Science.gov

Sample records for cycle primary energy

  1. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  2. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  3. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  4. Primary reflector for solar energy collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor); Stephens, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector is disclosed which has an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material. The device reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well-known freeway paving machinery.

  5. Primary energy release. [during solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S.; Spicer, D.; Uchida, Y.; Zirin, H.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes by which the magnetic energy of a solar active region is converted to other forms of energy in the appearance of a solar flare are discussed. Observations of the secondary manifestations of flare energy release, such as thermal plasmas and energetic particle emissions, are presented, with particular attention given to the temporal variations of flare radiation, the various forms of energy release, flare energy density, flare locations and sizes, energy distributions and H alpha, hard X-ray and microwave burst events. Current models of the primary energy release process are surveyed, and the models of Spicer (1976, 1977), which explains rapid flare energy release in terms of multiple tearing modes causing reconnection in sheared magnetic fields, and Uchida and Sakurai (1976, 1978), which attributes primary energy release to dynamic collapse caused by the interchange instability of the neutral sheet, are examined in detail.

  6. Toxicity of redox cycling pesticides in primary mesencephalic cultures.

    PubMed

    Bonneh-Barkay, Dafna; Langston, William J; Di Monte, Donato A

    2005-01-01

    A loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons is the primary neurodegenerative feature of Parkinson's disease. Paraquat, a known redox cycling herbicide, has recently been shown to kill selectively nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells in the mouse model. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of paraquat and other redox cycling pesticides to damage dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. Addition of paraquat, diquat, or benzyl viologen to mesencephalic cultures induced morphological changes (e.g., dystrophic neuronal processes) consistent with dopaminergic cell injury. The three pesticides also caused cell death as assessed by a reduction of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons and a dose-dependent decrease in [(3)H]dopamine uptake. Quite interestingly, diquat and benzyl viologen were significantly more toxic than paraquat, probably reflecting their more pronounced ability to trigger redox cycling reactions. The data support a role of redox cycling as a mechanism of dopaminergic cell degeneration and suggest that the property of redox cycling should be taken into consideration when evaluating putative environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease.

  7. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  8. A hydrostatic pressure-cycle energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Hahn, Gregory; Morgan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    There have been a number of new applications for energy harvesting with the ever-decreasing power consumption of microelectronic devices. In this paper we explore a new area of marine animal energy harvesting for use in powering tags known as bio-loggers. These devices record data about the animal or its surroundings, but have always had limited deployment times due to battery depletion. Reduced solar irradiance below the water's surface provides the impetus to explore other energy harvesting concepts beyond solar power for use on marine animals. We review existing tag technologies in relation to this application, specifically relating to energy consumption. Additionally, we propose a new idea for energy harvesting, using hydrostatic pressure changes as a source for energy production. We present initial testing results of a bench-top model and show that the daily energy harvesting potential from this technology can meet or exceed that consumed by current marine bio-logging tags. The application of this concept in the arena of bio-logging technology could substantially increase bio-logger deployment lifetimes, allowing for longitudinal studies over the course of multiple breeding and/or migration cycles.

  9. Earth's Changing Energy and Water Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.

    2008-05-01

    A new assessment of the flows of energy through the climate system will be presented. It features an imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere owing to an enhanced greenhouse effect that produces global warming. Most of the surplus energy trapped increases ocean heat content. Large upwards surface thermal radiation is offset by back radiation from greenhouse gases and clouds in the atmosphere. At the surface, the net losses of energy are greatest through evapotranspiration, followed closely by net radiation, while sensible heat losses are much smaller. This highlights the vital role of the hydrological cycle and why direct changes in the water cycle are a consequence of climate change. Nonetheless, net changes in surface evaporation are fairly modest and a much larger percentage change occurs in the water-holding capacity as atmospheric temperatures increase (4% per °F). A consequence is increased water vapor in the atmosphere which feeds all storms and thus leads to more intense precipitation; increased water vapor, heavier rains and stronger storms are already observed to be happening. However, the disparity between modestly enhanced evaporation and heavier rains means decreases in frequency of precipitation and enhanced droughts. With more precipitation per unit of upward motion in the atmosphere, the atmospheric circulation weakens, causing monsoons to falter. Observed changes in Atlantic hurricanes will be used to illustrate some of these aspects. Understanding these profound consequences of climate change is especially important for water managers. In reality that includes everyone.

  10. Primary urban energy-management-planning methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, Joseph; Meador, Toni

    1980-11-01

    Metropolitan Dade County, Florida, developed a pragmatic, transferable methodology to assist local governments in attempts to develop and implement energy management plans. A summary of that work is presented and suggestions are provided to guide the application and refinement of a Primary Urban Energy Management Planning Methodology. The methodology provides local governments with the systematic approach for dealing with short and intermediate-term urban energy management problems while at the same time laying the groundwork for the formulation of long-term energy management activities. The five tasks of the methodology summarized are: organizing for the PEP process; performing an energy use and supply inventory; formulating energy management goals and objectives; developing strategies to achieve the energy management objectives; and monitoring and evaluation. (MCW)

  11. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    To accurately represent how conservation and efficiency policies affect energy demand, both direct and indirect impacts need to be included in the accounting. The indirect impacts are defined here as the resource savings that accrue over the fuel production chain, which when added to the energy consumed at the point of use, constitute the full-fuel- cycle (FFC) energy. This paper uses the accounting framework developed in (Coughlin 2012) to calculate FFC energy metrics as time series for the period 2010-2040. The approach is extended to define FFC metrics for the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air-borne pollutants. The primary focus is the types of energy used in buildings and industrial processes, mainly natural gas and electricity. The analysis includes a discussion of the fuel production chain for coal, which is used extensively for electric power generation, and for diesel and fuel oil, which are used in mining, oil and gas operations, and fuel distribution. Estimates of the energy intensity parameters make use of data and projections from the Energy Information Agency’s National Energy Modeling System, with calculations based on information from the Annual Energy Outlook 2012.

  12. The cardiac cycle: regulation and energy oscillations.

    PubMed

    Wikman-Coffelt, J; Sievers, R; Coffelt, R J; Parmley, W W

    1983-08-01

    Cyclical changes in energy-related metabolites were observed in glucose-perfused but not pyruvate-perfused isolated working rat hearts. A chronological study of various phases of the cardiac cycle indicated maximum changes in metabolites occurred at half time to peak pressure (dF/dtmax). The high-energy phosphates ATP and phosphocreatine, as well as the glycolytic metabolites, glucose 6-phosphate and pyruvate, reached minimum values immediately prior to peak systole and maximum values during late diastole. The products of high-energy phosphate hydrolysis, ADP, inorganic phosphate, and creatine, as well as the regulator, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, showed the phase alternate. It was necessary to study cyclical changes in a maximally stressed glucose-perfused heart because the cyclical changes were small and appeared to be the result of rate-limiting steps in glycolysis and the slow transport of NADH into the mitochondria. For stressing the heart, thereby increasing ATP utilization and augmenting cyclical changes, the afterload chamber was set at 110 mmHg, and the perfusate contained high concentrations of calcium (3.5 mM, free) and isoproterenol (5 X 10(-9) M). When correction was made for binding and compartmentation of metabolites, data indicated that the free energy of ATP hydrolysis was preserved during the contraction process by a continuous binding and recycling of ADP.

  13. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    PubMed

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  14. Cycle of waste heat energy transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.; Voneynatten, C.; Krause, R.; Rudolph, W.; Gneuss, G.; Groesche, F.

    1983-08-01

    Transformation of industrial waste heat with temperatures up to 300 C into mechanical or electrical energy using organic Rankine cycles technique is considered. Behavior of working fluid was studied and plant components were optimized. A pilot plant (generated power 30 kW) was installed under industrial operating conditions. The working fluid is a fluorochlorohydrocarbon; the expansion machine is a piston type steam engine. The results of the pilot plant were used for the planning and building of a prototype plant (120 kW) with an additional power heat coupling for preheating the boiler heat water. The waste heat source is a calciner process. The predicted results are obtained although full working load is not reached due to reduced available waste heat of the calciner process.

  15. Life cycle assessment of overhead and underground primary power distribution.

    PubMed

    Bumby, Sarah; Druzhinina, Ekaterina; Feraldi, Rebe; Werthmann, Danae; Geyer, Roland; Sahl, Jack

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power can be distributed in overhead or underground systems, both of which generate a variety of environmental impacts at all stages of their life cycles. While there is considerable literature discussing the trade-offs between both systems in terms of aesthetics, safety, cost, and reliability, environmental assessments are relatively rare and limited to power cable production and end-of-life management. This paper assesses environmental impacts from overhead and underground medium voltage power distribution systems as they are currently built and managed by Southern California Edison (SCE). It uses process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 (2006) and SCE-specific primary data to the extent possible. Potential environmental impacts have been calculated using a wide range of midpoint indicators, and robustness of the results has been investigated through sensitivity analysis of the most uncertain and potentially significant parameters. The studied underground system has higher environmental impacts in all indicators and for all parameter values, mostly due to its higher material intensity. For both systems and all indicators the majority of impact occurs during cable production. Promising strategies for impact reduction are thus cable failure rate reduction for overhead and cable lifetime extension for underground systems.

  16. Long-term shifts in life-cycle energy efficiency and carbon intensity.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Morrison, Geoff; Teter, Jacob; Quiceno, Raul; Gillingham, Kenneth; Riera-Palou, Xavier

    2013-03-19

    The quantity of primary energy needed to support global human activity is in large part determined by how efficiently that energy is converted to a useful form. We estimate the system-level life-cycle energy efficiency (EF) and carbon intensity (CI) across primary resources for 2005-2100. Our results underscore that although technological improvements at each energy conversion process will improve technology efficiency and lead to important reductions in primary energy use, market mediated effects and structural shifts toward less efficient pathways and pathways with multiple stages of conversion will dampen these efficiency gains. System-level life-cycle efficiency may decrease as mitigation efforts intensify, since low-efficiency renewable systems with high output have much lower GHG emissions than some high-efficiency fossil fuel systems. Climate policies accelerate both improvements in EF and the adoption of renewable technologies, resulting in considerably lower primary energy demand and GHG emissions. Life-cycle EF and CI of useful energy provide a useful metric for understanding dynamics of implementing climate policies. The approaches developed here reiterate the necessity of a combination of policies that target efficiency and decarbonized energy technologies. We also examine life-cycle exergy efficiency (ExF) and find that nearly all of the qualitative results hold regardless of whether we use ExF or EF.

  17. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  18. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Attitudes towards Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ipek, Cemalettin

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to examine the pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation. In order to reach this main aim following research questions are formulated: (1) What are the attitude levels of pre-service primary teachers in terms of energy conservation? (2) Do pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation…

  19. Primary and secondary use of electric mobility batteries from a life cycle perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Ricardo; Marques, Pedro; Garcia, Rita; Moura, Pedro; Freire, Fausto; Delgado, Joaquim; de Almeida, Aníbal T.

    2014-09-01

    With age and cycling, batteries used in Electric Vehicles (EVs) will reach a point in which they will no longer be suitable for electric mobility; however, they still can be used in stationary energy storage. This article aims at assessing the Life-Cycle (LC) environmental impacts associated with the use of a battery in an EV and secondly, at assessing the LC environmental impacts/benefits of using a battery, no longer suitable for electric mobility, for energy storage in a household. Three electricity mixes with different shares of renewable, nuclear and fossil energy sources are considered. For the primary battery use, three in-vehicle use scenarios are assessed, addressing three different driving profiles. For the secondary use, two scenarios of energy storage strategies are analyzed: peak shaving and load shifting. Results show that a light use of the battery in the EV has 42-50% less impacts per km than an intensive use. After its use in the vehicle, the battery life can be extended by 1.8-3.3 years; however, this is not always beneficial from an environmental point of view, since the impacts are strongly dependent on the electricity generation mix and on the additional efficiency losses in the battery.

  20. A Learning Cycle on Exponential Growth and the Energy Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, D. I., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Describes nature and logistics of a learning cycle approach to teaching exponential growth and the energy crisis. Used with both science and nonscience majors, the cycle uses no algebra, never mentions the terms exponential or logarithmic, and requires a calculator. Instructions for obtaining student and instructor materials are provided.…

  1. Grow₂: the HIF system, energy homeostasis and the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Moniz, Sónia; Biddlestone, John; Rocha, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Cell cycle progression is an energy demanding process and requires fine-tuned metabolic regulation. Cells must overcome an energy restriction checkpoint before becoming committed to progress through the cell cycle. Aerobic organisms need oxygen for the metabolic conversion of nutrients into energy. As such, environmental oxygen is a critical signalling molecule regulating cell fate. The Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) are a family of transcription factors that respond to changes in environmental oxygen and cell energy and coordinate a transcriptional program which forms an important part of the cellular response to a hostile environment. A significant proportion of HIF-dependent transcriptional target genes, code for proteins that are involved in energy homeostasis. In this review we discuss the role of the HIF system in the regulation of energy homeostasis in response to changes in environmental oxygen and the impact on cell cycle control, and address the implications of the deregulation of this effect in cancer.

  2. GEWEX: The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M.; Vane, D.

    1994-01-01

    GEWEX is one of the world's largest global change research programs. Its purpose is to observe and understand the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes in the atmosphere, at land surfaces and in the upper oceans.

  3. Collaboration essential for an energy neutral urban water cycle.

    PubMed

    Frijns, Jos; Mulder, Mirabella; Roorda, Jelle; Schepman, Hans; Voskamp, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Two Dutch water boards prepared a Master Plan with measures to substantially reduce their energy use by 2027. In total, more than 100 measures were identified such as bubble aeration and heat recovery from effluent. Together these measures result in a 90-95% reduction in energy use at the water boards. However, for the whole urban water cycle, thus including the energy required for warm water use in households, the total energy reduction from these measures at the water boards is only 5-6%. To attain the objective to have an energy neutral urban water cycle, collaboration with other sectors such as housing, energy, agriculture and industry will be essential. Active collaboration of the water boards through the incorporation of energy efficient water measures as part of the carbon neutral effort of cities is recognized to be a promising strategy.

  4. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project... availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project Preliminary... the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, which would...

  5. Cycling Transcriptional Networks Optimize Energy Utilization on a Genome Scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Zhong; Hickey, Stephanie L; Shi, Lei; Huang, Hung-Chung; Nakashe, Prachi; Koike, Nobuya; Tu, Benjamin P; Takahashi, Joseph S; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-12-01

    Genes expressing circadian RNA rhythms are enriched for metabolic pathways, but the adaptive significance of cyclic gene expression remains unclear. We estimated the genome-wide synthetic and degradative cost of transcription and translation in three organisms and found that the cost of cycling genes is strikingly higher compared to non-cycling genes. Cycling genes are expressed at high levels and constitute the most costly proteins to synthesize in the genome. We demonstrate that metabolic cycling is accelerated in yeast grown under higher nutrient flux and the number of cycling genes increases ∼40%, which are achieved by increasing the amplitude and not the mean level of gene expression. These results suggest that rhythmic gene expression optimizes the metabolic cost of global gene expression and that highly expressed genes have been selected to be downregulated in a cyclic manner for energy conservation.

  6. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Price, Lynn

    2016-07-12

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  7. Perceptions of the Water Cycle among Primary School Children in Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, A. A.; Motswiri, M. J.; Masene, R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes qualitative and quantitative methods used to elucidate the nature of the perception of the water cycle held by Botswana primary-grade pupils in three different geographic areas. Concludes that the students' perception of the water cycle was positively influenced by schooling but negatively impacted upon, to some extent, by the untutored…

  8. Radiative energy receiver for high performance energy conversion cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, D.; Hertzberg, A.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of gas dynamic processes pertinent to the functioning of earth-based and space-based solar electric power plants is presented, with attention given to potassium vapor as the working fluid. A device is described which features focused photon absorption by a nontransparent flowing gas. The feed flow is effected around the outside walls of a cavity receiver to raise efficiencies by trapping reemitted energy. A theoretical study of the interaction of a photon flux with a coaxial particle flux was performed, with the receiver flow treated as a Graetz flow. The critical parameters were defined, including a figure of merit as the gas enthalpy increase to absorbable energy ratio. A small-scale laboratory model was tested in comparison with the theoretically obtained values. Less than 15% of the absorbed energy was lost through dissipation while an 80% conversion efficiency was attained.

  9. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-08-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  10. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  11. A framework for energy use indicators and their reporting in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Rickard; Svanström, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Energy use is a common impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA). Many different energy use indicators are used in LCA studies, accounting for energy use in different ways. Often, however, the choice behind which energy use indicator is applied is poorly described and motivated. To contribute to a more purposeful selection of energy use indicators and to ensure consistent and transparent reporting of energy use in LCA, a general framework for energy use indicator construction and reporting in LCA studies will be presented in this article. The framework differentiates between 1) renewable and nonrenewable energies, 2) primary and secondary energies, and 3) energy intended for energy purposes versus energy intended for material purposes. This framework is described both graphically and mathematically. Furthermore, the framework is illustrated through application to a number of energy use indicators that are frequently used in LCA studies: cumulative energy demand (CED), nonrenewable cumulative energy demand (NRCED), fossil energy use (FEU), primary fossil energy use (PFEU), and secondary energy use (SEU). To illustrate how the application of different energy use indicators may lead to different results, cradle-to-gate energy use of the bionanomaterial cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) is assessed using 5 different indicators and showing a factor of 3 differences between the highest and lowest results. The relevance of different energy use indicators to different actors and contexts will be discussed, and further developments of the framework are then suggested. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:429-436. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  12. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China.

  13. Primary energy: Present status and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielheim, K. O.

    A survey of the base-load energy sources available to humans is presented, starting from the point of view that all energy used is ultimately derived from nuclear processes within the sun. Specific note is made of European energy options, noting the large dependence on imported oil. Detailed exploration of available nuclear fuel resources is carried out, with attention given to fission, fusion, and breeder reactor plants and to the state-of-the-art and technology for each. The problems of nuclear waste disposal are discussed, and long term burial in salt domes is outlined as a satisfactory method of containing the materials for acceptable periods of time. The CO2-greenhouse effect hazards caused by increased usage of coal-derived fuels are considered and precautions to be taken on a global scale to ameliorate the warming effects are recommended. The limitations to hydropower are examined, as are those of tidal power. Solar cells are projected to be produced in GW quantities by the year 2000, while wind-derived electricity is predicted to provide a minimum of 5% of the world energy needs in the future.

  14. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Nitash Balsara

    2016-07-12

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  15. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  16. Thermal Energy Storage in a Confined Aquifer: Second Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molz, F. J.; Parr, A. D.; Andersen, P. F.

    1981-06-01

    During the first 6-month injection-storage-recovery cycle of the Auburn University Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Project, water pumped from an upper supply aquifer was heated to an average temperature of 55°C with an oil-fired boiler and then injected into a lower storage aquifer. Injection and recovery temperatures, flow rates, and temperatures at six depths in 10 observation wells and hydraulic heads in seven wells were recorded twice daily. The second-cycle injection, which was performed in a manner similar to the first, began on September 23, 1978, and continued until November 25, 1978, when 58,010 m3 of water had been pumped into the storage aquifer. The major problem experienced during the first cycle, a clogging injection well, was reduced by regular backwashing. This was done 8 times during injection and resulted in a 24% average injection rate increase compared to the first cycle. A 63-day storage period ended on January 27, 1979, and production of hot water began with an initial temperature of 54°C. By March 23 this temperature had dropped to 33°C, with 66,400 m3 of water and 76% of the injected thermal energy recovered. This compares to 66% recovery during the first cycle over the same drop in production temperature. Production of hot water continued until April 20, at which time 100,100 m3 of water and 89% of the injected thermal energy was recovered at a final production temperature of 27.5°C. During the second cycle, measurements were made of relative land subsidence and rebound to a precision approaching 0.1 mm. The surface elevation near the injection well rose 4 mm during injection, fell during storage, and fell more rapidly toward its original elevation during production. This movement was due to thermal expansion and contraction rather than to effects caused by head changes in the storage aquifer.

  17. Carbon nanofiber polymer composites: evaluation of life cycle energy use.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2009-03-15

    Holistic evaluation of emerging nanotechnologies using systems analysis is pivotal for guiding their safe and sustainable development. While toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials are essential, understanding of the potential large scale impacts of nanotechnology is also critical for developing sustainable nanoproducts. This work evaluates the life cycle energetic impact associated with the production and use of carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polymer nanocomposites (PNC). Specifically, both simple CNF and carbon nanofiber-glass fiber (CNF-GF) hybrid PNCs are evaluated and compared with steel for equal stiffness design. Life cycle inventory is developed based on published literature and best available engineering information. A cradle-to-gate comparison suggests that for equal stiffness design, CNF reinforced PNCs are 1.6-12 times more energy intensive than steel. It is anticipated that the product use phase may strongly influence whether any net savings in life cycle energy consumption can be realized. A case study involving the use of CNF and CNF-GF reinforced PNCs in the body panels of automobiles highlights that the use of PNCs with lower CNF loading ratios has the potential for net life cycle energy savings relative to steel owing to improved fuel economy benefits. Other factors such as cost, toxicity impact of CNF, and end-of-life issues specific to CNFs need to be considered to evaluate the final economic and environmental performance of CNF reinforced PNC materials.

  18. Toward efficient aeroelastic energy harvesting through limit cycle shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Increasing demand to harvest energy from renewable resources has caused significant research interest in unsteady aerodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena. Apart from the traditional horizontal axis wind turbines, there has been significant growth in the study of bio-inspired oscillating wings for energy harvesting. These systems are being built to harvest electricity for wireless devices, as well as for large scale mega-watt power generation. Such systems can be driven by aeroelastic flutter phenomena which, beyond a critical wind speed, will cause the system to enter into limitcycle oscillations. When the airfoil enters large amplitude, high frequency motion, leading and trailing edge vortices form and, when properly synchronized with the airfoil kinematics, enhance the energy extraction efficiency of the device. A reduced order dynamic stall model is employed on a nonlinear aeroelastic structural model to investigate whether the parameters of a fully passive aeroelastic device can be tuned to produce limit cycle oscillations at desired kinematics. This process is done through an optimization technique to find the necessary structural parameters to achieve desired structural forces and moments corresponding to a target limit cycle. Structural nonlinearities are explored to determine the essential nonlinearities such that the system's limit cycle closely matches the desired kinematic trajectory. The results from this process demonstrate that it is possible to tune system parameters such that a desired limit cycle trajectory can be achieved. The simulations also demonstrate that the high efficiencies predicted by previous computational aerodynamics studies can be achieved in fully passive aeroelastic devices.

  19. Thermal energy dissipation and xanthophyll cycles beyond the Arabidopsis model.

    PubMed

    García-Plazaola, José Ignacio; Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Kranner, Ilse; Porcar-Castell, Albert

    2012-09-01

    Thermal dissipation of excitation energy is a fundamental photoprotection mechanism in plants. Thermal energy dissipation is frequently estimated using the quenching of the chlorophyll fluorescence signal, termed non-photochemical quenching. Over the last two decades, great progress has been made in the understanding of the mechanism of thermal energy dissipation through the use of a few model plants, mainly Arabidopsis. Nonetheless, an emerging number of studies suggest that this model represents only one strategy among several different solutions for the environmental adjustment of thermal energy dissipation that have evolved among photosynthetic organisms in the course of evolution. In this review, a detailed analysis of three examples highlights the need to use models other than Arabidopsis: first, overwintering evergreens that develop a sustained form of thermal energy dissipation; second, desiccation tolerant plants that induce rapid thermal energy dissipation; and third, understorey plants in which a complementary lutein epoxide cycle modulates thermal energy dissipation. The three examples have in common a shift from a photosynthetically efficient state to a dissipative conformation, a strategy widely distributed among stress-tolerant evergreen perennials. Likewise, they show a distinct operation of the xanthophyll cycle. Expanding the list of model species beyond Arabidopsis will enhance our knowledge of these mechanisms and increase the synergy of the current studies now dispersed over a wide number of species.

  20. Analysis and Simulation of a Blue Energy Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Ms. Ketki; Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Gabitto, Jorge; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-01-30

    The mixing process of fresh water and seawater releases a significant amount of energy and is a potential source of renewable energy. The so called ‘blue energy’ or salinity-gradient energy can be harvested by a device consisting of carbon electrodes immersed in an electrolyte solution, based on the principle of capacitive double layer expansion (CDLE). In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of energy production based on the CDLE principle. Experiments and computer simulations were used to study the process. Mesoporous carbon materials, synthesized at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, were used as electrode materials in the experiments. Neutron imaging of the blue energy cycle was conducted with cylindrical mesoporous carbon electrodes and 0.5 M lithium chloride as the electrolyte solution. For experiments conducted at 0.6 V and 0.9 V applied potential, a voltage increase of 0.061 V and 0.054 V was observed, respectively. From sequences of neutron images obtained for each step of the blue energy cycle, information on the direction and magnitude of lithium ion transport was obtained. A computer code was developed to simulate the process. Experimental data and computer simulations allowed us to predict energy production.

  1. Analysis and Simulation of a Blue Energy Cycle

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, Ms. Ketki; Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; ...

    2016-01-30

    The mixing process of fresh water and seawater releases a significant amount of energy and is a potential source of renewable energy. The so called ‘blue energy’ or salinity-gradient energy can be harvested by a device consisting of carbon electrodes immersed in an electrolyte solution, based on the principle of capacitive double layer expansion (CDLE). In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of energy production based on the CDLE principle. Experiments and computer simulations were used to study the process. Mesoporous carbon materials, synthesized at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, were used as electrode materials in the experiments. Neutronmore » imaging of the blue energy cycle was conducted with cylindrical mesoporous carbon electrodes and 0.5 M lithium chloride as the electrolyte solution. For experiments conducted at 0.6 V and 0.9 V applied potential, a voltage increase of 0.061 V and 0.054 V was observed, respectively. From sequences of neutron images obtained for each step of the blue energy cycle, information on the direction and magnitude of lithium ion transport was obtained. A computer code was developed to simulate the process. Experimental data and computer simulations allowed us to predict energy production.« less

  2. Carbon dioxide release from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Green, H.J. ); Guenther, P.R. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper presents the results of recent measurements of CO{sub 2} release from an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) experiment. Based on these data, the rate of short-term CO{sub 2} release from future open-cycle OTEC plants is projected to be 15 to 25 times smaller than that from fossil-fueled electric power plants. OTEC system that incorporate subsurface mixed discharge are expected to result in no long-term release. OTEC plants can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions when substituted for fossil-fueled power generation. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Electrophotonuclear energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremeev, Igor P.

    2004-12-01

    It is shown that the current problems related to the nuclear power cycle can be resolved if the conventional fission process is complemented with the 'photoneutron reprocessing' of fissile nuclei directly in spent uranium by using the energy of relativistic storage-ring electrons and transforming it to synchrotron/undulator gamma radiation, and by utilizing the fission products as neutron sources while at the same time transmuting them into stable isotopes. A suitable method of 'gamma-neutron transmutation' is described, and the values of its parameters that make the corresponding 'electrophotonuclear' power cycle closed and waste-free are determined.

  4. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-12

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  5. LPM effect and primary energy estimations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdeau, M. F.; Capdevielle, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    The distortion of the electron cascade development under LPM effects is now admitted; it consists of an increase of depth of showers origin, of shower maximum T sum max, a decrease of the number of particles at maximum N sub max and results in a flattening and a widening of the cascade transition curve. Connected with the influence of multiple Coulomb scattering on basic electromagnetic processes (bremsstrahlung, pair production), this effect appears at high energy with a threshold dependent on the density of the medium (more than 10 TeV for lead, more than 10 sup 6 TeV in air). Consequently, the electromagnetic components of hadron induced showers in lead and EAS in air calculated for the same hadronic cascades in the different alternative, including or not the LPM effect are examined here.

  6. Energy-based analysis of biochemical cycles using bond graphs.

    PubMed

    Gawthrop, Peter J; Crampin, Edmund J

    2014-11-08

    Thermodynamic aspects of chemical reactions have a long history in the physical chemistry literature. In particular, biochemical cycles require a source of energy to function. However, although fundamental, the role of chemical potential and Gibb's free energy in the analysis of biochemical systems is often overlooked leading to models which are physically impossible. The bond graph approach was developed for modelling engineering systems, where energy generation, storage and transmission are fundamental. The method focuses on how power flows between components and how energy is stored, transmitted or dissipated within components. Based on the early ideas of network thermodynamics, we have applied this approach to biochemical systems to generate models which automatically obey the laws of thermodynamics. We illustrate the method with examples of biochemical cycles. We have found that thermodynamically compliant models of simple biochemical cycles can easily be developed using this approach. In particular, both stoichiometric information and simulation models can be developed directly from the bond graph. Furthermore, model reduction and approximation while retaining structural and thermodynamic properties is facilitated. Because the bond graph approach is also modular and scaleable, we believe that it provides a secure foundation for building thermodynamically compliant models of large biochemical networks.

  7. Energy-based analysis of biochemical cycles using bond graphs

    PubMed Central

    Gawthrop, Peter J.; Crampin, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic aspects of chemical reactions have a long history in the physical chemistry literature. In particular, biochemical cycles require a source of energy to function. However, although fundamental, the role of chemical potential and Gibb's free energy in the analysis of biochemical systems is often overlooked leading to models which are physically impossible. The bond graph approach was developed for modelling engineering systems, where energy generation, storage and transmission are fundamental. The method focuses on how power flows between components and how energy is stored, transmitted or dissipated within components. Based on the early ideas of network thermodynamics, we have applied this approach to biochemical systems to generate models which automatically obey the laws of thermodynamics. We illustrate the method with examples of biochemical cycles. We have found that thermodynamically compliant models of simple biochemical cycles can easily be developed using this approach. In particular, both stoichiometric information and simulation models can be developed directly from the bond graph. Furthermore, model reduction and approximation while retaining structural and thermodynamic properties is facilitated. Because the bond graph approach is also modular and scaleable, we believe that it provides a secure foundation for building thermodynamically compliant models of large biochemical networks. PMID:25383030

  8. Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan

    2011-06-01

    To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant.

  9. Sharp knee phenomenon of primary cosmic ray energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Antonyan, Samvel

    2014-06-01

    Primary energy spectral models are tested in the energy range of 1-200 PeV using standardized extensive air shower responses from BASJE-MAS, Tibet, GAMMA and KASCADE scintillation shower arrays. Results point toward the two-component origin of observed cosmic ray energy spectra in the knee region consisting of a pulsar component superimposed upon rigidity-dependent power law diffuse Galactic flux. The two-component energy spectral model accounts for both the sharp knee shower spectral phenomenon and observed irregularity of all-particle energy spectrum in the region of 50-100 PeV. Alternatively, tested multipopulation primary energy spectra predicted by nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration models describe observed shower spectra in the knee region provided that the cutoff magnetic rigidities of accelerating particles are 6±0.3 and 45±2 PV for the first two populations, respectively. Both tested spectral models confirm the predominant H-He primary nuclei origin of observed shower spectral knee. The parameters of tested energy spectra are evaluated using solutions of the inverse problem on the basis of the corresponding parameterizations of energy spectra for primary H, He, O-like and Fe-like nuclei, standardized shower size spectral responses in the 550-1085 g/cm2 atmospheric slant depth range and near vertical muon truncated size spectra detected by the GAMMA array.

  10. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  11. High-Energy Solar Particle Events in Cycle 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Thakur, N.

    2015-01-01

    The Sun is already in the declining phase of cycle 24, but the paucity of high-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) events continues with only two ground level enhancement (GLE) events as of March 31, 2015. In an attempt to understand this, we considered all the large SEP events of cycle 24 that occurred until the end of 2014. We compared the properties of the associated CMEs with those in cycle 23. We found that the CME speeds in the sky plane were similar, but almost all those cycle-24 CMEs were halos. A significant fraction of (16%) of the frontside SEP events were associated with eruptive prominence events. CMEs associated with filament eruption events accelerate slowly and attain peak speeds beyond the typical GLE release heights. When we considered only western hemispheric events that had good connectivity to the CME nose, there were only 8 events that could be considered as GLE candidates. One turned out to be the first GLE event of cycle 24 (2012 May 17). In two events, the CMEs were very fast (>2000 km/s) but they were launched into a tenuous medium (high Alfven speed). In the remaining five events, the speeds were well below the typical GLE CME speed (2000 km/s). Furthermore, the CMEs attained their peak speeds beyond the typical heights where GLE particles are released. We conclude that several factors contribute to the low rate of high-energy SEP events in cycle 24: (i) reduced efficiency of shock acceleration (weak heliospheric magnetic field), (ii) poor latitudinal and longitudinal connectivity), and (iii) variation in local ambient conditions (e.g., high Alfven speed).

  12. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  13. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits of lightweighting in automobiles: review and harmonization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J

    2013-06-18

    Replacing conventional materials (steel and iron) with lighter alternatives (e.g., aluminum, magnesium, and composites) decreases energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during vehicle use but may increase energy consumption and GHG emissions during vehicle production. There have been many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on the benefits of vehicle lightweighting, but the wide variety of assumptions used makes it difficult to compare results from the studies. To clarify the benefits of vehicle lightweighting we have reviewed the available literature (43 studies). The GHG emissions and primary energy results from 33 studies that passed a screening process were harmonized using a common set of assumptions (lifetime distance traveled, fuel-mass coefficient, secondary weight reduction factor, fuel consumption allocation, recycling rate, and energy intensity of materials). After harmonization, all studies indicate that using aluminum, glass-fiber reinforced plastic, and high strength steel to replace conventional steel decreases the vehicle life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. Given the flexibility in options implied by the variety of materials available and consensus that these materials have substantial energy and emissions benefits, it seems likely that lightweighting will be used increasingly to improve fuel economy and reduce life cycle GHG emissions from vehicles.

