not been documented for the multicopy genes of protozoa. A multicopy locus, Tpr, which consists of tandemly arrayed open reading frames (ORFs) containing several repeated elements has been described for Theileria parva. Herein we show that probes derived from the 5'/N-terminal ends of ORFs in the genomic DNAs of T. parva Uganda (1,108 codons) and Boleni (699 codons) hybridized with multicopy sequences in homologous DNA but did not detect similar sequences in the DNA of 14 heterologous T. parva stocks and clones. The probe sequences were, however, protein coding according to predictive algorithms and codon usage. The 3'/C-terminal ends of the Uganda and Boleni ORFs exhibited 75% similarity and identity, respectively, to the previously identified Tpr1 and Tpr2 repetitive elements of T. parva Muguga. Tpr1-homologous sequences were detected in two additional species of Theileria. Eight different Tpr1-homologous transcripts were present in piroplasm mRNA from a single T. parva Muguga-infected animal. The Tpr1 and Tpr2 amino acid sequences contained six predicted membrane-associated segments. The ratio of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitutions indicates that Tpr1 evolves like protein-encoding DNA. The previously determined nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the p67 antigen is completely identical in T. parva Muguga, Boleni, and Uganda, including the third base in codons. The data suggest that concerted evolution can lead to the radical divergence of coding sequences and that this can be a mechanism for the generation of novel genes. PMID:9032293

  13. A Composite-Likelihood Method for Detecting Incomplete Selective Sweep from Population Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Vy, Ha My T.; Kim, Yuseob

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive evolution occurs as beneficial mutations arise and then increase in frequency by positive natural selection. How, when, and where in the genome such evolutionary events occur is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. It is possible to detect ongoing positive selection or an incomplete selective sweep in species with sexual reproduction because, when a beneficial mutation is on the way to fixation, homologous chromosomes in the population are divided into two groups: one carrying the beneficial allele with very low polymorphism at nearby linked loci and the other carrying the ancestral allele with a normal pattern of sequence variation. Previous studies developed long-range haplotype tests to capture this difference between two groups as the signal of an incomplete selective sweep. In this study, we propose a composite-likelihood-ratio (CLR) test for detecting incomplete selective sweeps based on the joint sampling probabilities for allele frequencies of two groups as a function of strength of selection and recombination rate. Tested against simulated data, this method yielded statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation that are higher than the iHS test and comparable to the more recently developed nSL test. This procedure was also applied to African Drosophila melanogaster population genomic data to detect candidate genes under ongoing positive selection. Upon visual inspection of sequence polymorphism, candidates detected by our CLR method exhibited clear haplotype structures predicted under incomplete selective sweeps. Our results suggest that different methods capture different aspects of genetic information regarding incomplete sweeps and thus are partially complementary to each other. PMID:25911658

  14. A Composite-Likelihood Method for Detecting Incomplete Selective Sweep from Population Genomic Data.

    PubMed

    Vy, Ha My T; Kim, Yuseob

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive evolution occurs as beneficial mutations arise and then increase in frequency by positive natural selection. How, when, and where in the genome such evolutionary events occur is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. It is possible to detect ongoing positive selection or an incomplete selective sweep in species with sexual reproduction because, when a beneficial mutation is on the way to fixation, homologous chromosomes in the population are divided into two groups: one carrying the beneficial allele with very low polymorphism at nearby linked loci and the other carrying the ancestral allele with a normal pattern of sequence variation. Previous studies developed long-range haplotype tests to capture this difference between two groups as the signal of an incomplete selective sweep. In this study, we propose a composite-likelihood-ratio (CLR) test for detecting incomplete selective sweeps based on the joint sampling probabilities for allele frequencies of two groups as a function of strength of selection and recombination rate. Tested against simulated data, this method yielded statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation that are higher than the iHS test and comparable to the more recently developed nSL test. This procedure was also applied to African Drosophila melanogaster population genomic data to detect candidate genes under ongoing positive selection. Upon visual inspection of sequence polymorphism, candidates detected by our CLR method exhibited clear haplotype structures predicted under incomplete selective sweeps. Our results suggest that different methods capture different aspects of genetic information regarding incomplete sweeps and thus are partially complementary to each other.

  15. Outcome following incomplete surgical cytoreduction combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Roisin Mary; Shields, Conor; Mulsow, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy can improve survival in appropriately selected patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases. Outcomes are best in those patients in whom a complete cytoreduction can be achieved. Unresectable disease is however encountered in approximately one-quarter of patients at laparotomy. The merits, or otherwise, of proceeding with an incomplete cytoreduction in this setting are unclear. We performed a review of published outcomes following incomplete cytoreduction for colorectal peritoneal metastases. Using the electronic databases, PubMed and MEDLINE, a systematic search of available literature published during the period January 1997 to September 2014 was conducted. Following application of exclusion criteria, 19 papers were identified and included in this review. These comprised fifteen case series, 3 case control studies and one randomised control trial. In the nineteen studies included in this review, 2790 patients underwent cytoreductive surgery with or without intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal metastases of colorectal origin. Of these, 1732 (62%) underwent a complete cytoreduction while 986 (35%) patients underwent an incomplete cytoreduction. Median survival in the complete cytoreduction group ranged from 11 to 62 mo while survival in the latter group ranged from 2.4 to 32 mo. Of the 986 patients with an incomplete cytoreduction, 331 patients received intraperitoneal chemotherapy and survival in this cohort ranged from 4.5 to 32 mo. An incomplete cytoreduction, with or without intraperitoneal chemotherapy, does not appear to confer a survival benefit. The limited available data points to a palliative benefit in a subset of patients. In the absence of high quality data, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with surgery should be made on an individual patient basis. PMID:26688707

  16. An Investigation of the Relationship between Instructor and Institutional Characteristics and the Concert Report Assignment in Music in General Studies Courses in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kirsten Fedje

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between institutional and instructor characteristics and the assignment of the concert report within American college music in general studies courses. Four research questions were addressed: (1) Do significant differences exist in instructor practices regarding the assignment of, and…

  17. Pilot study: Exposure and materiality of the secondary room and its impact in the impulse response of coupled-volume concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty E.

    2002-05-01

    What does one room sound like when it is partially exposed to another (acoustically coupled)? More specifically, this research aims to quantify how operational and design decisions impact aural impressions in the design of concert halls with acoustical coupling. By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer, and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study, a coupled-volume shoebox concert hall was conceived with a fixed geometric volume, form, and primary-room sound absorption. Aperture size and secondary-room sound-absorption levels were established as variables. Statistical analysis of sound decay in this simulated hall suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and (1) Architectural composition, as defined by the aperture size exposing the chamber and (2) Materiality, as defined by the sound absorbance in the coupled volume. Preliminary calculations indicate that the double-sloped sound decay condition only appears when the total aperture area is less than 1.5% of the total shoebox surface area and the average absorption coefficient of the coupled volume is less than 0.07.

  18. Colonisation and competition dynamics can explain incomplete sterilisation parasitism in ant-plant symbioses.

    PubMed

    Tarnita, Corina E; Palmer, Todd M; Pringle, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    Sterilisation of parasites prevents host reproduction, thereby diverting host resources to their own benefit. Previous theory predicts that parasites should evolve maximum virulence, yet hosts are often incompletely sterilised. Whereas prior attempts to resolve this paradox have sought evolutionary explanations, we present theory and experiments showing that incomplete sterilisation can arise from ecologically driven fluctuations in parasite load. The African ant-plant Acacia drepanolobium reproduced more when occupied by small colonies of the sterilising symbiont Crematogaster nigriceps. In nature, small colonies result from interference competition between ant colonies; these territorial conflicts thus provide intermittent windows of opportunity for host reproduction. Our mean-field model shows that numerical insufficiency of parasites can produce partial sterilisation of host populations, creating the appearance of reduced virulence even if ants have evolved to sterilise completely. This general framework helps explain both the apparent ubiquity of partial sterilisation parasitism and the ability of these symbiotic associations to persist.

  19. When is incomplete epigenetic resetting in germ cells favoured by natural selection?

    PubMed Central

    Uller, Tobias; English, Sinead; Pen, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Resetting of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, in germ cells or early embryos is not always complete. Epigenetic states may therefore persist, decay or accumulate across generations. In spite of mounting empirical evidence for incomplete resetting, it is currently poorly understood whether it simply reflects stochastic noise or plays an adaptive role in phenotype determination. Here, we use a simple model to show that incomplete resetting can be adaptive in heterogeneous environments. Transmission of acquired epigenetic states prevents mismatched phenotypes when the environment changes infrequently relative to generation time and when maternal and environmental cues are unreliable. We discuss how these results may help to interpret the emerging data on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in plants and animals. PMID:26136447

  20. Imaging a boa constrictor--the incomplete double aortic arch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rajeev L; Kanwar, Anubhav; Jacobi, Adam; Sanz, Javier

    2012-11-01

    Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare anomaly resulting from atresia rather than complete involution in the distal left arch resulting in a non-patent fibrous cord between the left arch and descending thoracic aorta. This anatomic anomaly may cause symptomatic vascular rings, leading to stridor, wheezing, or dysphagia, requiring surgical transection of the fibrous cord. Herein, we describe an asymptomatic 59 year-old man presenting for contrast-enhanced CT angiography to assess cardiac anatomy prior to radiofrequency ablation, who was incidentally found to have an incomplete double aortic arch with hypoplasia of the left arch segment and an aortic diverticulum. Recognition of this abnormality by imaging is important to inform both corrective surgery in symptomatic patients, as well as assist in the planning of percutaneous coronary and vascular interventions.

  1. The Role of Inferences in Sequential Bargaining with One-Sided Incomplete Information: Some Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Joydeep

    2001-05-01

    Two experiments tested a sequential bargaining model with one-sided incomplete information and time discounting. The findings suggest that although the comparative statics of the normative model are somewhat descriptive of the qualitative features of the data, bargainers do not conform to the signaling process that underlies bargaining models with incomplete information. Rather than assess and refine a probabilistic assessment of the private information based on the informed bargainer's behavior, uninformed bargainers infer their opponents' competitiveness. Further, bargainers are unable to use cost of delay in the strategic manner dictated by the equilibrium solution. The evidence suggests that although bargaining behavior is primarily determined by situational constraints, bargainers attribute their opponents' behavior to personal disposition, such as their level of competitiveness. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11341821

  2. Nonparametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Analysis of Noisy and Incomplete Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Chen, Haojun; Paisley, John; Ren, Lu; Li, Lingbo; Xing, Zhengming; Dunson, David; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Nonparametric Bayesian methods are considered for recovery of imagery based upon compressive, incomplete, and/or noisy measurements. A truncated beta-Bernoulli process is employed to infer an appropriate dictionary for the data under test and also for image recovery. In the context of compressive sensing, significant improvements in image recovery are manifested using learned dictionaries, relative to using standard orthonormal image expansions. The compressive-measurement projections are also optimized for the learned dictionary. Additionally, we consider simpler (incomplete) measurements, defined by measuring a subset of image pixels, uniformly selected at random. Spatial interrelationships within imagery are exploited through use of the Dirichlet and probit stick-breaking processes. Several example results are presented, with comparisons to other methods in the literature. PMID:21693421

  3. Application of games with incomplete information for pricing electricity in deregulated power pools

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrero, R.W.; Rivera, J.F.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a game theoretical approach to the problem of pricing electricity in deregulated energy marketplaces. They assume that an Independent System Operator receives bids by Pool participants and defines transactions among participants by looking for the minimum price that satisfies the demand in the Pool. The competition among Pool participants is modeled as a non-cooperative game with incomplete information. They assume that each Pool participant knows its own operation costs but does not know his opponents` operation costs. The game with incomplete information is transformed into a game with complete, but imperfect, information and solved using the Nash equilibrium idea. The approach presented in this paper is geared towards providing support for pricing electricity in deregulated Pools.

  4. When is incomplete epigenetic resetting in germ cells favoured by natural selection?

    PubMed

    Uller, Tobias; English, Sinead; Pen, Ido

    2015-07-22

    Resetting of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, in germ cells or early embryos is not always complete. Epigenetic states may therefore persist, decay or accumulate across generations. In spite of mounting empirical evidence for incomplete resetting, it is currently poorly understood whether it simply reflects stochastic noise or plays an adaptive role in phenotype determination. Here, we use a simple model to show that incomplete resetting can be adaptive in heterogeneous environments. Transmission of acquired epigenetic states prevents mismatched phenotypes when the environment changes infrequently relative to generation time and when maternal and environmental cues are unreliable. We discuss how these results may help to interpret the emerging data on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in plants and animals.

  5. Incomplete hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentinean children with bloody diarrhea.

    PubMed

    López, E L; Contrini, M M; Devoto, S; de Rosa, M F; Graña, M G; Aversa, L; Gómez, H F; Genero, M H; Cleary, T G

    1995-09-01

    Argentina has an exceptionally high frequency of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We sought to define prospectively the role of verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins [SLTs]) in 254 Argentinean children with grossly bloody diarrhea during spring and summer. Free fecal SLTs (I/II) and/or DNA probe-positive isolates were found in 99 (39%) of the children. During the follow-up period, HUS developed in 6 patients (4 with evidence of recent SLT infection based on stool studies); another 14 patients had some, but not all, of the abnormalities seen in typical HUS. The development of HUS or incomplete HUS in these children was significantly associated with recent SLT-Escherichia coli infection (p = 0.024). The high incidence of SLT-associated bloody diarrhea in Argentina explains, at least partially, the unusually high frequency of HUS. Our data indicate that incomplete forms of HUS may be common in patients with SLT-associated bloody diarrhea.

  6. A ranking procedure by incomplete pairwise comparisons using information entropy and Dempster-Shafer evidence theory.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dongbo; Lu, Xi; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making, as a way to discover the preference of ranking, has been used in various fields. However, owing to the uncertainty in group decision-making, how to rank alternatives by incomplete pairwise comparisons has become an open issue. In this paper, an improved method is proposed for ranking of alternatives by incomplete pairwise comparisons using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and information entropy. Firstly, taking the probability assignment of the chosen preference into consideration, the comparison of alternatives to each group is addressed. Experiments verified that the information entropy of the data itself can determine the different weight of each group's choices objectively. Numerical examples in group decision-making environments are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, the divergence of ranking mechanism is analyzed briefly in conclusion section. PMID:25250393

  7. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    PubMed

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure. PMID:21973373

  8. Comparison of nested factorization, constrained pressure residual, and incomplete factorization preconditionings

    SciTech Connect

    Behie, A.

    1985-02-01

    Two recently developed methods for the solution of the sparse block-banded linear equation sets generated by fully implicit reservoir simulators are investigated. Nested factorization is a new approach to forming an incomplete factorization of the linear system. Comparisons are made of the nested factorization approach and the incomplete LU factorization (ILU) approach. Tests are done on both model problems and on problems generated by reservoir simulators. The nested factorization was no better than the best ILU method on both types of problems in most cases. In some cases it was considerably worse. Constrained pressure residual preconditioning (CPR) is a variant of the COMBINATIVE method. These two methods are compared on problems generated by black oil and steam simulators. CPR gives small improvements in convergence rates in some cases.

  9. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    PubMed

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure.

  10. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (<40 years) with CHD from both sexes, who had previously undergone biventricular corrective therapeutic interventions (n = 73), and non-CHD control participants (n = 76) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The CHD group was further divided according to the absence/presence of significant anatomical residua on a resting echocardiogram ("complete"/"incomplete" repair groups). Aerobic fitness and cardiac function were compared between groups using linear regression and analysis of covariance. Peak oxygen consumption, O2 pulse and ventilatory threshold were significantly lower in CHD patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Compared with the complete repair group, the incomplete repair group had a significantly lower mean peak work rate, age-adjusted O2 pulse (expressed as % predicted) and a higher VE/VCO2 ratio (all p ≤ 0.05). Peak oxygen consumption was comparable between the subgroups. Patients after corrected CHD have lower peak and submaximal exercise parameters. Patients with incomplete repair of their heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  11. Incomplete endothelialisation of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder device followed by meningitis and late acute bacterial endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Białkowski, Jacek; Pawlak, Szymon; Banaszak, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    A 19-year-old woman with atrial septal defect treated percutaneously with an Amplatzer Septal Occluder 24 months earlier, who presented with a history of bacterial meningitis, was admitted with a diagnosis of endocarditis. After 6 weeks of treatment with antibiotics, the incompletely endothelialised occluder was surgically removed. The present report illustrates the need for long-term follow-up of patients who have received nitinol wire mesh occluders. PMID:26707128

  12. HIFI: a computer code for projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    A brief summary of a model proposed to describe projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion and the instructions for the use of the computer code HIFI are given. The code HIFI calculates single inclusive spectra, coincident spectra and excitation functions resulting from particle-induced reactions. It is a multipurpose program which can calculate any type of coincident spectra as long as the reaction is assumed to take place in two steps.