  14. Study of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays: EAS size fluctuations at a fixed primary energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allev, N.; Alimov, T.; Kakhharov, N.; Khakimov, K.; Rakhimova, N.; Tashpulatov, R.; Khristiansen, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    During the initial period of the Samarkand EAS array operations the showers were selected on the basis of charged-particle flux density, and during the subsequent periods the showers were selected on the basis of Cerenkov light flux density. This procedure made it possible to measure the shower energy, to estimate the EAS size fluctuations at a fixed primary energy, and to experimentally obtain the scaling factor K(Ne, Eo) from the EAS size spectrum to the primary energy spectrum. Six scintillators of area S = 2 sq m each were added to the array. The fluctuations of EAS sizes in the showers of fixed primary energies and the scaling factors K(Ne, Eo) were inferred from the data obtained. The showers with zenith angles 30 deg were selected. The EAS axis positions were inferred from the amplitude data of the scintillators. The primary energy Eo was determined by the method of least squares for the known EAS axis position using the data of the Cerenkov detector located at 80 to 150 m EAS axis. It is shown that the Cerenkov light flux fluctuations at 100 m from EAS axis, q sub 100, do not exceed 10% at a fixed EAS energy, so the parameter q sub 100 may be used to estimate the EAS-generating primary particle-energy.

  15. Energy expenditure, aerodynamics and medical problems in cycling. An update.

    PubMed

    Faria, I E

    1992-07-01

    The cyclist's ability to maintain an extremely high rate of energy expenditure for long durations at a high economy of effort is dependent upon such factors as the individual's anaerobic threshold, muscle fibre type, muscle myoglobin concentration, muscle capillary density and certain anthropometric dimensions. Although laboratory tests have had some success predicting cycling potential, their validity has yet to be established for trained cyclists. Even in analysing the forces producing propulsive torque, cycling effectiveness cannot be based solely on the orientation of applied forces. Innovations of shoe and pedal design continue to have a positive influence on the biomechanics of pedalling. Although muscle involvement during a complete pedal revolution may be similar, economical pedalling rate appears to differ significantly between the novice and racing cyclist. This difference emanates, perhaps, from long term adaptation. Air resistance is by far the greatest retarding force affecting cycling. The aerodynamics of the rider and the bicycle and its components are major contributors to cycling economy. Correct body posture and spacing between riders can significantly enhance speed and efficiency. Acute and chronic responses to cycling and training are complex. To protect the safety and health of the cyclist there must be close monitoring and cooperation between the cyclist, coach, exercise scientist and physician.

  16. Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

  17. A study of dynamic energy equations for Stirling cycle analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical and computer study of the dynamic energy equations that describe the physical phenomena that occurs in a Stirling cycle engine. The basic problem is set up in terms of a set o hyperbolic partial differential equations. The characteristic lines are determined. The equations are then transformed to ordinary differential equations that are valid along characteristic lines. Computer programs to solve the differential equations and to plot pertinent factors are described.

  18. ECUT energy data reference series: Otto cycle engines in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of the Otto cycle engines in transportation is summarized. The transportation modes discussed in this report include the following: automobiles, light trucks, heavy trucks, marine, recreational vehicles, motorcycles, buses, aircraft, and snowmobiles. These modes account for nearly 100% of the gasoline and LPG consumed in transportation engines. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average energy conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles. Estimates are provided for the years 1980 and 2000.

  19. Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

  20. Solar energy demand (SED) of commodity life cycles.

    PubMed

    Rugani, Benedetto; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mutel, Christopher; Bastianoni, Simone; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2011-06-15

    The solar energy demand (SED) of the extraction of 232 atmospheric, biotic, fossil, land, metal, mineral, nuclear, and water resources was quantified and compared with other energy- and exergy-based indicators. SED represents the direct and indirect solar energy required by a product or service during its life cycle. SED scores were calculated for 3865 processes, as implemented in the Ecoinvent database, version 2.1. The results showed that nonrenewable resources, and in particular minerals, formed the dominant contribution to SED. This large share is due to the indirect solar energy required to produce these resource inputs. Compared with other energy- and exergy-based indicators, SED assigns higher impact factors to minerals and metals and smaller impact factors to fossil energetic resources, land use, and nuclear energy. The highest differences were observed for biobased and renewable energy generation processes, whose relative contribution of renewable resources such as water, biomass, and land occupation was much lower in SED than in energy- and exergy-based indicators.

  1. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  2. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  3. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Climatology (NEWCC) Integration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, C. A.; Lin, B.; NEWCC Team

    2008-05-01

    To date, a truly self-consistent, quantitative description of the Earth's global water and energy cycles, based on the highest quality, independently-observed pieces of information that decipher each of the key storage terms, fluxes, and pathways has been elusive. Such a data compilation of adequate climate quality is of vital interest and an ultimate scientific need of the global observation, modeling, and prediction community. To meet this need, we present results from the first phase of a NASA Energy and Water Cycle Climatology (NEWCC) Integration Project, a collaborative effort whose aim is to construct a defensible, self-consistent, long-term climatology of the global energy and water cycles. Our working hypothesis is that an observationally-based estimate of water and energy fluxes and storages, derived from focused and independently observed components of these cycles, can be balanced and provide useful characterizations and evaluation data for climate prediction and predictability studies. The NEWCC team members are actively involved in key facets of this observational arena, and thus for the first phase of NEWCC, we bring together state-of-the-art, (predominantly) satellite-based observations that include: precipitation, ocean and land evaporation, runoff, atmospheric water storage, ocean and land storage changes, atmospheric transport, radiation, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and subsequently hope to include explicit snow/ice information, such as snow water equivalent and ice mass changes. Our current efforts focus on the period spanning the years 2003 to 2005, for which the most recent and highest-quality satellite-based information is available for all the aforementioned quantities. We present an assessment of the ability of these observational datasets to satisfy the water and energy budgets and the degree to which they show consistency in their mean annual cycles as well as geospatial variability. In doing so, we will highlight, where possible, the

  4. High Energy Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes From a Realistic Primary Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Penha, Felipe; Dembinski, Hans; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric neutrino fluxes depend on the energy spectrum of primary nucleons entering the top of the atmosphere. Before the advent of AMANDA and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, measurements of the neutrino fluxes were generally below ~ 1TeV , a regime in which a simple energy power law sufficed to describe the primary spectrum. Now, IceCube's muon neutrino data extends beyond 1PeV , including a combination of neutrinos from astrophysical sources with background from atmospheric neutrinos. At such high energies, the steepening at the knee of the primary spectrum must be accounted for. Here, we describe a semi-analytical approach for calculating the atmospheric differential neutrino fluxes at high energies. The input is a realistic primary spectrum consisting of 4 populations with distinct energy cutoffs, each with up to 7 representative nuclei, where the parameters were extracted from a global fit. We show the effect of each component on the atmospheric neutrino spectra, above 10TeV . The resulting features follow directly from recent air shower measurements included in the fit. Felipe Campos Penha gratefully acknowledges financial support from CAPES (Processo BEX 5348/14-5), CNPq (Processo 142180/2012-2), and the Bartol Research Institute.

  5. The energy cost of cycling in young obese women.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Proietti, Marco; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-05-01

    In order to evaluate the difference in the energy cost of submaximal cycling between normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) females, nine OB (age 23.2 years+/-1.6 SE, BMI 40.4+/-1.2 kg/m2) and nine NW (age 25.6 years+/-1.8, BMI 21.7+/-0.6 kg/m2) healthy young women were studied during a graded bicycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W. At rest and at all workloads, oxygen uptake VO2 was higher in OB than in NW women (Student's t test, P<0.05-0.01), as well as respiratory quotient during all exercise levels (P<0.05-0.01), while similar values of heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and breathing efficiency were found between the two groups. Maximal VO2 and anaerobic threshold were higher in OB women, and they also explained the higher oxygen pulse observed during submaximal exercise, but no difference was found when the values were adjusted for fat-free mass. While net mechanical efficiency (ME) was significantly lower in OB (ANOVA, P<0.05), delta ME was similar in both groups, indicating no substantial derangement of muscle intrinsic efficiency in obesity, but suggesting that the increased mass of body segments involved in cycling movements may be chiefly responsible for the higher energy cost of this type of exercise. Comparison of the actual VO2 presently measured with that predicted by available cycle ergometry equations at the different workloads indicated inaccuracy of various degrees ranging from 8.4 to -31.9%. It is concluded that the lower mechanical efficiency displayed by obese women in cycling has to be taken into account when prescribing exercise through methods predicting the metabolic load.

  6. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

  7. Fuel cycle analysis for fossil energy systems: Coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, W. L.; Carmichael, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    Elements of the fuel cycle for coal combustion in power generation are examined; and information on economics, technological status, energy efficiencies, and environmental issues is reviewed. Overall background information is provided for guidance in identifying issues and establishing needs and priorities for engineering research, development, and demonstration. The elements treated include mining, transportation, coal preparation, direct combustion, and environmental control technology. The treatment used differs from that of usual compendiums in its emphasis on integrated examination and presentation directed primarily toward providing bases for general assessment and for guidance in program development. Emphasis is on program identification as opposed to advocacy.

  8. Nutrient cycling by fish supports relatively more primary production as lake productivity increases.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Michael J; Bowling, Anna M; Dickman, Elizabeth M; Hale, R Scott; Higgins, Karen A; Horgan, Martin J; Knoll, Lesley B; Renwick, William H; Stein, Roy A

    2006-07-01

    Animals can be important in nutrient cycling in particular ecosystems, but few studies have examined how this importance varies along environmental gradients. In this study we quantified the nutrient cycling role of an abundant detritivorous fish species, the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), in reservoir ecosystems along a gradient of ecosystem productivity. Gizzard shad feed mostly on sediment detritus and excrete sediment-derived nutrients into the water column, thereby mediating a cross-habitat translocation of nutrients to phytoplankton. We quantified nitrogen and phosphorus cycling (excretion) rates of gizzard shad, as well as nutrient demand by phytoplankton, in seven lakes over a four-year period (16 lake-years). The lakes span a gradient of watershed land use (the relative amounts of land used for agriculture vs. forest) and productivity. As the watersheds of these lakes became increasingly dominated by agricultural land, primary production rates, lake trophic state indicators (total phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations), and nutrient flux through gizzard shad populations all increased. Nutrient cycling by gizzard shad supported a substantial proportion of primary production in these ecosystems, and this proportion increased as watershed agriculture (and ecosystem productivity) increased. In the four productive lakes with agricultural watersheds (>78% agricultural land), gizzard shad supported on average 51% of phytoplankton primary production (range 27-67%). In contrast, in the three relatively unproductive lakes in forested or mixed-land-use watersheds (>47% forest, <52% agricultural land), gizzard shad supported 18% of primary production (range 14-23%). Thus, along a gradient of forested to agricultural landscapes, both watershed nutrient inputs and nutrient translocation by gizzard shad increase, but our data indicate that the importance of nutrient translocation by gizzard shad increases more rapidly. Our results therefore support the

  9. Influences of Vegetation Phenological Shifts on Water and Energy Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensed vegetation indices and field measurements have demonstrated that climate change has influenced vegetation phenology. The phenological changes are expressed in shifts in the timing of spring vegetation activity and the length of the active growing season. According to NDVI data from NOAA and GIMMS, the length of the active growing season north of 45°N has extended by 12 days due to 8 days advancement in spring and 4 days prolongation in autumn between July 1981 and June 1991. The same NDVI dataset from July 1981 to December 1999 has shown the growing season increased by 18 days in Eurasia and 12 days in North America. Phenology regulates vegetation interactions with climate by influencing the energy, water and carbon cycles. Here, we use observations and the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5) in offline mode and coupled with CESM to evaluate influences of shifts in phenology on energy and water budget and partitioning and on interactions with the atmosphere. Satellite retrieved leaf area index (LAI) is used to prescribe shifts in vegetation phenology in CLM4.5. We find that phenological advancement of 12 days over the past few decades can result in monthly mean changes of (-5-7 Wm-2) in latent heat and (-5-9Wm-2) in sensible heat balance over wide regions. We will discuss (1) the capability of current climate models to predict the impacts of phenological shifts on climate change, (2) seasonal to annual changes in energy and water cycles in response to phenological shifts, (3) the spatial heterogeneity in phenological-induced energy and water partitioning in different plant functional types across regions and continents, and (4) phenology and plant-climate interactions in changing climate.

  10. Accelerator Reactor Coupling for Energy Production in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Heidet, Florent; Haj Tahar, Malek

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of several accelerator–reactor interface issues and nuclear fuel cycle applications of acceleratordriven subcritical systems. The systems considered here have the primary goal of energy production, but that goal is accomplished via a specific application in various proposed nuclear fuel cycles, such as breed-and-burn of fertile material or burning of transuranic material. Several basic principles are reviewed, starting from the proton beam window including the target, blanket, reactor core, and up to the fuel cycle. We focus on issues of interest, such as the impact of the energy required to run the accelerator and associated systems on the potential electricity delivered to the grid. Accelerator-driven systems feature many of the constraints and issues associated with critical reactors, with the added challenges of subcritical operation and coupling to an accelerator. Reliable accelerator operation and avoidance of beam trips are critically important. One interesting challenge is measurement of blanket subcriticality level during operation. We also review the potential benefits of accelerator-driven systems in various nuclear fuel cycle applications. Ultimately, accelerator-driven subcritical systems with the goal of transmutation of transuranic material have lower 100,000-year radioactivity than a critical fast reactor with recycling of uranium and plutonium.

  11. Accelerator Reactor Coupling for Energy Production in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Heidet, Florent; Haj Tahar, Malek

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of several accelerator–reactor interface issues and nuclear fuel cycle applications of acceleratordriven subcritical systems. The systems considered here have the primary goal of energy production, but that goal is accomplished via a specific application in various proposed nuclear fuel cycles, such as breed-and-burn of fertile material or burning of transuranic material. Several basic principles are reviewed, starting from the proton beam window including the target, blanket, reactor core, and up to the fuel cycle. We focus on issues of interest, such as the impact of the energy required to run the accelerator and associated systemsmore » on the potential electricity delivered to the grid. Accelerator-driven systems feature many of the constraints and issues associated with critical reactors, with the added challenges of subcritical operation and coupling to an accelerator. Reliable accelerator operation and avoidance of beam trips are critically important. One interesting challenge is measurement of blanket subcriticality level during operation. We also review the potential benefits of accelerator-driven systems in various nuclear fuel cycle applications. Ultimately, accelerator-driven subcritical systems with the goal of transmutation of transuranic material have lower 100,000-year radioactivity than a critical fast reactor with recycling of uranium and plutonium.« less

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  13. Primary cilia in energy balance signaling and metabolic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hankyu; Song, Jieun; Jung, Joo Hyun; Ko, Hyuk Wan

    2015-01-01

    Energy homeostasis in our body system is maintained by balancing the intake and expenditure of energy. Excessive accumulation of fat by disrupting the balance system causes overweight and obesity, which are increasingly becoming global health concerns. Understanding the pathogenesis of obesity focused on studying the genes related to familial types of obesity. Recently, a rare human genetic disorder, ciliopathy, links the role for genes regulating structure and function of a cellular organelle, the primary cilium, to metabolic disorder, obesity and type II diabetes. Primary cilia are microtubule based hair-like membranous structures, lacking motility and functions such as sensing the environmental cues, and transducing extracellular signals within the cells. Interestingly, the subclass of ciliopathies, such as Bardet-Biedle and Alström syndrome, manifest obesity and type II diabetes in human and mouse model systems. Moreover, studies on genetic mouse model system indicate that more ciliary genes affect energy homeostasis through multiple regulatory steps such as central and peripheral actions of leptin and insulin. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in primary cilia and metabolic disorders, and propose the possible interaction between primary cilia and the leptin and insulin signal pathways which might enhance our understanding of the unambiguous link of a cell’s antenna to obesity and type II diabetes. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 647-654] PMID:26538252

  14. Current topics of functional links between primary cilia and cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Ichiro; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Inagaki, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia, microtubule-based sensory structures, orchestrate various critical signals during development and tissue homeostasis. In view of the rising interest into the reciprocal link between ciliogenesis and cell cycle, we discuss here several recent advances to understand the molecular link between the individual step of ciliogenesis and cell cycle control. At the onset of ciliogenesis (the transition from centrosome to basal body), distal appendage proteins have been established as components indispensable for the docking of vesicles at the mother centriole. In the initial step of axonemal extension, CP110, Ofd1, and trichoplein, key negative regulators of ciliogenesis, are found to be removed by a kinase-dependent mechanism, autophagy, and ubiquitin-proteasome system, respectively. Of note, their disposal functions as a restriction point to decide that the axonemal nucleation and extension begin. In the elongation step, Nde1, a negative regulator of ciliary length, is revealed to be ubiquitylated and degraded by CDK5-SCF(Fbw7) in a cell cycle-dependent manner. With regard to ciliary length control, it has been uncovered in flagellar shortening of Chlamydomonas that cilia itself transmit a ciliary length signal to cytoplasm. At the ciliary resorption step upon cell cycle re-entry, cilia are found to be disassembled not only by Aurora A-HDAC6 pathway but also by Nek2-Kif24 and Plk1-Kif2A pathways through their microtubule-depolymerizing activity. On the other hand, it is becoming evident that the presence of primary cilia itself functions as a structural checkpoint for cell cycle re-entry. These data suggest that ciliogenesis and cell cycle intimately link each other, and further elucidation of these mechanisms will contribute to understanding the pathology of cilia-related disease including cancer and discovering targets of therapeutic interventions.

  15. An energy-balance model of glaciation cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Bhattacharya, K.

    1979-01-01

    A one dimensional energy balance model is presented which contains a time lagged albedo to account for the delayed dependence of continental ice sheets on temperature; it also includes a smoothing of temperature gradients in the tropics to account for the effect of the Hadley circulation on the strong flattening of meridional temperature profiles there. The model exhibits finite amplitude, sustained free oscillations; these oscillations are triggered by a change in the insulation parameter and occur in the absence of any external forcing. This model behavior strongly suggests the possibility of an almost-intransitive mechanism playing a role in glaciation cycles. This behavior also occurs on shorter time scales which might be relevant to the interannual variability of the atmosphere.

  16. Energy efficient iron based electronic field cycling magnet.

    PubMed

    Plendl, Dirk; Fujara, Marian; Privalov, Alexei F; Fujara, Franz

    2009-06-01

    A new concept for an energy efficient electromagnet for fast field cycling NMR applications as well as its construction and first test results are presented. The magnet, which provides a rectangular sample space of 17 x 25 mm, has an iron yoke and pole pieces optimised with respect to the B(0) homogeneity. The maximum field is 0.66 T at a current of 320 A; its field inhomogeneity for a cylindrical sample (length 7 mm, diameter 6mm) is about 50 ppm. The power dissipation during polarisation at 0.55 T is as low as 1.4 kW. The magnet is powered by a commercially available power supply and can be rapidly switched with a slew rate of 0.55 T/ms. The system has shown a stability of 50 ppm/h.

  17. The Urban Water Cycle and how it Modulates the Microclimate and the Energy Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Wang, Z.; Ramamurthy, P.; Li, D.; Sun, T.; Smith, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is the land-use modification with the largest and most manifest impacts on hydrologic storage and fluxes. This perturbation of the water cycle also has considerable ramifications on the surface energy budget and the microclimatology in built terrain: reducing the potential for water storage and subsequent evaporation reduces the fraction of incoming radiative energy dissipated through surface evaporation, and consequently increases the sensible heating of the urban atmosphere and solid surfaces (buildings, roads, …). However, the complexity of the involved physical processes and their interactions have so far been oversimplified, leading to considerable biases in model output when compared to observations. Using novel sensing techniques that include wireless sensor networks, this study seeks to build a better understanding of the Urban Water Cycle. Our findings indicate that "impervious surfaces" in urban area are not really impervious and not always dry. The role of evaporation from gravel-covered roofs and from concrete, brick, stone and asphalt surfaces can be considerable, leading to lower sensible heating. In addition, the different thermal properties of the various urban materials lead to extreme spatial heterogeneity in surface conditions that is much higher than over natural terrain. Building on this understanding, an improved urban canopy model is developed that includes much better representation of surface heterogeneity and of hydrological and thermal storage and transport processes, including analytical solutions of the heat equation and numerical solutions of the Richards equation in the urban surface. The model development will be detailed and applications focusing on the role of evaporation in mitigating summer building cooling needs and urban heat island effects will be presented.

  18. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure

    DOEpatents

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating

  19. Life Cycle Assessment Projection of Photovoltaic Cells: A Case Study on Energy Demand of Quantum Wire Based Photovoltaic Technology Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shilpi

    With increasing clean-energy demand, photovoltaic (PV) technologies have gained attention as potential long-term alternative to fossil fuel energy. However, PV research and manufacture still utilize fossil fuel-powered grid electricity. With continuous enhancement of solar conversion efficiency, it is imperative to assess whether overall life cycle efficiency is also being enhanced. Many new-material PV technologies are still in their research phase, and life cycle analyses of these technologies have not yet been performed. For best results, grid dependency must be minimized for PV research, and this can be accomplished by an analytical instrument called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is the study of environmental impacts of a product throughout its life cycle. While there are some non-recoverable costs of research, energy is precious, and the PV research community should be aware of its energy consumption. LCA can help identify options for energy conservation through process optimization. A case study was conducted on the energy demand of a test-bed emerging PV technology using life cycle assessment methodology. The test-bed system chosen for this study was a new-material PV cell. The objective was to quantify the total energy demand for the research phase of the test-bed solar cell's life cycle. The objective was accomplished by collecting primary data on energy consumption for each process in the development of this solar cell. It was found that 937 kWh of energy was consumed for performing research on a single sample of the solar cell. For comparison, this energy consumption is 83% of Arkansas's average monthly residential electricity consumption. Life cycle inventory analysis showed that heating, ventilation, and air conditioning consumed the bulk of the energy of research. It is to be noted that the processes studied as part of the solar cell test-bed system are representative of a research process only. Life cycle thinking can identify energy hot-spots and

  20. The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-05-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA

  1. The primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter; Veland, Iben R; Schneider, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present an overview of the function of primary cilia and the centrosome in the signaling pathways that regulate cell cycle control and migration with focus on ciliary signaling via platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha). We also consider how the primary cilium and the centrosome interact with the extracellular matrix, coordinate Wnt signaling, and modulate cytoskeletal changes that impinge on both cell cycle control and cell migration.

  2. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    on these devices in a collaborative manner to improve their battery lifetime substantially, on average by two to three times and in some cases up to 8 times. First we present "Cell2Notify", a technique in which a lower power radio is used purely to wakeup a higher power radio. Next, we present "CoolSpots" and "SwitchR", systems that build a hierarchy of collaborative radios to choose the most appropriate radio interface, taking into account application characteristics as well as various energy and performance metrics. In the case of wall-powered desktop and laptop Personal Computers (PCs) we show that the dominant power consumers are the processors themselves. We then describe "Somniloquy", an architecture that augments a PC with a separate low power secondary processor that can perform some of the functions of the host PC on its behalf. We show that by using the primary processor (i.e. the PC) collaboratively with the secondary processor we can shut down PCs opportunistically, and as a result reduce the overall energy consumption by up to 80% in most cases.

  3. An all-particle primary energy spectrum in the 3 200 PeV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garyaka, A. P.; Martirosov, R. M.; Ter-Antonyan, S. V.; Erlykin, A. D.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Jones, L. W.; Procureur, J.

    2008-11-01

    We present an all-particle primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum in the 3 × 106-2 × 108 GeV energy range obtained by a multi-parametric event-by-event evaluation of the primary energy. The results are obtained on the basis of an expanded EAS data set detected at mountain level (700 g cm-2) by the GAMMA experiment. The energy evaluation method has been developed using the EAS simulation with the SIBYLL interaction model taking into account the response of GAMMA detectors and reconstruction uncertainties of EAS parameters. Nearly unbiased (<5%) energy estimations regardless of a primary nuclear mass with an accuracy of about 15-10% in the 3 × 106-2 × 108 GeV energy range respectively are attained. An irregularity ('bump') in the spectrum is observed at primary energies of ~7.4 × 107 GeV. This bump exceeds a smooth power-law fit to the data by about 4 standard deviations. By not rejecting the stochastic nature of the bump completely, we examined the systematic uncertainties of our methods and conclude that they cannot be responsible for the observed feature.

  4. 75 FR 17397 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kern County, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kern County, CA--Notice of... proposed by HECA would demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology with carbon... emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, and particulates compared to conventional...

  5. Turbulent Mixing of Primary and Secondary Flow Streams in a Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, J. M.; Greene, M. U.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the turbulent mixing of primary and secondary flow streams in a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine. A significant RBCC ejector mode database has been generated, detailing single and twin thruster configurations and global and local measurements. On-going analysis and correlation efforts include Marshall Space Flight Center computational fluid dynamics modeling and turbulent shear layer analysis. Potential follow-on activities include detailed measurements of air flow static pressure and velocity profiles, investigations into other thruster spacing configurations, performing a fundamental shear layer mixing study, and demonstrating single-shot Raman measurements.

  6. Development of a Thin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Tim; Beck, Griffin; Bennett, Jeffrey; Hoopes, Kevin; Miller, Larry

    2016-06-29

    This project objective is to develop a high-temperature design upgrade for an existing primary surface heat exchanger so that the redesigned hardware is capable of operation in CO2 at temperatures up to 1,510°F (821°C) and pressure differentials up to 130 psi (9 bar). The heat exchanger is proposed for use as a recuperator in an advanced low-pressure oxy-fuel Brayton cycle that is predicted to achieve over 50% thermodynamic efficiency, although the heat exchanger could also be used in other high-temperature, low-differential pressure cycles. This report describes the progress to date, which includes continuing work performed to select and test new candidate materials for the recuperator redesign, final mechanical and thermal performance analysis results of various redesign concepts, and the preliminary design of a test loop for the redesigned recuperator including a budgetary estimate for detailed test loop design, procurement, and test operation. A materials search was performed in order to investigate high-temperature properties of many candidate materials, including high-temperature strength and nickel content. These properties were used to rank the candidate materials, resulting in a reduced list of nine materials for corrosion testing. Multiple test rigs were considered and analyzed for short-term corrosion testing and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was selected as the most cost-effective option for evaluating corrosion resistance of the candidate materials. In addition, tantalum, niobium, and chromium coatings were identified as potential options for increased corrosion resistance. The test results show that many materials exhibit relatively low weight gain rates, and that niobium and tantalum coatings may improve corrosion resistance for many materials, while chromium coatings appear to oxidize and debond quickly. Metallurgical analysis of alloys was also performed, showing evidence of intergranular attack in 282 that may cause long

  7. Nitrogen cycling in an integrated biomass for energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhead, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate N cycling in three components of an integrated biomass for energy system, i.e. water hyacinth production, anaerobic digestion in hyacinth biomass, and recycling of digester effluent and sludge. Plants assimilated 50 to 90% of added N in hyacinth production systems. Up to 28% of the total plant N was contained in hyacinth detritus. Nitrogen loading as plant detritus into hyacinth ponds was 92 to 148 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/. Net mineralization of plant organic /sup 15/N during anaerobic digestion was 35 and 70% for water hyacinth plants with low and high N content, respectively. Approximately 20% of the /sup 15/N was recovered in the digested sludge while the remaining /sup 15/N was recovered in the effluent. Water hyacinth growth in digester effluents was affected by electrical conductivity and /sup 15/NH/sub 4//sup +/-N concentration. Addition of water hyacinth biomass to soil resulted in decomposition of 39 to 50% of added C for fresh plant biomass and 19 to 23% of added C for digested biomass sludge. Only 8% of added /sup 15/N in digested sludges was mineralized to /sup 15/NO/sub 3//sup -/-N despite differences in initial N content. In contrast, 3 and 33% of added /sup 15/N in fresh biomass with low and high N content, respectively, was recovered as /sup 15/NO/sub 3//sup -/-N. Total /sup 15/N recovery after anaerobic digestion ranged from 70 to 100% of the initial plant biomass /sup 15/N. Total N recovery by sludge and effluent recycling in the integrated biomass for energy system was 48 to 60% of the initial plant biomass /sup 15/N.

  8. Primary side control of load voltage for transcutaneous energy transmission.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yang; Hu, Liang; Ruan, Xiaodong; Fu, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) is considered as a good way to wirelessly power the implanted devices in human bodies. The load voltage provided from the TET to the implanted device should be kept stable to ensure the device working well, which however, is easily affected by the required power variation for different body movements and coil-couple malposition accompanying skin peristalsis. Commonly, the load voltage applied onto the device should be measured and feedback for power is regulated by implanting sensing and communication units into the body, which causes additional energy cost, increased size and weight of the implanted device. This paper takes the TET for artificial heart as an example to propose a novel primary side control method of the load voltage for TET, which does not require any additional implanted components. In the method, sensing coils are used to measure the malposition between the transmitter coil (TC) and receiver coil, and the magnitude of the TC current outside the human body. The measurement results are used to estimate the load voltage inside the body through calculation, whose value provide a base to develop a PI control system to regulate the input power of TET for the load voltage stability. The proposed method is experimentally validated on an actual TET for artificial heart by varying its load in a wide range under serious coil-couple malposition. With applying the primary side control, the variation of the load voltage is reduced to only 25 % of that without the control.

  9. Propionibacterium acnes inhibits FOXM1 and induces cell cycle alterations in human primary prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Sayanjali, Behnam; Christensen, Gitte J M; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Meyer, Thomas F; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been detected in diseased human prostate tissue, and cell culture experiments suggest that the bacterium can establish a low-grade inflammation. Here, we investigated its impact on human primary prostate epithelial cells. Microarray analysis confirmed the inflammation-inducing capability of P. acnes but also showed deregulation of genes involved in the cell cycle. qPCR experiments showed that viable P. acnes downregulates a master regulator of cell cycle progression, FOXM1. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that P. acnes increases the number of cells in S-phase. We tested the hypothesis that a P. acnes-produced berninamycin-like thiopeptide is responsible for this effect, since it is related to the FOXM1 inhibitor siomycin. The thiopeptide biosynthesis gene cluster was strongly expressed; it is present in subtype IB of P. acnes, but absent from type IA, which is most abundant on human skin. A knock-out mutant lacking the gene encoding the berninamycin-like peptide precursor was unable to downregulate FOXM1 and to halt the cell cycle. Our study reveals a novel host cell-interacting activity of P. acnes.

  10. Life Prediction and Stress Evolvement for Low Cycle Fatigue in PWR Primary Pipe Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xue; Wei-wei, Yu; Zhao-xi, Wang; Wen-xin, Ti; Lei, Lin; Xin-ming, Men

    2010-05-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of primary pipe material Z3CN20.09M cast stainless stell (CASS) was studied at room temperature (RT) and elevated temperature of 350° C by conducting total axial stain controlled tests in air with strain amplitude in the range ±0.175% to ±0.8%. Based on the test results, the cyclic stress response of material was analyzed, and a dynamic strain aging (DSA) phenomena was discovered at 350° C. Besides, the evaluation of elastic modulus during cyclic tests was studied, and the effect of elastic modulus on parameters of low cycle fatigue was investigated based on the Manson-Coffin model. It is shown that elastic modulus for Z3CN20.09M decreases constantly during the whole fatigue life, but fluctuates more frequently at elevated temperature. Both the static and dynamic elastic modulus result in a same life trend in low cycle fatigue, but the elastic modulus affects the precision of fatigue life prediction to some extent when the fatigue life exceeded 105.

  11. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    The Global conference is a forum for the discussion of the scientific, technical, social and regulatory aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Relevant topics include global utilization of nuclear energy, current fuel cycle technologies, advanced reactors, advanced fuel cycles, nuclear nonproliferation and public acceptance.

  12. 77 FR 18272 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...) staff has conducted inspections of the Louisiana Energy Services (LES), LLC, National enrichment... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Discussion The NRC staff has conducted inspections of the Louisiana...

  13. Generation of available potential energy and the energy cycle during the global weather experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, D. A.; Rosen, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Two major themes were pursued during this research period. The first of these involved examining the impacts of satellite-based data and the forecast model used by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) on general circulation statistics. For the other major topic, the diabatic heating fields produced by GLA were examined for one month during the FGGE First Special Observing Period. As part of that effort, the three-dimensional distribution of the four component heating fields were studied, namely those due to shortwave radiation, Q sub SW, longwave radiation, Q sub LW, sensible heating, Q sub S, and latent heating, Q sub L. These components were calculated as part of the GLA analysis/forecast system and archived every quarter day; from these archives cross products with temperature were computed to enable the direct calculation of certain terms of the large-scale atmospheric energy cycle, namely those involving the generation of available potential energy (APE). The decision to archive the diabatic heating components separately has enabled researchers to study the role of the various processes that drive the energy cycle of the atmosphere.

  14. Ultra high energy events in ECHOS series and primary energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capdevielle, J. N.; Iwai, J.; Ogata, T.