  13. Phanerozoic marine biodiversity dynamics in light of the incompleteness of the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peter J; Yogo, Motohiro; Marshall, Charles R

    2006-02-21

    Long-term evolutionary dynamics have been approached through quantitative analysis of the fossil record, but without explicitly taking its incompleteness into account. Here we explore the temporal covariance structure of per-genus origination and extinction rates for global marine fossil genera throughout the Phanerozoic, both before and after corrections for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Using uncorrected data based on Sepkoski's compendium, we find significant autocovariance within origination and extinction rates, as well as covariance between extinction and origination, not one, but two, intervals later, corroborating evidence for the unexplained temporal gap found by past studies. However, these effects vanish when the data are corrected for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Instead, we observe significant covariance only between extinction and origination in the immediately following intervals. The gap in the response of the biosphere to extinction in the uncorrected fossil record thus appears to be an artifact of the incompleteness of the fossil record, specifically due to episodic variation in the probability that taxa will be preserved, on time scales comparable to the temporal resolution of Sepkoski's data. Our results also indicate that at that temporal resolution (the stage/substage of duration approximately = 5 million years), changes in origination and extinction do not persist for longer than one interval, except that elevated origination rates immediately after extinction may last for more than a single interval. Thus, although certain individual cases may deviate from the overall pattern, we find that in general the biosphere's response to perturbation is immediate geologically and usually short-lived. PMID:16477008

  14. Double incomplete aortic arch and Kommerell's Diverticulum as a cause of chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Galan, Lilia M; Shveid-Gerson, Daniela; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Rey-Rodriguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Vascular rings which can cause symptoms related the trachea and esophagus compression occur in less than 1% of all cardiovascular malformations. Double incomplete aortic arch with right-sided aorta and aberrant left subclavian artery is the rarest one, and its present in 0.04-0.1% of autopsy series. A case of this malformation with a Kommerell's Diverticulum is presented. This diverticulum has risk of severe complications such as dissection and/or rupture.

  15. Phanerozoic marine biodiversity dynamics in light of the incompleteness of the fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peter J.; Yogo, Motohiro; Marshall, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term evolutionary dynamics have been approached through quantitative analysis of the fossil record, but without explicitly taking its incompleteness into account. Here we explore the temporal covariance structure of per-genus origination and extinction rates for global marine fossil genera throughout the Phanerozoic, both before and after corrections for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Using uncorrected data based on Sepkoski’s compendium, we find significant autocovariance within origination and extinction rates, as well as covariance between extinction and origination, not one, but two, intervals later, corroborating evidence for the unexplained temporal gap found by past studies. However, these effects vanish when the data are corrected for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Instead, we observe significant covariance only between extinction and origination in the immediately following intervals. The gap in the response of the biosphere to extinction in the uncorrected fossil record thus appears to be an artifact of the incompleteness of the fossil record, specifically due to episodic variation in the probability that taxa will be preserved, on time scales comparable to the temporal resolution of Sepkoski’s data. Our results also indicate that at that temporal resolution (the stage/substage of duration ≈5 million years), changes in origination and extinction do not persist for longer than one interval, except that elevated origination rates immediately after extinction may last for more than a single interval. Thus, although certain individual cases may deviate from the overall pattern, we find that in general the biosphere’s response to perturbation is immediate geologically and usually short-lived. PMID:16477008

  16. Leaflet stress and strain distributions following incomplete transcatheter aortic valve expansion.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mostafa; Azadani, Ali N

    2015-10-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established treatment alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. The current guidelines for TAVR are to upsize transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) relative to the native annulus to secure the device and minimize paravalvular leakage. Unlike surgical stented bioprosthetic valves where leaflets are attached to a rigid frame, TAVs must expand to fit within the native annulus. Fully-expanded circular TAVs have consistent leaflet kinematics; however, subtle variations in the degree of stent expansion may affect leaflet coaptation. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of incomplete TAV expansion on leaflet stress and strain distributions. In this study, we developed finite element models of a 23 mm homemade TAV expanded to diameters ranging from 18 to 23 mm in 1mm increments. Through dynamic finite element simulations, we found that leaflet stress and strain distributions were dependent on the diameter of the inflated TAV. After complete expansion of the TAV to 23 mm, high stress and strain regions were observed primarily in the commissures during diastole. However, 2-3mm incomplete TAV stent expansion induced localized high stress regions within the TAV commissures, while 4-5mm incomplete stent expansion induced localized high stress regions within the belly of the TAV leaflets during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Increased mechanical stress and flexural deformation on TAV leaflets due to incomplete stent expansion may lead to accelerated tissue degeneration and diminished long-term valve durability.

  17. The incomplete anti-Rh antibody agglutination mechanism of trypsinized ORh+ red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R A; Leoni, J; Bazzurro, M

    1977-01-01

    The capacity for binding to trypsinized and non-trypsinized ORh+ red cells, of the IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody and its F(ab')2 and Fc fragments has been investigated. An analysis has also been made of the capacity of non-specific human IgG, aggregated non-specific human IgG, human IgM (19S) and IgM (7S), and of fragments Fcgamma, Fcmu and Fc5mu to inhibit the agglutination of trypsinized ORh+ red cells by the IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody. The results obtained indicate that these antibodies behave in a similar manner to that of nonprecipitating antibodies, and that the agglutination of trypsinized red cells seems to be a mixed reaction due to the interaction of an Fab fragment with its Rh antigenic determinant present in the surface of a red cell and the Fc of the same molecule with a receptor for Fc present in adjacent red cells. The trypsin treatment apparently results in the liberation of occult Fc receptors. It has also been demonstrated that in the agglutination of ORh+ red cells by IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody in the presence of albumin, interaction must occur in some manner between the albumin and the Fc fragment since the F(ab')2 fragment does not give rise to agglutination under such conditions. Images Figure 1 PMID:415968

  18. [Incomplete antigens derived from milk proteins in the serum of infants allergic to milk].

    PubMed

    Vanella, L M; de González Lascano, A M; Miguez, V M

    1978-01-01

    1. Sera of 22 children with cow's milk clinical hypersensitivity were studied to demonstrate the presence of substances immunologically related with milk. They were compared with 23 controls. The infants of both groups were feed with bovine milk. The immunogenic capacity of cow's milk and their major proteins were experimentally investigated. 2. Specific rabbit antisera were obtained by injection of antigens with incomplete Freund adjuvant. Double difussion gel, passive hemagglutination and ultramicromethod for the determination of antigen antibody precipitated were performed. 3. Immunogenicity was proved by precipitation and hemagglutination methods. by precipitation cow's milk antigens were present in 5 of 22 sera of antigenic patients, in 3 of them ALA antigens were present and in only 1 of them, caseina were present. By hemagglutination, 12 of 22 allergic infants showed ALA and BLG and 11 caseine (C). In 2 of 7 controls, beta lactoglobuline (BLG) was present and in an other one C. It was possible to detect incomplete antigens related with ALA, BLG, and C in allergic infants as well as controls. A significative difference was found for BLG (P less than 0.01) and it was highest (P less than 0.003) in infants with protein calorie malnutrition. 4. It is concluded that sensitization depends not only on stimulation of incomplete or complete antigens, as were observed in this study but on the host's capacity to form citrotropic antibody in humoral hypersensitivity or to stimulate lymphocytes in cellular immunity field.

  19. The influence of incomplete or unavailable information on environmental impact assessment in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Samuel F. . E-mail: atkinson@unt.edu; Canter, Larry W. . E-mail: envimptr@aol.com; Ravan, Melanie D. . E-mail: melanie.raven@navy.mil

    2006-07-15

    One of the more common activities of environmental scientists in the United States is the preparation of environmental assessments or environmental impact statements in response to the mandates of the National Environmental Policy Act. The central thesis of this paper revolves around a frequent dilemma those scientists face: how to proceed with the environmental impact analysis when information on potential impacts is incomplete or unavailable. The paper examines how the 'hard look' standard that U.S. courts have imposed upon agencies considering proposed actions came about. Further, U.S. courts have said agencies cannot make arbitrary and capricious decisions when deciding to build a project, implement a plan, issue a permit or other give other approvals, and this paper discusses how the courts have defined what arbitrary and capricious decision are, especially when decisions are made when information about impacts is incomplete or unavailable. The paper examines why agencies win or lose lawsuits filed against the environmental assessments or environmental impact statements they write, focusing on those cases that have occurred after the Supreme Court ruled on the issue in 1989. The paper suggests recommendations to environmental scientists faced with incomplete or unavailable information when preparing an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement in the U.S.

  20. Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Doto, Ryosuke; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Acute pericoronitis (AP) arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal surface of the second molar (A), the proximal surface (B), and distal surface (C) in mesio-angular, incompletely impacted third molars in 27 young and 58 older adults with AP and 77 young and 79 older adults without a history of AP. Bone resorption in A, B, and C in older adults with AP demonstrated a significantly higher ratio when compared to those without AP, whereas there was no difference between those with and without AP in young adults except for B in women. However, there were no differences between bone resorption in B with AP in young and older women, and between bone resorption in C with AP in young and older adults. These indicate that AP and bone resorption are associated with incompletely impacted mandibular third molars in older adults.