    1985-01-01

    The compilation of ultra high energy jets suggests at present the existence of a bump in primary energy spectrum (with the standard concept of high energy collisions). The pseudo-rapidity distribution exhibits some typical anomalies, more than the (P sub t) behavior, which are (may be) the fingerprints of quark gluon plasma transition. The next results of Emulsion Chamber on Supersonic (ECHOS) will be in both cases determinant to confirm those tendancies, as well as an important effort of the cosmic ray community to develop in that sense a flying emulsion chamber experiment.

  15. Primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells as a potential model for Toxoplasma gondii enteric cycle studies.

    PubMed

    Moura, Marcos de Assis; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Barbosa, Helene Santos

    2009-09-01

    The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of the syncytial-like forms of T. gondii was observed using the 1:20 bradyzoite-host cell ratio, resulting in similar forms described in in vivo systems. This alternative study potentially opens up the field for investigation into the molecular aspects of this interaction. This can contribute to the development of new strategies for intervention of a main route by which toxoplasmosis spreads.

  16. Family Life Cycle and Deforestation in Amazonia: Combining Remotely Sensed Information with Primary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.

  17. Comparison of energy-based indicators used in life cycle assessment tools for buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, building rating systems focused on, among others, energy used during operational stage. Recently, there is a strong push by these rating systems to include the life cycle energy use of buildings, particularly using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), by offering credits t...

  18. Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive Cycle Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses the approach that will be used in the Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) project to evaluate the fuel savings potential of various truck efficiency technologies. The methods and equations used for performing the tractive energy evaluations are presented and the calculation approach is described. Several representative results for individual duty cycle segments are presented to demonstrate the approach and the significance of this analysis for the project. The report is divided into four sections, including an initial brief overview of the LSDC project and its current status. In the second section of the report, the concepts that form the basis of the analysis are presented through a discussion of basic principles pertaining to tractive energy and the role of tractive energy in relation to other losses on the vehicle. In the third section, the approach used for the analysis is formalized and the equations used in the analysis are presented. In the fourth section, results from the analysis for a set of individual duty cycle measurements are presented and different types of drive cycles are discussed relative to the fuel savings potential that specific technologies could bring if these drive cycles were representative of the use of a given vehicle or trucking application. Additionally, the calculation of vehicle mass from measured torque and speed data is presented and the accuracy of the approach is demonstrated.

  19. Energy analysis of electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells through well-to-wheel driving cycle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanari, Stefano; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Garcia de la Iglesia, Fernando

    This work presents a study of the energy and environmental balances for electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells, through the methodology of the well to wheel (WTW) analysis, applied to ECE-EUDC driving cycle simulations. Well to wheel balances are carried out considering different scenarios for the primary energy supply. The fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are based on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) technology, and it is discussed the possibility to feed the fuel cell with (i) hydrogen directly stored onboard and generated separately by water hydrolysis (using renewable energy sources) or by conversion processes using coal or natural gas as primary energy source (through gasification or reforming), (ii) hydrogen generated onboard with a fuel processor fed by natural gas, ethanol, methanol or gasoline. The battery electric vehicles (BEV) are based on Li-ion batteries charged with electricity generated by central power stations, either based on renewable energy, coal, natural gas or reflecting the average EU power generation feedstock. A further alternative is considered: the integration of a small battery to FCEV, exploiting a hybrid solution that allows recovering energy during decelerations and substantially improves the system energy efficiency. After a preliminary WTW analysis carried out under nominal operating conditions, the work discusses the simulation of the vehicles energy consumption when following standardized ECE-EUDC driving cycle. The analysis is carried out considering different hypothesis about the vehicle driving range, the maximum speed requirements and the possibility to sustain more aggressive driving cycles. The analysis shows interesting conclusions, with best results achieved by BEVs only for very limited driving range requirements, while the fuel cell solutions yield best performances for more extended driving ranges where the battery weight becomes too high. Results are finally compared to those of conventional internal

  20. Response Surface Energy Modeling of an Electric Vehicle over a Reduced Composite Drive Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jehlik, Forrest; LaClair, Tim J.

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle. The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes. Application of response surface modeling to the synthetic drive cycle is shown to predict energy consumption of the three EPA cycles within 2.6% of the actual measured values. Additionally, the response model may be used to predict energy consumption of any cycle within the speed/acceleration envelope of the synthetic cycle. This technique results in reducing test time, which additionally provides a model that may be used to expand the analysis and understanding of the vehicle under consideration.

  1. Generation of available potential energy and the energy cycle during the global weather experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, D. A.; Rosen, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two parallel sets of analyses, which in one case included and in the other omitted data observed by satellite based and other FGGE special observing systems are examined. The results of our previous work is extended in two separate, but not unrelated, ways. First, from these two parallel analyses, which are labeled FGGE (full FGGE system) and NOSAT (satellite omitted), it was discovered that the two sets of fields were quite close over much of the globe. Locally the influence of satellite based systems led to some differences, particularly over the Southern Hemisphere Oceans. The diabatic heating fields generated by the GLA FGGE analysis was also examined. From these fields, one can ascertain the role of total diabatic heating and of the various diabatic heating components in the atmospheric energy cycle, in particular in the generation of available potential energy.

  2. Open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion surface-condenser design analysis and computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Rabas, T.J.

    1991-05-01

    This report documents a computer program for designing a surface condenser that condenses low-pressure steam in an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant. The primary emphasis is on the open-cycle (OC) OTEC power system, although the same condenser design can be used for conventional and hybrid cycles because of their highly similar operating conditions. In an OC-OTEC system, the pressure level is very low (deep vacuums), temperature differences are small, and the inlet noncondensable gas concentrations are high. Because current condenser designs, such as the shell-and-tube, are not adequate for such conditions, a plate-fin configuration is selected. This design can be implemented in aluminum, which makes it very cost-effective when compared with other state-of-the-art vacuum steam condenser designs. Support for selecting a plate-fin heat exchanger for OC-OTEC steam condensation can be found in the sizing (geometric details) and rating (heat transfer and pressure drop) calculations presented. These calculations are then used in a computer program to obtain all the necessary thermal performance details for developing design specifications for a plate-fin steam condenser. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion surface-condenser design analysis and computer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, C. B.; Rabas, T. J.

    1991-05-01

    This report documents a computer program for designing a surface condenser that condenses low-pressure steam in an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant. The primary emphasis is on the open-cycle (OC) OTEC power system, although the same condenser design can be used for conventional and hybrid cycles because of their highly similar operating conditions. In an OC-OTEC system, the pressure level is very low (deep vacuums), temperature differences are small, and the inlet noncondensable gas concentrations are high. Because current condenser designs, such as the shell-and-tube, are not adequate for such conditions, a plate-fin configuration is selected. This design can be implemented in aluminum, which makes it very cost-effective when compared with other state-of-the-art vacuum steam condenser designs. Support for selecting a plate-fin heat exchanger for OC-OTEC steam condensation can be found in the sizing (geometric details) and rating (heat transfer and pressure drop) calculations presented. These calculations are then used in a computer program to obtain all the necessary thermal performance details for developing design specifications for a plate-fin steam condenser.

  4. A fuel cycle assessment guide for utility and state energy planners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This guide, one in a series of documents designed to help assess fuel cycles, is a framework for setting parameters, collecting data, and analyzing fuel cycles for supply-side and demand-side management. It provides an automated tool for entering comparative fuel cycle data that are meaningful to state and utility integrated resource planning, collaborative, and regional energy planning activities. It outlines an extensive range of energy technology characteristics and environmental, social, and economic considerations within each stage of a fuel cycle. The guide permits users to focus on specific stages or effects that are relevant to the technology being evaluated and that meet the user`s planning requirements.

  5. Life cycle cost-based risk model for energy performance contracting retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghorn, George H.

    Buildings account for 41% of the primary energy consumption in the United States, nearly half of which is accounted for by commercial buildings. Among the greatest energy users are those in the municipalities, universities, schools, and hospitals (MUSH) market. Correctional facilities are in the upper half of all commercial building types for energy intensity. Public agencies have experienced reduced capital budgets to fund retrofits; this has led to the increased use of energy performance contracts (EPC), which are implemented by energy services companies (ESCOs). These companies guarantee a minimum amount of energy savings resulting from the retrofit activities, which in essence transfers performance risk from the owner to the contractor. Building retrofits in the MUSH market, especially correctional facilities, are well-suited to EPC, yet despite this potential and their high energy intensities, efficiency improvements lag behind that of other public building types. Complexities in project execution, lack of support for data requests and sub-metering, and conflicting project objectives have been cited as reasons for this lag effect. As a result, project-level risks must be understood in order to support wider adoption of retrofits in the public market, in particular the correctional facility sub-market. The goal of this research is to understand risks related to the execution of energy efficiency retrofits delivered via EPC in the MUSH market. To achieve this goal, in-depth analysis and improved understanding was sought with regard to ESCO risks that are unique to EPC in this market. The proposed work contributes to this understanding by developing a life cycle cost-based risk model to improve project decision making with regard to risk control and reduction. The specific objectives of the research are: (1) to perform an exploratory analysis of the EPC retrofit process and identify key areas of performance risk requiring in-depth analysis; (2) to construct a

  6. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Janet M.

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has

  7. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

  9. Charge composition and energy spectral of cosmic ray primary particles for energies higher than 1 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernov, S. N.; Ivanenko, I. P.; Grigorov, N. L.; Basina, Y. V.; Vakulov, P. V.; Vasilyev, Y. Y.; Golinskaya, R. M.; Grigoryeva, L. B.; Zhuravlev, D. A.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    1985-01-01

    Onboard the Cosmos-I543 satellite an experiment was performed to investigate the charge composition and primary cosmic ray energy spectrum for energies higher than I TeV. Preliminary experimental data are reported.

  10. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  11. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era. PMID:28117324

  12. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2017-01-24

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  13. [Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of cellulosic ethanol from corn stover].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Liao, Cuiping; Li, Li; Zhao, Daiqing

    2011-03-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the only standardized tool currently used to assess environmental loads of products and processes. The life cycle analysis, as a part of LCA, is a useful and powerful methodology for studying life cycle energy efficiency and life cycle GHG emission. To quantitatively explain the potential of energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction of corn stover-based ethanol, we analyzed life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of corn stover-based ethanol by the method of life cycle analysis. The processes are dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. The functional unit was defined as 1 km distance driven by the vehicle. Results indicated: compared with gasoline, the corn stover-based E100 (100% ethanol) and E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) could reduce life cycle fossil energy consumption by 79.63% and 6.25% respectively, as well as GHG emissions by 53.98% and 6.69%; the fossil energy consumed by biomass stage was 68.3% of total fossil energy input, N-fertilizer and diesel were the main factors which contributed 45.78% and 33.26% to biomass stage; electricity production process contributed 42.06% to the net GHG emissions, the improvement of technology might reduce emissions markedly.

  14. NASA Contributions to Improve Understanding of Extreme Events in the Global Energy and Water Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) has established the water cycle goals of the Nation's climate change program. Accomplishing these goals will require, in part, an accurate accounting of the key reservoirs and fluxes associated with the global water and energy cycle, including their spatial and temporal variability. through integration of all necessary observations and research tools, To this end, in conjunction with NASA's Earth science research strategy, the overarching long-term NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) grand challenge can he summarized as documenting and enabling improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. This challenge requires documenting and predicting trends in the rate of the Earth's water and energy cycling that corresponds to climate change and changes in the frequency and intensity of naturally occurring related meteorological and hydrologic events, which may vary as climate may vary in the future. The cycling of water and energy has obvious and significant implications for the health and prosperity of our society. The importance of documenting and predicting water and energy cycle variations and extremes is necessary to accomplish this benefit to society.

  15. Prospects for Nuclear Electric Propulsion Using Closed-Cycle Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Bitteker, L. J.; Jones, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has long been recognized as a major enabling technology for scientific and human exploration of the solar system, and it may conceivably form the basis of a cost-effective space transportation system suitable for space commerce. The chief technical obstacles to realizing this vision are the development of efficient, high-power (megawatt-class) electric thrusters and the development of low specific mass (less than 1 kg/kWe) power plants. Furthermore, comprehensive system analyses of multimegawatt class NEP systems are needed in order to critically assess mission capability and cost attributes. This Technical Publication addresses some of these concerns through a systematic examination of multimegawatt space power installations in which a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is used to drive a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator in a closed-loop Brayton cycle. The primary motivation for considering MHD energy conversion is the ability to transfer energy out of a gas that is simply too hot for contact with any solid material. This has several intrinsic advantages including the ability to achieve high thermal efficiency and power density and the ability to reject heat at elevated temperatures. These attributes lead to a reduction in system specific mass below that obtainable with turbine-based systems, which have definite solid temperature limits for reliable operation. Here, the results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis are placed in context with a preliminary system analysis in order to converge on a design space that optimizes performance while remaining clearly within established bounds of engineering feasibility. MHD technology issues are discussed including the conceptual design of a nonequilibrium disk generator and opportunities for exploiting neutron-induced ionization mechanisms as a means of increasing electrical conductivity and enhancing performance and reliability. The results are then used to make a cursory examination of piloted

  16. 78 FR 63518 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National... conducted inspections of the Louisiana Energy Services (LES), LLC, National Enrichment Facility in Eunice... the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The introduction of UF 6 into any module of the...

  17. Quantifying subtropical North Pacific gyre mixed layer primary productivity from Seaglider observations of diel oxygen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David P.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Doney, Scott C.; Karl, David M.

    2015-05-01

    Using autonomous underwater gliders, we quantified diurnal periodicity in dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and temperature in the subtropical North Pacific near the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Station ALOHA during summer 2012. Oxygen optodes provided sufficient stability and precision to quantify diel cycles of average amplitude of 0.6 µmol kg-1. A theoretical diel curve was fit to daily observations to infer an average mixed layer gross primary productivity (GPP) of 1.8 mmol O2 m-3 d-1. Cumulative net community production (NCP) over 110 days was 500 mmol O2 m-2 for the mixed layer, which averaged 57 m in depth. Both GPP and NCP estimates indicated a significant period of below-average productivity at Station ALOHA in 2012, an observation confirmed by 14C productivity incubations and O2/Ar ratios. Given our success in an oligotrophic gyre where biological signals are small, our diel GPP approach holds promise for remote characterization of productivity across the spectrum of marine environments.

  18. High-frequency thermal-electrical cycles for pyroelectric energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Bikram; Damodaran, Anoop R.; Cho, Hanna; Martin, Lane W.; King, William P.

    2014-11-21

    We report thermal to electrical energy conversion from a 150 nm thick BaTiO{sub 3} film using pyroelectric cycles at 1 kHz. A microfabricated platform enables temperature and electric field control with temporal resolution near 1 μs. The rapid electric field changes as high as 11 × 10{sup 5 }kV/cm-s, and temperature change rates as high as 6 × 10{sup 5 }K/s allow exploration of pyroelectric cycles in a previously unexplored operating regime. We investigated the effect of phase difference between electric field and temperature cycles, and electric field and temperature change rates on the electrical energy generated from thermal-electrical cycles based on the pyroelectric Ericsson cycle. Complete thermodynamic cycles are possible up to the highest cycle rates tested here, and the energy density varies significantly with phase shifts between temperature and electric field waveforms. This work could facilitate the design and operation of pyroelectric cycles at high cycle rates, and aid in the design of new pyroelectric systems.

  19. GEWEX - The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa T.

    1992-01-01

    GEWEX, which is part of the World Climate Research Program, has as its goal an order-of-magnitude improvement in the ability to model global precipitation and evaporation and furnish an accurate assessment of the sensitivity of atmospheric radiation and clouds. Attention will also be given to the response of the hydrological cycle and water resources to climate change. GEWEX employs a single program to coordinate all aspects of climatology from model development to the deployment and operation of observational systems. GEWEX will operate over the next two decades.

  20. EFFECT OF ARSENICALS ON THE EXPRESSION OF CELL CYCLE PROTEINS AND EARLY SIGNALING EVENTS IN PRIMARY HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Arsenicals on the Expression of Cell Cycle Proteins and Early Signaling Events in Primary Human Keratinocytes.

    Mudipalli, A, Owen R. D. and R. J. Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711.

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is a m...

  1. University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project report on the second long-term cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, M.C.; Hallgren, J.P.; Lauer, J.L.; Walton, M.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Howe, J.T.; Splettstoesser, J.F.

    1991-12-01

    The technical feasibility of high-temperature [>100{degrees}C (>212{degrees}F)] aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in a deep, confined aquifer was tested in a series of experimental cycles at the University of Minnesota`s St. Paul field test facility (FTF). This report describes the second long-term cycle (LT2), which was conducted from October 1986 through April 1987. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are reported. Approximately 61% of the 9.21 GWh of energy added to the 9.38 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of ground water stored during LT2 was recovered. Temperatures of the water stored and recovered averaged 118{degrees}C (244{degrees}F) and 85{degrees}C (185{degrees}F), respectively. Results agreed with previous cycles conducted at the FTF. System operation during LT2 was nearly as planned. Operational experience from previous cycles at the FTF was extremely helpful. Ion-exchange softening of the heated and stored aquifer water prevented scaling in the system heat exchangers and the storage well, and changed the major-ion chemistry of the stored water. Sodium bicarbonate replaced magnesium and calcium bicarbonate as primary ions in the softened water. Water recovered form storage was approximately at equilibrium with respect to dissolved ions. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water. Sodium was significantly lower in water recovered than in water stored.

  2. University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project report on the second long-term cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, M.C.; Hallgren, J.P.; Lauer, J.L.; Walton, M.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Howe, J.T.; Splettstoesser, J.F. )

    1991-12-01

    The technical feasibility of high-temperature (>100{degrees}C (>212{degrees}F)) aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in a deep, confined aquifer was tested in a series of experimental cycles at the University of Minnesota's St. Paul field test facility (FTF). This report describes the second long-term cycle (LT2), which was conducted from October 1986 through April 1987. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are reported. Approximately 61% of the 9.21 GWh of energy added to the 9.38 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of ground water stored during LT2 was recovered. Temperatures of the water stored and recovered averaged 118{degrees}C (244{degrees}F) and 85{degrees}C (185{degrees}F), respectively. Results agreed with previous cycles conducted at the FTF. System operation during LT2 was nearly as planned. Operational experience from previous cycles at the FTF was extremely helpful. Ion-exchange softening of the heated and stored aquifer water prevented scaling in the system heat exchangers and the storage well, and changed the major-ion chemistry of the stored water. Sodium bicarbonate replaced magnesium and calcium bicarbonate as primary ions in the softened water. Water recovered form storage was approximately at equilibrium with respect to dissolved ions. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water. Sodium was significantly lower in water recovered than in water stored.

  3. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems.

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  5. CAESCAP: A computer code for compressed-air energy-storage-plant cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, J. A.

    1982-10-01

    The analysis code, CAESCAP, was developed as an aid in comparing and evaluating proposed compressed air energy storage (CAES) cycles. Input consists of component parameters and working fluid conditions at points along a cycle. The code calculates thermodynamic properties at each point and then calculates overall cycle performance. Working fluid capabilities include steam, air, nitrogen, and parahydrogen. The CAESCAP code was used to analyze a variety of CAES cycles. The combination of straightforward input and flexible design make the code easy and inexpensive to use.

  6. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  7. The tropical water and energy cycles in a cumulus ensemble model. Part 1: Equilibrium climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, C. H.; Lau, K. M.; Tao, W. K.; Simpson, J.

    1994-01-01

    A cumulus ensemble model is used to study the tropical water and energy cycles and their role in the climate system. The model includes cloud dynamics, radiative processes, and microphysics that incorporate all important production and conversion processes among water vapor and five species of hydrometeors. Radiative transfer in clouds is parameterized based on cloud contents and size distributions of each bulk hydrometeor. Several model integrations have been carried out under a variety of imposed boundary and large-scale conditions. In Part 1 of this paper, the primary focus is on the water and heat budgets of the control experiment, which is designed to simulate the convective - radiative equilibrium response of the model to an imposed vertical velocity and a fixed sea surface temperature at 28 C. The simulated atmosphere is conditionally unstable below the freezing level and close to neutral above the freezing level. The equilibrium water budget shows that the total moisture source, M(sub s), which is contributed by surface evaporation (0.24 M(sub s)) and the large-scale advection (0.76 M(sub s)), all converts to mean surface precipitation bar-P(sub s). Most of M(sub s) is transported verticaly in convective regions where much of the condensate is generated and falls to surface (0.68 bar-P(sub s)). The remaining condensate detrains at a rate of 0.48 bar-P(sub s) and constitutes 65% of the source for stratiform clouds above the melting level. The upper-level stratiform cloud dissipates into clear environment at a rate of 0.14 bar-P(sub s), which is a significant moisture source comparable to the detrained water vapor (0.15 bar-P(sub s)) to the upper troposphere from convective clouds. In the lower troposphere, stratiform clouds evaporate at a rate of 0.41 bar-P(sub s), which is a more dominant moisture source than surface evaporation (0.22 bar-P(sub s)). The precipitation falling to the surface in the stratiform region is about 0.32 bar-P(sub s). The associated

  8. Energy and nutrient cycling in pig production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Peter J.

    United States pig production is centered in Iowa and is a major influence on the economic and ecological condition of that community. A pig production system includes buildings, equipment, production of feed ingredients, feed processing, and nutrient management. Although feed is the largest single input into a pig production system, nearly 30% of the non-solar energy use of a conventional--mechanically ventilated buildings with liquid manure handling--pig production system is associated with constructing and operating the pig facility. Using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs reduces construction resource use and construction costs of pig production systems. The hoop based systems also requires approximately 40% less non-solar energy to operate as the conventional system although hoop barn-based systems may require more feed. The total non-solar energy input associated with one 136 kg pig produced in a conventional farrow-to-finish system in Iowa and fed a typical corn-soybean meal diet that includes synthetic lysine and exogenous phytase is 967.9 MJ. Consuming the non-solar energy results in emissions of 79.8 kg CO2 equivalents. Alternatively producing the same pig in a system using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs requires 939.8 MJ/pig and results in emission of 70.2 kg CO2 equivalents, a reduction of 3 and 12% respectively. Hoop barn-based swine production systems can be managed to use similar or less resources than conventional confinement systems. As we strive to optimally allocate non-solar energy reserves and limited resources, support for examining and improving alternative systems is warranted.

  9. Optimal cycling time trial position models: aerodynamics versus power output and metabolic energy.

    PubMed

    Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

    2014-06-03

    The aerodynamic drag of a cyclist in time trial (TT) position is strongly influenced by the torso angle. While decreasing the torso angle reduces the drag, it limits the physiological functioning of the cyclist. Therefore the aims of this study were to predict the optimal TT cycling position as function of the cycling speed and to determine at which speed the aerodynamic power losses start to dominate. Two models were developed to determine the optimal torso angle: a 'Metabolic Energy Model' and a 'Power Output Model'. The Metabolic Energy Model minimised the required cycling energy expenditure, while the Power Output Model maximised the cyclists׳ power output. The input parameters were experimentally collected from 19 TT cyclists at different torso angle positions (0-24°). The results showed that for both models, the optimal torso angle depends strongly on the cycling speed, with decreasing torso angles at increasing speeds. The aerodynamic losses outweigh the power losses at cycling speeds above 46km/h. However, a fully horizontal torso is not optimal. For speeds below 30km/h, it is beneficial to ride in a more upright TT position. The two model outputs were not completely similar, due to the different model approaches. The Metabolic Energy Model could be applied for endurance events, while the Power Output Model is more suitable in sprinting or in variable conditions (wind, undulating course, etc.). It is suggested that despite some limitations, the models give valuable information about improving the cycling performance by optimising the TT cycling position.

  10. SQUID-SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Woodward W; Fike, David A; Johnson, Jena E; Raub, Timothy D; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Eiler, John M

    2014-04-15

    Many aspects of Earth's early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood--in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, and (34)S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (∼2.6-2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in Δ(33)S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial δ(34)S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments--even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry.

  11. SQUID–SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Fike, David A.; Johnson, Jena E.; Raub, Timothy D.; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Eiler, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of Earth’s early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood—in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, and 34S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (∼2.6–2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in Δ33S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial δ34S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments—even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry. PMID:24706767

  12. Cinematographic observations of growth cycles of Chlamydia trachomatis in primary cultures of human amniotic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Neeper, I D; Patton, D L; Kuo, C C

    1990-01-01

    Time-lapse cinematography was used to study the growth cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis in primary cell cultures of human amnion. Twelve preterm and twelve term placentas were obtained within 8 h of delivery, and epithelial cells were dissociated from the amniotic membranes by trypsinization and grown in Rose chambers. The epithelial nature of the cultured cells was documented by morphology and by immunofluorescence staining for cytoskeletal proteins, which matched the staining of intact amnion. With regular feedings, uninfected cultures remained healthy for up to 30 days. Confluent cultures (7 to 10 days) were infected with a genital strain (E/UW-5/CX) of C. trachomatis at 10(5) infectious units per chamber. Infections were done in culture medium without cycloheximide, which is often used to induce susceptibility of the cells. Between 66 and 90% of the cells were infected. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were visible by 18 h post infection (p.i.) and grew larger as the organisms inside multiplied. By 72 h p.i., the inclusions occupied the entire cytoplasm of the host cells. Further growth of the inclusions overdistended and ruptured the host cells on days 3 to 7. Cells not infected by the original inoculum became infected on day 5 or 6 p.i. by the chlamydial particles released from the ruptured cells. No amniotic cell was ever observed to survive the infection. The data presented support the hypothesis that amniotic epithelium is susceptible to infection and damage by C. trachomatis. This culture system provided detailed and dynamic observations of chlamydial infection under conditions more nearly physiologic than previously reported. Images PMID:2365450

  13. Biologically enhanced energy and carbon cycling on Titan?

    PubMed

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Grinspoon, David H

    2005-08-01

    With the Cassini-Huygens Mission in orbit around Saturn, the large moon Titan, with its reducing atmosphere, rich organic chemistry, and heterogeneous surface, moves into the astrobiological spotlight. Environmental conditions on Titan and Earth were similar in many respects 4 billion years ago, the approximate time when life originated on Earth. Life may have originated on Titan during its warmer early history and then developed adaptation strategies to cope with the increasingly cold conditions. If organisms originated and persisted, metabolic strategies could exist that would provide sufficient energy for life to persist, even today. Metabolic reactions might include the catalytic hydrogenation of photochemically produced acetylene, or involve the recombination of radicals created in the atmosphere by ultraviolet radiation. Metabolic activity may even contribute to the apparent youth, smoothness, and high activity of Titan's surface via biothermal energy.

  14. Life cycle assessment of biofuels: energy and greenhouse gas balances.

    PubMed

    Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Villegas, J; Panichelli, L

    2009-11-01

    The promotion of biofuels as energy for transportation in the industrialized countries is mainly driven by the perspective of oil depletion, the concerns about energy security and global warming. However due to sustainability constraints, biofuels will replace only 10 to 15% of fossil liquid fuels in the transport sector. Several governments have defined a minimum target of GHG emissions reduction for those biofuels that will be eligible to public incentives, for example a 35% emissions reduction in case of biofuels in Members States of the European Union. This article points out the significant biases in estimating GHG balances of biofuels stemming from modelling choices about system definition and boundaries, functional unit, reference systems and allocation methods. The extent to which these choices influence the results is investigated. After performing a comparison and constructive criticism of various modelling choices, the LCA of wheat-to-bioethanol is used as an illustrative case where bioethanol is blended with gasoline at various percentages (E5, E10 and E85). The performance of these substitution options is evaluated as well. The results show a large difference in the reduction of the GHG emissions with a high sensitivity to the following factors: the method used to allocate the impacts between the co-products, the type of reference systems, the choice of the functional unit and the type of blend. The authors come out with some recommendations for basing the estimation of energy and GHG balances of biofuels on principles such as transparency, consistency and accuracy.

  15. Balloons, Solar Energy and Dyes: An Approach to Primary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Arthur

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a glimpse into how one school has developed and implemented a policy for a primary science program which is wide-ranging with purposeful investigations, frequently of an interdisciplinary nature, crossing subject boundaries. (Author/KC)

  16. High-energy multiple muons and heavy primary cosmic-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, K.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations were carried out on high-energy multiple muons. On the lateral spread, the comparison with the deep underground observations indicates that the primary cosmic rays include heavy nuclei of high content. A method to determine the average mass number of primary particles in the energy around 10 to the 15th power eV is suggested.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  18. 77 FR 65729 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC... inspections of the Louisiana Energy Services (LES), LLC, National Enrichment Facility in Eunice, New Mexico... Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 70.32 (k) and section 193(c) of the Atomic...

  19. Wireless sensor node demonstrating indoor-light energy harvesting and voltage-triggered duty cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowell, M. A.; Lechene, B. P.; Raffone, P.; Evans, J. W.; Arias, A. C.; Wright, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a wireless sensor node (WSN) that operates purely on harvested ambient indoor light energy and regulates its duty cycle via voltage-triggered sensing and transmission. The extremely low-power light found in indoor environments can be considered at first sight as unsuitable for high-power load demands characteristic of radios [1], but by leveraging spectrum-tailored solar cells, trickle charging a high-power energy reservoir, and implementing triggered duty cycling, we show that these power demands can be consistently met. All energy harvesting and storage components are fabricated in our labs.

  20. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors.

  1. A Feasibility Study of CO2-Based Rankine Cycle Powered by Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin-Rong; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujima, Katsumi; Enomoto, Masatoshi; Sawada, Noboru

    An experiment study was carried out in order to investigate feasibility of CO2-based Rankine cycle powered by solar energy. The proposed cycle is to achieve a cogeneration of heat and power, which consists of evacuated solar tube collectors, power generating turbine, heat recovery system, and feed pump. The Rankine cycle of the system utilizes solar collectors to convert CO2 into high-temperature supercritical state, used to drive a turbine and produce electrical power. The cycle also recovers thermal energy, which can be used for absorption refrigerator, air conditioning, hot water supply so on for a building. A set of experimental set-up was constructed to investigate the performance of the CO2-based Rankine cycle. The results show the cycle can achieve production of heat and power with reasonable thermodynamics efficiency and has a great potential of the application of the CO2-based Rankine cycle powered by solar energy. In addition, some research interests related to the present study will also be discussed in this paper.

  2. Spontaneous Detachment of Colloids from Primary Energy Minima by Brownian Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan; Jin, Yan; Shen, Chongyang; Li, Tiantian; Huang, Yuanfang; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    The Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energy profile has been frequently used to interpret the mechanisms controlling colloid attachment/detachment and aggregation/disaggregation behavior. This study highlighted a type of energy profile that is characterized by a shallow primary energy well (i.e., comparable to the average kinetic energy of a colloid) at a small separation distance and a monotonic decrease of interaction energy with separation distance beyond the primary energy well. This energy profile is present due to variations of height, curvature, and density of discrete physical heterogeneities on collector surfaces. The energy profile indicates that colloids can be spontaneously detached from the shallow primary energy well by Brownian diffusion. The spontaneous detachment from primary minima was unambiguously confirmed by conducting laboratory column transport experiments involving flow interruptions for two model colloids (polystyrene latex microspheres) and engineered nanoparticles (fullerene C60 aggregates). Whereas the spontaneous detachment has been frequently attributed to attachment in secondary minima in the literature, our study indicates that the detached colloids could be initially attached at primary minima. Our study further suggests that the spontaneous disaggregation from primary minima is more significant than spontaneous detachment because the primary minimum depth between colloid themselves is lower than that between a colloid and a collector surface.

  3. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  4. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-09-15

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  5. Converting chemical energy into electricity through a functionally cooperating device with diving-surfacing cycles.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengmeng; Cheng, Mengjiao; Ju, Guannan; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2014-11-05

    A smart device that can dive or surface in aqueous medium has been developed by combining a pH-responsive surface with acid-responsive magnesium. The diving-surfacing cycles can be used to convert chemical energy into electricity. During the diving-surfacing motion, the smart device cuts magnetic flux lines and produces a current, demonstrating that motional energy can be realized by consuming chemical energy of magnesium, thus producing electricity.

  6. Developing Primary School Children's Understanding of Energy Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Colin; Summers, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Studies 34 elementary school children's understanding of five aspects of energy waste and the ways in which these conceptions develop following teaching. Concludes that the children had good prior awareness of some behaviors that save energy, but their reasons for thinking this were based largely on everyday intuitive ideas that involved…

  7. Noncatalytic dissociation of MgO by laser pulses towards sustainable energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, T.; Mohamed, M. S.; Uchida, S.; Baasandash, C.; Sato, Y.; Tsuji, M.; Mori, Y.

    2007-06-01

    We succeeded in dissociating MgO using laser pulses without a reducing agent. The energy efficiency from laser to magnesium reaction energy exceeded 42.5%. Although 1kW CO2 cw laser and Nd-YAG pulse laser are used in this experiment, the laser can be pumped by natural resources such as solar light or wind power. Thus natural resources are stored in the form of magnesium, which can be used through the reaction with water whenever we need the energy, and thus a renewable energy system will be established. This paper reports the preliminary experiments of MgO reduction toward a sustainable energy cycle.