  1. Augmented multisensory feedback enhances locomotor adaptation in humans with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Landry, Jill M; Wu, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Different forms of augmented feedback may engage different motor learning pathways, but it is unclear how these pathways interact with each other, especially in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to test whether augmented multisensory feedback could enhance aftereffects following short term locomotor training (i.e., adaptation) in patients with incomplete SCI. A total of 10 subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to perform locomotor adaptation. Three types of augmented feedback were provided during the adaptation: (a) computerized visual cues showing the actual and target stride length (augmented visual feedback); (b) a swing resistance applied to the leg (augmented proprioceptive feedback); (c) a combination of the visual cues and resistance (augmented multisensory feedback). The results showed that subjects' stride length increased in all conditions following the adaptation, but the increase was greater and retained longer in the multisensory feedback condition. The multisensory feedback provided in this study may engage both explicit and implicit learning pathways during the adaptation and in turn enhance the aftereffect. The results implied that multisensory feedback may be used as an adjunctive approach to enhance gait recovery in humans with SCI. PMID:24746604

  2. Walking after incomplete spinal cord injury using an implanted FES system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Elizabeth; Kobetic, Rudi; Murray, Lori; Corado-Ahmed, Michelle; Pinault, Gilles; Sakai, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephanie Nogan; Ho, Chester; Triolo, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    Implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems for walking are experimentally available to individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, data on short-term therapeutic and functional outcomes are limited. The goal of this study was to quantify therapeutic and functional effects of an implanted FES system for walking after incomplete cervical SCI. After robotic-assisted treadmill training and overground gait training maximized his voluntary function, an individual with incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association grade C, cervical level 6-7) who could stand volitionally but not step was surgically implanted with an 8-channel receiver stimulator and intramuscular electrodes. Electrodes were implanted bilaterally, recruiting iliopsoas, vastus intermedius and lateralis, tensor fasciae latae, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus muscles. Twelve weeks of training followed limited activity post-surgery. Customized stimulation patterns addressed gait deficits via an external control unit. The system was well-tolerated and reliable. After the 12-week training, maximal walking distance increased (from 14 m to 309 m), maximal walking speed was 10 times greater (from 0.02 m/s to 0.20 m/s), and physiological cost index was 5 times less (from 44.4 beats/m to 8.6 beats/m). Voluntary locomotor function was unchanged. The implanted FES system was well-tolerated, reliable, and supplemented function, allowing the participant limited community ambulation. Physiological effort decreased and maximal walking distance increased dramatically over 12 weeks.

  3. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

  4. Concerted Rattling in CsAg5 Te3 Leading to Ultralow Thermal Conductivity and High Thermoelectric Performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua; Tan, Gangjian; Shen, Jin-Ni; Hao, Shiqiang; Wu, Li-Ming; Calta, Nicholas; Malliakas, Christos; Wang, Si; Uher, Ctirad; Wolverton, Christopher; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-09-12

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials convert heat energy directly into electricity, and introducing new materials with high conversion efficiency is a great challenge because of the rare combination of interdependent electrical and thermal transport properties required to be present in a single material. The TE efficiency is defined by the figure of merit ZT=(S(2) σ) T/κ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, κ is the total thermal conductivity, and T is the absolute temperature. A new p-type thermoelectric material, CsAg5 Te3 , is presented that exhibits ultralow lattice thermal conductivity (ca. 0.18 Wm(-1)  K(-1) ) and a high figure of merit of about 1.5 at 727 K. The lattice thermal conductivity is the lowest among state-of-the-art thermoelectrics; it is attributed to a previously unrecognized phonon scattering mechanism that involves the concerted rattling of a group of Ag ions that strongly raises the Grüneisen parameters of the material. PMID:27513458

  5. The evolution of increased competitive ability, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons act in concert for a tropical invader.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Long; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Callaway, Ragan M; Barclay, Gregor F; Pereyra, Carlos Silva; Feng, Yu-Long

    2013-02-01

    There are many non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic invasions but few studies have concurrently tested more than one hypothesis for the same species. Here, we tested the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis in two common garden experiments in which Chromolaena odorata plants originating from native and nonnative ranges were grown in competition with natives from each range, and the novel weapons hypothesis in laboratory experiments with leachates from C. odorata. Compared with conspecifics originating from the native range, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were stronger competitors at high nutrient concentrations in the nonnative range in China and experienced far more herbivore damage in the native range in Mexico. In both China and Mexico, C. odorata was more suppressed by species native to Mexico than by species native to China. Species native to China were much more inhibited by leaf extracts from C. odorata than species from Mexico, and this difference in allelopathic effects may provide a possible explanation for the biogeographic differences in competitive ability. Our results indicate that EICA, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons may act in concert to promote invasion by C. odorata, and emphasize the importance of exploring multiple, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for invasions.

  6. Concerted two-dimensional NMR approaches to hydrogen-1, carbon-13, and nitrogen-15 resonance assignments in proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, B.J.; Reily, M.D.; Westler, W.M.; Ulrich, E.L.; Markley, J.L. )

    1989-01-10

    When used in concert, one-bond carbon-carbon correlations, one-bond and multiple-bond proton-carbon correlations, and multiple-bond proton-nitrogen correlations, derived from two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra of isotopically enriched proteins, provide a reliable method of assigning proton, carbon, and nitrogen resonances. In contrast to procedures that simply extend proton assignments to carbon or nitrogen resonances, this technique assigns proton, carbon, and nitrogen resonances coordinately on the basis of their integrated coupling networks. Redundant spin coupling pathways provide ways of resolving overlaps frequently encountered in homonuclear {sup 1}H 2D NMR spectra and facilitate the elucidation of complex proton spin systems. Carbon-carbon and proton-carbon couplings can be used to bridge the aromatic and aliphatic parts of proton spin systems; this avoids possible ambiguities that may result from the use of nuclear Overhauser effects to assign aromatic amino acid signals. The technique is illustrated for Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin and cytochrome c-553, both uniformly enriched with carbon-13 (26%) or nitrogen-15 (98%).

  7. Concerted dismutation of chlorite ion: water-soluble iron-porphyrins as first generation model complexes for chlorite dismutase.

    PubMed

    Zdilla, Michael J; Lee, Amanda Q; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2009-03-01

    Three iron-5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrins (Fe(Por-Ar4), Ar = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluro-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium (1), N,N,N-trimethylanilinium (2), and p-sulfonatophenyl (3)) have been investigated as catalysts for the dismutation of chlorite (ClO2-). Degradation of ClO2- by these catalysts occurs by two concurrent pathways. One leads to formation of chlorate (ClO3-) and chloride (Cl-), which is determined to be catalyzed by O=FeIV(Por) (Compound II) based on stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy, competition with 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid), 18O-labeling studies, and kinetics. The second pathway is a concerted dismutation of chlorite to dioxygen (O2) and chloride. On the basis of isotope labeling studies using a residual gas analyzer, the mechanism is determined to be formation of O=FeIV(Por)*+ (Compound I) from oxygen atom transfer, and subsequent rebound with the resulting hypochlorite ion (ClO-) to give dioxygen and chloride. While the chlorate production pathway is dominant for catalysts 2 and 3, the O2-producing pathway is significant for catalyst 1. In addition to chlorite dismutation, complex 1 catalyzes hypochlorite disproportionation to chloride and dioxygen quantitatively.

  8. Paul Wittgenstein's right arm and his phantom: the saga of a famous concert pianist and his amputation.

    PubMed

    Boller, François; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs have increased in recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems are still poorly understood and are considered rather mysterious, and they are difficult to treat. In addition, they may shed light on brain physiology and neuropsychology. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Several artists have suffered from postamputation complications and this has influenced not only their personal life but also their artistic work. Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), a pianist whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert performer. His case provides insight into Post-World War I musical and political history. More specifically, the impact on the artistic life of this pianist illustrates various postamputation complications, such as phantom limb, stump pain, and especially moving phantom. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him develop the dexterity of his left hand. Wittgenstein played piano works that were written especially for him (the most famous being Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand) and composed some of his own. Additionally, several famous composers had previously written for the left hand.

  9. Concerted regulation of inhibitory activity of alpha 1-antitrypsin by the native strain distributed throughout the molecule.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eun Joo; Lee, Cheolju; Yu, Myeong-Hee

    2002-04-19

    The native forms of common globular proteins are in their most stable state but the native forms of plasma serpins (serine protease inhibitors) show high energy state interactions. The high energy state strain of alpha(1)-antitrypsin, a prototype serpin, is distributed throughout the whole molecule, but the strain that regulates the function directly appears to be localized in the region where the reactive site loop is inserted during complex formation with a target protease. To examine the functional role of the strain at other regions of alpha(1)-antitrypsin, we increased the stability of the molecule greatly via combining various stabilizing single amino acid substitutions that did not affect the activity individually. The results showed that a substantial increase of stability, over 13 kcal mol(-1), affected the inhibitory activity with a correlation of 11% activity loss per kcal mol(-1). Addition of an activity affecting single residue substitution in the loop insertion region to these very stable substitutions caused a further activity decrease. The results suggest that the native strain of alpha(1)-antitrypsin distributed throughout the molecule regulates the inhibitory function in a concerted manner. PMID:11834734

  10. Concerted Rattling in CsAg5 Te3 Leading to Ultralow Thermal Conductivity and High Thermoelectric Performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua; Tan, Gangjian; Shen, Jin-Ni; Hao, Shiqiang; Wu, Li-Ming; Calta, Nicholas; Malliakas, Christos; Wang, Si; Uher, Ctirad; Wolverton, Christopher; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-09-12

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials convert heat energy directly into electricity, and introducing new materials with high conversion efficiency is a great challenge because of the rare combination of interdependent electrical and thermal transport properties required to be present in a single material. The TE efficiency is defined by the figure of merit ZT=(S(2) σ) T/κ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, κ is the total thermal conductivity, and T is the absolute temperature. A new p-type thermoelectric material, CsAg5 Te3 , is presented that exhibits ultralow lattice thermal conductivity (ca. 0.18 Wm(-1)  K(-1) ) and a high figure of merit of about 1.5 at 727 K. The lattice thermal conductivity is the lowest among state-of-the-art thermoelectrics; it is attributed to a previously unrecognized phonon scattering mechanism that involves the concerted rattling of a group of Ag ions that strongly raises the Grüneisen parameters of the material.