  8. Energy Storage: Breakthrough in Battery Technologies (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Balsara, Nitash

    2016-07-12

    Nitash Balsara speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. Life-cycle energy efficiency and environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Shi, Yu; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Dinglong; Chen, Qun

    2013-04-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of sweet potato-based bioethanol production. The scope covered all stages in the life cycle of bioethanol production, including the cultivation and treatment, transport, as well as bioethanol conversion of sweet potato. Results show that the net energy ratio of sweet potato-based bioethanol is 1.48 and the net energy gain is 6.55 MJ/L. Eutrophication is identified as the most significant environmental impact category, followed by acidification, global warming, human toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. Sensitivity analysis reveals that steam consumption during bioethanol conversion exerts the most effect on the results, followed by sweet potato yields and fertilizers input. It is suggested that substituting coal with cleaner energy for steam generation in bioethanol conversion stage and promotion of better management practices in sweet potato cultivation stage could lead to a significant improvement of energy and environmental performance.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of five compressed-air energy-storage cycles. [Using CAESCAP computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J. A.

    1983-03-01

    One important aspect of the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage (CAES) Program is the evaluation of alternative CAES plant designs. The thermodynamic performance of the various configurations is particularly critical to the successful demonstration of CAES as an economically feasible energy-storage option. A computer code, the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage Cycle-Analysis Program (CAESCAP), was developed in 1982 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This code was designed specifically to calculate overall thermodynamic performance of proposed CAES-system configurations. The results of applying this code to the analysis of five CAES plant designs are presented in this report. The designs analyzed were: conventional CAES; adiabatic CAES; hybrid CAES; pressurized fluidized-bed CAES; and direct coupled steam-CAES. Inputs to the code were based on published reports describing each plant cycle. For each cycle analyzed, CAESCAP calculated the thermodynamic station conditions and individual-component efficiencies, as well as overall cycle-performance-parameter values. These data were then used to diagram the availability and energy flow for each of the five cycles. The resulting diagrams graphically illustrate the overall thermodynamic performance inherent in each plant configuration, and enable a more accurate and complete understanding of each design.

  11. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems.

  12. Life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surahman, U.; Kubota, T.; Wijaya, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop low energy and low carbon residential buildings, it is important to understand their detailed energy profiles. This study provides the results of life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. A survey was conducted in the city in 2012 to obtain both material inventory and household energy consumption data within the selected residential buildings (n=300), which are classified into three categories, namely simple, medium and luxurious houses. The results showed that the average embodied energy of simple, medium and luxurious houses was 58.5, 201.0, and 559.5 GJ, respectively. It was found that total embodied energy of each house can be explained by its total floor area alone with high accuracy in respective house categories. Meanwhile, it was seen that operational energy usage patterns varied largely among house categories as well as households especially in the simple and medium houses. The energy consumption for cooling was found to be the most significant factor of the increase in operational energy from simple to luxurious houses. Further, in the life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for much larger proportions of about 86-92% than embodied energy regardless of the house categories. The life cycle CO2 emissions for medium and luxurious houses were larger than that of simple houses by 2 and 6 times on average. In the simple houses, cooking was the largest contributor to the CO2 emissions (25%), while the emissions caused by cooling increased largely with the house category and became the largest contributors in the medium (26%) and luxurious houses (41%).

  13. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  14. The antidiabetic drug metformin decreases mitochondrial respiration and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Dringen, Ralf

    2017-03-19

    Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is used daily by millions of patients worldwide. Metformin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and has recently been shown to increase glucose consumption and lactate release in cultured astrocytes. However, potential effects of metformin on mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism in astrocytes are unknown. We investigated this by mapping (13) C labeling in TCA cycle intermediates and corresponding amino acids after incubation of primary rat astrocytes with [U-(13) C]glucose. The presence of metformin did not compromise the viability of cultured astrocytes during 4 hr of incubation, but almost doubled cellular glucose consumption and lactate release. Compared with control cells, the presence of metformin dramatically lowered the molecular (13) C carbon labeling (MCL) of the cellular TCA cycle intermediates citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, and malate, as well as the MCL of the TCA cycle intermediate-derived amino acids glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate. In addition to the total molecular (13) C labeling, analysis of the individual isotopomers of TCA cycle intermediates confirmed a severe decline in labeling and a significant lowering in TCA cycling ratio in metformin-treated astrocytes. Finally, the oxygen consumption of mitochondria isolated from metformin-treated astrocytes was drastically reduced in the presence of complex I substrates, but not of complex II substrates. These data demonstrate that exposure to metformin strongly impairs complex I-mediated mitochondrial respiration in astrocytes, which is likely to cause the observed decrease in labeling of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates and the stimulation of glycolytic lactate production. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei do not use Krebs cycle activity for energy generation.

    PubMed

    van Weelden, Susanne W H; Fast, Beate; Vogt, Achim; van der Meer, Pieter; Saas, Joachim; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Boshart, Michael

    2003-04-11

    The importance of a functional Krebs cycle for energy generation in the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei was investigated under physiological conditions during logarithmic phase growth of a pleomorphic parasite strain. Wild type procyclic cells and mutants with targeted deletion of the gene coding for aconitase were derived by synchronous in vitro differentiation from wild type and mutant (Delta aco::NEO/Delta aco::HYG) bloodstream stage parasites, respectively, where aconitase is not expressed and is dispensable. No differences in intracellular levels of glycolytic and Krebs cycle intermediates were found in procyclic wild type and mutant cells, except for citrate that accumulated up to 90-fold in the mutants, confirming the absence of aconitase activity. Surprisingly, deletion of aconitase did not change differentiation nor the growth rate or the intracellular ATP/ADP ratio in those cells. Metabolic studies using radioactively labeled substrates and NMR analysis demonstrated that glucose and proline were not degraded via the Krebs cycle to CO(2). Instead, glucose was degraded to acetate, succinate, and alanine, whereas proline was degraded to succinate. Importantly, there was absolutely no difference in the metabolic products released by wild type and aconitase knockout parasites, and both were for survival strictly dependent on respiration via the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Hence, although the Krebs cycle enzymes are present, procyclic T. brucei do not use Krebs cycle activity for energy generation, but the mitochondrial respiratory chain is essential for survival and growth. We therefore propose a revised model of the energy metabolism of procyclic T. brucei.

  16. Cathode for use in high energy primary thionyl chloride cell systems and high energy primary thionyl chloride cell systems including the cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. W., Jr.; Wade, W. L., Jr.; Binder, M.; Gilman, S.

    1985-08-01

    A cathode is provided for use in high energy primary lithium-thionyl chloride cell systems or calcium-thionyl chloride cell systems. The cathode comprises an expanded metallic current collector screen into which has been pasted a mixture of a low surface area conductive carbon black and a high surface area conductive carbon black previously mixed with a binder.

  17. Life cycle assessment of two emerging sewage sludge-to-energy systems: evaluating energy and greenhouse gas emissions implications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yucheng; Pawłowski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    A "cradle-to-grave" life cycle assessment was conducted to examine the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission footprints of two emerging sludge-to-energy systems. One system employs a combination of anaerobic digestion (AD) and fast pyrolysis for bioenergy conversion, while the other excludes AD. Each system was divided into five process phases: plant construction, sludge pretreatment, sludge-to-bioenergy conversion, bioenergy utilizations and biochar management. Both systems achieved energy and GHG emission benefits, and the AD-involving system performed better than the AD-excluding system (5.30 vs. 0.63 GJ/t sludge in net energy gain and 0.63 vs. 0.47 t CO(2)eq/t sludge in emission credit for base case). Detailed contribution and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify how and to what degree the different life-cycle phases are responsible for the energy and emission impacts. The energy and emission performances were significantly affected by variations in bioenergy production, energy requirement for sludge drying and end use of bioenergy.

  18. Nanocatalysis for Primary and Secondary High Energy Lithium Oxygen Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, Aldrich). In a typical procedure the carbons were mixed together with the conductivity additive and the mixture was made into...and M. Muhler, “Metal- free and electrocatalytically active nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes synthesized by coating with polyaniline” Nanoscale, 2...technology towards achieving high specific energy and power densities. It involved a unique cathode material based on elastic hollow carbon spheres (200

  19. Dissipated energy and entropy production for an unconventional heat engine: the stepwise `circular cycle'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Liberto, Francesco; Pastore, Raffaele; Peruggi, Fulvio

    2011-05-01

    When some entropy is transferred, by means of a reversible engine, from a hot heat source to a colder one, the maximum efficiency occurs, i.e. the maximum available work is obtained. Similarly, a reversible heat pumps transfer entropy from a cold heat source to a hotter one with the minimum expense of energy. In contrast, if we are faced with non-reversible devices, there is some lost work for heat engines, and some extra work for heat pumps. These quantities are both related to entropy production. The lost work, i.e. ? , is also called 'degraded energy' or 'energy unavailable to do work'. The extra work, i.e. ? , is the excess of work performed on the system in the irreversible process with respect to the reversible one (or the excess of heat given to the hotter source in the irreversible process). Both quantities are analysed in detail and are evaluated for a complex process, i.e. the stepwise circular cycle, which is similar to the stepwise Carnot cycle. The stepwise circular cycle is a cycle performed by means of N small weights, dw, which are first added and then removed from the piston of the vessel containing the gas or vice versa. The work performed by the gas can be found as the increase of the potential energy of the dw's. Each single dw is identified and its increase, i.e. its increase in potential energy, evaluated. In such a way it is found how the energy output of the cycle is distributed among the dw's. The size of the dw's affects entropy production and therefore the lost and extra work. The distribution of increases depends on the chosen removal process.

  20. Cell cycle markers have different expression and localization patterns in neuron-like PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Negis, Yesim; Unal, Aysegul Yildiz; Korulu, Sirin; Karabay, Arzu

    2011-06-01

    Neuron-like PC12 cells are extensively used in place of neurons in published studies. Aim of this paper has been to compare mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle markers; cyclinA, B, D, E; Cdk1, 2 and 4; and p27 in post-mitotic primary hippocampal neurons, mitotically active PC12 cells and NGF-differentiated post-mitotic PC12 cells. Contrary to PC12 cells, in neurons, the presence of all these markers was detected only at mRNA level; except for cyclinA, cyclinE and Cdk4, which were detectable also at protein levels. In both NGF-treated PC12 cells and neurons, cyclinE was localized only in the nucleus. In NGF-treated PC12 cells cyclinD and Cdk4 were localized in the nucleus while, in neurons cyclinD expression was not detectable; Cdk4 was localized in the cytoplasm. In neurons, cyclinA was nuclear, whereas in NGF-treated PC12 cells, it was localized in the cell body and along the processes. These results suggest that PC12 cells and primary neurons are different in terms of cell cycle protein expressions and localizations. Thus, it may not be very appropriate to use these cells as neuronal model system in order to understand neuronal physiological activities, upstream of where may lie cell cycle activation triggered events.

  1. Energy evaluation of steam-water cycle operation with mathematical modelling application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Szapajko, Grzegorz

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, we can observe the development of the thermal diagnosis and operating control systems based on measuring techniques and mathematical modelling of processes improvement. Evaluation of the actual operating state is insufficient to make an optimal operating decisions. Thus, information about the influence of the operating parameters' deviations from the reference state on indicators describing energy consumption of the process (for example specific heat consumption or specific energy consumption) is also necessary. The paper presents methods for generation the information about the influence of the steam-water cycle operating parameters on specific heat consumption in a turbine's cycle. A mathematical model of steam-water cycle for a CHP (Cogeneration - also Combined Heat and Power) unit is being worked out. Methods for calculation of operating deviations with the application of correction curves and a mathematical model are described. Exemplary calculation results are presented.

  2. Life cycle design metrics for energy generation technologies: Method, data, and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Joyce; Lee, Seung-Jin; Elter, John; Boussu, Jeff; Boman, Sarah

    A method to assist in the rapid preparation of Life Cycle Assessments of emerging energy generation technologies is presented and applied to distributed proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The method develops life cycle environmental design metrics and allows variations in hardware materials, transportation scenarios, assembly energy use, operating performance and consumables, and fuels and fuel production scenarios to be modeled and comparisons to competing systems to be made. Data and results are based on publicly available U.S. Life Cycle Assessment data sources and are formulated to allow the environmental impact weighting scheme to be specified. A case study evaluates improvements in efficiency and in materials recycling and compares distributed proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems to other distributed generation options. The results reveal the importance of sensitivity analysis and system efficiency in interpreting case studies.

  3. Life cycle greenhouse gas and energy assessment of winegrape production in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This study applies life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use, and direct water use in winegrape production across common vineyard management scenarios in two representative growing regions of California, USA (Napa and Lodi). California hosts 90 percent...

  4. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  5. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M.; Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N.; Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  6. Investigation of primary nucleation phenomena of acetylsalicylic acid crystals induced by ultrasonic irradiation—ultrasonic energy needed to activate primary nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, Etsuko; Ebihara, Satomi; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of our study is to clarify ultrasonic primary nucleation phenomena for controlling final product size by adjusting the number of primary nuclei. In our previous study, the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the number of nuclei was investigated under the same supersaturated condition, as a result two novel phenomena were observed. First, there is a region where ultrasonic irradiation inhibits primary nucleation. Second, a specific amount of energy is needed to activate primary nucleation. From this result, it was expected that the ultrasonic energy needed to activate primary nucleation has a certain relationship to the energy necessary to form a stable nucleus. Therefore, we investigated the following: whether ultrasonic irradiation inhibits and activates primary nucleation at various degrees of supersaturation, whether final crystal size relates to the number of nuclei, and whether the ultrasonic energy needed to activate primary nucleation relates to the energy necessary to form a stable nucleus. First, we found that ultrasonic irradiation inhibits and activates primary nucleation at various supersaturated degrees. Second, we found that final crystal size increases or decreases depending on the number of nuclei. Therefore, it was indicated that ultrasonic energy could yield the desired crystal size by inducing suitable nucleation. Third, we found that the ultrasonic energy needed to activate primary nucleation decreases with a decrease in the energy necessary to form a stable nucleus. From this, we can propose criteria for determining the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on primary nucleation by showing diagrams correlating Δ Gcrit with Ecrit.

  7. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-02-08

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).

  8. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source...

  9. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source...

  10. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source...

  11. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    PubMed

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-07

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies.

  12. Primary Succession of Nitrogen Cycling Microbial Communities Along the Deglaciated Forelands of Tianshan Mountain, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Lou, Kai; Zhang, Cui-Jing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shen, Ju-Pei; Zhang, Li-Mei; Han, Li-Li; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Qin; Chalk, Phillip M.; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Structural succession and its driving factors for nitrogen (N) cycling microbial communities during the early stages of soil development (0–44 years) were studied along a chronosequence in the glacial forelands of the Tianshan Mountain No.1 glacier in the arid and semi-arid region of central Asia. We assessed the abundance and population of functional genes affiliated with N-fixation (nifH), nitrification (bacterial and archaeal amoA), and denitrification (nirK/S and nosZ) in a glacier foreland using molecular methods. The abundance of functional genes significantly increased with soil development. N cycling community compositions were also significantly shifted within 44 years and were structured by successional age. Cyanobacterial nifH gene sequences were the most dominant N fixing bacteria and its relative abundance increased from 56.8–93.2% along the chronosequence. Ammonia-oxidizing communities shifted from the Nitrososphaera cluster (AOA-amoA) and the Nitrosospira cluster ME (AOB-aomA) in younger soils (0 and 5 years) to communities dominated by soil and sediment 1 (AOA-amoA) and Nitrosospira Cluster 2 Related (AOB-aomA) in older soils (≥17 years). Most of the denitrifers closest relatives were potential aerobic denitrifying bacteria, and some other types of denitrifying bacteria (like autotrophic nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria and denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria) were also detected in all soil samples. The regression analysis showed that N cycling microbial communities were dominant in younger soils (0–5 years) and significantly correlated with soil total carbon, while communities that were most abundant in older soils were significantly correlated with soil total nitrogen. These results suggested that the shift of soil C and N contents during the glacial retreat significantly influenced the abundance, composition and diversity of N cycling microbial communities. PMID:27625641

  13. Light harvesting, energy transfer and electron cycling of a native photosynthetic membrane adsorbed onto a gold surface.

    PubMed

    Magis, Gerhard J; den Hollander, Mart-Jan; Onderwaater, Willem G; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil; Aartsma, Thijs J; Frese, Raoul N

    2010-03-01

    Photosynthetic membranes comprise a network of light harvesting and reaction center pigment-protein complexes responsible for the primary photoconversion reactions: light absorption, energy transfer and electron cycling. The structural organization of membranes of the purple bacterial species Rb. sphaeroides has been elucidated in most detail by means of polarized light spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Here we report a functional characterization of native and untreated membranes of the same species adsorbed onto a gold surface. Employing fluorescence confocal spectroscopy and light-induced electrochemistry we show that adsorbed membranes maintain their energy and electron transferring functionality. Gold-adsorbed membranes are shown to generate a steady high photocurrent of 10 microA/cm(2) for several minutes and to maintain activity for up to three days while continuously illuminated. The surface-adsorbed membranes exhibit a remarkable functionality under aerobic conditions, even when exposed to light intensities well above that of direct solar irradiation. The component at the interface of light harvesting and electron cycling, the LH1 complex, displays exceptional stability, likely contributing to the robustness of the membranes. Peripheral light harvesting LH2 complexes show a light intensity dependent decoupling from photoconversion. LH2 can act as a reversible switch at low-light, an increased emitter at medium light and photobleaches at high light.

  14. Life-cycle energy and CO2 analysis of stormwater treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Andrew, R M; Vesely, E-T

    2008-01-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the construction, maintenance, and disposal of low-impact stormwater management devices are one aspect that should be considered during decision-making and life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a suitable method for quantifying such impacts. This paper reports a pilot study that employs LCA to compare life-cycle energy requirements and CO2 emissions of two stormwater devices in New Zealand. The two devices are a raingarden servicing an urban feeder road, and a sand filter that could have been installed in its stead. With an assumed life-time of 50 years, the life-cycle energy requirements of the built raingarden were almost 20% less than for the sand filter, while the CO2 emissions were 30% less. Our analysis shows that given the difference between the infiltration rates used in the raingarden design (0.3 m/day) and measured during monitoring (3 m/day) there was potential to make significantly greater life-time savings using a smaller design for the raingarden that would have also met the treatment efficiency expectations. The analysis highlights the significant contribution of transportation-of both materials and staff-and ongoing maintenance to a treatment device's life-cycle energy and CO2 profiles.

  15. Conceptual Design for Lower-Energy Primary Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. A.

    2008-04-01

    Operating parameters have been identified such that slag melts typical of other carbothermic aluminum processes are thermodynamically unstable. This facilitates the direct reaction of carbon in carbon-saturated aluminum with alumina under dispersed-contact high-intensity conditions. A conceptual design for one million tonnes per annum (1 Mtpa) aluminum production from Bayer alumina is developed. Freestanding graphite reactors and an ancillary plant encapsulated by inert gas are totally unconstrained within refractory-lined shells. Electrical conductive heating and melt circulation in closed loops, employing a 10 vol pct dispersion of fine carbon particles in aluminum (slurry), transports sensible heat to a single pressurized metal-producing reactor (MPR) to satisfy the endothermicity. In the proposed plant, an MPR at 0.28 MPa (2.8 bar) and 2433 K (2160 °C) with a hearth 2-m-wide × 190-m-long leads the melt via a barometric leg back to essentially atmospheric pressure, for further in-line processing. The impeller-stirred assimilation of fine carbon particles is followed by multistage gas-lift pumping to provide a 5.4-m total head, as required by two parallel straight-line melt-conductive heaters 1 m in diameter × 226 m in length. Overall energy-consumption figures 28.7 pct lower than today’s more recently installed Hall Heroult electrolytic plants are predicted, with 51.3 pct less purchased electricity, supplemented with 1.10 times the stoichiometric elemental carbon.

  16. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories.

  17. Long-term change of the atmospheric energy cycles and weather disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, WonMoo; Choi, Yong-Sang

    2017-02-01

    Weather disturbances are the manifestation of mean atmospheric energy cascading into eddies, thus identifying atmospheric energy structure is of fundamental importance to understand the weather variability in a changing climate. The question is whether our observational data can lead to a consistent diagnosis on the energy conversion characteristics. Here we investigate the atmospheric energy cascades by a simple framework of Lorenz energy cycle, and analyze the energy distribution in mean and eddy fields as forms of potential and kinetic energy. It is found that even the widely utilized independent reanalysis datasets, NCEP-DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (NCEP2) and ERA-Interim (ERA-INT), draw different conclusions on the change of weather variability measured by eddy-related kinetic energy. NCEP2 shows an increased mean-to-eddy energy conversion and enhanced eddy activity due to efficient baroclinic energy cascade, but ERA-INT shows relatively constant energy cascading structure between the 1980s and the 2000s. The source of discrepancy mainly originates from the uncertainties in hydrological variables in the mid-troposphere. Therefore, much efforts should be made to improve mid-tropospheric observations for more reliable diagnosis of the weather disturbances as a consequence of man-made greenhouse effect.

  18. From Cycling Between Coupled Reactions to the Cross-Bridge Cycle: Mechanical Power Output as an Integral Part of Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Diederichs, Frank

    2012-01-01

    ATP delivery and its usage are achieved by cycling of respective intermediates through interconnected coupled reactions. At steady state, cycling between coupled reactions always occurs at zero resistance of the whole cycle without dissipation of free energy. The cross-bridge cycle can also be described by a system of coupled reactions: one energising reaction, which energises myosin heads by coupled ATP splitting, and one de-energising reaction, which transduces free energy from myosin heads to coupled actin movement. The whole cycle of myosin heads via cross-bridge formation and dissociation proceeds at zero resistance. Dissipation of free energy from coupled reactions occurs whenever the input potential overcomes the counteracting output potential. In addition, dissipation is produced by uncoupling. This is brought about by a load dependent shortening of the cross-bridge stroke to zero, which allows isometric force generation without mechanical power output. The occurrence of maximal efficiency is caused by uncoupling. Under coupled conditions, Hill’s equation (velocity as a function of load) is fulfilled. In addition, force and shortening velocity both depend on [Ca2+]. Muscular fatigue is triggered when ATP consumption overcomes ATP delivery. As a result, the substrate of the cycle, [MgATP2−], is reduced. This leads to a switch off of cycling and ATP consumption, so that a recovery of [ATP] is possible. In this way a potentially harmful, persistent low energy state of the cell can be avoided. PMID:24957757

  19. A biogeochemical model for phosphorus and nitrogen cycling in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Part 2. Response of nutrient cycles and primary production to anthropogenic forcing: 1950-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powley, H. R.; Krom, M. D.; Emeis, K.-C.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2014-11-01

    Anthropogenic inputs of nutrient phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) increased significantly after 1950. Nonetheless, the EMS remained ultra-oligotrophic, with eutrophication only affecting a restricted number of nearshore areas. To better understand this apparent contradiction, we reconstructed the external inputs of reactive P and N to the EMS for the period 1950 to 2000. Although the inputs associated with atmospheric deposition and river discharge more than doubled, the inflow of surface water from the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMS) remained the dominant source of nutrient P and N to the EMS during the second half of the 20th century. The combined external input of reactive P rose by 24% from 1950 to 1985, followed by a slight decline. In contrast, the external reactive N input increased continuously from 1950 to 2000, with a 62% higher input in 2000 compared to 1950. When imposing the reconstructed inputs to the dynamic model of P and N cycling in the EMS developed in the companion paper, a maximum increase of primary production of only 16% is predicted. According to the model, integrated over the period 1950-2000, outflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) to the WMS exported the equivalent of about one third of the P supplied in excess of the 1950 input, while another one third was translocated to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW). Together, both mechanisms efficiently counteracted enhanced P input to the EMS, by drawing nutrient P away from primary producers in the surface waters. Furthermore, between 1950 and 2000, inorganic and organic dissolved N:P ratios increased in all water masses. Thus, the EMS became even more P limited because of anthropogenic nutrient inputs. A model simulation incorporating the circulation changes accompanying the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) between 1987 and 2000 yielded a 4% increase of EMS primary productivity relative to the baseline scenario.

  20. Fast-cycling superconducting synchrotrons and possible path to the future of US experimental high-energy particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    The authors outline primary physics motivation, present proposed new arrangement for Fermilab accelerator complex, and then discuss possible long-range application of fast-cycling superconducting synchrotrons at Fermilab.

  1. Life cycle assessment of an intensive sewage treatment plant in Barcelona (Spain) with focus on energy aspects.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L; Ferrer, I

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts associated to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with a treatment capacity of 2 million population equivalent, focussing on energy aspects and resources consumption. The wastewater line includes conventional pre-treatment, primary settler, activated sludge with nitrogen removal, and tertiary treatment; and the sludge line consists of thickening, anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, dewatering and thermal drying. Real site data were preferably included in the inventory. Environmental impacts of the resulting impact categories were determined by the CLM 2 baseline method. According to the results, the combustion of natural gas in the cogeneration engine is responsible for the main impact on Climate Change and Depletion of Abiotic Resources, while the combustion of biogas in the cogeneration unit accounts for a minor part. The results suggest that the environmental performance of the WWTP would be enhanced by increasing biogas production through improved anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

  2. Gopher mounds decrease nutrient cycling rates and increase adjacent vegetation in volcanic primary succession.

    PubMed

    Yurkewycz, Raymond P; Bishop, John G; Crisafulli, Charles M; Harrison, John A; Gill, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    Fossorial mammals may affect nutrient dynamics and vegetation in recently initiated primary successional ecosystems differently than in more developed systems because of strong C and N limitation to primary productivity and microbial communities. We investigated northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) effects on soil nutrient dynamics, soil physical properties, and plant communities on surfaces created by Mount St. Helens' 1980 eruption. For comparison to later successional systems, we summarized published studies on gopher effects on soil C and N and plant communities. In 2010, 18 years after gopher colonization, we found that gophers were active in ~2.5% of the study area and formed ~328 mounds ha(-1). Mounds exhibited decreased species density compared to undisturbed areas, while plant abundance on mound margins increased 77%. Plant burial increased total soil carbon (TC) by 13% and nitrogen (TN) by 11%, compared to undisturbed soils. Mound crusts decreased water infiltration, likely explaining the lack of detectable increases in rates of NO3-N, NH4-N or PO4-P leaching out of the rooting zone or in CO2 flux rates. We concluded that plant burial and reduced infiltration on gopher mounds may accelerate soil carbon accumulation, facilitate vegetation development at mound edges through resource concentration and competitive release, and increase small-scale heterogeneity of soils and communities across substantial sections of the primary successional landscape. Our review indicated that increases in TC, TN and plant density at mound margins contrasted with later successional systems, likely due to differences in physical effects and microbial resources between primary successional and older systems.

  3. Life cycle energy and CO2 analysis of microalgae-to-biodiesel: preliminary results and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Khoo, H H; Sharratt, P N; Das, P; Balasubramanian, R K; Naraharisetti, P K; Shaik, S

    2011-05-01

    Despite claims that microalgal biofuels are environmentally friendlier alternatives to conventional fuels, debate surrounding its ecological benefits or drawbacks still exists. LCA is used to analyze various biofuel production technologies from 'cradle to gate'. Energy and CO(2) balances are carried out for a hypothetical integrated PBR-raceway microalgae-to-biodiesel production in Singapore. Based on a functional unit of 1 MJ biofuel, the total energy demands are 4.44 MJ with 13% from biomass production, 85% from lipid extraction, and 2% from biodiesel production. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for adjustments in energy requirements, percentage lipid contents, and lower/higher heating product value. An 'Optimistic Case' was projected with estimates of: 45% lipid content; reduced energy needs for lipid extraction (1.3 MJ per MJ biodiesel); and heating value of biodiesel (42 MJ/kg). The life cycle energy requirements dropped significantly by about 60%. The results are compared with other published case studies from other countries.

  4. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers,Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-20

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered.

  5. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  6. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  7. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimates are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers using data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). In addition, we sampled data from the SEVIRI instrument at MODIS detection opportunities to develop two approaches to estimate hourly FRE based on MODIS active fire detections. The first approach ignored the fire diurnal cycle, assuming persistent fire activity between two MODIS observations, while the second approach combined knowledge on the climatology of the fire diurnal cycle with active fire detections to estimate hourly FRE. The full SEVIRI time series, providing full coverage of the fire diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised of 3 years (2010-2012), and we focused on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal

  8. The effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various psychological measures during submaximal cycling.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Hankey, Joanne

    2013-05-27

    Caffeine containing energy drinks is commonly consumed in the belief that it will enhance the quality of an exercise session and enhance mood. However, studies examining their efficacy are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a caffeinated energy drink on leg pain perception, perceived exertion, mood state and readiness to invest effort pre, during and post 60 min cycling exercise. Fourteen active individuals (7 males, 7 females, mean age ± S.D.=23.5 ± 3.5 years), completed two 60 min cycling trials at an intensity of 60% VO2 max preceded by ingestion of solutions containing either a caffeinated energy drink or placebo using a double-blind, deceptive, crossover design. During exercise, RPE (6-20 scale), leg pain (0-10 scale), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (Bla) were recorded. Participants also completed measures of mood state and readiness to invest physical effort (RTIPE) pre- and post-exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in all variables and across time and treatments, with gender used as a between subjects variable. Results indicate that HR was significantly higher (P=.002) from 30 to 60 min and RPE (P=.0001) and pain perception (P=.0001) were significantly lower from 20 to 60 min in the energy drink condition compared to placebo. Bla was significantly higher (P=.021) in the last 15 min of the energy drink trial and RTIPE (P=.001) increased significantly more from pre-ingestion to pre-exercise post-ingestion in the energy drink condition compared to placebo. No gender differences were evident (P>.05). The data revealed positive effects of energy drink ingestion on perception of exertion, leg muscle pain perception and readiness to invest effort during submaximal cycling in active adults.

  9. Water loss control using pressure management: life-cycle energy and air emission effects.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Sturm, Reinhard

    2013-10-01

    Pressure management is one cost-effective and efficient strategy for controlling water distribution losses. This paper evaluates the life-cycle energy use and emissions for pressure management zones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. It compares water savings using fixed-outlet and flow-modulated pressure control to performance without pressure control, considering the embedded electricity and chemical consumption in the lost water, manufacture of pipe and fittings to repair breaks caused by excess pressure, and pressure management. The resulting energy and emissions savings are significant. The Philadelphia and Halifax utilities both avoid approximately 130 million liters in water losses annually using flow-modulated pressure management. The conserved energy was 780 GJ and 1900 GJ while avoided greenhouse gas emissions were 50 Mg and 170 Mg a year by Philadelphia and Halifax, respectively. The life-cycle financial and environmental performance of pressure management systems compares favorably to the traditional demand management strategy of installing low-flow toilets. The energy savings may also translate to cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions depending on the energy mix used, an important advantage in areas where water and energy are constrained and/or expensive and greenhouse gas emissions are regulated as in California, for example.

  10. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of plant fluorescence with gross primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Lee, Jung-Eun; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Butz, André; Jung, Martin; Kuze, Akihiko; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2011-09-01

    Our ability to close the Earth's carbon budget and predict feedbacks in a warming climate depends critically on knowing where, when and how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the land and atmosphere. Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) constitutes the largest flux component in the global carbon budget, however significant uncertainties remain in GPP estimates and its seasonality. Empirically, we show that global spaceborne observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence - occurring during photosynthesis - exhibit a strong linear correlation with GPP. We found that the fluorescence emission even without any additional climatic or model information has the same or better predictive skill in estimating GPP as those derived from traditional remotely-sensed vegetation indices using ancillary data and model assumptions. In boreal summer the generally strong linear correlation between fluorescence and GPP models weakens, attributable to discrepancies in savannas/croplands (18-48% higher fluorescence-based GPP derived by simple linear scaling), and high-latitude needleleaf forests (28-32% lower fluorescence). Our results demonstrate that retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence provide direct global observational constraints for GPP and open an entirely new viewpoint on the global carbon cycle. We anticipate that global fluorescence data in combination with consolidated plant physiological fluorescence models will be a step-change in carbon cycle research and enable an unprecedented robustness in the understanding of the current and future carbon cycle.

  11. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.; Energy Systems

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to {approx}2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution

  12. The energy cost of cycling and aerobic performance of obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, C L; Agosti, F; Busti, C; Galli, R; Sartorio, A

    2009-09-01

    In order to assess the energy cost of cycling and aerobic capacity in juvenile obesity, responses to cycle ergometer exercise were studied in 10 pubertal obese (OB) [body mass index (BMI) SD score (SDS): 3.40+/-0.58 SD] adolescent girls (age: 16.0+/-1.2 yr) and in 10 normal-weight (NW, BMI SDS: -0.30+/-0.54) girls of the same age (15.1+/-1.9). To this aim, gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure (EE) were studied during graded cycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 W. The energy cost of cycling was higher in OB, being oxygen uptake (VO2) higher (about 20%) in OB than in NW girls at all workloads (p<0.01-0.001). Estimated maximal VO2 and VO2 at anaerobic threshold were significantly (p<0.05) higher in OB girls [although lower per unit body mass (p<0.01) and similar for unit fat-free mass], and explained the higher oxygen pulse and lower HR for any EE observed during submaximal exercise in OB. While net mechanical efficiency (ME) was significantly lower in OB (p<0.01), delta ME was similar in both groups, indicating no substantial derangement of muscle intrinsic efficiency. It is concluded that, despite a higher cost of cycling, OB girls can rely on a larger aerobic capacity which makes them able to sustain this kind of exercise within a wide range of work loads, with relevant implications when planning protocols of physical activity in the context of interventions for the reduction of juvenile obesity.