  11. Theoretical study of the neutral hydrolysis of hydrogen isocyanate in aqueous solution via assisted-concerted mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tolosa Arroyo, S; Hidalgo Garcia, A; Sansón Martín, J A

    2009-03-01

    A procedure is described for the theoretical study of chemical reactions in solution by means of molecular dynamics simulation, with solute-solvent interaction potentials derived from ab initio quantum calculations. We apply the procedure to the case of neutral hydrogen isocyanate hydrolysis, HNCO + 2 H(2)O --> H(2)NCOOH + H(2)O, in aqueous solution, via the assisted-concerted mechanisms and the two-water model. We used the solvent as a reaction coordinate and the free-energy curves for the calculation of the properties related to the reaction mechanisms, with a particular focus on the reaction and activation energies. The results showed that the mechanism with two water molecules attacking the C=N bond is preferred to the mechanism with three waters forming a ring of eight members. In addition, the aqueous medium significantly reduces the activation barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = 13.9 kcal/mol) and makes the process more exothermic (DeltaG = -11.1 kcal/mol) relative to the gas-phase reaction, increasing the rate constant of the process to k = 4.25 x 10(5) s(-1). PMID:19209882

  12. The Symbiosis-Related ERN Transcription Factors Act in Concert to Coordinate Rhizobial Host Root Infection1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cerri, Marion R.; Frances, Lisa; Kelner, Audrey; Middleton, Patrick H.; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Erard, Monique; Barker, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes improve their mineral nutrition through nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soil rhizobia. Rhizobial infection of legumes is regulated by a number of transcription factors, including ERF Required for Nodulation1 (ERN1). Medicago truncatula plants defective in ERN1 are unable to nodulate, but still exhibit early symbiotic responses including rhizobial infection. ERN1 has a close homolog, ERN2, which shows partially overlapping expression patterns. Here we show that ern2 mutants exhibit a later nodulation phenotype than ern1, being able to form nodules but with signs of premature senescence. Molecular characterization of the ern2-1 mutation reveals a key role for a conserved threonine for both DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In contrast to either single mutant, the double ern1-1 ern2-1 line is completely unable to initiate infection or nodule development. The strong ern1-1 ern2-1 phenotype demonstrates functional redundancy between these two transcriptional regulators and reveals the essential role of ERN1/ERN2 to coordinately induce rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis. While ERN1/ERN2 act in concert in the root epidermis, only ERN1 can efficiently allow the development of mature nodules in the cortex, probably through an independent pathway. Together, these findings reveal the key roles that ERN1/ERN2 play at the very earliest stages of root nodule development. PMID:27208242

  13. The EURONIC Project: a European concerted action on information to parents and ethical decision-making in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Cuttini, M; Kaminski, M; Saracci, R; de Vonderweid, U

    1997-10-01

    The paper presents the background, objectives and methods of a European concerted action project aimed at exploring the transmission of information to parents and the ethical decision-making process in neonatal intensive care from the perspective of health personnel, and in relation to the legal, cultural, social and ethical backgrounds of the various European countries. Eight countries are taking part in the project (France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom), which is about to be extended also to Central and Eastern Europe (Estonia, Lithuania and Hungary). In each of them, the medical and nursing personnel of a number of randomly selected units will be interviewed through an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Information on the organisation and policies of the Units and on the national legislation will also be collected. The key features of the study lie in the multidisciplinary and international approach, the random selection of the sample as a guarantee of representativeness and lack of selection bias, the focus on the staff practices as well as on their attitudes and opinions.

  14. Mean-free-paths in concert and chamber music halls and the correct method for calibrating dodecahedral sound sources.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L; Nishihara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    The Eyring/Sabine equations assume that in a large irregular room a sound wave travels in straight lines from one surface to another, that the surfaces have an average sound absorption coefficient αav, and that the mean-free-path between reflections is 4 V/Stot where V is the volume of the room and Stot is the total area of all of its surfaces. No account is taken of diffusivity of the surfaces. The 4 V/Stot relation was originally based on experimental determinations made by Knudsen (Architectural Acoustics, 1932, pp. 132-141). This paper sets out to test the 4 V/Stot relation experimentally for a wide variety of unoccupied concert and chamber music halls with seating capacities from 200 to 5000, using the measured sound strengths Gmid and reverberation times RT60,mid. Computer simulations of the sound fields for nine of these rooms (of varying shapes) were also made to determine the mean-free-paths by that method. The study shows that 4 V/Stot is an acceptable relation for mean-free-paths in the Sabine/Eyring equations except for halls of unusual shape. Also demonstrated is the proper method for calibrating the dodecahedral sound source used for measuring the sound strength G, i.e., the reverberation chamber method. PMID:24437762

  15. Mean-free-paths in concert and chamber music halls and the correct method for calibrating dodecahedral sound sources.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L; Nishihara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    The Eyring/Sabine equations assume that in a large irregular room a sound wave travels in straight lines from one surface to another, that the surfaces have an average sound absorption coefficient αav, and that the mean-free-path between reflections is 4 V/Stot where V is the volume of the room and Stot is the total area of all of its surfaces. No account is taken of diffusivity of the surfaces. The 4 V/Stot relation was originally based on experimental determinations made by Knudsen (Architectural Acoustics, 1932, pp. 132-141). This paper sets out to test the 4 V/Stot relation experimentally for a wide variety of unoccupied concert and chamber music halls with seating capacities from 200 to 5000, using the measured sound strengths Gmid and reverberation times RT60,mid. Computer simulations of the sound fields for nine of these rooms (of varying shapes) were also made to determine the mean-free-paths by that method. The study shows that 4 V/Stot is an acceptable relation for mean-free-paths in the Sabine/Eyring equations except for halls of unusual shape. Also demonstrated is the proper method for calibrating the dodecahedral sound source used for measuring the sound strength G, i.e., the reverberation chamber method.

  16. Factors associated with incomplete gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection due to misdiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Masau; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Saito, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely accepted for treating early gastric cancer (EGC); however, there can be cases of incomplete resection due to not only technical problems, but also misdiagnosis. Our aim was to identify factors associated with incomplete gastric ESD due to misdiagnosis. Patients and methods: A total of 2,268 patients with solitary EGCs at initial onset underwent ESD with curative intent at our hospital from 1999 to 2008. We retrospectively assessed the clinicopathological factors by comparing the two groups of incomplete ESD cases due to misdiagnosis (cases with a positive lateral margins [LM] [Group A] or those with a positive vertical margins [VM] [Group B]) with complete ESD cases using multivariable analysis. Results: Complete ESD was achieved in 2,097 patients. The 171 patients with incomplete ESDs were divided into 109 with a positive LM and 80 with a positive VM (overlapped). Except 49 cases with a positive LM due to technical problems, a positive LM due to misdiagnosis was identified in 60 cases (Group A). Excluding 32 cases with a positive VM due to technical problems, a positive VM due to misdiagnosis was found in 48 cases (Group B). Significant independent factors (odds ratios [OR]; 95 % confidence intervals [CI]) for each group were as follows: Group A: size > 20 mm (5.4; 3.0 – 9.9), undifferentiated-type (4.1; 1.8 – 9.0), submucosal invasion (2.0; 1.1 – 3.4) and location of upper/middle (1.9; 1.0 – 3.6); Group B: size > 20 mm (3.0; 1.6 – 5.5), undifferentiated-type (3.0; 1.1 – 8.0) and location of upper/middle (2.4; 1.2 – 4.8). Conclusions: Endoscopists must be aware of these factors associated with incomplete gastric ESD due to misdiagnosis to further decrease their incidence. PMID:27556097