  13. Toward Describing the Effects of Ozone Depletion on Marine Primary Productivity and Carbon Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, John J.

    1995-01-01

    This project was aimed at improved predictions of the effects of UVB and ozone depletion on marine primary productivity and carbon flux. A principal objective was to incorporate a new analytical description of photosynthesis as a function of UV and photosynthetically available radiation (Cullen et. al., Science 258:646) into a general oceanographic model. We made significant progress: new insights into the kinetics of photoinhibition were used in the analysis of experiments on Antarctic phytoplankton to generate a general model of UV-induced photoinhibition under the influence of ozone depletion and vertical mixing. The way has been paved for general models on a global scale.

  14. Altered Cytokine Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Monocytes across the Menstrual Cycle in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongyue; Hong, Min; Duan, Jinao; Liu, Pei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase), and the first (menstrual phase) and the fifth (regenerative phase) days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased), 14 (five increased and nine decreased), and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased) genes with ≥2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05) in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8) were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN) were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23390521

  15. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnCO sub 4 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wentworth, W.E. )

    1992-04-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4}) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, reported herein, we have shown that when NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4} is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H{sub 2}A{sub (g)} at {approximately}163{degrees}C, NH{sub 3(g)} at 365--418{degrees}C, and a mixture of SO{sub 2(g)} and SO{sub 3(g)} at {approximately}900{degrees}C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V{sub 2}A{sub 5} and possibly other metal oxides.

  16. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, W. E.

    1992-04-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have shown that when NH4HSO4 is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H2O (gaseous) at approximately 163 C, NH3 (gaseous) at 365-418 C, and a mixture of SO2 (gaseous) and SO3 (gaseous) at approximately 900 C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high, as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally, we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V2A5, and possibly other metal oxides.

  17. Performance of primary repair on colon injuries sustained from low-versus high-energy projectiles

    PubMed Central

    Lazovic, Ranko; Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Among various reasons, colon injuries may be caused by low- or high-energy firearm bullets, with the latter producing a temporary cavitation phenomenon. The available treatment options include primary repair and two-stage management, but recent studies have shown that primary repair can be widely used with a high success rate. This paper investigates the differences in performance of primary repair on these two types of colon injuries. Two groups of patients who sustained colon injuries due to single gunshot wounds, were retrospectively categorized based on the type of bullet. Primary colon repair was performed in all patients selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Stone and Fabian's criteria). An almost absolute homogeneity was attained among the groups in terms of age, latent time before surgery, and four trauma indexes. Only one patient from the low-energy firearm projectile group (4%) developed a postsurgical complication versus nine patients (25.8%) from the high-energy group, showing statistically significant difference (p = 0.03). These nine patients experienced the following postsurgical complications: pneumonia, abscess, fistula, suture leakage, and one multiorgan failure with sepsis. Previous studies concluded that one-stage primary repair is the best treatment option for colon injuries. However, terminal ballistics testing determined the projectile's path through the body and revealed that low-energy projectiles caused considerably lesser damage than their high-energy counterparts. Primary colon repair must be performed definitely for low-energy short firearm injuries but very carefully for high-energy injuries. Given these findings, we suggest that the treatment option should be determined based not only on the bullet type alone but also on other clinical findings. PMID:26874437

  18. Performance of primary repair on colon injuries sustained from low-versus high-energy projectiles.

    PubMed

    Lazovic, Ranko; Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana

    2016-04-01

    Among various reasons, colon injuries may be caused by low- or high-energy firearm bullets, with the latter producing a temporary cavitation phenomenon. The available treatment options include primary repair and two-stage management, but recent studies have shown that primary repair can be widely used with a high success rate. This paper investigates the differences in performance of primary repair on these two types of colon injuries. Two groups of patients who sustained colon injuries due to single gunshot wounds, were retrospectively categorized based on the type of bullet. Primary colon repair was performed in all patients selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Stone and Fabian's criteria). An almost absolute homogeneity was attained among the groups in terms of age, latent time before surgery, and four trauma indexes. Only one patient from the low-energy firearm projectile group (4%) developed a postsurgical complication versus nine patients (25.8%) from the high-energy group, showing statistically significant difference (p = 0.03). These nine patients experienced the following postsurgical complications: pneumonia, abscess, fistula, suture leakage, and one multiorgan failure with sepsis. Previous studies concluded that one-stage primary repair is the best treatment option for colon injuries. However, terminal ballistics testing determined the projectile's path through the body and revealed that low-energy projectiles caused considerably lesser damage than their high-energy counterparts. Primary colon repair must be performed definitely for low-energy short firearm injuries but very carefully for high-energy injuries. Given these findings, we suggest that the treatment option should be determined based not only on the bullet type alone but also on other clinical findings.

  19. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-07-01

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO2, NOX, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM10 (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO2e by 6-23 g CO2e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO2 and PM10 emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  20. Multi-Disciplinary Research for High Energy Chemical Lasers, Closed-Cycle ElectricOIL Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    electrodynamic model predictions a laser system model was utilized to predict the scalability of the system; results indicate that theoretical electrical ...multidisciplinary research program for a high energy closed-cycle laser that is derived from the Electrically assisted Oxygen Iodine Laser (ElectricOlU (EOIL...flow iodine from one reservoir and trap it in another. The principal advantage of the hybrid EOIL system is trading a small fixed mass in electrical

  1. Energy use and emissions from marine vessels: a total fuel life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Meyer, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Regional and global air pollution from marine transportation is a growing concern. In discerning the sources of such pollution, researchers have become interested in tracking where along the total fuel life cycle these emissions occur. In addition, new efforts to introduce alternative fuels in marine vessels have raised questions about the energy use and environmental impacts of such fuels. To address these issues, this paper presents the Total Energy and Emissions Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model. TEAMS can be used to analyze total fuel life cycle emissions and energy use from marine vessels. TEAMS captures "well-to-hull" emissions, that is, emissions along the entire fuel pathway, including extraction, processing, distribution, and use in vessels. TEAMS conducts analyses for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to residual oil, (2) petroleum to conventional diesel, (3) petroleum to low-sulfur diesel, (4) natural gas to compressed natural gas, (5) natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and (6) soybeans to biodiesel. TEAMS calculates total fuel-cycle emissions of three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 10 microm or less, and sulfur oxides). TEAMS also calculates total energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption associated with each of its six fuel cycles. TEAMS can be used to study emissions from a variety of user-defined vessels. This paper presents TEAMS and provides example modeling results for three case studies using alternative fuels: a passenger ferry, a tanker vessel, and a container ship.

  2. Intercomparison of the seasonal cycle in 200 hPa kinetic energy in AMIP GCM simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 hPa kinetic energy is represented by means of the spherical harmonic components for the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations, the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast Reanalysis (ERA). The data used are the monthly mean wind fields from 1979 to 1988. The kinetic energy is decomposed into the divergent (DKE) and rotational (RKE) components and emphasis is placed on examining the former. The two reanalysis data sets show reasonable agreement that is best for the rotational kinetic energy. The largest difference in the divergent kinetic energy occurs during the northern summer. As might be expected, the two analyses are closet in regions where there are sufficient observations such that the effect of the model used in the assimilation cycle are minimized. The observed RKE show only a slight seasonal cycle with a maximum occuring during the northern winter. The DKE, on the other hand, has a very pronounced seasonal cycle with maxima at the solsticial seasons and minima during the equinoctial seasons. The model results show a very large spread in the magnitudes of the RKE and DKE although the models all evince a seasonal variation in phase with that observed. The median values of the seasonal cycle of RKE and DKE for the models are usually superior to those of any individual model. Results are also presented for simulation following the AMIP protocol but using updated versions of the original AMIP entries. In most cases these new integrations show better agreement with the observations.

  3. Open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Status and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.

    1984-08-01

    Tropical oceans with a 20 C or more temperature difference between surface and deep water represent a vast resource of renewable thermal energy. One of the methods of harnessing this resource is an open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system utilizing steam evaporated from the surface water for powering the turbine. In this paper, the state of the art of research and component development, as related to heat and mass transfer processes, power production, noncondensable gas handling, and seawater flow hydraulics, are described through an illustrated preliminary design study of a 1-MW facility.

  4. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTION MASS AND ENERGY PROPERTIES OVER A FULL SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Vourlidas, A.; Howard, R. A.; Esfandiari, E.; Patsourakos, S.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.

    2010-10-20

    The LASCO coronagraphs, in continuous operation since 1995, have observed the evolution of the solar corona and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) over a full solar cycle with high-quality images and regular cadence. This is the first time that such a data set becomes available and constitutes a unique resource for the study of CMEs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive investigation of the solar cycle dependence on the CME mass and energy over a full solar cycle (1996-2009) including the first in-depth discussion of the mass and energy analysis methods and their associated errors. Our analysis provides several results worthy of further studies. It demonstrates the possible existence of two event classes: 'normal' CMEs reaching constant mass for >10 R{sub sun} and {sup p}seudo{sup -}CMEs which disappear in the C3 field of view. It shows that the mass and energy properties of CME reach constant levels and therefore should be measured only above {approx}10 R{sub sun}. The mass density (g/R {sup 2}{sub sun}) of CMEs varies relatively little (< order of magnitude) suggesting that the majority of the mass originates from a small range in coronal heights. We find a sudden reduction in the CME mass in mid-2003 which may be related to a change in the electron content of the large-scale corona and we uncover the presence of a 6 month periodicity in the ejected mass from 2003 onward.

  5. Development of a frequency regulation duty-cycle for standardized energy storage performance testing

    DOE PAGES

    Rosewater, David; Ferreira, Summer

    2016-05-25

    The US DOE Protocol for uniformly measuring and expressing the performance of energy storage systems, first developed in 2012 through inclusive working group activities, provides standardized methodologies for evaluating an energy storage system’s ability to supply specific services to electrical grids. This article elaborates on the data and decisions behind the duty-cycle used for frequency regulation in this protocol. Analysis of a year of publicly available frequency regulation control signal data from a utility was considered in developing the representative signal for this use case. Moreover, this showed that signal standard deviation can be used as a metric for aggressivenessmore » or rigor. From these data, we select representative 2 h long signals that exhibit nearly all of dynamics of actual usage under two distinct regimens, one for average use and the other for highly aggressive use. Our results were combined into a 24-h duty-cycle comprised of average and aggressive segments. The benefits and drawbacks of the selected duty-cycle are discussed along with its potential implications to the energy storage industry.« less

  6. Development of a frequency regulation duty-cycle for standardized energy storage performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rosewater, David; Ferreira, Summer

    2016-05-25

    The US DOE Protocol for uniformly measuring and expressing the performance of energy storage systems, first developed in 2012 through inclusive working group activities, provides standardized methodologies for evaluating an energy storage system’s ability to supply specific services to electrical grids. This article elaborates on the data and decisions behind the duty-cycle used for frequency regulation in this protocol. Analysis of a year of publicly available frequency regulation control signal data from a utility was considered in developing the representative signal for this use case. Moreover, this showed that signal standard deviation can be used as a metric for aggressiveness or rigor. From these data, we select representative 2 h long signals that exhibit nearly all of dynamics of actual usage under two distinct regimens, one for average use and the other for highly aggressive use. Our results were combined into a 24-h duty-cycle comprised of average and aggressive segments. The benefits and drawbacks of the selected duty-cycle are discussed along with its potential implications to the energy storage industry.

  7. Determination of Duty Cycle for Energy Storage Systems in a PV Smoothing Application

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, David A.; Ellison, James

    2016-04-01

    This report supplements the document, "Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems," issued in a revised version in April 2016 (see [4]), which will include the photovoltaic (PV) smoothing application for an energy storage system (ESS). This report provides the background and documentation associated with the determination of a duty cycle for an ESS operated in a PV smoothing application for the purpose of measuring and expressing ESS performance in accordance with the ESS performance protocol. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Dr. Imre Gyuk, program manager for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program. The authors would also like to express their appreciation to all the stakeholders who participated as members of the PV Smoothing Subgroup. Without their thoughtful input and recommendations, the definitions, metrics, and duty cycle provided in this report would not have been possible. A complete listing of members of the PV Smoothing Subgroup appears in the first chapter of this report. Special recognition should go to the staffs at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in collaborating on this effort. In particular, Mr. David Conover and Dr. Vish Viswanathan of PNNL and Dr. Summer Ferreira of SNL were especially helpful in their suggestions for the determination of a duty cycle for the PV Smoothing application.

  8. Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: a UK case study.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Borello, Domenico; Clift, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO2 and total SO2 saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded.

  9. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  10. Analyzing the Life Cycle Energy Savings of DOE Supported Buildings Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2009-08-31

    This report examines the factors that would potentially help determine an appropriate analytical timeframe for measuring the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technology (BT) benefits and presents a summary-level analysis of the life cycle savings for BT’s Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) R&D program. The energy savings for three hypothetical building designs are projected over a 100-year period using Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS) to illustrate the resulting energy and carbon savings associated with the hypothetical aging buildings. The report identifies the tasks required to develop a long-term analytical and modeling framework, and discusses the potential analytical gains and losses by extending an analysis into the “long-term.”

  11. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units 1 through 8 containing three activities…

  12. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units I through VIII containing three…

  13. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P.; Edelstein, N.; Allen, T.; Burns, C.; Chadwick, M.; Corradini, M.; Dixon, D.; Goff, M.; Laidler, J.; McCarthy, K.; Moyer, B.; Nash, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Peterson, P.; Sackett, J.; Sickafus, K. E.; Tulenko, J.; Weber, W.; Morss, L.; Henry, G.

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a ?single-tier? system or a ?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The ?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas: ? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either ?single-tier? or ?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear

  14. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  15. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kelly T.; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students. PMID:27355962

  16. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kelly T; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-06-27

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students.

  17. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste.

    PubMed

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam

    2015-05-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill.

  18. Energy spectra of proton and nuclei of primary cosmic rays in energy region 10 TeV/particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandritskaya, K. V.; Sazhina, G. P.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Varkovitskaya, A. Y.; Zamchalova, E. A.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays, several emulsion chambers were exposed at a 10.8 g/sq cm. depth in the stratosphere. Each chamber has the area of 0.92x0.46 sq m. and the depth of 14 c.u. The exposure time of chambers processed by now is 260 hours. The detecting layers were X-ray films and nuclear emulsions, which allowed to measure an energy of cascade and a type of primary particle. Results and techniques are described.

  19. Targeting HGF/c-MET induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis for primary effusion lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lu; Trillo-Tinoco, Jimena; Cao, Yueyu; Bonstaff, Karlie; Doyle, Lisa; Del Valle, Luis; Whitby, Denise; Parsons, Chris; Reiss, Krzysztof; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-24

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a principal causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) with a poor prognosis in immunocompromised patients. However, it still lacks effective treatment which urgently requires the identification of novel therapeutic targets for PEL. Here, we report that the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET pathway is highly activated by KSHV in vitro and in vivo. The selective c-MET inhibitor, PF-2341066, can induce PEL apoptosis through cell cycle arrest and DNA damage, and suppress tumor progression in a xenograft murine model. By using microarray analysis, we identify many novel genes that are potentially controlled by HGF/c-MET within PEL cells. One of the downstream candidates, ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2 (RRM2), also displays the promising therapeutic value for PEL treatment. Our findings provide the framework for development of HGF/c-MET-focused therapy and implementation of clinical trials for PEL patients.

  20. Targeting HGF/c-MET induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis for primary effusion lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lu; Trillo-Tinoco, Jimena; Cao, Yueyu; Bonstaff, Karlie; Doyle, Lisa; Del Valle, Luis; Whitby, Denise; Parsons, Chris; Reiss, Krzysztof; Zabaleta, Jovanny

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a principal causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) with a poor prognosis in immunocompromised patients. However, it still lacks effective treatment which urgently requires the identification of novel therapeutic targets for PEL. Here, we report that the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET pathway is highly activated by KSHV in vitro and in vivo. The selective c-MET inhibitor, PF-2341066, can induce PEL apoptosis through cell cycle arrest and DNA damage, and suppress tumor progression in a xenograft murine model. By using microarray analysis, we identify many novel genes that are potentially controlled by HGF/c-MET within PEL cells. One of the downstream candidates, ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2 (RRM2), also displays the promising therapeutic value for PEL treatment. Our findings provide the framework for development of HGF/c-MET–focused therapy and implementation of clinical trials for PEL patients. PMID:26531163

  1. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  2. Role of primary sedimentation on plant-wide energy recovery and carbon footprint.

    PubMed

    Gori, Riccardo; Giaccherini, Francesca; Jiang, Lu-Man; Sobhani, Reza; Rosso, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to show the effect of primary sedimentation on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and solids fractionation and consequently on the carbonaceous and energy footprints of wastewater treatment processes. Using a simple rational procedure for COD and solids fraction quantification, we quantify the effects of varying fractions on CO2 and CO2-equivalent mass flows, process energy demand and energy recovery. Then we analysed two treatment plants with similar biological nutrient removal processes in two different climatic regions and quantified the net benefit of gravity separation before biological treatment. In the cases analysed, primary settling increases the solid fraction of COD that is processed in anaerobic digestion, with an associated increase in biogas production and energy recovery, and a reduction in overall emissions of CO2 and CO2-equivalent from power importation.

  3. Thermal energy storage for low grade heat in the organic Rankine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, Michael John

    Limits of efficiencies cause immense amounts of thermal energy in the form of waste heat to be vented to the atmosphere. Up to 60% of unrecovered waste heat is classified as low or ultra-low quality, making recovery difficult or inefficient. The organic Rankine cycle can be used to generate mechanical power and electricity from these low temperatures where other thermal cycles are impractical. A variety of organic working fluids are available to optimize the ORC for any target temperature range. San Diego State University has one such experimental ORC using R245fa, and has been experimenting with multiple expanders. One limitation of recovering waste heat is the sporadic or cyclical nature common to its production. This inconsistency makes sizing heat recovery ORC systems difficult for a variety of reasons including off-design-point efficiency loss, increased attrition from varying loads, unreliable outputs, and overall system costs. Thermal energy storage systems can address all of these issues by smoothing the thermal input to a constant and reliable level and providing back-up capacity for times when the thermal input is deactivated. Multiple types of thermal energy storage have been explored including sensible, latent, and thermochemical. Latent heat storage involves storing thermal energy in the reversible phase change of a phase change material, or PCM, and can have several advantages over other modalities including energy storage density, cost, simplicity, reliability, relatively constant temperature output, and temperature customizability. The largest obstacles to using latent heat storage include heat transfer rates, thermal cycling stability, and potentially corrosive PCMs. Targeting 86°C, the operating temperature of SDSU's experimental ORC, multiple potential materials were explored and tested as potential PCMs including Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate (MgCl2˙6H2O), Magnesium Nitrate Hexahydrate (Mg(NO3)2˙6H 2O), montan wax, and carnauba wax. The

  4. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  5. Iron-dependent changes in cellular energy metabolism: influence on citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Oexle, H; Gnaiger, E; Weiss, G

    1999-11-10

    Iron modulates the expression of the critical citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase via a translational mechanism involving iron regulatory proteins. Thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate the consequences of iron perturbation on citric acid cycle activity, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial respiration in the human cell line K-562. In agreement with previous data iron increases the activity of mitochondrial aconitase while it is reduced upon addition of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). Interestingly, iron also positively affects three other citric acid cycle enzymes, namely citrate synthase, isocitric dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase, while DFO decreases the activity of these enzymes. Consequently, iron supplementation results in increased formation of reducing equivalents (NADH) by the citric acid cycle, and thus in increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP formation via oxidative phosphorylation as shown herein. This in turn leads to downregulation of glucose utilization. In contrast, all these metabolic pathways are reduced upon iron depletion, and thus glycolysis and lactate formation are significantly increased in order to compensate for the decrease in ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of DFO. Our results point to a complex interaction between iron homeostasis, oxygen supply and cellular energy metabolism in human cells.

  6. Energy metabolism and alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Schlictman, D; Kavanaugh-Black, A; Shankar, S; Chakrabarty, A M

    1994-01-01

    Infection with mucoid, alginate-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of mortality among patients with cystic fibrosis. Alginate production by P. aeruginosa is not constitutive but is triggered by stresses such as starvation. The algR2 (also termed algQ) gene has been previously identified as being necessary for mucoidy; an algR2 mutant strain is unable to produce alginate when grown at 37 degrees C. We show here that the levels of phosphorylated succinyl coenzyme A synthetase (Scs) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), which form a complex in P. aeruginosa, are reduced in the algR2 mutant. We were able to correlate the lower level of phosphorylated Scs with a decrease in Scs activity. Western blots (immunoblots) also showed a decreased level of Ndk in the algR2 mutant, but the presence of another kinase activity sensitive to Tween 20 provides the missing Ndk function. The effect of AlgR2 on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes appears to be specific for Scs, since none of the other TCA cycle enzymes measured showed a significant decrease in activity. Furthermore, the ability of the algR2 mutant to grow on TCA cycle intermediates, but not glucose, is impaired. These data indicate that AlgR2 is responsible for maintaining proper operation of the TCA cycle and energy metabolism. Images PMID:7928963

  7. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, Rita; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Bala, Alba

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  8. Note on the detection of high energy primary cosmic gamma rays by air shower observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasahara, K.; Torii, S.; Yuda, T.

    1985-01-01

    A mountain altitude experiment is planned at Mt. Norikura in Japan to search for point sources of astrophysical high-energy gamma rays in the 10 to the 15th power eV range. The advantages of mountain level observation of IR showers is stressed, especially in the case of high-energy gamma primaries from Cygnus X3 and other similar point sources.

  9. Primary cosmic ray energy spectrum in terms of the GAMMA muon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garyaka, A. P.; Martirosov, R. M.; Ter-Antonyan, S. V.; Erlykin, A. D.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Jones, L. W.; Procureur, J.

    2009-12-01

    The energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays is obtained by conversion from the truncated muon size spectrum of EAS studied with the GAMMA array. The previously observed dependence of E on Nμtr at various zenith angles is used. It is shown that the present spectrum has the same structure (“bump”) as the spectrum determined by another independent multi-parametric energy estimation method confirming that the “bump” structure is not produced by uncertainties in our methods.

  10. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to

  11. Comparison of life-cycle energy and emissions footprints of passenger transportation in metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-03-01

    A comparative life-cycle energy and emissions (greenhouse gas, CO, NO X, SO 2, PM 10, and VOCs) inventory is created for three U.S. metropolitan regions (San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City). The inventory captures both vehicle operation (direct fuel or electricity consumption) and non-operation components (e.g., vehicle manufacturing, roadway maintenance, infrastructure operation, and material production among others). While urban transportation inventories have been continually improved, little information exists identifying the particular characteristics of metropolitan passenger transportation and why one region may differ from the next. Using travel surveys and recently developed transportation life-cycle inventories, metropolitan inventories are constructed and compared. Automobiles dominate total regional performance accounting for 86-96% of energy consumption and emissions. Comparing system-wide averages, New York City shows the lowest end-use energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to San Francisco and Chicago and is influenced by the larger share of transit ridership. While automobile fuel combustion is a large component of emissions, diesel rail, electric rail, and ferry service can also have strong contributions. Additionally, the inclusion of life-cycle processes necessary for any transportation mode results in significant increases (as large as 20 times that of vehicle operation) for the region. In particular, emissions of CO 2 from cement production used in concrete throughout infrastructure, SO 2 from electricity generation in non-operational components (vehicle manufacturing, electricity for infrastructure materials, and fuel refining), PM 10 in fugitive dust releases in roadway construction, and VOCs from asphalt result in significant additional inventory. Private and public transportation are disaggregated as well as off-peak and peak travel times. Furthermore, emissions are joined with healthcare and greenhouse gas monetized

  12. Life-cycle implications of using crop residues for various energy demands in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2010-05-15

    Crop residues are a critical component of the sustainable energy and natural resource strategy within a country. In this study, we use hybrid life-cycle environmental and economic analyses to evaluate and compare the atmospheric chemical, climatic, ecological, and economic issues associated with a set of energy conversion technologies that use crop residues for various energy demands in China. Our analysis combines conventional process-based life cycle assessment with economic input-output life cycle assessment. The results show that the return of crop residues to the fields, silo/amination and anaerobic digestion (household scale) offer the greatest ecological benefits, with net greenhouse gas reduction costs of US$3.1/tC, US$11.5/tC, and US$14.9/tC, respectively. However, if a positive net income for market-oriented operations is the overriding criterion for technology selection, the cofiring of crop residues with coal and crop residue gasification for power generation offer greater economic scope and technical feasibility, with net incomes of US$4.4/Mg and US$4.9/Mg, respectively. We identify that poor economies of scale and the absence of key technologies mean that enterprises that use pure combustion for power generation (US$212/tC), gasification for heat generation (US$366/tC) and large-scale anaerobic digestion for power generation (US$169/tC) or heat generation (US$206/tC) are all prone to operational deficits. In the near term, the Chinese government should also be cautious about any large-scale investment in bioethanol derived from crop residues because, with a carbon price of as high as US$748/tC, bioethanol is the most expensive of all energy conversion technologies in China.

  13. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  14. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Rankine cycle condenser pressure control using an energy conversion device bypass valve

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C; Nelson, Christopher R; Zigan, James A

    2014-04-01

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system and method in which pressure in a Rankine cycle (RC) system of the WHR system is regulated by diverting working fluid from entering an inlet of an energy conversion device of the RC system. In the system, an inlet of a controllable bypass valve is fluidly coupled to a working fluid path upstream of an energy conversion device of the RC system, and an outlet of the bypass valve is fluidly coupled to the working fluid path upstream of the condenser of the RC system such that working fluid passing through the bypass valve bypasses the energy conversion device and increases the pressure in a condenser. A controller determines the temperature and pressure of the working fluid and controls the bypass valve to regulate pressure in the condenser.

  16. A creatine-driven substrate cycle enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in beige fat.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Erickson, Brian K; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-10-22

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole-body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces beige and brown adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PAPERCLIP.

  17. ENERGY SPECTRA OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COSMIC-RAY NUCLEI MEASURED WITH TRACER

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeier, A.; Ave, M.; Boyle, P.; Hoeppner, Ch.; Mueller, D.; Hoerandel, J.

    2011-11-20

    The Transition Radiation Array for Cosmic Energetic Radiation (TRACER) cosmic-ray detector, first flown on long-duration balloon (LDB) in 2003 for observations of the major primary cosmic-ray nuclei from oxygen (Z = 8) to iron (Z = 26), has been upgraded to also measure the energies of the lighter nuclei, including the secondary species boron (Z = 5). The instrument was used in another LDB flight in 2006. The properties and performance of the modified detector system are described, and the analysis of the data from the 2006 flight is discussed. The energy spectra of the primary nuclei carbon (Z = 6), oxygen, and iron over the range from 1 GeV amu{sup -1} to 2 TeV amu{sup -1} are reported. The data for oxygen and iron are found to be in good agreement with the results of the previous TRACER flight. The measurement of the energy spectrum of boron also extends into the TeV amu{sup -1} region. The relative abundances of the primary nuclei, such as carbon, oxygen, and iron, above {approx}10 GeV amu{sup -1} are independent of energy, while the boron abundance, i.e., the B/C abundance ratio, decreases with energy as expected. However, there is an indication that the previously reported E {sup -0.6} dependence of the B/C ratio does not continue to the highest energies.

  18. Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 1999: Primary Energy

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The analysis in this report was undertaken at the request of the Office of Policy, U.S. Department of Energy. In its request, the Office of Policy asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to update the 1992 EIA report on Federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of Federal subsidies based on Administration and Congressional action since the 1992 report was written, and to provide an estimate of the size of each current subsidy. Subsidies to be included are those through which a government or public body provides a financial benefit.

  19. The sustainable water-energy nexus: Life-cycle impacts and feasibility of regional energy and water supply scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Alexander T.

    Water and energy are critical, interdependent, and regional resources, and effective planning and policies around which sources to use requires combining information on environmental impacts, cost, and availability. Questions around shifting energy and water sources towards more renewable options, as well as the potential role of natural gas from shale formations are under intense discussion. Decisions on these issues will be made in the shadow of climate change, which will both impact and be impacted by energy and water supplies. This work developed a model for calculating the life-cycle environmental impacts of regional energy and water supply scenarios (REWSS). The model was used to discuss future energy pathways in Pennsylvania, future electricity impacts in Brazil, and future water pathways in Arizona. To examine energy in Pennsylvania, this work also developed the first process-based life-cycle assessment (LCA) of shale gas, focusing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, and water consumption. This LCA confirmed results that shale gas is similar to conventional gas in GHG emissions, though potentially has a lower net energy due to a wide range of production rates for wells. Brazil's electricity-related impacts will rise as development continues. GHG emissions are shown to double by 2020 due to expanded natural gas (NG) and coal usage, with a rise of 390% by 2040 posssible with tropical hydropower reservoirs. While uncertainty around reservoir impacts is large, Brazil's low GHG emissions intensity and future carbon emissions targets are threatened by likely electricity scenarios. Pennsylvania's energy-related impacts are likely to hinge on whether NG is used as a replacement for coal, allowing GHG emissions to drop and then plateau at 93% of 2010 values; or as a transition fuel to expanded renewable energy sources, showing a steady decrease to 86% in 2035. Increased use of biofuels will dominate land occupation and may dominate water

  20. Life cycle assessment of thermal waste-to-energy technologies: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent descriptions of all these aspects, in many cases preventing an evaluation of the validity of results, and limiting applicability of data and results in other contexts. The review clearly suggests that the quality of LCA studies of WtE technologies and systems including energy recovery can be significantly improved. Based on the review, a detailed overview of assumptions and modeling choices in existing literature is provided in conjunction with practical recommendations for state-of-the-art LCA of Waste-to-Energy.

  1. Deep Horizons - Implications of the deep carbon cycle for life, energy, and the environment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    B. Sherwood Lollar1, C.J. Ballentine2, E. Shock3 1Dept. of Geology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B1 email bslollar@chem.utoronto.ca 2School of Earth, Atmospheric & Environ. Sci., Univ. of Manchester, UK M13 9PL 3School of Earth & Space Exploration, Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 While well-developed models exist regarding surface biogeochemical carbon cycles on short-, medium- and long-term scales over geologic time, major unknowns persist concerning the deep carbon cycle, including the pathways and flux of carbon exchange between the surface and deep interior of the planet; the nature of microbial life in the Earth's deep subsurface; and the implications of the deep carbon cycle for energy resources and the environment. Major research questions include: What is the distribution, form and abundance of carbon in the deep crust and mantle? What is the nature of deep carbon flux and the timescale and mechanisms of recycling? Do the lower crust and mantle contribute biologically available carbon to the shallow subsurface and surface? To what extent does the deep carbon cycle support microbial ecosystems in the deep marine and/or deep terrestrial biosphere? What is the volume and depth of the Earth's habitable zone and what are the implications of this for the search for life on other planets and moons? What is the role of the deep carbon cycle in sustaining abiotic organic synthesis and what potential contribution might such chemical organic synthesis have made to the origin of life and the sustainability of deep microbial ecosystems? How does our understanding of the deep carbon cycle impact on emerging global issues such as climate change, energy and carbon sequestration? While fundamental to our understanding of the origin and evolution of life and the planet - these questions are also relevant to the major practical challenges facing science and society as we struggle with the implications of still increasing fossil fuel

  2. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, GlobalWarming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water andWaste Service Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG...

  3. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG...

  4. Energy-Efficient Algorithm for Multicasting in Duty-Cycled Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Cheng, Siyao; Gao, Hong; Li, Jianzhong; Cai, Zhipeng

    2015-12-11

    Multicasting is a fundamental network service for one-to-many communications in wireless sensor networks. However, when the sensor nodes work in an asynchronous duty-cycled way, the sender may need to transmit the same message several times to one group of its neighboring nodes, which complicates the minimum energy multicasting problem. Thus, in this paper, we study the problem of minimum energy multicasting with adjusted power (the MEMAP problem) in the duty-cycled sensor networks, and we prove it to be NP-hard. To solve such a problem, the concept of an auxiliary graph is proposed to integrate the scheduling problem of the transmitting power and transmitting time slot and the constructing problem of the minimum multicast tree in MEMAP, and a greedy algorithm is proposed to construct such a graph. Based on the proposed auxiliary graph, an approximate scheduling and constructing algorithm with an approximation ratio of 4 l n K is proposed, where K is the number of destination nodes. Finally, the theoretical analysis and experimental results verify the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in terms of the energy cost and transmission redundancy.

  5. Energy-Efficient Algorithm for Multicasting in Duty-Cycled Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Quan; Cheng, Siyao; Gao, Hong; Li, Jianzhong; Cai, Zhipeng

    2015-01-01

    Multicasting is a fundamental network service for one-to-many communications in wireless sensor networks. However, when the sensor nodes work in an asynchronous duty-cycled way, the sender may need to transmit the same message several times to one group of its neighboring nodes, which complicates the minimum energy multicasting problem. Thus, in this paper, we study the problem of minimum energy multicasting with adjusted power (the MEMAP problem) in the duty-cycled sensor networks, and we prove it to be NP-hard. To solve such a problem, the concept of an auxiliary graph is proposed to integrate the scheduling problem of the transmitting power and transmitting time slot and the constructing problem of the minimum multicast tree in MEMAP, and a greedy algorithm is proposed to construct such a graph. Based on the proposed auxiliary graph, an approximate scheduling and constructing algorithm with an approximation ratio of 4lnK is proposed, where K is the number of destination nodes. Finally, the theoretical analysis and experimental results verify the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in terms of the energy cost and transmission redundancy. PMID:26690446

  6. Experimental Performance Analysis of Supercritical CO2 Thermodynamic Cycle Powered by Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. R.; Yamaguchi, H.; Fujima, K.; Enomoto, M.; Sawada, N.