  17. Fast NJ-like algorithms to deal with incomplete distance matrices

    PubMed Central

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Gascuel, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Background Distance-based phylogeny inference methods first estimate evolutionary distances between every pair of taxa, then build a tree from the so-obtained distance matrix. These methods are fast and fairly accurate. However, they hardly deal with incomplete distance matrices. Such matrices are frequent with recent multi-gene studies, when two species do not share any gene in analyzed data. The few existing algorithms to infer trees with satisfying accuracy from incomplete distance matrices have time complexity in O(n4) or more, where n is the number of taxa, which precludes large scale studies. Agglomerative distance algorithms (e.g. NJ [1,2]) are much faster, with time complexity in O(n3) which allows huge datasets and heavy bootstrap analyses to be dealt with. These algorithms proceed in three steps: (a) search for the taxon pair to be agglomerated, (b) estimate the lengths of the two so-created branches, (c) reduce the distance matrix and return to (a) until the tree is fully resolved. But available agglomerative algorithms cannot deal with incomplete matrices. Results We propose an adaptation to incomplete matrices of three agglomerative algorithms, namely NJ, BIONJ [3] and MVR [4]. Our adaptation generalizes to incomplete matrices the taxon pair selection criterion of NJ (also used by BIONJ and MVR), and combines this generalized criterion with that of ADDTREE [5]. Steps (b) and (c) are also modified, but O(n3) time complexity is kept. The performance of these new algorithms is studied with large scale simulations, which mimic multi-gene phylogenomic datasets. Our new algorithms – named NJ*, BIONJ* and MVR* – infer phylogenetic trees that are as least as accurate as those inferred by other available methods, but with much faster running times. MVR* presents the best overall performance. This algorithm accounts for the variance of the pairwise evolutionary distance estimates, and is well suited for multi-gene studies where some distances are accurately

  18. Synchronous concerted multiple-body photodissociation of oxalyl chloride explored by ab initio-based dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qiu; Shen, Lin; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2013-07-14

    Photo-induced multiple body dissociation is of fundamental interest in chemistry and physics. A description of the mechanism associated with n-body (n ≥ 3) photodissociation has proven to be an intriguing and yet challenging issue in the field of chemical dynamics. Oxalyl chloride, (ClCO)2, is the sole molecule reported up to date that can undergo four-body dissociation following absorption of a single UV photon, with a rich history of mechanistic debate. In the present work, the combined electronic structure calculations and dynamics simulations have been performed at the advanced level, which provides convincing evidence for resolving the mechanistic debate. More importantly, synchronous and asynchronous concertedness were explored for the first time for the (ClCO)2 photodissociation, which is based on the simulated time constants for the C-C and C-Cl bond fissions. Upon photoexcitation of (ClCO)2 to the S1 state, the adiabatic C-C or C-Cl fission takes place with little possibility. The four-body dissociation to 2Cl((2)P) and 2CO((1)Σ) was determined to a dominant channel with its branch of ∼0.7, while the three-body dissociation to ClCO((2)A(')) + CO((1)Σ) + Cl((2)P) was predicted to play a minor role in the (ClCO)2 photodissociation at 193 nm. Both the four-body and three-body dissociations are non-adiabatic processes, which proceed in a synchronous concerted way as a result of the S1 → S0 internal conversion. There is a little possibility for two-body dissociation to occur in the S0 and S1 states. PMID:23862946

  19. Concerted Motions Networking Pores and Distant Ferroxidase Centers Enable Bacterioferritin Function and Iron Traffic£ξ

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Huili; Rui, Huan; Kumar, Ritesh; Eshelman, Kate; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Im, Wonpil; Rivera, Mario

    2015-01-01

    X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and biochemistry were utilized to investigate the effect of introducing hydrophobic interactions in the 4-fold (N148L and Q151L) and B-pores (D34F) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin B (BfrB) on BfrB function. The structures show only local structural perturbations and confirm the anticipated hydrophobic interactions. Surprisingly, structures obtained after soaking crystals in Fe2+-containing crystallization solution revealed that although iron loads into the ferroxidase centers of the mutants, the side chains of ferroxidase ligands E51 and H130 do not reorganize to bind the iron ions, as is seen in the wt BfrB structures. Similar experiments with a double mutant (C89S/K96C) prepared to introduce changes outside the pores show competent ferroxidase centers that function akin to those in wt BfrB. MD simulations comparing wt BfrB with the D34F and N148L mutants show that the mutants exhibit significantly reduced flexibility, and reveal a network of concerted motions linking ferroxidase centers and 4-fold and B-pores, which are important for imparting ferroxidase centers in BfrB with the required flexibility to function efficiently. In agreement, the efficiency of Fe2+ oxidation and uptake of the 4-fold and B-pore mutants in solution is significantly compromised relative to wt or C89S/K96C BfrB. Finally, our structures show a large number of previously unknown iron binding sites in the interior cavity and B-pores of BfrB, which reveal in unprecedented detail conduits followed by iron and phosphate ions across the BfrB shell, as well as paths in the interior cavity that may facilitate nucleation of the iron phosphate mineral. PMID:25640193

  20. Fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract parasitic phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2013-11-01

    Pseudacteon tricuspis, Pseudacteon obtusus and Pseudacteon curvatus are three species of parasitic phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae), which have been introduced as classical biological control agents of imported, Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the southern USA. Previous studies demonstrated the behavioral response of P. tricuspis to the venom alkaloids and alarm pheromone of the fire ant, S. invicta. In the present study, we compared the responses of P. tricuspis, P. obtusus and P. curvatus to Solenopsis invicta alarm pheromone, venom alkaloids, or a mixture of both chemicals in four-choice olfactometer bioassays. The main hypothesis tested was that the fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract Pseudacteon phorid flies. Both sexes of all three Pseudacteon species were attracted to low doses of the fire ant alarm pheromone or venom alkaloids (i.e. 1 ant worker equivalent) alone. However, the flies were significantly more attracted to a mixture of both chemicals (i.e., 1:1 mixture of alarm pheromone+alkaloids) than to either chemical. The results suggest an additive rather than a synergistic effect of combining both chemicals. Comparing the fly species, P. tricuspis showed relatively greater attraction to cis alkaloids, whereas the alkaloid mixture (cis+trans) was preferred by P. obtusus and P. curvatus. In general, no key sexual differences were recorded, although females of P. tricuspis and P. obtusus showed slightly higher response than conspecific males to lower doses of the alarm pheromone. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed, and a host location model is proposed for parasitic phorid flies involving the use of fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids as long range and short range attractants, respectively. PMID:24035750

  1. Concerted transfer of the virulence Ti plasmid and companion At plasmid in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced plant tumour.

    PubMed

    Lang, Julien; Planamente, Sara; Mondy, Samuel; Dessaux, Yves; Moréra, Solange; Faure, Denis

    2013-12-01

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 harbours three independent type IV secretion (T4SS) machineries. T4SST-DNA promotes the transfer of the T-DNA to host plant cells, provoking tumour development and accumulation of opines such as nopaline and agrocinopines. T4SSpTi and T4SSpAt control the bacterial conjugation of the Ti and At plasmids respectively. Expression of T4SSpTi is controlled by the agrocinopine-responsive transcriptional repressor AccR. In this work, we compared the genome-wide transcriptional profile of the wild-type A. tumefaciens strain C58 with that of its accR KO-mutant to delineate the AccR regulon. In addition to the genes that encode agrocinopine catabolism and T4SSpTi , we found that AccR also regulated genes coding for nopaline catabolism and T4SSpAt . Further opine detection and conjugation assays confirmed the enhancement of nopaline consumption and At plasmid conjugation frequency in accR. Moreover, co-regulation of the T4SSpTi and T4SSpAt correlated with the co-transfer of the At and Ti plasmids both in vitro and in plant tumours. Finally, unlike T4SSpTi , T4SSpAt activation does not require quorum-sensing. Overall this study highlights the regulatory interplays between opines, At and Ti plasmids that contribute to a concerted dissemination of the two replicons in bacterial populations colonizing the plant tumour. PMID:24118167

  2. Platelet microparticles are internalized in neutrophils via the concerted activity of 12-lipoxygenase and secreted phospholipase A2-IIA

    PubMed Central

    Duchez, Anne-Claire; Boudreau, Luc H.; Naika, Gajendra S.; Bollinger, James; Belleannée, Clémence; Cloutier, Nathalie; Laffont, Benoit; Mendoza-Villarroel, Raifish E.; Lévesque, Tania; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Matthieu; Allaeys, Isabelle; Tremblay, Jacques J.; Poubelle, Patrice E.; Lambeau, Gérard; Pouliot, Marc; Provost, Patrick; Soulet, Denis; Gelb, Michael H.; Boilard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are anucleated blood elements highly potent at generating extracellular vesicles (EVs) called microparticles (MPs). Whereas EVs are accepted as an important means of intercellular communication, the mechanisms underlying platelet MP internalization in recipient cells are poorly understood. Our lipidomic analyses identified 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid [12(S)-HETE] as the predominant eicosanoid generated by MPs. Mechanistically, 12(S)-HETE is produced through the concerted activity of secreted phospholipase A2 IIA (sPLA2-IIA), present in inflammatory fluids, and platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), expressed by platelet MPs. Platelet MPs convey an elaborate set of transcription factors and nucleic acids, and contain mitochondria. We observed that MPs and their cargo are internalized by activated neutrophils in the endomembrane system via 12(S)-HETE. Platelet MPs are found inside neutrophils isolated from the joints of arthritic patients, and are found in neutrophils only in the presence of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO in an in vivo model of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. Using a combination of genetically modified mice, we show that the coordinated action of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO promotes inflammatory arthritis. These findings identify 12(S)-HETE as a trigger of platelet MP internalization by neutrophils, a mechanism highly relevant to inflammatory processes. Because sPLA2-IIA is induced during inflammation, and 12-LO expression is restricted mainly to platelets, these observations demonstrate that platelet MPs promote their internalization in recipient cells through highly regulated mechanisms. PMID:26106157

  3. Concerted Trafficking Regulation of Kv2.1 and KATP Channels by Leptin in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Shyng, Show-Ling; Chen, Pei-Chun

    2015-12-11

    In pancreatic β-cells, voltage-gated potassium 2.1 (Kv2.1) channels are the dominant delayed rectifier potassium channels responsible for action potential repolarization. Here, we report that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes known to inhibit insulin secretion, causes a transient increase in surface expression of Kv2.1 channels in rodent and human β-cells. The effect of leptin on Kv2.1 surface expression is mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK mimics whereas inhibition of AMPK occludes the effect of leptin. Inhibition of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β, a known upstream kinase of AMPK, also blocks the effect of leptin. In addition, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is involved in Kv2.1 channel trafficking regulation. Inhibition of PKA prevents leptin or AMPK activators from increasing Kv2.1 channel density, whereas stimulation of PKA is sufficient to promote Kv2.1 channel surface expression. The increased Kv2.1 surface expression by leptin is dependent on actin depolymerization, and pharmacologically induced actin depolymerization is sufficient to enhance Kv2.1 surface expression. The signaling and cellular mechanisms underlying Kv2.1 channel trafficking regulation by leptin mirror those reported recently for ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, which are critical for coupling glucose stimulation with membrane depolarization. We show that the leptin-induced increase in surface KATP channels results in more hyperpolarized membrane potentials than control cells at stimulating glucose concentrations, and the increase in Kv2.1 channels leads to a more rapid repolarization of membrane potential in cells firing action potentials. This study supports a model in which leptin exerts concerted trafficking regulation of KATP and Kv2.1 channels to coordinately inhibit insulin secretion.

  4. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree in Drosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Daniel A; Eisen, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequenced species Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D. melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All three possible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, though recent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sister species. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as the four other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set out to investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D. melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the past incongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D. yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespread incongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions and deletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two key speciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, the incongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supporting the same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different trees was found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes support the same tree most often in regions of low recombination and substitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on the same scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineage sorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant and robust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. We conclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster species complex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting. Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence in many comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct species tree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methods that control for and/or utilize this

  5. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree inDrosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-28

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequencedspecies Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D.melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All threepossible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, thoughrecent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sisterspecies. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as thefour other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set outto investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D.melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the pastincongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D.yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespreadincongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions anddeletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two keyspeciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, theincongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supportingthe same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different treeswas found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes supportthe same tree most often in regions of low recombination andsubstitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on thesame scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineagesorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant androbust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. Weconclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster speciescomplex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting.Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence inmany comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct speciestree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methodsthat control for and/or utilize this information will be

  6. Adapting DFT+U for the Chemically Motivated Correction of Minimal Basis Set Incompleteness.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Heather J; Seelam, Natasha; Mar, Brendan D; Martínez, Todd J

    2016-07-28

    Recent algorithmic and hardware advances have enabled the application of electronic structure methods to the study of large-scale systems such as proteins with O(10(3)) atoms. Most such methods benefit greatly from the use of reduced basis sets to further enhance their speed, but truly minimal basis sets are well-known to suffer from incompleteness error that gives rise to incorrect descriptions of chemical bonding, preventing minimal basis set use in production calculations. We present a strategy for improving these well-known shortcomings in minimal basis sets by selectively tuning the energetics and bonding of nitrogen and oxygen atoms within proteins and small molecules to reproduce polarized double-ζ basis set geometries at minimal basis set cost. We borrow the well-known +U correction from the density functional theory community normally employed for self-interaction errors and demonstrate its power in the context of correcting basis set incompleteness within a formally self-interaction-free Hartree-Fock framework. We tune the Hubbard U parameters for nitrogen and oxygen atoms on small-molecule tautomers (e.g., cytosine), demonstrate the applicability of the approach on a number of amide-containing molecules (e.g., formamide, alanine tripeptide), and test our strategy on a 10 protein test set where anomalous proton transfer events are reduced by 90% from RHF/STO-3G to RHF/STO-3G+U, bringing the latter into quantitative agreement with RHF/6-31G* results. Although developed with the study of biological molecules in mind, this empirically tuned U approach shows promise as an alternative strategy for correction of basis set incompleteness errors.

  7. Scaling of Reactive Transport in Fracture Networks with Incomplete Mixing: A Metapopulation Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, C.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2011-12-01

    The study of networks as complex systems has revolutionized many disciplines in physics and the social and natural sciences. Recently, the focus of network science has shifted from the analysis of the network topology to the study of the dynamics of processes that take place on them. Here, we adopt a bosonic (metapopulation) network approach to characterize transport and reaction on fracture networks. In a bosonic network, nodes contain populations of particles, which may undertake contact processes within them. This coarse-grained conceptualization permits modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena such as incomplete mixing and kinetic reactions. Particles then move between connected nodes along links, with a rate that reflects the traffic patterns through the network. We generate fracture networks from realistic statistical properties of fracture density, orientation and aperture, and solve potential flow on the network for simple flow configurations. It is well known that the transport of passive particles with complete mixing at the nodes on a fracture network or a scale-free network is anomalous [1,2]. Here, we extend this analysis to account for incomplete mixing at the nodes by considering two types of particles, A and B, which come in contact at the nodes at a rate α (the mixing rate) to produce type-C particles: A+B-> 2C. In the limit of α -> ∞ we recover the instantaneous mixing case. Further, type-C particles decay into stable type-D particles at a rate λ : C→ D. As a result, we capture the interplay among the transport, mixing and reaction time scales on a fracture network. Our analysis demonstrates the strong dependence of global mixing and spreading on incomplete local mixing, and allows us to obtain robust scalings for the spatio-temporal distributions of particles.

  8. Incomplete Protection against Dengue Virus Type 2 Re-infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Forshey, Brett M.; Reiner, Robert C.; Olkowski, Sandra; Morrison, Amy C.; Espinoza, Angelica; Long, Kanya C.; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Casanova, Wilma; Wearing, Helen J.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Stoddard, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk for dengue, yet no licensed vaccine or anti-viral drug is currently available. Dengue is caused by any of four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4), and infection by a DENV serotype is assumed to provide life-long protection against re-infection by that serotype. We investigated the validity of this fundamental assumption during a large dengue epidemic caused by DENV-2 in Iquitos, Peru, in 2010–2011, 15 years after the first outbreak of DENV-2 in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the age-dependent prevalence of serotype-specific DENV antibodies from longitudinal cohort studies conducted between 1993 and 2010. During the 2010–2011 epidemic, active dengue cases were identified through active community- and clinic-based febrile surveillance studies, and acute inapparent DENV infections were identified through contact tracing studies. Based on the age-specific prevalence of DENV-2 neutralizing antibodies, the age distribution of DENV-2 cases was markedly older than expected. Homologous protection was estimated at 35.1% (95% confidence interval: 0%–65.2%). At the individual level, pre-existing DENV-2 antibodies were associated with an incomplete reduction in the frequency of symptoms. Among dengue cases, 43% (26/66) exhibited elevated DENV-2 neutralizing antibody titers for years prior to infection, compared with 76% (13/17) of inapparent infections (age-adjusted odds ratio: 4.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–17.7). Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that protection from homologous DENV re-infection may be incomplete in some circumstances, which provides context for the limited vaccine efficacy against DENV-2 in recent trials. Further studies are warranted to confirm this phenomenon and to evaluate the potential role of incomplete homologous protection in DENV transmission dynamics. PMID:26848841

  9. Reconsidering Olanzapine as a Possible Culprit for Drug Fever, defying "Incomplete Neuromalignant Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Georges, Alan; Fitz-Gerald, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    This case is important because it is the first time Olanzapine-induced fever has been described in the absence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In the context of the available antipsychotics with the atypical agents dominating the pool, only few of those are known to be well tolerated among the patients. Fever may be looked at by the physicians as a minor problem yet, it can be disabling to the large set of patients. Fever was not considerably listed as one of the side effects for Olanzapine and should not be confused with the incomplete neuromalignant syndrome. PMID:27598893