    2006-05-01

    The interests in using carbon dioxide as working fluid increase since the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols were made. In this paper, a complete effort was made to study the performance of CO2 Rankine cycle powered by solar energy experimentally. The system utilizes evacuated solar collectors to convert CO2 into high-temperature supercritical state, used to produce electrical energy and thermal energy, which could be used for air conditioning and hot water supply and so on. The system performances were tested not only in summer, but also in winter; not only in sunny day, but also in cloudy day. The interest of the paper is the solar collector efficiency, because the absorbed heat quantity in the collector can be utilized for power generation and heat supply and other useful outputs. The results show that annually-averaged solar collector efficiency was measured at about 60.4%. The study shows the potential of the application of the solar powered CO2 cycle as a distributed power/heat generation system.

  7. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael; Halkyard, John

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  8. Establishment and analysis of High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaohang; Liao, Xiaohan; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping

    2015-04-01

    For better prediction and understanding of water-energy exchange process and land-atmospheric interaction, the in-situ observed meteorological data which were acquired from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system were also integrated in the WRF model over China. Further, the High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China (HRADC) was produced by WRF model. This dataset include 25 km horizontal resolution near surface meteorological data such as air temperature, humidity, ground temperature, and pressure at 19 levels, soil temperature and soil moisture at 4 levels, green vegetation coverage, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and ground heat flux for 3 hours. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method; 2) Compare results of meteorological elements such as 2 m temperature, precipitation and ground temperature generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is found that the results of 2 m temperature were improved compared with the control simulation and has effectively reproduced the observed patterns, and the simulated results of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature and specific humidity were as much closer to GLDAS outputs. Root mean square errors are reduced in assimilation run than control run, and the assimilation run of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature, radiation and surface fluxes were agreed well with the GLDAS outputs over China. The HRADC could be used in further research

  9. Comparative life-cycle energy payback analysis of multi-junction a-SiGe and nanocrystalline/a-Si modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

    2010-07-15

    Despite the publicity of nanotechnologies in high tech industries including the photovoltaic sector, their life-cycle energy use and related environmental impacts are understood only to a limited degree as their production is mostly immature. We investigated the life-cycle energy implications of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV designs using a nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) bottom layer in the context of a comparative, prospective life-cycle analysis framework. Three R and D options using nc-Si bottom layer were evaluated and compared to the current triple-junction a-Si design, i.e., a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe. The life-cycle energy demand to deposit nc-Si was estimated from parametric analyses of film thickness, deposition rate, precursor gas usage, and power for generating gas plasma. We found that extended deposition time and increased gas usages associated to the relatively high thickness of nc-Si lead to a larger primary energy demand for the nc-Si bottom layer designs, than the current triple-junction a-Si. Assuming an 8% conversion efficiency, the energy payback time of those R and D designs will be 0.7-0.9 years, close to that of currently commercial triple-junction a-Si design, 0.8 years. Future scenario analyses show that if nc-Si film is deposited at a higher rate (i.e., 2-3 nm/s), and at the same time the conversion efficiency reaches 10%, the energy-payback time could drop by 30%.

  10. An introduction to thermodynamics of renewable cycles for direct solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhodolsky, A.T.

    1998-07-01

    Mechanical energy is known to be converted into thermal form (heat) without any restriction. Any opposite conversion of heat into mechanical energy owing to work produced in the heat engines has been restricted by principle of Carnot. This communication is to introduce into the elements of thermodynamics for direct energy conversion of light into mechanical energy. The aim is to explain: why without any machines, the efficiency of conversion is able to be by many orders of magnitude greater than the efficiency of direct mechanical action of light given in framework of equilibrium radiation thermodynamics. The development of such a concept is to find out an actual fundamental restriction for the maximum conversion available in several new solar renewable technologies for both direct generation of mechanical vibrations and for extraction of pure water from mixtures owing to self-organization of heat cycles. In order to involve solar light under non-equilibrium with respect to matter as a motive power within thermodynamics, the principle of Carnot for heat engines is assumed to be also valid for renewable processes (cycles). The absorbing part of condensed matter by optical pumping is considered as a heat source for production of entropy by heat-transfer into dark surrounding that plays role of heat sink. Principle of Carnot is used together with common accepted definition of non-equilibrium entropy in order to describe the excitement of heat source and its next relaxation. The new formulation of Carnot theorem and fundamental maximum of renewable conversion is derived. The simplest system of two equal bodies with difference temperatures is considered to show how to find the maximum energy available for renewable conversion. The major difference between equilibrium (reversible) thermodynamics and proposed renewable (non-equilibrium) approach is discussed on this example together with a typical mathematical paradox.

  11. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  12. Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

  13. The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars - An application of an energy balance climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.; North, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Energy balance climate models of the Budyko-Sellers variety are applied to the carbon-dioxide cycle on Mars. Recent data available from the Viking mission, in particular the seasonal pressure variations measured by Viking landers, are used to constrain the models. No set of parameters was found for which a one-dimensional model parameterized in terms of ground temperature gave an adequate fit to the observed pressure variations. A modified, two-dimensional model including the effects of dust storms and the polar hood reasonably reproduces the pressure curve, however. The implications of these results for Martian climate changes are discussed.

  14. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  15. An RF energy harvesting power management circuit for appropriate duty-cycled operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirane, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we present an RF energy harvesting power management unit (PMU) for battery-less wireless sensor devices (WSDs). The proposed PMU realizes a duty-cycled operation that is divided into the energy charging time and discharging time. The proposed PMU detects two types of timing, thus, the appropriate timing for the activation can be recognized. The activation of WSDs at the proper timing leads to energy efficient operation and stable wireless communication. The proposed PMU includes a hysteresis comparator (H-CMP) and an RF signal detector (RF-SD) to detect the timings. The proposed RF-SD can operate without the degradation of charge efficiency by reusing the RF energy harvester (RF-EH) and H-CMP. The PMU fabricated in a 180 nm Si CMOS demonstrated the charge operation using the RF signal at 915 MHz and the two types of timing detection with less than 124 nW in the charge phase. Furthermore, in the active phase, the PMU generates a 0.5 V regulated power supply from the charged energy.

  16. Energy Landscape Reveals That the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle Is a Robust and Adaptive Multi-stage Process

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cheng; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively understanding the robustness, adaptivity and efficiency of cell cycle dynamics under the influence of noise is a fundamental but difficult question to answer for most eukaryotic organisms. Using a simplified budding yeast cell cycle model perturbed by intrinsic noise, we systematically explore these issues from an energy landscape point of view by constructing an energy landscape for the considered system based on large deviation theory. Analysis shows that the cell cycle trajectory is sharply confined by the ambient energy barrier, and the landscape along this trajectory exhibits a generally flat shape. We explain the evolution of the system on this flat path by incorporating its non-gradient nature. Furthermore, we illustrate how this global landscape changes in response to external signals, observing a nice transformation of the landscapes as the excitable system approaches a limit cycle system when nutrients are sufficient, as well as the formation of additional energy wells when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated. By taking into account the finite volume effect, we find additional pits along the flat cycle path in the landscape associated with the checkpoint mechanism of the cell cycle. The difference between the landscapes induced by intrinsic and extrinsic noise is also discussed. In our opinion, this meticulous structure of the energy landscape for our simplified model is of general interest to other cell cycle dynamics, and the proposed methods can be applied to study similar biological systems. PMID:25794282

  17. Antenna entropy in plant photosystems does not reduce the free energy for primary charge separation.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Robert C; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the concept of the so-called "antenna entropy" of higher plant photosystems. Several interesting points emerge: 1. In the case of a photosystemwhich harbours an excited state, the “antenna entropy” is equivalent to the configurational (mixing) entropy of a thermodynamic canonical ensemble. The energy associated with this parameter has been calculated for a hypothetical isoenergetic photosystem, photosystem I and photosystem II, and comes out in the range of 3.5 - 8% of the photon energy considering 680 nm. 2. The “antenna entropy” seems to be a rather unique thermodynamic phenomenon, in as much as it does not modify the free energy available for primary photochemistry, as has been previously suggested. 3. It is underlined that this configurational (mixing) entropy, unlike heat dispersal in a thermal system, does not involve energy dilution. This points out an important difference between thermal and electronic energy dispersal.

  18. Energy conservation in the primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries together use nearly 13% of the electrical energy consumed by US industry. As part of its mission to promote energy conservation in basic US industries, the DOE surveys the present technological status of the major electrochemical industries and evaluates promising technological innovations that may lead to reduced energy requirements. This study provides technical and economic analyses in support of a government program of research and development in advanced electrolytic technology. This program is intended to supplement the development efforts directed toward energy savings by private industry. Sections II and III of this report cover aluminum and chlorine production processes only, since these two industries represent over 90% of the electrical energy requirements of all electrolytic industries in the United States. Section IV examines barriers to accelerated research and development by the electrolytic industries, and makes suggestions for government actions to overcome these barriers.

  19. Revisiting the BaO2/BaO redox cycle for solar thermochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, A J; Sastre, D; Serrano, D P; Pizarro, P; Coronado, J M

    2016-03-21

    The barium peroxide-based redox cycle was proposed in the late 1970s as a thermochemical energy storage system. Since then, very little attention has been paid to such redox couples. In this paper, we have revisited the use of reduction-oxidation reactions of the BaO2/BaO system for thermochemical heat storage at high temperatures. Using thermogravimetric analysis, reduction and oxidation reactions were studied in order to find the main limitations associated with each process. Furthermore, the system was evaluated through several charge-discharge stages in order to analyse its possible degradation after repeated cycling. Through differential scanning calorimetry the heat stored and released were also determined. Oxidation reaction, which was found to be slower than reduction, was studied in more detail using isothermal tests. It was observed that the rate-controlling step of BaO oxidation follows zero-order kinetics, although at high temperatures a deviation from Arrhenius behaviour was observed probably due to hindrances to anionic oxygen diffusion caused by the formation of an external layer of BaO2. This redox couple was able to withstand several redox cycles without deactivation, showing reaction conversions close to 100% provided that impurities are previously eliminated through thermal pre-treatment, demonstrating the feasibility of this system for solar thermochemical heat storage.

  20. Development of silver-zinc cells of improved cycle life and energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenyi, Roberto; James, Stanley D.

    1994-03-01

    Substantial increases in the cost effectiveness and range of naval underwater vehicles are possible by virtue of advances made, in this program, to silver-zinc, vehicle propulsion batteries. To improve battery cycle life and energy density, electropermeable membranes (EPM's) were used as additives and/or as coatings for the negative electrodes and as coatings for conventional separator materials. Also, bismuth oxide was tested as an additive to the negative electrodes and P2291-40/20, a radiation-grafted polyethylene film, as a separator used in conjunction with silver-treated cellophane. EPM's used as negative electrode additives and also as coatings for Celgard 2500 microporous polypropylene greatly improved cells. Cells with EPM's used as coatings for the negative electrodes failed rapidly because of an error in formulation. Cells with 10 percent bismuth oxide in the negative electrodes exhibited substantially lower capacity than the standard cells and were removed from the test. Cells with radiation-grafted polyethylene separators provided fewer cycles than the standard cells, with 5 percent higher capacity and 6 percent lower utilization of active materials by cycle 60. However, the slightly better capacity of these cells, realized due to the additional space available for active materials, does not compensate for their generally unimpressive performance.

  1. Thermodynamic systems analysis of open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, B. K.; Bharathan, D.; Althof, J. A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes an updated thermal-hydraulic systems analysis program called OTECSYS that studies the integrated performance of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant, specifically, the effects of component performance, design parameters, and site specific resource data on the total system performance and plant size. OTECSYS can size the various open-cycle power cycle and hydraulic components. Models for the evaporator, mist eliminator, turbine-generator diffuser, direct-contact condenser, exhaust compressors, seawater pumps, and seawater piping are included, as are evaluations of the pressure drops associated with the intercomponent connections. It can also determine the required steam, cold seawater, and warm seawater flow rates. OTECSYS uses an approach similar to earlier work and integrates the most up-to-date developments in component performance and configuration. The program format allows the user to examine subsystem concepts not currently included by creating new component models. It will be useful to the OTEC plant designer who wants to quantify the design point sizing, performance, and power production using site-specific resource data. Detailed design trade-offs are easily evaluated, and several examples of these types of investigations are presented using plant size and power as criteria.

  2. Vacuum thermal cycle life testing of high temperature thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnappan, Rengasamy; Beam, Jerry E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program to investigate the corrosion compatibility of the high temperature thermal energy storage (TES) salts with Inconel-617 container was initiated at the Thermal Laboratory of the Wright Research and Development Center (WRDC) in 1985. Three fluoride eutectic mixtures: LiF-MgF2-KF, LiF-MgF2-NaF, and LiF-MgF2 having melting points in the neighborhood of 1000 K and heats of fusion above 750 kJ/kg were chosen. High purity analytical grade component salts were processed in oxygen and moisture-free inert atmosphere, and melted in situ in the Inconel-617 containers. The containers were sealed by electron beam-welding of the end caps thereby evacuating the void volume. The TES capsules thus formed were placed in a tubular vacuum furnace for continuous thermal cycle life testing by cycling them ±100 K from the eutectic temperature every 2 hours. The capsules have successfully undergone 40,000 hours and 10,000 cycles of testing as of April 1990 and continuing on the test. This is believed to be the longest record available on the TES corrosion compatibility data. The present results clearly indicate that careful processing and proper welding are key factors in obtaining a longlife TES salt-containment system.

  3. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction.

  4. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  5. 100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, T.; Bagheri, B.; Ohkubo, T.; Uchida, S.; Yoshida, K.; Funatsu, T.; Oishi, T.; Daito, K.; Ishioka, M.; Yasunaga, N.; Sato, Y.; Baasandash, C.; Okamoto, Y.; Yanagitani, K.

    2008-10-01

    A solar pumped laser system with 7%-9% slope efficiencies has been developed. A Fresnel lens (2×2 m, f =2000 mm) is mounted on a two-axis sun tracker platform and focuses solar radiation toward laser cavity, which embraces Cr:Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic rod. The maximum emitted laser power is 80 W corresponding to maximum total area performance of 20 W/m2 for the Fresnel lens area. This solar laser system would be used as a section of power plant in a magnesium energy cycle as a cost-efficient solar energy converter. Using direct solar radiation into laser, 4.3% net conversion efficiency has been achieved.

  6. Systems analysis techniques for annual cycle thermal energy storage solar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baylin, F.; Sillman, S.

    1980-07-01

    Community-scale annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) solar systems are promising options for building heat and cooling. A variety of approaches are feasible in modeling ACTES solar systems. The key parameter in such efforts, average collector efficiency, is first examined, followed by several approaches for simple and effective modeling. Methods are also examined for modeling building loads for structures based on both conventional and passive architectural designs. Two simulation models for sizing solar heating systems with annual storage are presented next. Validation is presented by comparison with the results of a study of seasonal storage systems based on SOLANSIM, an hour-by-hour simulation. These models are presently being used to examine the economic trade-off between collector field area and storage capacity. Finally, programs in the US Department of Energy directed toward developing either other system components such as improved tanks and solar ponds or design tools for ACTES solar systems are examined.

  7. The role of metal-organic frameworks in a carbon-neutral energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedel, Alexander; Ji, Zhe; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2016-04-01

    Reducing society's reliance on fossil fuels presents one of the most pressing energy and environmental challenges facing our planet. Hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide, which are some of the smallest and simplest molecules known, may lie at the centre of solving this problem through realization of a carbon-neutral energy cycle. Potentially, this could be achieved through the deployment of hydrogen as the fuel of the long term, methane as a transitional fuel, and carbon dioxide capture and sequestration as the urgent response to ongoing climate change. Here we detail strategies and technologies developed to overcome the difficulties encountered in the capture, storage, delivery and conversion of these gas molecules. In particular, we focus on metal-organic frameworks in which metal oxide ‘hubs’ are linked with organic ‘struts’ to make materials of ultrahigh porosity, which provide a basis for addressing this challenge through materials design on the molecular level.

  8. Comparative energy life-cycle analyses of microalgal biomass production in open ponds and photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Orlando; Kiperstok, Asher; Sales, Emerson A; Embiruçu, Marcelo; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2010-02-01

    An analysis of the energy life-cycle for production of biomass using the oil-rich microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. was performed, which included both raceway ponds, tubular and flat-plate photobioreactors for algal cultivation. The net energy ratio (NER) for each process was calculated. The results showed that the use of horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) is not economically feasible ([NER]<1) and that the estimated NERs for flat-plate PBRs and raceway ponds is >1. The NER for ponds and flat-plate PBRs could be raised to significantly higher values if the lipid content of the biomass were increased to 60% dw/cwd. Although neither system is currently competitive with petroleum, the threshold oil cost at which this would occur was also estimated.

  9. From Homodimer to Heterodimer and Back: Elucidating the TonB Energy Transduction Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gresock, Michael G.; Kastead, Kyle A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The TonB system actively transports large, scarce, and important nutrients through outer membrane (OM) transporters of Gram-negative bacteria using the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). In Escherichia coli, the CM proteins ExbB and ExbD harness and transfer proton motive force energy to the CM protein TonB, which spans the periplasmic space and cyclically binds OM transporters. TonB has two activity domains: the amino-terminal transmembrane domain with residue H20 and the periplasmic carboxy terminus, through which it binds to OM transporters. TonB is inactivated by all substitutions at residue H20 except H20N. Here, we show that while TonB trapped as a homodimer through its amino-terminal domain retained full activity, trapping TonB through its carboxy terminus inactivated it by preventing conformational changes needed for interaction with OM transporters. Surprisingly, inactive TonB H20A had little effect on homodimerization through the amino terminus and instead decreased TonB carboxy-terminal homodimer formation prior to reinitiation of an energy transduction cycle. That result suggested that the TonB carboxy terminus ultimately interacts with OM transporters as a monomer. Our findings also suggested the existence of a separate equimolar pool of ExbD homodimers that are not in contact with TonB. A model is proposed where interaction of TonB homodimers with ExbD homodimers initiates the energy transduction cycle, and, ultimately, the ExbD carboxy terminus modulates interactions of a monomeric TonB carboxy terminus with OM transporters. After TonB exchanges its interaction with ExbD for interaction with a transporter, ExbD homodimers undergo a separate cycle needed to re-energize them. IMPORTANCE Canonical mechanisms of active transport across cytoplasmic membranes employ ion gradients or hydrolysis of ATP for energy. Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes lack these resources. The TonB system embodies a novel means of active transport

  10. Students' Energy Concepts at the Transition Between Primary and Secondary School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Sebastian T.; Harms, Ute; Neumann, Knut; Kowalzik, Kristin; Frank, Arne

    2015-10-01

    Energy is considered both a core idea and a crosscutting concept in science education. A thorough understanding of the energy concept is thought to help students learn about other (related) concepts within and across science subjects, thereby fostering scientific literacy. This study investigates students' progression in understanding the energy concept in biological contexts at the transition from primary to lower secondary school by employing a quantitative, cross-sectional study in grades 3-6 ( N = 540) using complex multiple-choice items. Based on a model developed in a previous study, energy concepts were assessed along four aspects of energy: (1) forms and sources of energy, (2) transfer and transformation, (3) degradation and dissipation, and (4) energy conservation. Two parallel test forms (A and B) indicated energy concept scores to increase significantly by a factor of 2.3 (A)/1.7 (B) from grade 3 to grade 6. Students were observed to progress in their understanding of all four aspects of the concept and scored highest on items for energy forms. The lowest scores and the smallest gain across grades were found for energy conservation. Based on our results, we argue that despite numerous learning opportunities, students lack a more integrated understanding of energy at this stage, underlining the requirement of a more explicit approach to teaching energy to young learners. Likewise, more interdisciplinary links for energy learning between relevant contexts in each science discipline may enable older students to more efficiently use energy as a tool and crosscutting concept with which to analyze complex content.

  11. Studies of slow-positron production using low-energy primary electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-20

    Slow-positron beams produced from negative-work-function solid-state moderators have found numerous applications in condensed matter physics. There are potential advantages in using low-energy primary electron beams for positron production, including reduced radiation damage to single-crystal moderators and reduced activation of nearby components. We present numerical calculations of positron yields and other beam parameters for various target-moderator configurations using the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) [1] and Advanced Photon Source (APS) [2] electron linacs [3] as examples of sources for the primary electron beams. The status of experiments at these facilities is reviewed.

  12. Measuring the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays with the Yakutsk EAS array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khristiansen, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Yakutsk Extensive Air Showers (EAS) array was designed for detecting the showers generated by the 10 to the 47th power to 10 to the 20th power eV primary cosmic rays and consists of numerous electron, muon, and Cerenkov light detectors arranged on a 20 sq km area terrain. The array is featured by the feasibility to detect the EAS-produced Cerenkov light, hence, as will be shown, to find the mean energy of the primary particles generating an ensemble of EAS of given size. Date collected is discussed.

  13. Rescaling of metal oxide nanocrystals for energy storage having high capacitance and energy density with robust cycle life.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyung Mo; Choi, Kyung Min; Cheng, Tao; Lee, Dong Ki; Zhou, Renjia; Ock, Il Woo; Milliron, Delia J; Goddard, William A; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2015-06-30

    Nanocrystals are promising structures, but they are too large for achieving maximum energy storage performance. We show that rescaling 3-nm particles through lithiation followed by delithiation leads to high-performance energy storage by realizing high capacitance close to the theoretical capacitance available via ion-to-atom redox reactions. Reactive force-field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations support the conclusion that Li atoms react with nickel oxide nanocrystals (NiO-n) to form lithiated core-shell structures (Ni:Li2O), whereas subsequent delithiation causes Ni:Li2O to form atomic clusters of NiO-a. This is consistent with in situ X-ray photoelectron and optical spectroscopy results showing that Ni(2+) of the nanocrystal changes during lithiation-delithiation through Ni(0) and back to Ni(2+). These processes are also demonstrated to provide a generic route to rescale another metal oxide. Furthermore, assembling NiO-a into the positive electrode of an asymmetric device enables extraction of full capacitance for a counter negative electrode, giving high energy density in addition to robust capacitance retention over 100,000 cycles.

  14. Rescaling of metal oxide nanocrystals for energy storage having high capacitance and energy density with robust cycle life

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyung Mo; Choi, Kyung Min; Cheng, Tao; Lee, Dong Ki; Zhou, Renjia; Ock, Il Woo; Milliron, Delia J.; Goddard, William A.; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystals are promising structures, but they are too large for achieving maximum energy storage performance. We show that rescaling 3-nm particles through lithiation followed by delithiation leads to high-performance energy storage by realizing high capacitance close to the theoretical capacitance available via ion-to-atom redox reactions. Reactive force-field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations support the conclusion that Li atoms react with nickel oxide nanocrystals (NiO-n) to form lithiated core–shell structures (Ni:Li2O), whereas subsequent delithiation causes Ni:Li2O to form atomic clusters of NiO-a. This is consistent with in situ X-ray photoelectron and optical spectroscopy results showing that Ni2+ of the nanocrystal changes during lithiation–delithiation through Ni0 and back to Ni2+. These processes are also demonstrated to provide a generic route to rescale another metal oxide. Furthermore, assembling NiO-a into the positive electrode of an asymmetric device enables extraction of full capacitance for a counter negative electrode, giving high energy density in addition to robust capacitance retention over 100,000 cycles. PMID:26080421

  15. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  16. LES of large wind farm during a diurnal cycle: Analysis of Energy and Scalar flux budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Calaf, M.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    With an expanding role of wind energy in satisfying energy demands around the world, wind farms are covering increasingly larger surfaces to the point where interaction between wind farms and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) might have significant implications. Furthermore, many wind farm sites lie over existing farmland for which water is a precious resource. In this context, a relevant question yet to be fully understood, is whether large wind farms alter near surface temperatures and evaporation rates and if so, by how much. In the present study, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a geostrophic wind driven ABL with two active scalars, temperature and specific humidity, in the presence of Coriolis forces with an embedded wind farm are performed. Multiple 'synthetic' diurnal cycles are simulated by imposing a time-varying surface temperature and specific humidity. Wind turbines are modeled using the "actuator disk" approach along with the flexibility to reorient according to varying flow directions. LES is performed using the "pseudo-spectral" approach implying that an infinitely large wind farm is simulated. Comparison of simulations with and without wind farms show clear differences in vertical profiles of horizontal velocity magnitude and direction, turbulent kinetic energy and scalar fluxes. To better understand these differences, a detailed analysis of the constituent terms of budget equations of mean and turbulent kinetic energy and sensible and latent heat fluxes has been performed for different stratification regimes as the ABL evolves during the diurnal cycle. The analyses help explain the effect of wind farms on the characteristics of the low-level jet, depth of the stable boundary layer, formation and growth of the convective boundary layer (CBL) and scalar fluxes at the surface.

  17. Thermal energy storage for integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Somasundaram, S.

    1990-07-01

    There are increasingly strong indications that the United States will face widespread electrical power generating capacity constraints in the 1990s; most regions of the country could experience capacity shortages by the year 2000. The demand for new generating capacity occurs at a time when there is increasing emphasis on environmental concerns. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is an example of an advanced coal-fired technology that will soon be commercially available. The IGCC concept has proved to be efficient and cost-effective while meeting all current environmental regulations on emissions; however, the operating characteristics of the IGCC system have limited it to base load applications. The integration of thermal energy storage (TES) into an IGCC plant would allow it to meet cyclic loads while avoiding undesirable operating characteristics such as poor turn-down capability, impaired part-load performance, and long startup times. In an IGCC plant with TES, a continuously operated gasifier supplies medium-Btu fuel gas to a continuously operated gas turbine. The thermal energy from the fuel gas coolers and the gas turbine exhaust is stored as sensible heat in molten nitrate salt; heat is extracted during peak demand periods to produce electric power in a Rankine steam power cycle. The study documented in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and consists of a review of the technical and economic feasibility of using TES in an IGCC power plant to produce intermediate and peak load power. The study was done for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Long-Cycling Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery (AORFB) toward Sustainable and Safe Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; DeBruler, Camden; Rhodes, Zayn; Liu, T Leo

    2017-01-25

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are a viable technology to store renewable energy in the form of electricity that can be supplied to electricity grids. However, widespread implementation of traditional RFBs, such as vanadium and Zn-Br2 RFBs, is limited due to a number of challenges related to materials, including low abundance and high costs of redox-active metals, expensive separators, active material crossover, and corrosive and hazardous electrolytes. To address these challenges, we demonstrate a neutral aqueous organic redox flow battery (AORFB) technology utilizing a newly designed cathode electrolyte containing a highly water-soluble ferrocene molecule. Specifically, water-soluble (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (FcNCl, 4.0 M in H2O, 107.2 Ah/L, and 3.0 M in 2.0 NaCl, 80.4 Ah/L) and N(1)-ferrocenylmethyl-N(1),N(1),N(2),N(2),N(2)-pentamethylpropane-1,2-diaminium dibromide, (FcN2Br2, 3.1 M in H2O, 83.1 Ah/L, and 2.0 M in 2.0 M NaCl, 53.5 Ah/L) were synthesized through structural decoration of hydrophobic ferrocene with synergetic hydrophilic functionalities including an ammonium cation group and a halide anion. When paired with methyl viologen (MV) as an anolyte, resulting FcNCl/MV and FcN2Br2/MV AORFBs were operated in noncorrosive neutral NaCl supporting electrolytes using a low-cost anion-exchange membrane. These ferrocene/MV AORFBs are characterized as having high theoretical energy density (45.5 Wh/L) and excellent cycling performance from 40 to 100 mA/cm(2). Notably, the FcNCl/MV AORFBs (demonstrated at 7.0 and 9.9 Wh/L) exhibited unprecedented long cycling performance, 700 cycles at 60 mA/cm(2) with 99.99% capacity retention per cycle, and delivered power density up to 125 mW/cm(2). These AORFBs are built from earth-abundant elements and are environmentally benign, thus representing a promising choice for sustainable and safe energy storage.

  19. Land-Energy Nexus: Life Cycle Land Use of Natural Gas-Fired Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, G.; Jordaan, S.; Macknick, J.; Mohammadi, E.; Ben-Horin, D.; Urrea, V.

    2014-12-01

    Comparisons of the land required for different types of energy are challenging due to the fact that upstream land use of fossil fuel technologies is not well characterized. This research focuses on improving estimates of the life cycle land use of natural gas-fired electricity through the novel combination of inventories of the location of natural gas-related infrastructure, satellite imagery analysis and gas production data. Land area per unit generation is calculated as the sum of natural gas life cycle stages divided by the throughput of natural gas, combined with the land use of the power plant divided by the generation of the power plant. Five natural gas life cycle stages are evaluated for their area: production, gathering, processing, transmission and disposal. The power plant stage is characterized by a thermal efficiency ηth, which converts MegaJoules (MJ) to kilowatt hours (kWh). We focus on seven counties in the Barnett shale region in Texas that represent over 90% of total Barnett Shale gas production. In addition to assessing the gathering and transmission pipeline network, approximately 500 sites are evaluated from the five life cycle stages plus power plants. For instance, assuming a 50 foot right-of-way for transmission pipelines, this part of the Barnett pipeline network occupies nearly 26,000 acres. Site, road and water components to total area are categorized. Methods are developed to scale up sampled results for each component type to the full population of sites within the Barnett. Uncertainty and variability are charaterized. Well-level production data are examined by integrating commercial datasets with advanced methods for quantifying estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) for wells, then summed to estimate natural gas produced in an entire play. Wells that are spatially coincident are merged using ArcGIS. All other sites are normalized by an estimate of gas throughput. Prior land use estimates are used to validate the satellite imagery analysis

  20. The muon content of EAS as a function of primary energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, P. R.; Nash, W. F.; Saich, M. S.; Sephton, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers (EAS) was measured over the wide primary energy range 10 to the 16th power to 10 to the 20th power eV. It is reported that the relative muon content of EAS decreases smoothly over the energy range 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 19th power eV and concluded that the primary cosmic ray flux has a constant mass composition over this range. It is also reported that an apparent significant change in the power index occurs below 10 to the 17th power eV rho sub c (250 m) sup 0.78. Such a change indicates a significant change in primary mass composition in this range. The earlier conclusions concerning EAS of energy 10 to the 17th power eV are confirmed. Analysis of data in the 10 to the 16th power - 10 to the 17th power eV range revealed a previously overlooked selection bias in the data set. The full analysis of the complete data set in the energy range 10 to the 16th power - 10 to the 17th power ev with the selection bias eliminated is presented.

  1. Fan cycling strategies and heat pipe heat exchangers provide energy efficient dehumidification

    SciTech Connect

    Shirey, D.B. III

    1995-03-01

    This article describes two methods to reduce energy consumption and peak demand in buildings that require humidity control that were demonstrated at the Salvador Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida. The first method centered on alternative indoor fan cycling strategies and the second method involved the use of heat pipe heat exchangers. Both approaches increased the dehumidification performance of the existing air-conditioning systems and provided substantial savings. Simple, low cost alternative fan cycling strategies were used. When possible, auto fan control replaced constant fan operation to avoid excess fan energy consumption, ventilation load and compressor operation. The alternative fan control strategies reduced indoor humidity fluctuations in all zones, and significantly reduced overall humidity levels in the museum lobby and storage area. An HPHX was installed within one of the two gallery RTUs to improve the unit`s dehumidification performance. The passive HPHX significantly reduced electric reheat and compressor operation while maintaining the precise temperature and humidity requirements within the gallery. The second gallery RTU now operates primarily as a back-up unit to the heat pipe-assisted air-conditioning unit.

  2. Experimental Study of Magnesium Production with Laser for Clean Energy Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Yabe, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Mohamed, M. S.; Uchida, S.; Baasandash, C.; Ohkubo, T.; Mori, Y.; Sato, H.

    2008-04-01

    A new scheme of generating power called magnesium injection cycle [MAGIC] engine was developed. Magnesium [Mg] and water are put into the chamber and ignited at 500 degree Celsius. Mg reaction with water produces hydrogen [H2] gas. The hydrogen blows out and reacts with oxygen [O2] gas to generate H2O and energy at the exit nozzle. These reactions occur simultaneously and generate thrust. In order to reproduce Mg, the residual MgO is irradiated by focused cw CO2 laser (1000 W) at 20 Pa. Then, high temperature (over 4000 degree Celsius) is exerted in tiny spot thus MgO reduction in equilibrium is achievable. Spectroscopic analysis was conducted on the Mg/MgO vapor under atmospheric condition. The Mg line at 518 nm, MgO line at 500 nm and O+ line were confirmed. This proves that the MgO is dissociated by laser irradiation These experiments confirm that the scheme can be used for magnesium energy cycle system with practical efficiency and large throughput.