  10. Local recurrence of a parosteal osteosarcoma 21 years after incomplete resection

    PubMed Central

    Combalia, Andrés; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Palacín, Antonio; Pomés, Jaume; López, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Parosteal osteosarcoma (POS) is the most common form of surface osteosarcoma. Its symptoms are insidious and its duration prior to diagnosis is considerably longer than that of other types of osteosarcoma. We report a case of POS with a growing mass but no evidence of metastasis. This tumor, which was diagnosed as calcified hematoma with benign characteristics, was incompletely resected in our hospital 21 years before the diagnosis of recurrence. The patient underwent a wide en bloc resection in our hospital and was free of symptoms, with no signs of tumor recurrence or metastasis during a 53-month follow-up. PMID:22059909

  11. Improving efficiency and robustness of the doubly robust estimator for a population mean with incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weihua; Tsiatis, Anastasios A; Davidian, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Considerable recent interest has focused on doubly robust estimators for a population mean response in the presence of incomplete data, which involve models for both the propensity score and the regression of outcome on covariates. The usual doubly robust estimator may yield severely biased inferences if neither of these models is correctly specified and can exhibit nonnegligible bias if the estimated propensity score is close to zero for some observations. We propose alternative doubly robust estimators that achieve comparable or improved performance relative to existing methods, even with some estimated propensity scores close to zero. PMID:20161511

  12. Incomplete international climate agreements: Optimal carbon taxes, market failures and welfare effects

    SciTech Connect

    Golombek, R.; Braten, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides an empirical study of optimal carbon taxes and welfare effects under incomplete international climate agreements when there are market failures in the cooperating countries. The objective of the group of countries taking part in the international climate agreement is to design carbon taxes that maximize their aggregate net income, subject to a constraint on global CO{sub 2} emissions. We use a numerical energy model to study scenarios that differ with respect to types of CO{sub 2} taxes and countries taking part in the climate agreement. We also discuss the impact on regional net income following from different international climate agreements. 26 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Normal form analysis of multiple bifurcations in incompletely mixed chemical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhl, Andreas; Nicolis, Grégoire

    1987-07-01

    Using the theory of normal forms, we investigate the effects of mixing in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for a reaction model exhibiting oscillatory behavior in the vicinity of a degenerated bifurcation point (here, a Takens-Bogdanov point). In addition we show without specification of a particular reaction system that, as long as reaction rates remain much slower than the inverse mixing time, incomplete mixing introduces a new bifurcation parameter for nonpremixed feeding conditions, whereas premixed feeding conditions merely lead to a renormalization of flow rate.

  14. Mixed constraint satisfaction: A framework for decision problems under incomplete knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Fargier, H.; Lang, J.; Schiex, T.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction is a powerful tool for representing and solving decision problems with complete knowledge about the world. We extend the CSP framework so as to represent decision problems under incomplete knowledge. The basis of the extension consists in a distinction between controllable and uncontrollable variables - hence the terminology {open_quotes}mixed CSP{close_quotes} - and a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} gives actually a conditional decision. We study the complexity of deciding the consistency of a mixed CSP. As the problem is generally intractable, we propose an algorithm for finding an approximate solution.

  15. Stabilization of the stochastically forced equilibria for nonlinear discrete-time systems with incomplete information

    SciTech Connect

    Ryashko, Lev

    2015-11-30

    A stabilization problem of the equilibrium of stochastically forced nonlinear discrete-time system with incomplete information is considered. Our approach uses a regulator which synthesizes the required stochastic sensitivity of the equilibrium. Mathematically, this problem is reduced to the solution of some quadratic matrix equations. A description of attainability sets and algorithms for regulators design is given. The general results are applied to the suppression of unwanted large-amplitude oscillations around the equilibria of the stochastically forced Verhulst model with noisy observations.

  16. Incomplete fusion studies near Coulomb barrier: a modified sum rule model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhujang, Bhushan; Das, Pragya; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, R.; Tomar, B. S.

    2013-03-01

    The excitation functions of the evaporation residues, produced via complete fusion and incomplete fusion reactions of 11B + 122Sn, were measured for the projectile energy of around 6 MeV/A by the off-line gamma spectrometry. The cross sections have been compared with the statistical model code Projected Angular Momentum Coupled Evaporation (PACE4). The original sum rule model underestimated the ICF cross sections. We therefore made modification in the model mainly to incorporate the energy dependence in the definition of critical angular momentum. Using this modified sum rule model, we found a significant improvement in the results.

  17. Peritoneal seeding following incomplete resection of mixed epithelial stromal tumor of the kidney: First case report

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Judy A.; Laryea, Jonathan; Gokden, Neriman; Kamel, Mohamed H.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed epithelial stromal tumor (MEST) is rare and typically benign renal cystic neoplasm that cannot be clinically distinguished from cystic renal cell carcinoma. Its mainstay course of diagnosis and treatment remains surgical excision. Recurrence and malignant transformation is rare but has previously been described. To our best knowledge, we present the first case of peritoneal seeding resulting in a paracolonic MEST following incomplete resection in a patient with benign MEST. This signifies a new pathological behavior for MEST, predominantly, a benign kidney tumor. In addition, documentation with more cases of MEST is needed to further understand its pathogenesis, clinical behavior, malignant potential, and optimal management. PMID:26834418

  18. Experimental study of incomplete fusion reactions in the O16 + Te130 system below 6 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Devendra P.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati, Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-02-01

    Background: The measurement and analysis of excitation functions may be used as an important tool to understand incomplete fusion reaction dynamics. Purpose: Several studies have been carried out to study incomplete fusion reactions at low energies, but a clear picture of incomplete fusion reaction processes at energies below 6 MeV/nucleon has yet to emerge. Further, there is no theoretical model which may give a good representation of incomplete fusion processes. Method: Off-line γ-ray spectrometry has been used to measure the excitation functions in the 16O+130Te system at energies ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon. Results: Excitation functions for five reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes in the O16 + Te130 system have been measured. Measured cross-sections have been compared with the predictions of the statistical model code pace4. A significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions compared to theoretical predictions for α-emitting channels has been observed and is attributed to incomplete fusion processes. The relative strength of incomplete fusion has been found to increase with projectile energy. In the case of the Xe133(3αn) channel, the isomeric cross-section ratios have been deduced and found to increase rapidly with beam energy, indicating the importance of imparted angular momentum. The angular momentum at different energies has also been calculated. The analysis of the data indicates that incomplete fusion is associated even for angular momentum values smaller than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion. The results have been discussed in terms of the α-cluster structure of the projectile for various fusion reactions. Conclusions: It may be concluded that, apart from complete fusion, incomplete fusion processes are of greater importance even at energies as low as ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon, where fusion evaporation channels are expected to be dominant. The measured isomeric cross-section ratio for the

  19. Concerted action of the cytosolic sulfotransferase, SULT1A3, and catechol-O-methyltransferase in the metabolism of dopamine in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shin; Yasuda, Tomoko; Hui, Ying; Liu, Ming-Yih; Suiko, Masahito; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2009-07-01

    Conjugation reactions catalyzed by the cytosolic sulfotransferase, SULT1A3, or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are known to be involved in the regulation and homeostasis of dopamine and other monoamine neurotransmitters. Whether different conjugation reactions may act in a concerted manner, however, remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the concerted action of SULT1A3 and COMT in dopamine metabolism. Analysis of the medium of SK-N-MC cells, metabolically labeled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of dopamine, revealed the generation and release of predominantly [(35)S]sulfated 3-methyldopamine and, to a lesser extent [(35)S]sulfated dopamine. Addition to the labeling medium of tropolone, a COMT inhibitor, enhanced the production of [(35)S]sulfated dopamine, with a concomitant decrease of [(35)S]sulfated 3-methyldopamine. Enzymatic assays using the eleven known human cytosolic SULTs revealed SULT1A3 as the major enzyme responsible for the sulfation of both dopamine and 3-methyldopamine. Kinetic analysis showed that the catalytic efficiency of SULT1A3 with 3-methyldopamine was 1.6 times than that with dopamine. Using subcellular fractions prepared from SK-N-MC cells, the majority of COMT dopamine-methylating activity was found to be present in the cytosol. Collectively, these results imply a concerted action of sulfation and methylation in the irreversible inactivation and disposal of excess dopamine in SK-N-MC cells.

  20. Aperture size, materiality of the secondary room and listener location: Impact on the simulated impulse response of a coupled-volume concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty E.; Harrison, Byron W.

    2003-04-01

    By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study, a coupled-volume concert hall based on an existing performing arts center is conceived and computer-modeled. It has a fixed geometric volume, form and primary-room sound absorption. Ray-tracing software simulates impulse responses, varying both aperture size and secondary-room sound absorption level, across a grid of receiver (listener) locations. The results are compared with statistical analysis that suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and the architecture of the space. This line of study aims to quantitatively and spatially correlate the double-sloped condition with (1) aperture size exposing the chamber, (2) sound absorptance in the coupled volume, and (3) listener location.