  3. Innovative turbine concepts for open-cycle OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-12-01

    The results are summarized of preliminary studies conducted to identify and evaluate three innovative concepts for an open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) steam turbine that could significantly reduce the cost of OTEC electrical power plants. The three concepts are: (1) a crossflow turbine, (2) a vertical axis, axial flow turbine, and (3) a double flow, radial inflow turbine with mixed flow blading. In all cases, the innovation involves the use of lightweight, composite plastic blading and a physical geometry that facilitates efficient fluid flow to and from the other major system components and reduces the structural requirements for both the turbine or the system vacuum enclosure, or both. The performance, mechanical design, and cost of each of the concepts are developed to varying degrees but in sufficient detail to show that the potential exists for cost reductions to the goals established in the U.S. Department of Energy's planning documents. Specifically, results showed that an axial turbine operating with 33 percent higher steam throughput and 7 percent lower efficiency than the most efficient configuration provides the most cost effective open-cycle OTEC system. The vacuum enclosure can be significantly modified to reduce costs by establishing better interfaces with the system.

  4. Innovative turbine concepts for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of preliminary studies conducted to identify and evaluate three innovative concepts for an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) steam turbine that could significantly reduce the cost of OTEC electrical power plants. The three concepts are (1) a crossflow turbine, (2) a vertical-axis, axial-flow turbine, and (3) a double-flow, radial-inflow turbine with mixed-flow blading. In all cases, the innovation involves the use of lightweight, composite plastic blading and a physical geometry that facilitates efficient fluid flow to and from the other major system components and reduces the structural requirements for both the turbine or the system vacuum enclosure, or both. The performance, mechanical design, and cost of each of the concepts are developed to varying degrees but in sufficient detail to show that the potential exists for cost reductions to the goals established in the US Department of Energy's planning documents. Specifically, results showed that an axial turbine operating with 33% higher steam throughput and 7% lower efficiency than the most efficient configuration provides the most cost-effective open-cycle OTEC system. The vacuum enclosure can be significantly modified to reduce costs by establishing better interfaces with the system. 33 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. A general ecosystem model for applications to primary productivity and carbon cycle studies in the global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantha, Lakshmi H.

    We have developed a general 1-D multi-component ecosystem model that incorporates a skillful upper ocean mixed layer model based on second moment closure of turbulence. The model is intended for eventual incorporation into coupled 3-D physical-biogeochemical ocean models with potential applications to modeling and studying primary productivity and carbon cycling in the global oceans as well as to promote the use of chlorophyll concentrations, in concert with satellite-sensed ocean color, as a diagnostic tool to delineate circulation features in numerical circulation models. The model is nitrogen-based and the design is deliberately general enough and modular to enable many of the existing ecosystem model formulations to be simulated and hence model-to-model comparisons rendered feasible. In its more general form (GEM10), the model solves for nitrate, ammonium, dissolved nitrogen, bacteria and two size categories of phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus, in addition to solving for dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity to enable estimation of the carbon dioxide flux at the air-sea interface. Dissolved oxygen is another prognostic variable enabling air-sea exchange of oxygen to be calculated. For potential applications to HNLC regions where productivity is constrained by the availability of a trace constituent such as iron, the model carries the trace constituent as an additional prognostic variable. Here we present 1-D model simulations for the Black Sea, Station PAPA and the BATS site. The Black Sea simulations assimilate seasonal monthly SST, SSS and surface chlorophyll, and the seasonal modulations compare favorably with earlier work. Station PAPA simulations for 1975-1977 with GEM5 assimilating observed SST and a plausible seasonal modulation of surface chlorophyll concentration also compare favorably with earlier work and with the limited observations on nitrate and pCO 2 available. Finally, GEM5 simulations at BATS for 1985-1997 are consistent with

  6. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  7. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of vegetation fluorescence with gross primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenberg, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Lee, J.; Guanter, L.; Van der Tol, C.; Toon, G. C.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.; Badgley, G. M.; Butz, A.; Jung, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Worden, J.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to close the Earth's carbon budget and predict feedbacks in a warming climate depends critically on knowing where, when and how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the land and atmosphere. Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) constitutes the largest flux component in the global carbon budget, however significant uncertainties remain in GPP estimates and its seasonality. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is a powerful proxy for assessing biomass photosynthetic activity since photosynthesis and fluorescence are directly coupled processes. This gives rise to re-emission of light between approximately 670 and 780 nm. Passive methods to quantify the fluorescence signal are mainly based on the filling-in of highly saturated O2 absorption structures. This method, however, was mostly applied in field-based measurements and is not directly applicable to space-borne retrievals. We show that variability of aerosols in the atmosphere load and surface pressure cannot be unequivocally disentangled from fluorescence since all these factor impact the absorption depths of O2 lines. This gives rise to biases in the retrieved scattering properties in typical multi-spectral XCO2 retrievals when using the O2 A band but not when focussing solely of solar Fraunhofer lines. We will a) present our retrieval method based on an iterative, non-linear least-squares fitting of Fraunhofer lines, b) discuss the potential impact on XCO2 retrievals and c) show recent fluorescence results from more than one year of GOSAT data. Empirically, we show that global spaceborne observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence exhibit a strong linear correlation with GPP. We found that the fluorescence emission even without any additional meteorological, vegetation type or model information has the same or better predictive skill in estimating GPP as those derived from traditional remotely-sensed vegetation indices using ancillary data and model assumptions. Our results

  8. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  9. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  10. Identifying energy and carbon footprint optimization potentials of a sludge treatment line with Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Remy, C; Lesjean, B; Waschnewski, J

    2013-01-01

    This study exemplifies the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to quantify the environmental impacts of processes for wastewater treatment. In a case study, the sludge treatment line of a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is analysed in terms of cumulative energy demand and the emission of greenhouse gases (carbon footprint). Sludge treatment consists of anaerobic digestion, dewatering, drying, and disposal of stabilized sludge in mono- or co-incineration in power plants or cement kilns. All relevant forms of energy demand (electricity, heat, chemicals, fossil fuels, transport) and greenhouse gas emissions (fossil CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) are accounted in the assessment, including the treatment of return liquor from dewatering in the WWTP. Results show that the existing process is positive in energy balance (-162 MJ/PE(COD) * a) and carbon footprint (-11.6 kg CO(2)-eq/PE(COD) * a) by supplying secondary products such as electricity from biogas production or mono-incineration and substituting fossil fuels in co-incineration. However, disposal routes for stabilized sludge differ considerably in their energy and greenhouse gas profiles. In total, LCA proves to be a suitable tool to support future investment decisions with information of environmental relevance on the impact of wastewater treatment, but also urban water systems in general.

  11. A new one-dimensional simple energy balance and carbon cycle coupled model for global warming simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kazutaka; Sasai, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2010-08-01

    Global warming and accompanying climate change may be caused by an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses generated by anthropogenic activities. In order to supply such a mechanism of global warming with a quantitative underpinning, we need to understand the multifaceted roles of the Earth's energy balance and material cycles. In this study, we propose a new one-dimensional simple Earth system model. The model consists of carbon and energy balance submodels with a north-south zonal structure. The two submodels are coupled by interactive feedback processes such as CO2 fertilization of net primary production (NPP) and temperature dependencies of NPP, soil respiration, and ocean surface chemistry. The most important characteristics of the model are not only that the model requires a relatively short calculation time for carbon and energy simulation compared with a General Circulation Model (GCM) and an Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC), but also that the model can simulate average latitudinal variations. In order to analyze the response of the Earth system due to increasing greenhouse gasses, several simulations were conducted in one dimension from the years 1750 to 2000. Evaluating terrestrial and oceanic carbon uptake output of the model in the meridional direction through comparison with observations and satellite data, we analyzed the time variation patterns of air temperature in low- and middle-latitude belts. The model successfully reproduced the temporal variation in each latitude belt and the latitudinal distribution pattern of carbon uptake. Therefore, this model could more accurately demonstrate a difference in the latitudinal response of air temperature than existing models. As a result of the model evaluations, we concluded that this new one-dimensional simple Earth system model is a good tool for conducting global warming simulations. From future projections using various emission scenarios, we showed that the spatial distribution of

  12. The annual cycle of primary productivity in a tropical estuary: the inner regions of the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Gocke, K; Cortés, J; Murillo, M M

    2001-12-01

    A one year cycle of primary productivity (PP) was studied using the "light and dark bottle" technique in the Golfo de Nicoya, located at 10 degrees N and 85 degrees W at the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Samples were always incubated at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 m depth for 5 hrs from 8:30 till 13:30. The measurements were performed twice per month, first around high tide and one week later at low tide to account for tidal influences. This routine study was supplemented by special measurements about regional and short-term variations of primary productivity using the 14C-method, which mainly served to account for the shortcomings of the routinely employed incubation technique. The upper Golfo de Nicoya is an extremely productive, phytoplankton dominated estuarine system with an annual gross PP of 1037, a net PP of 610 and a community respiration of 427 g C m(-2) a(-1). Highest monthly PP values occurred during the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. Peaks in primary productivity coincided with massive blooms of red tide forming algae. Internal biological dynamics, estuarine circulation and land run-off are the most important nutrient sources. High water turbidity reduces the euphotic layer to 4-5 m depth, making the underwater light regime the rate limiting factor. On an annual basis, 41% of the organic carbon produced in the system is already consumed in the euphotic layer. Considering the entire water column (mean depth at mean tidal water level is around 7.7 m) 79% is consumed in the pelagial. Taking into account the organic material consumed and stored in the sediments the carbon budget of the upper gulf is probably balanced. Since, however, the system receives a considerable amount of organic material from its terrestrial surroundings (especially from the mangrove forests), a surplus of organic carbon is exported from the upper Golfo de Nicoya, which enhances the overall water productivity of the lower gulf and the adjacent area.

  13. Primary electron spectrometer, 18:63 UE: Electrostatic analyzer description and energy spectrum determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The primary electron spectrometer used to detect auroral electrons on sounding rocket 18:63 UE is described. The spectrometer used exponentially decaying positive and negative voltages applied to spherical deflection plates for energy analysis. A method for determining the analyzer response which does not require the assumptions that the ratio of plate separation to mean radius, the entrance or the exit apertures are small is described. By comparison with experiment it is shown that the effect of neither entrance nor exit collimation can be ignored. The experimental and calculated values of the limiting orbits agree well. A non-iterative technique of unfolding the electron differential energy spectrum is described. This method does not require the usual assumption of a flat or histogram-type energy spectrum. The unfolded spectra using both this technique and one which assumes a flat spectrum are compared to actual input spectra. This technique is especially useful in analyzing peaked auroral electron energy spectra.

  14. Life cycle assessment of innovative technology for energy production from automotive shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Caterina; Masoni, Paolo; Salvati, Fabio; Tolve, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) is a problematic waste material remaining after shredding and recovery processes of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Its heterogeneous grain size and composition make difficult its recovery or disposal. Although ASR accounts for approximately 20% to 25% of the weight of an ELV, the European Union (EU)'s ELV Directive (2000/53/EC) requires that by 2015 a minimum 95% of the weight of an ELV must be reused or recovered, including a 10% weight energy recovery. The quantity of ASR is relevant: Approximately 2.4 million tons are generated in the EU each year and most of it is sent to landfills. This article describes a life cycle model of the "TEKNE-Fluff" process designed to make beneficial use of ASR that is based on the results of an experimental pilot plant for pyro-gasification, combustion, cogeneration, and emissions treatment of ASR. The goal of the research was the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to identify the environmental hot spots of the "TEKNE system" and use scenario analysis to check solutions to improve its environmental profile, supporting the design and industrialization process. The LCA was conducted based on data modeled from the experimental campaign. Moreover, different scenarios on shares of electricity and thermal energy produced by the cogeneration system and alternative treatment processes for the waste produced by the technology were compared. Despite the limitation of the research (results based on scaling up experimental data by modeling), impact assessment results are promising and sufficiently robust, as shown by Monte Carlo analysis. The TEKNE technology may become an interesting solution for the problem of ASR management: Besides representing an alternative to landfill disposal, the energy produced could avoid significant impacts on fossil resources depletion (a plant of 40,000 tons/y capacity could produce ∼ 147,000 GJ/yr, covering the annual need of ∼ 13,500 households).

  15. The energy dependence of the ratios of secondary to primary elements in the cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Margolis, S. H.; Simpson, J. A.; Wefel, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The secondary to primary ratios B/C, N/O and (Sc-Mn)/Fe in the galactic cosmic rays have been measured in the overall energy interval 30-180 MeV/n with the University of Chicago cosmic ray telescope on board the satellite IMP-8 during the period 1974-1978. These results, together with the values of the same ratios measured at higher energies, have been compared to the results of cosmic ray propagation calculations using different pathlength distributions (PLD) and different levels of solar modulation, in order to select a single set of parameters consistent with all the measured ratios.

  16. High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. II. Primary spectra and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Montaruli, T.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; Dekhissi, H.; Fantini, R.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Barish, B.C.; Goretti, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Michael, D.G.; Nolty, R.; Peck, C.W.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C.W.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Carboni, M.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Ronga, F.; Satta, L.; Sciubba, A.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Antolini, R.; Bosio, T.; Di Credico, A.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Mikheyev, S.; Parlati, S.; Reynoldson, J.; Scapparone, E.; Bower, C.; Habig, A.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Miller, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; De Mitri, I.; Monacelli, P.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Martello, D.; Palamara, O.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Ricciardi, M.; Surdo, A.; Baker, R.; and others

    1997-08-01

    Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56{plus_minus}0.05 for E{lt}500 TeV and 2.9{plus_minus}0.3 for E{gt}5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1{plus_minus}2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from {approximately} 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

    2012-02-29

    The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

  18. Low-energy laser irradiation promotes the survival and cell cycle entry of skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Shefer, Gavriella; Partridge, Terry A; Heslop, Louise; Gross, Jacqueline G; Oron, Uri; Halevy, Orna

    2002-04-01

    Low energy laser irradiation (LELI) has been shown to promote skeletal muscle cell activation and proliferation in primary cultures of satellite cells as well as in myogenic cell lines. Here, we have extended these studies to isolated myofibers. These constitute the minimum viable functional unit of the skeletal muscle, thus providing a close model of in vivo regeneration of muscle tissue. We show that LELI stimulates cell cycle entry and the accumulation of satellite cells around isolated single fibers grown under serum-free conditions and that these effects act synergistically with the addition of serum. Moreover, for the first time we show that LELI promotes the survival of fibers and their adjacent cells, as well as cultured myogenic cells, under serum-free conditions that normally lead to apoptosis. In both systems, expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was markedly increased, whereas expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX was reduced. In culture, these changes were accompanied by a reduction in the expression of p53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, reflecting the small decrease in viable cells 24 hours after irradiation. These findings implicate regulation of these factors as part of the protective role of LELI against apoptosis. Taken together, our findings are of critical importance in attempts to improve muscle regeneration following injury.

  19. Mechanochemical Energy Transduction during the Main Rotary Step in the Synthesis Cycle of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Czub, Jacek; Wieczór, Miłosz; Prokopowicz, Bartosz; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2017-03-09

    F1-ATPase is a highly efficient molecular motor that can synthesize ATP driven by a mechanical torque. Its ability to function reversibly in either direction requires tight mechanochemical coupling between the catalytic domain and the rotating central shaft, as well as temporal control of substrate binding and product release. Despite great efforts and significant progress, the molecular details of this synchronized and fine-tuned energy conversion mechanism are not fully understood. Here, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations to reconcile recent single-molecule experiments with structural data and provide a consistent thermodynamic, kinetic and mechanistic description of the main rotary substep in the synthetic cycle of mammalian ATP synthase. The calculated free energy profiles capture a discrete pattern in the rotation of the central γ-shaft, with a metastable intermediate located-consistently with recent experimental findings-at 70° relative to the X-ray position. We identify this rotary step as the ATP-dependent substep, and find that the associated free energy input supports the mechanism involving concurrent nucleotide binding and release. During the main substep, our simulations show no significant opening of the ATP-bound β subunit; instead, we observe that mechanical energy is transmitted to its nucleotide binding site, thus lowering the affinity for ATP. Simultaneously, the empty subunit assumes a conformation that enables the enzyme to harness the free energy of ADP binding to drive ATP release. Finally, we show that ligand exchange is regulated by a checkpoint mechanism, an apparent prerequisite for high efficiency in protein nanomotors.

  20. Dynamic hybrid life cycle assessment of energy and carbon of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Pei; Williams, Eric D

    2010-10-15

    This paper advances the life cycle assessment (LCA) of photovoltaic systems by expanding the boundary of the included processes using hybrid LCA and accounting for the technology-driven dynamics of embodied energy and carbon emissions. Hybrid LCA is an extended method that combines bottom-up process-sum and top-down economic input-output (EIO) methods. In 2007, the embodied energy was 4354 MJ/m(2) and the energy payback time (EPBT) was 2.2 years for a multicrystalline silicon PV system under 1700 kWh/m(2)/yr of solar radiation. These results are higher than those of process-sum LCA by approximately 60%, indicating that processes excluded in process-sum LCA, such as transportation, are significant. Even though PV is a low-carbon technology, the difference between hybrid and process-sum results for 10% penetration of PV in the U.S. electrical grid is 0.13% of total current grid emissions. Extending LCA from the process-sum to hybrid analysis makes a significant difference. Dynamics are characterized through a retrospective analysis and future outlook for PV manufacturing from 2001 to 2011. During this decade, the embodied carbon fell substantially, from 60 g CO(2)/kWh in 2001 to 21 g/kWh in 2011, indicating that technological progress is realizing reductions in embodied environmental impacts as well as lower module price.

  1. Accumulation of energy reserves in algae: From cell cycles to biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Vitova, Milada; Bisova, Katerina; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Zachleder, Vilem

    2015-11-01

    Starch and lipids are key components of algal cells and responsible for buffering variable supplies of energy and carbon that are vital for cell growth and reproduction, particularly DNA replication, nuclear and cellular division. The basic characteristics of energy reserves, their ultrastructure and localization inside the cell, regulation of their synthesis in relation to cell cycle phases, and their control by external factors, including light intensity, temperature, and carbon dioxide are described. Over the last two decades, research in this field has been boosted by possible biotechnological applications of algae for the production of biofuels from energy conserving compounds (bioethanol from starch and biodiesel from lipids). Recent findings on mechanisms that lead to an accumulation of exceptionally high levels of starch and lipids in algae will be summarized in this review. Macroelement (N, S, P) limitation, or depletion in mineral medium, as the most widely used approaches for enhancing both starch and lipid accumulation, are reviewed in detail. Potential biotechnological strategies for the economically viable overproduction of lipid and starch, such as a two-step procedure exploiting the effects of nutrient limitation and depletion, as well as the means and rationale for selecting appropriate strains, are discussed.

  2. Battery cycle life balancing in a microgrid through flexible distribution of energy and storage resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasawneh, Hussam J.; Illindala, Mahesh S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a microgrid consisting of four fuel cell-battery hybrid Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is devised for an industrial crusher-conveyor load. Each fuel cell was accompanied by a Li-ion battery to provide energy storage support under islanded condition of the microgrid since the fuel cells typically have poor transient response characteristics. After carrying out extensive modeling and analysis in MATLAB®, the battery utilization was found to vary significantly based on the DER's 'electrical' placement within the microgrid. This paper presents, under such conditions, a variety of battery life balancing solutions through the use of the new framework of Flexible Distribution of EneRgy and Storage Resources (FDERS). It is based on an in-situ reconfiguration approach through 'virtual' reactances that help in changing the 'electrical' position of each DER without physically displacing any component in the system. Several possible approaches toward balancing the battery utilization are compared in this paper taking advantage of the flexibility that FDERS offers. It was observed that the estimated battery life is dependent on factors such as cycling sequence, pattern, and occurrence.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage: Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.; Turchi, C.; Burkhardt, J.; Kutscher, C.; Decker, T.

    2009-07-01

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  4. Energy-efficient low duty cycle MAC protocol for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Stevan Jovica; Popovici, Emanuel Mihai; Spagnol, Christian; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William Peter

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient medium access control protocol suitable for communication in a wireless body area network for remote monitoring of physiological signals such as EEG and ECG. The protocol takes advantage of the static nature of the body area network to implement the effective time-division multiple access (TDMA) strategy with very little amount of overhead and almost no idle listening (by static, we refer to the fixed topology of the network investigated). The main goal is to develop energy-efficient and reliable communication protocol to support streaming of large amount of data. TDMA synchronization problems are discussed and solutions are presented. Equations for duty cycle calculation are also derived for power consumption and battery life predictions. The power consumption model was also validated through measurements. Our results show that the protocol is energy efficient for streaming communication as well as sending short bursts of data, and thus can be used for different types of physiological signals with different sample rates. The protocol is implemented on the analog devices ADF7020 RF transceivers.

  5. A Finite Element Model Of Self-Resonating Bimorph Microcantilever For Fast Temperature Cycling In A Pyroelectric Energy Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafa, Salwa; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Bannuru, Thirumalesh; Rajic, Slobodan; Islam, Syed K; Datskos, Panos G; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2011-01-01

    A self resonating bimorph cantilever structure for fast temperature cycling in a pyroelectric energy harvester has been modeled using a finite element method. The effect of constituting material properties and system parameters on the frequency and magnitude of temperature cycling and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure has been investigated. Results show that thermal contact conductance and heat source temperature play a key role in dominating the cycling frequency and efficiency of energy recycling. An optimal solution for the most efficient energy scavenging process has been sought by studying the performance trend with different variable parameters such as thermal contact conductance, heat source temperature, device aspect ratio and constituent materials of varying thermal conductivity and expansion coefficients.

  6. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Si, Fenni Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-08-15

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  7. A cumulative energy demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making.

    PubMed

    Puig, Rita; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere; Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Bala, Alba

    2013-12-01

    Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  8. Synchronous timing of multi-energy fast beam extraction during a single AGS cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Gabusi, J.; Naase, S.

    1985-01-01

    Synchronous triggering of fast beams is required because the field of Kicker Magnets must rise within the open space between one beam bunch and the next. Within the Brookhaven AGS, Fast Extracted Beam (FEB) triggering combines nominal timing, based on beam energy with bunch-to-bunch synchronization, based on the accelerating rf waveform. During beam acceleration, a single bunch is extracted at 22 GeV/c and within the same AGS cycle, the remaining eleven bunches are extracted at 28.4 GeV/c. When the single bunch is extracted, a ''hole'', which is left in the remaining circulating beam, can appear in random locations within the second extraction during successive AGS cycles. To overcome this problem, a synchronous rf/12 counting scheme and logic circuitry are used to keep track of the bunch positions relative to each other, and to place the ''hole'' in any desired location within the second extraction. The rf/12 signal is used also to synchronize experimenters triggers.

  9. Study of hydraulic air compression for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion open-cycle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshani, A.; Chen, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic air compressor, which requires no mechanical moving parts and operates in a nearly isothermal mode, can be an alternative for the noncondensible gas disposal of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) open-cycle power system. The compressor requires only a downward flow of water to accomplish air compression. An air compressor test loop was assembled and operated to obtain test data that would lead to the design of an OTEC hydraulic air compressor. A one dimensional, hydraulic gas compressor, computer model was employed to simulate the laboratory experiments, and it was tuned to fit the test results. A sensitivity study that shows the effects of various parameters on the applied head of the hydraulic air compression is presented.

  10. Seawater test results of Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OC-OTEC) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, F.; Bharathan, D.; Link, H.; Panchal, C. B.

    Key components of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion systems- the flash evaporator, mist eliminator, passive predeaerator, two surface condenser stages, and two direct-contact condenser stages- have been tested using seawater. These components operate at lower steam pressures and higher inlet noncondensable gas concentrations than do conventional power plant heat exchangers. The rate of heat exchanged between the evaporator and the condenser is on the order of 1.25MW-thermal, requiring a warm seawater flow of about 0.1 cu m/s; the cold seawater flow is on the order of half the warm water flow. In addition to characterizing the performance of the various components, the system has produced potable water from condensation of the steam produced in the evaporator. The information obtained in these tests is being used to design a larger scale experiment in which net power production is expected to be demonstrate for the first time using OC-OTEC technology.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of a Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker using solar energy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Bu, Xianbiao; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44 W m(-2) and 7.61 kg m(-2) day(-1) at the generation temperature of 140 °C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker.

  12. Climate change from the perspective of the surface energy balance and global hydrologic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Ming, Y.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Major changes have occurred in the radiative drive of the surface since preindustrial times owing to both changes in the emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols. These are to be contrasted with the drive at the top-of-the-atmosphere. Using global climate models and multiple observations of the surface fluxes from various platforms, we discuss how the energy balance has evolved with time and the manner in which this has affected the hydrologic cycle, including an account of the critical uncertainties. We make use of the simulations performed with global climate models and used in the IPCC assessments to diagnose the factors that are principally responsible for the changes, the contrasting atmospheric mechanisms exerted by greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the relative roles of the atmospheric constituents.

  13. Thermal analysis in a solar pumped laser for Mg energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Behgol; Uchidat, Shgeaki

    2012-10-01

    Thermal analysis of a high-power cw solar-pumped laser under development as a magnesium energy cycle driver has been conducted experimentally and analytically. The laser system is equipped with a Fresnel lens and a cone-shaped secondary mirror chamber (SMC). The SMC realizes a hybrid-pumping scheme combining axial- and side-pumping configurations to enhance solar light absorption to a rod-shaped laser medium. A non-uniform temperature profile was obtained during experiments due to combination of volumetric heating and surface cooling, which leads to a nonuniform variation of index of refraction in the laser medium. The thermal lensing and thermal stress-induced birefringence are analyzed.

  14. High-Energy All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries with Ultralong Cycle Life.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiayin; Liu, Deng; Wang, Chunsheng; Long, Peng; Peng, Gang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-11-09

    High energy and power densities are the greatest challenge for all-solid-state lithium batteries due to the poor interfacial compatibility between electrodes and electrolytes as well as low lithium ion transfer kinetics in solid materials. Intimate contact at the cathode-solid electrolyte interface and high ionic conductivity of solid electrolyte are crucial to realizing high-performance all-solid-state lithium batteries. Here, we report a general interfacial architecture, i.e., Li7P3S11 electrolyte particles anchored on cobalt sulfide nanosheets, by an in situ liquid-phase approach. The anchored Li7P3S11 electrolyte particle size is around 10 nm, which is the smallest sulfide electrolyte particles reported to date, leading to an increased contact area and intimate contact interface between electrolyte and active materials. The neat Li7P3S11 electrolyte synthesized by the same liquid-phase approach exhibits a very high ionic conductivity of 1.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) with a particle size of 0.4-1.0 μm. All-solid-state lithium batteries employing cobalt sulfide-Li7P3S11 nanocomposites in combination with the neat Li7P3S11 electrolyte and Super P as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability, showing reversible discharge capacity of 421 mAh g(-1) at 1.27 mA cm(-2) after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the obtained all-solid-state lithium batteries possesses very high energy and power densities, exhibiting 360 Wh kg(-1) and 3823 W kg(-1) at current densities of 0.13 and 12.73 mA cm(-2), respectively. This contribution demonstrates a new interfacial design for all-solid-state battery with high performance.

  15. Carcinogens induce loss of the primary cilium in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells independently of effects on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Robert; Slattery, Craig; Jennings, Paul; Blacque, Oliver; Pfaller, Walter; Gmuender, Hans; Van Delft, Joost; Ryan, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The primary cilium is an immotile sensory and signaling organelle found on the majority of mammalian cell types. Of the multitude of roles that the primary cilium performs, perhaps some of the most important include maintenance of differentiation, quiescence, and cellular polarity. Given that the progression of cancer requires disruption of all of these processes, we have investigated the effects of several carcinogens on the primary cilium of the RPTEC/TERT1 human proximal tubular epithelial cell line. Using both scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling of the ciliary markers acetylated tubulin and Arl13b, we confirmed that RPTEC/TERT1 cells express primary cilium upon reaching confluence. Treatment with the carcinogens ochratoxin A (OTA) and potassium bromate (KBrO3) caused a significant reduction in the number of ciliated cells, while exposure to nifedipine, a noncarcinogenic renal toxin, had no effect on primary cilium expression. Flow cytometric analysis of the effects of all three compounds on the cell cycle revealed that only KBrO3 resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle. Microarray analysis revealed dysregulation of multiple pathways affecting ciliogenesis and ciliary maintenance following OTA and KBrO3 exposure, which were unaffected by nifedipine exposure. The primary cilium represents a unique physical checkpoint with relevance to carcinogenesis. We have shown that the renal carcinogens OTA and KBrO3 cause significant deciliation in a model of the proximal tubule. With KBrO3, this was followed by reentry into the cell cycle; however, deciliation was not found to be associated with reentry into the cell cycle following OTA exposure. Transcriptomic analysis identified dysregulation of Wnt signaling and ciliary trafficking in response to OTA and KBrO3 exposure. PMID:22262483

  16. Life-cycle thinking and the LEED rating system: global perspective on building energy use and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2015-04-07

    This research investigates the relationship between energy use, geographic location, life cycle environmental impacts, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). The researchers studied worldwide variations in building energy use and associated life cycle impacts in relation to the LEED rating systems. A Building Information Modeling (BIM) of a reference 43,000 ft(2) office building was developed and situated in 400 locations worldwide while making relevant changes to the energy model to meet reference codes, such as ASHRAE 90.1. Then life cycle environmental and human health impacts from the buildings' energy consumption were calculated. The results revealed considerable variations between sites in the U.S. and international locations (ranging from 394 ton CO2 equiv to 911 ton CO2 equiv, respectively). The variations indicate that location specific results, when paired with life cycle assessment, can be an effective means to achieve a better understanding of possible adverse environmental impacts as a result of building energy consumption in the context of green building rating systems. Looking at these factors in combination and using a systems approach may allow rating systems like LEED to continue to drive market transformation toward sustainable development, while taking into consideration both energy sources and building efficiency.

  17. Determination of primary energy and mass in the PeV region by Bayesian unfolding techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, M.; Antoni, T.; Apela, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümera, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Büttner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K.-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenkob, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Weber, J. H.; Weindl, A.; Wentz, J.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2003-07-01

    The field detector array of the KASCADE experiment measures the electron and muon component of extensive air showers in the knee region with high precision. A baysian unfolding procedure is presented in which the two-dimensional shower size distribution ( Ne, Nμtr) is examined. On the arbitrary assumption that the chemical composition consists of five primary mass groups (hydrogen, helium, carbon, silicon and iron) the size distribution is deconvoluted to reconstruct the energy spectra of these mass groups in the energy range between 10 15 eV and 10 17 eV. The energy spectra of the lighter element groups result in a knee-like bending with a steepening above the knee. The topology of the individual knee positions suggest a rigidity dependence.

  18. Technology for Brayton-cycle space powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Brayton-cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors to generate from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power-generating system. Their development for solar-energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power-generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated for 38,000 hr. Tests of improved components show that, if installed in the power-generating system, these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32; this efficiency is twice that so far demonstrated by any alternate concept, a characteristic especially important for solar power systems. Because of this high efficiency, solar-heat Brayton-cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar-collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants based on present technology for silicon solar cells. For the heat source, paraboloidal mirrors have been assembled from sectors here on Earth. One mirror, 1.5-m diameter, had a standard error for its surface of only 1 arc-min and a specific mass of only 1.3 kg/m 2. A heavier mirror (nearly 5 kg/m{sup 2}), assembled from 12 sectors, had a standard surface error of 3 arc-min but was 6 m in diameter. Either of these mirrors is sufficiently accurate for use with the Brayton cycle, but the techniques for actually assembling large mirrors in space must yet be worked out. For use during the shadow period of a low Earth orbit (LEO), heat could be stored in LiF, a salt that melts at 1121 K (1558{degrees}F) and whose latent heat of fusion exceeds 1 MJ/kg. Because of the prior experience with its fabrication and of its tolerance of the thermal cycling in LEO, Nb-1Zr was selected to contain the LiF.

  19. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly.

  20. Prognostic Utility of Cell Cycle Progression Score in Men With Prostate Cancer After Primary External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Gerber, Leah; Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Salama, Joseph K.; Stone, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic utility of the cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their primary curative therapy. Methods and Materials: The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results: Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (P=.0017). The hazard ratio for BCR was 2.55 for 1-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis that included Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the hazard ratio for CCP changed only marginally and remained significant (P=.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (P=.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions: Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicted outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy.

  1. Planning for hybrid-cycle OTEC experiments using the HMTSTA test facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.; Rabas, T.; Genens, L.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has built an experimental apparatus for studying the open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OC-OTEC) system. Experiments using warm and cold seawater are currently uderway to validate the performance predictions for an OC-TEC flash evaporator, surface condenser, and direct-contact condenser. The hybrid cycle is another OTEC option that produces both power and desalinated water, it is comparable in capital cost to OC-OTEC, and it eliminates the problems associated with the large steam turbine. Means are presented in this paper for modifying the existing apparatus to conduct similar experiments on hybrid-cycle OTEC heat exchangers. These data are required to validate predictive methods of the components and for the system integration that were identified in an earlier study of hybrid-cycle OTEC power plants. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Planning for hybrid-cycle OTEC experiments using the HMTSTA test facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, C.; Rabas, T.; Genens, L.

    The U.S. Department of Energy has built an experimental apparatus for studying the open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OC-OTEC) system. Experiments using warm and cold seawater are currently underway to validate the performance predictions for an OC-TEC flash evaporator, surface condenser, and direct-contact condenser. The hybrid cycle is another OTEC option that produces both power and desalinated water, it is comparable in capital cost to OC-OTEC, and it eliminates the problems associated with the large steam turbine. Means are presented or modifying the existing apparatus to conduct similar experiments on hybrid-cycle OTEC heat exchangers. These data are required to validate predictive methods of the components and for the system integration that were identified in an earlier study of hybrid-cycle OTEC power plants.

  3. Comparative thermodynamic performance of some Rankine/Brayton cycle configurations for a low-temperature energy application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Various configurations combining solar-Rankine and fuel-Brayton cycles were analyzed in order to find the arrangement which has the highest thermal efficiency and the smallest fuel share. A numerical example is given to evaluate both the thermodynamic performance and the economic feasibility of each configuration. The solar-assisted regenerative Rankine cycle was found to be leading the candidates from both points of energy utilization and fuel conservation.

  4. Primary Energy Efficiency Analysis of Different Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Separate Sensible and Latent cooling (SSLC) has been discussed in open literature as means to improve air conditioning system efficiency. The main benefit of SSLC is that it enables heat source optimization for the different forms of loads, sensible vs. latent, and as such maximizes the cycle efficiency. In this paper I use a thermodynamic analysis tool in order to analyse the performance of various SSLC technologies including: multi-evaporators two stage compression system, vapour compression system with heat activated desiccant dehumidification, and integrated vapour compression with desiccant dehumidification. A primary coefficient of performance is defined and used to judge the performance of the different SSLC technologies at the design conditions. Results showed the trade-off in performance for different sensible heat factor and regeneration temperatures.

  5. Life-cycle Energy Consumption of Urban Water System in Shenzhen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within rapid urbanization and industrialization, Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in China, has been facing serious water shortage. More than 80% of water demand in Shenzhen, i.e., about 1.6 billion m3/yr, is satisfied by water diversion projects. A lot of energy has been used to extract, clean, store and transmit these water. In this paper, energy consumption of urban water system in Shenzhen, China was investigated from a life cycle perspective, and the water system can be divided into five subsystems, i.e., water diversion, water production & supply, household water use, sewage treatment and water reuse. Industrial water use was not considered here, because industrial production processes were so varied. The results showed that water diversion subsystem in Shenzhen consumed electricity of about 0.839 billion kWh/yr (0.53 kWh/m3), water production & supply subsystem about 1.241 billion kWh/yr (0.64 kWh/m3), household water use subsystem about 6.57 billion kWh/yr (9.65 kWh/m3) sewage treatment subsystem about 0.449 billion kWh/yr (0.29 kWh/m3) and water reuse treatment subsystem about 0.013 billion kWh/yr (0.33kWh/m3). So the human-related water system in Shenzhen consumes electricity of about 9.113 billion kWh/yr in total, accounting for about 11.0% of all the electricity use in Shenzhen. Among this, household water use subsystem consumed up to 72.1% of all electricity used in urban water system, followed by water production & supply subsystem (13.6%), water diversion subsystem (9.2%) and sewage treatment and reuse subsystem (5.1%). Unit energy consumption of sewage treatment and reuse subsystem was much less than that of water diversion subsystem, indicating local sewage resource development was advantageous on saving energy to water diversion from a long distance. Further, it implied that the best way to save energy in urban water system is to save portable water, since both water production and household use require to consume much energy.

  6. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  7. Economic analysis of community solar heating systems that use annual cycle thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.; Hooper, F.C.; McClenahan, J.D.

    1981-02-01

    The economics of community-scale solar systems that incorporate a centralized annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) coupled to a distribution system is examined. Systems were sized for three housing configurations: single-unit dwellings, 10-unit, and 200-unit apartment complexes in 50-, 200-, 400-, and 1000-unit communities in 10 geographic locations in the United States. Thermal energy is stored in large, constructed, underground tanks. Costs were assigned to each component of every system in order to allow calculation of total costs. Results are presented as normalized system costs per unit of heat delivered per building unit. These methods allow: (1) identification of the relative importance of each system component in the overall cost; and (2) identification of the key variables that determine the optimum sizing of a district solar heating system. In more northerly locations, collectors are a larger component of cost. In southern locations, distribution networks are a larger proportion of total cost. Larger, more compact buildings are, in general, less expensive to heat. For the two smaller-scale building configurations, a broad minima in total costs versus system size is often observed.

  8. Biomass pyrolysis for biochar or energy applications? A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jens F; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-04-21

    The application of biochar as a soil amendment is a potential strategy for carbon sequestration. In this paper, a slow pyrolysis system for generating heat and biochar from lignocellulosic energy crops is simulated and its life-cycle performance compared with that of direct biomass combustion. The use of the char as biochar is also contrasted with alternative use options: cofiring in coal power plants, use as charcoal, and use as a fuel for heat generation. Additionally, the influence on the results of the long-term stability of the biochar in the soil, as well as of biochar effects on biomass yield, is evaluated. Negative greenhouse gas emissions are obtained for the biochar system, indicating a significant carbon abatement potential. However, this is achieved at the expense of lower energy efficiency and higher impacts in the other assessed categories when compared to direct biomass combustion. When comparing the different use options of the pyrolysis char, the most favorable result is obtained for char cofiring substituting fossil coal, even assuming high long-term stability of the char. Nevertheless, a high sensitivity to biomass yield increase is found for biochar systems. In this sense, biochar application to low-quality soils where high yield increases are expected would show a more favorable performance in terms of global warming.

  9. Element Cycling and Energy Flux Responses in Ecosystem Simulations Conducted at the Chinese Lunar Palace-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Xie, Beizhen; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) address interactions between organisms and their environment as an integrated system through the study of factors that regulate the pools and fluxes of materials and energy through ecological systems. As a simple model, using BLSS is very important in the investigation of element cycling and energy flux for sustainable development on Earth. A 105-day experiment with a high degree of closure was carried out in this system from February to May, 2014, with three volunteers. The results indicate that 247 g·d-1 carbon was imported into the system from stored food. Most hydrogen is circulated as water, and more than 99% H2O can be lost through leaf transpiration into the atmosphere. A total of 1.8 g·d-1 "unknown oxygen" emerged between the input and output of the plant growth module. For the urine processing module, 20.5% nitrogen was reused and 5.35 g·d-1 was put into the nutrient solution.

  10. Life Cycle Analysis on Fossil Energy Ratio of Algal Biodiesel: Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency and Oil Extraction Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from “cradle to grave.” Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae. PMID:26000338

  11. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae.

  12. A Practical Approach to a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustained Nuclear Energy - 12383

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D.; Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Spencer, Barry B.; Williams, Kent A.

    2012-07-01

    Recent systems analysis studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have shown that sufficient information is available from previous research and development (R and D), industrial experience, and current studies to make rational decisions on a practical approach to a closed nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. These studies show that a near-term decision is needed to recycle used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States, to encourage public recognition that a practical solution to disposal of nuclear energy wastes, primarily UNF, is achievable, and to ensure a focus on essential near-term actions and future R and D. Recognition of the importance of time factors is essential, including the multi-decade time period required to implement industrial-scale fuel recycle at the capacity needed, and the effects of radioactive decay on proliferation resistance, recycling complexity, radioactive emissions, and high-level-waste storage, disposal form development, and eventual emplacement in a geologic repository. Analysis of time factors led to identification of the benefits of processing older fuel and an 'optimum decay storage time'. Further benefits of focused R and D can ensure more complete recycling of UNF components and minimize wastes requiring disposal. Analysis of recycling costs and nonproliferation requirements, which are often cited as reasons for delaying a decision to recycle, shows that (1) the differences in costs of nuclear energy with open or closed fuel cycles are insignificant and (2) nonproliferation requirements can be met by a combination of 'safeguards-by-design' co-location of back-end fuel cycle facilities, and applied engineered safeguards and monitoring. The study shows why different methods of separating and recycling used fuel components do not have a significant effect on nonproliferation requirements and can be selected on other bases, such as process efficiency, maturity, and cost-effectiveness. Finally, the study concludes that

  13. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 2: appendices A-D to technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline- powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume II contains additional details on the vehicle, utility, and materials analyses and discusses several details of the methodology.

  14. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 4: peer review comments on technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume IV includes copies of all the external peer review comments on the report distributed for review in July 1997.

  15. Features of primary damage by high energy displacement cascades in concentrated Ni-based alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Lu, Chenyang; Osetskiy, Yuri N.; ...

    2016-02-25

    Alloying of Ni with Fe or Co reduces primary damage production under ion irradiation. Similar results have been obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations of 1, 10, 20, and 40 keV collision cascades in Ni, NiFe, and NiCo. In all cases, a mix of imperfect stacking fault tetrahedra, faulted loops with a 1/3 {111} Burgers vector, and glissile interstitial loops with a 1/2 {110} Burgers vector were formed, along with small sessile point defect complexes and clusters. Primary damage reduction occurs by three mechanisms. First, Ni-Co, Ni-Fe, Co-Co, and Fe-Fe short-distance repulsive interactions are stiffer than Ni-Ni interactions, which leadmore » to a decrease in damage formation during the transition from the supersonic ballistic regime to the sonic regime. This largely controls final defect production. Second, alloying decreases thermal conductivity, leading to a longer thermal spike lifetime. The associated annealing reduces final damage production. These two mechanisms are especially important at cascades energies less than 40 keV. Third, at the higher energies, the production of large defect clusters by subcascades is inhibited in the alloys. A number of challenges and limitations pertaining to predictive atomistic modeling of alloys under high-energy particle irradiation are discussed.« less

  16. Features of primary damage by high energy displacement cascades in concentrated Ni-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Lu, Chenyang; Osetskiy, Yuri N.; Samolyuk, German D.; Caro, Alfredo; Wang, Lumin; Stoller, Roger E.

    2016-02-25

    Alloying of Ni with Fe or Co reduces primary damage production under ion irradiation. Similar results have been obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations of 1, 10, 20, and 40 keV collision cascades in Ni, NiFe, and NiCo. In all cases, a mix of imperfect stacking fault tetrahedra, faulted loops with a 1/3 {111} Burgers vector, and glissile interstitial loops with a 1/2 {110} Burgers vector were formed, along with small sessile point defect complexes and clusters. Primary damage reduction occurs by three mechanisms. First, Ni-Co, Ni-Fe, Co-Co, and Fe-Fe short-distance repulsive interactions are stiffer than Ni-Ni interactions, which lead to a decrease in damage formation during the transition from the supersonic ballistic regime to the sonic regime. This largely controls final defect production. Second, alloying decreases thermal conductivity, leading to a longer thermal spike lifetime. The associated annealing reduces final damage production. These two mechanisms are especially important at cascades energies less than 40 keV. Third, at the higher energies, the production of large defect clusters by subcascades is inhibited in the alloys. A number of challenges and limitations pertaining to predictive atomistic modeling of alloys under high-energy particle irradiation are discussed.

  17. The effect of average cycling current on total energy of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Widanalage, W. D.; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the remaining range of a battery reliably, accurately and simply is imperative for effective power management of electrified vehicles and reducing driver anxiety resulting from perceived low driving range. Techniques for predicting the remaining range of an electric vehicle exist; in the best cases they are scaled by factors that account for expected energy losses due to driving style, environmental conditions and the use of on-board energy consuming devices such as air-conditioning. In this work, experimental results that establish the dependence of remaining electrical energy on the vehicle battery immediate cycling history are presented. A method to estimate the remaining energy given short-term cycling history is presented. This method differs from the traditional state of charge methods typically used in battery management systems by considering energy throughput more directly.

  18. Energy Spectra, Composition, and Other Properties of Ground-Level Events During Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; COhen, C. M. S.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Looper, M. D.; Haggerty, D. K.; Mason, G. M.; Mazur, J. E.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2012-01-01

    We report spacecraft measurements of the energy spectra of solar protons and other solar energetic particle properties during the 16 Ground Level Events (GLEs) of Solar Cycle 23. The measurements were made by eight instruments on the ACE, GOES, SAMPBX, and STEREO spacecraft and extend from approximately 0.1 to approximately 500-700 MeV. All of the proton spectra exhibit spectral breaks at energies ranging from approximately 2 to approximately 46 MeV and all are well fit by a double power-law shape. A comparison of GLE events with a larger sample of other solar energetic particle (SEP) events shows that the typical spectral indices are harder in GLE events, with a mean slope of -3.18 at greater than 40 MeV/nuc. In the energy range 45 to 80 MeV/nucleon about approximately 50% of GLE events have properties in common with impulsive He-3-rich SEP events, including enrichments in Ne/O, Fe/O, Ne-22/Ne-20, and elevated mean charge states of Fe. These He-3 rich events contribute to the seed population accelerated by CME-driven shocks. An analysis is presented of whether highly-ionized Fe ions observed in five events could be due to electron stripping during shock acceleration in the low corona. Making use of stripping calculations by others and a coronal density model, we can account for events with mean Fe charge states of (Q(sub Fe) is approximately equal to +20 if the acceleration starts at approximately 1.24-1.6 solar radii, consistent with recent comparisons of CME trajectories and type-II radio bursts. In addition, we suggest that gradual stripping of remnant ions from earlier large SEP events may also contribute a highly-ionized suprathermal seed population. We also discuss how observed SEP spectral slopes relate to the energetics of particle acceleration in GLE and other large SEP events.

  19. Hormonal changes and energy substrate availability during the hibernation cycle of Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Weitten, Mathieu; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Oudart, Hugues; Pévet, Paul; Habold, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    Animals have to adapt to seasonal variations in food resources and temperature. Hibernation is one of the most efficient means used by animals to cope with harsh winter conditions, wherein survival is achieved through a significant decrease in energy expenditure. The hibernation period is constituted by a succession of torpor bouts (hypometabolism and decrease in body temperature) and periodic arousals (eumetabolism and euthermia). Some species feed during these periodic arousals, and thus show different metabolic adaptations to fat-storing species that fast throughout the hibernation period. Our study aims to define these metabolic adaptations, including hormone (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, GLP-1, GiP) and metabolite (glucose, free fatty acids, triglycerides, urea) profiles together with body composition adjustments. Syrian hamsters were exposed to varied photoperiod and temperature conditions mimicking different phases of the hibernation cycle: a long photoperiod at 20 °C (LP20 group), a short photoperiod at 20 °C (SP20 group), and a short photoperiod at 8 °C (SP8). SP8 animals were sampled either at the beginning of a torpor bout (Torpor group) or at the beginning of a periodic arousal (Arousal group). We show that fat store mobilization in hamsters during torpor bouts is associated with decreased circulating levels of glucagon, insulin, leptin, and an increase in adiponectin. Refeeding during periodic arousals results in a decreased free fatty acid plasma concentration and an increase in glycemia and plasma incretin concentrations. Reduced incretin and increased adiponectin levels are therefore in accordance with the changes in nutrient availability and feeding behavior observed during the hibernation cycle of Syrian hamsters.

  20. [Frequency of intake and energy value of breakfast for students from selected primary schools in Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Hamułka, J; Gronowska-Senger, A; Witkowska, K

    2000-01-01

    Energy value and frequency breakfast intake in Warsaw primary schools were estimated in a group of 330 children aged 7-15 years. The research was carried out in autumn 1998 year. The nutrition mode was assessed by questionnaire interviews and of 24-hour recall [4] and computer programme "Zywienie". The size of the consumed portion was determined with an album containing colour photographs of products and dishes of different size [14]. Food consumption quality was estimated using test of Bielińska modified by Kulesza et al. [8]. Frequency breakfast intake decreased at older schoolchildren. Breakfast milk and products, vegetables and fruits intake was too low; intake of fat sweets and beverages like "coca-cola" was too high. Breakfast energy value was too low compared with recommended dietary allowances.

  1. Using a Learning Cycle to Deepen Chinese Primary Students' Concept Learning of the "Phases of the Moon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the internal conditions of students' concept learning and builds a learning cycle' based on the "phases of the Moon" (MP) to, deepen students' understanding. The learning cycle of MP developed in this study includes three basic learning links, which are: cognitive conflict, abstraction and generalization, and…

  2. Bioenergy co-products derived from microalgae biomass via thermochemical conversion--life cycle energy balances and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Khoo, H H; Koh, C Y; Shaik, M S; Sharratt, P N

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the potential to efficiently convert lipid-depleted residual microalgae biomass using thermochemical (gasification at 850 °C, pyrolysis at 550 °C, and torrefaction at 300 °C) processes to produce bioenergy derivatives was made. Energy indicators are established to account for the amount of energy inputs that have to be supplied to the system in order to gain 1 MJ of bio-energy output. The paper seeks to address the difference between net energy input-output balances based on a life cycle approach, from "cradle-to-bioenergy co-products", vs. thermochemical processes alone. The experimental results showed the lowest results of Net Energy Balances (NEB) to be 0.57 MJ/MJ bio-oil via pyrolysis, and highest, 6.48 MJ/MJ for gas derived via torrefaction. With the complete life cycle process chain factored in, the energy balances of NEBLCA increased to 1.67 MJ/MJ (bio-oil) and 7.01 MJ/MJ (gas). Energy efficiencies and the life cycle CO2 emissions were also calculated.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Energy Conservation Scheme Based on Duty Cycling in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty. PMID:22219676

  4. Modeling and analysis of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling in wireless ad hoc sensor network.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty.

  5. Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karman, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1-3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial

  6. Primary charge separation and energy transfer in the photosystem I reaction center of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    White, N.T.H.; Beddard, G.S.; Thorne J.R.G.; Feehan, T.M.; Keyes, T.E.; Heathcote, P.

    1996-07-18

    Using low intensity femtosecond duration laser pulses at 708 nm, we have observed absorption transients associated with electron transfer through the primary electron acceptor A{sub 0} in the photosystem I (PSI) reaction center from spinach under nonreducing conditions. At this wavelength the electron donor P{sub 700} is excited directly, although some antenna chlorophylls are also excited. Using a nanosecond duration preflash of 690 nm to oxidize P{sub 700}, and then measuring the absorption transients from the antenna alone, it is possible by subtraction to isolate the absorption transients arising from electron transfer. We discuss this method critically. Th spectrum of A{sub 0}{sup -}-A{sub 0} does not appear promptly but takes nearly 3 ps to reach maximum intensity and resembles those spectra previously obtained from higher plants, with a maximum bleaching at 685{+-}2 nm and a shoulder in the region 670-675 nm. The decay time of the primary radical pair P{sub 700}{sup +}A{sub 0}{sup -} is calculated as 20 ps. Analysis of absorption transients indicates that the intrinsic rate constant forming the primary radical pair P{sub 700}{sup +}A{sub 0}{sup -} cannot be measured directly because energy migration in the antenna is fast and quenching is approaching `trap limited` behavior. With use of a detailed model of the antenna energy migration based on the X-ray structure, the intrinsic rate constant for electron transfer is estimated as k{sub 1} nearly equals 0.7 ps{sup -1}. 81 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Dietary energy availability affects primary and metastatic breast cancer and metformin efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Kathryn N; Vumbaca, Frank; Fox, Melissa M; Evans, Rebecca; Claffey, Kevin P

    2010-09-01

    Dietary energy restriction has been shown to repress both mammary tumorigenesis and aggressive mammary tumor growth in animal studies. Metformin, a caloric restriction mimetic, has a long history of safe use as an insulin sensitizer in diabetics and has been shown to reduce cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality in humans. To determine the potential impact of dietary energy availability and metformin therapy on aggressive breast tumor growth and metastasis, an orthotopic syngeneic model using triple negative 66cl4 tumor cells in Balb/c mice was employed. The effect of dietary restriction, a standard maintenance diet or a diet with high levels of free sugar, were tested for their effects on tumor growth and secondary metastases to the lung. Metformin therapy with the various diets indicated that metformin can be highly effective at suppressing systemic metabolic biomarkers such as IGF-1, insulin and glucose, especially in the high energy diet treated animals. Long-term metformin treatment demonstrated moderate yet significant effects on primary tumor growth, most significantly in conjunction with the high energy diet. When compared to the control diet, the high energy diet promoted tumor growth, expression of the inflammatory adipokines leptin and resistin, induced lung priming by bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and promoted metastatic potential. Metformin had no effect on adipokine expression or the development of lung metastases with the standard or the high energy diet. These data indicate that metformin may have tumor suppressing activity where a metabolic phenotype of high fuel intake, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes exist, but may have little or no effect on events controlling the metastatic niche driven by proinflammatory events.

  8. An Overview of the NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) and the North American Water Program (NAWP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    NEWS: 10 years ago, NASA established the NASA Energy and Water-cycle Study (NEWS), whose long-term grand challenge is to document and enable improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. The NEWS program builds upon existing NASA-supported basic research in atmospheric physics and dynamics, radiation, climate modeling, and terrestrial hydrology. While these NASA programs fund research activities that address individual aspects of the global energy and water cycles, they are not specifically designed to generate a coordinated result. NEWS developed the first coordinated attempt to describe the complete global energy and water cycle using existing and forthcoming satellite and ground based observations, and laying the foundation for essential NEWS developments in model representations of atmospheric energy and water exchange processes. This comprehensive energy and water data analysis program exploited crucial datasets, some requiring complete re-processing, and new satellite measurements. NAWP: Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis. To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental- to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and

  9. Evidence for Solar Cycle Influence on the Infrared Energy Budget and Radiative Cooling of the Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Marshall, B. Thomas; Thompson, R. Earl; Williams, Joshua; Turpin, TImothy; Kratz, D. P.; Russell, James M.; Woods, Tom; Gordley, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for solar cycle influence on the infrared energy budget and radiative cooling of the thermosphere. By analyzing nearly five years of data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, we show that the annual mean infrared power radiated by the nitric oxide (NO) molecule at 5.3 m has decreased by a factor of 2.9. This decrease is correlated (r = 0.96) with the decrease in the annual mean F10.7 solar index. Despite the sharp decrease in radiated power (which is equivalent to a decrease in the vertical integrated radiative cooling rate), the variability of the power as given in the standard deviation of the annual means remains approximately constant. A simple relationship is shown to exist between the infrared power radiated by NO and the F10.7 index, thus providing a fundamental relationship between solar activity and the thermospheric cooling rate for use in thermospheric models. The change in NO radiated power is also consistent with changes in absorbed ultraviolet radiation over the same time period.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Powered Vapor Compression Ice Maker Using Solar Energy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bing; Bu, Xianbiao; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44 W m−2 and 7.61 kg m−2 day−1 at the generation temperature of 140°C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker. PMID:25202735

  11. A life cycle assessment of distributed energy production from organic waste: Two case studies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Sara; Clift, Roland; Tagliaferri, Carla; Lettieri, Paola

    2017-03-22

    By means of the life cycle assessment methodology, the purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact when biomethane from organic waste produced at residential level is used to supply energy to a group of dwellings in the distributed generation paradigm. Three different Combined Heat and Power systems, such as fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro gas turbine, installed at household level are assessed in two different settings: one in Northern Europe (UK) and one in Southern Europe (Italy). Different operating strategies are investigated for each technology. Moreover, marginal electricity production technologies are analysed to assess their influence on the results. This study has demonstrated that the type of bio-methane fed micro-CHP technology employed has a significantly different environmental impact: fuel cells are the most environmentally friendly solution in every category analysed; Stirling engines, although can supply heat to the largest number of dwellings are the least environmentally friendly technology. However, key factors investigated in the model presented in this paper influence the decision making on the type of technology adopted and the operating strategy to be implemented.

  12. Rescaling metal molybdate nanostructures with biopolymer for energy storage having high capacitance with robust cycle stability.

    PubMed

    Minakshi, Manickam; Barmi, Maryam J; Jones, Robert T

    2017-03-14

    Hybrid capacitors can replace or complement batteries, while storing energy through ion adsorption and fast surface redox reactions. There is a growing demand in developing nanostructured materials as electrodes for hybrid systems that can enhance the specific capacitance by ion desolvation in the nanopores. Here, we demonstrate that rescaling the pore diameter with the aid of biopolymer at an optimal level during the synthesis of metal molybdate leads to high capacitance 124 F g(-1) giving robust capacitance retention of 80% over 2000 cycles for a constructed device (activated carbon vs. metal molybdate). The presence of biopolymer (l-glutamic acid) in the metal molybdate acts as a complexing agent of the metal ion while enhancing the mass transport and hence it's improved electrochemical performance. However, XPS and other elemental analyses illustrated no evidence for N doping but traces of other surface functional groups (i.e. C and O) could be present on the molybdate surface. The biopolymer synthetic approach has the advantage of yielding nanostructured material with a relatively narrow pore size distribution controlled by l-glutamic acid. This study will provide a generic route to rescale other metal molybdate, phosphate or oxide counterparts and be an added value to the database.

  13. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving the predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7 percent to 60 percent of the dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 35 to 9 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20 percent to 60 percent. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures, when flash evaporation in the evaporator occurred, 75 percent to 95 percent of the dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The results were used to find the impact of a single-stage predeaeration scheme on the power to remove noncondensable gases in an OC-OTEC plant.

  14. Seawater test results of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components

    SciTech Connect

    Zangrando, F.; Bharathan, D.; Link, H. ); Panchal, C.B. )

    1994-01-01

    Key components of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion systems--the flash evaporator, mist eliminator, passive predeaerator, two surface condenser stages, and two direct-contact condenser stages--have been tested using seawater. These components operate at lower steam pressures and higher inlet noncondensable gas concentrations than do conventional power plant heat exchangers. The rate of heat exchanged between the evaporator and the condenser is on the order of 1.25MW-thermal, requiring a warm seawater flow of about 0.1 m[sup 3]/s; the cold seawater flow is on the order of half the warm water flow. In addition to characterizing the performance of the various components, the system has produced potable water from condensation of the steam produced in the evaporator. The information obtained in these tests is being used to design a larger scale experiment in which net power production is expected to be demonstrate for the first time using OC-OTEC technology.

  15. Improving the actinides recycling in closed fuel cycles, a major step towards nuclear energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Poinssot, C.; Grandjean, S.; Masson, M.; Bouillis, B.; Warin, D.

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the sustainability of nuclear energy is a longstanding road that requires a stepwise approach to successively tackle the following 3 objectives. First of all, optimize the consumption of natural resource to preserve them for future generations and hence guarantee the energetic independence of the countries (no uranium ore is needed anymore). The current twice-through cycle of Pu implemented by France, UK, Japan and soon China is a first step in this direction and already allows the development and optimization of the relevant industrial processes. It also allows a major improvement regarding the conditioning of the ultimate waste in a durable and robust nuclear glass. Secondly, the recycling of americium could be an interesting option for the future with the deployment of FR fleet to save the repository resource and optimize its use by allowing a denser disposal. It would limit the burden towards the future generations and the need for additional repositories before several centuries. Thirdly, the recycling of the whole minor actinides inventory could be an interesting option for the far-future for strongly decreasing the waste long-term toxicity, down to a few centuries. It would bring the waste issue back within the human history, which should promote its acceptance by the social opinion.

  16. Comparison of life cycle emissions and energy consumption for environmentally adapted metalworking fluid systems.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Zimmerman, Julie B; Keoleian, Greg A; Hayes, Kim F; Skerlos, Steven J

    2008-11-15

    A number of environmentally adapted lubricants have been proposed in response to the environmental and health impacts of metalworking fluids (MWFs). The alternatives typically substitute petroleum with vegetable-based components and/or deliver minimum quantities of lubricant in gas rather than water, with the former strategy being more prevalent than the latter. A comparative life cycle assessment of water- and gas-based systems has shown that delivery of lubricants in air rather than water can reduce solid waste by 60%, water use by 90%, and aquatic toxicity by 80%, while virtually eliminating occupational health concerns. However, air-delivery of lubricants cannot be used for severe machining operations due to limitations of cooling and lubricant delivery. For such operations, lubricants delivered in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) are effective while maintaining the health and environmental advantages of air-based systems. Although delivery conditions were found to significantly influence the environmental burdens of all fluids, energy consumption was relatively constant under expected operating conditions. Global warming potential (GWP) increased when delivering lubricants in gas rather than water though all classes of MWFs have low GWP compared with other factory operations. It is therefore concluded that the possibility of increased GWP when switching to gas-based MWFs is a reasonable tradeoff for definite and large reductions in aquatic toxicity, water use, solid waste, and occupational health risks.

  17. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles.

  18. Modeling energy flow and nutrient cycling in natural semiarid grassland ecosystems with the aid of thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Energy flow and nutrient cycling were modeled as affected by herbivory on selected intensive sites along gradients of precipitation and soils, validating the model output by monitoring selected parameters with data derived from the Thematic Mapper (TM). Herbivore production was modeled along the gradient of soils and herbivory, and validated with data derived from TM in a spatial data base.

  19. Energy spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic radiation in the region above the knee from the GAMMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martirosov, Romen

    The energy spectrum of the primary cosmic radiation in the energy range 1 - 100 PeV and the extensive air shower (EAS) characteristics obtained on the basis of the expanded data bank of the GAMMA experiment (Mt. Aragats, Armenia) are presented. With increased statistics we confirm our previous results on the energy spectrum. The spectral index above the knee is about -3.1, but at energies beyond 20 PeV a flattening of the spectrum is observed. The existence of the 'bump' at about 70 PeV is confirmed with a significance of more than 4{\\sigma}. In the energy range of 10 - 100 PeV the shower age becomes energy independent and we observe a direct proportionality of the EAS size to the primary energy. This suggests an approximately constant depth of the EAS maximum in this energy range. This is evidence in favour of an increasing average mass of primary particles at energies above 20 PeV. The additional source scenario, which is a possible explanation of the 'bump' in the spectrum, also leads to the conclusion of increasing mass of the primary cosmic rays. A comparison with the data of other experiments is presented.

  20. Increasing the sludge energy potential of wastewater treatment plants by introducing fine mesh sieves for primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Paulsrud, Bjarne; Rusten, Bjørn; Aas, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare some basic characteristics of sludge from fine mesh sieves (sieve sludge) with sludge from primary clarifiers (primary sludge) regarding their energy potential with a focus on anaerobic digestion and/or incineration. Nineteen samples of sludge from fine mesh sieve plants (most of them without fine screens and grit chambers as pre-treatment) and 10 samples of primary sludge were analysed for the content of dry solids (DS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), calorific value and methane potential. The results demonstrated that the sieve sludges have significantly higher VS content and higher methane potential than primary sludges, clearly indicating an increased sludge energy potential if fine mesh sieves are used for primary treatment instead of primary clarifiers at wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic digesters. If the sludges from primary treatment are to be incinerated or used as fuel in cement kilns, there is no significant difference in energy potential (given as calorific values) for the two types of primary treatment.

  1. High electrochemical energy storage in self-assembled nest-like CoO nanofibers with long cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Atin; Maiti, Sandipan; Sreemany, Monjoy; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2016-04-01

    Developing efficient electrode material is essential to keep pace with the demand for high energy density together with high power density and long cycle life in next generation energy storage devices. Herein, we report the electrochemical properties of hydrothermally synthesized CoO nanofibers of diameter 30-80 nm assembled in a nest-like morphology which showed a very high reversible lithium storage capacity of 2000 mA h g-1 after 600 cycles at 0.1 mA cm-2 as lithium-ion battery anode. Systematic investigation by ex situ transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy at different cycling stages indicated that the extraordinary performance could be related to an enhancement in the Co2+↔Co x+ (2 < x ≤ 3) redox process in addition to the commonly believed structural and morphological evolution during cycling favoring generation of large number of accessible active sites for lithium insertion. Further, when examined as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M KOH, a capacitance of 1167 F g-1 is achieved from these 1D CoO nanofibers after 10,000 charge discharge cycles at a high current density of 5 A g-1 demonstrating good application potential.

  2. Climate change mitigation by recovery of energy from the water cycle: a new challenge for water management.

    PubMed

    van der Hoek, J P

    2012-01-01

    Waternet is responsible for drinking water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, and surface water management and control (quality and quantity) in and around Amsterdam. Waternet has the ambition to operate climate neutral in 2020. To realise this ambition, measures are required to compensate for the emission of 53,000 ton CO(2)-eq/year. Energy recovery from the water cycle looks very promising. First, calculations reveal that energy recovery from the water cycle in and around Amsterdam may contribute to a total reduction in greenhouse gas emissions up to 148,000 ton CO(2)-eq/year. The challenge for the coming years is to choose combinations of all the possibilities to fulfil the energy demand as much as possible. Only then the use of fossil fuel can be minimized and inevitable greenhouse gas emissions can be compensated, supporting the target to operate climate neutral in 2020.

  3. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  4. Angular and energy distribution for parent primaries of cosmic muons at the sea level using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Halil; Bektasoglu, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    The angular and energy distributions of the primary cosmic rays that are responsible for the muons reaching the sea level have been estimated using the Geant4 simulation package. The models used in the simulations were tested by comparing the simulation results for the differential muon flux with the BESS measurements performed in Lynn Lake, Canada. Then, direct relationship between the propagation directions of the muons and those of the responsible primary particles has been investigated. The median energies for the parent primaries of vertical muons reaching the sea level with the threshold energies (Eμ) in the range 0.5-300 GeV were obtained. Simulation results for the median primary energies, 15.5Eμ and 11.2Eμ for Eμ = 14 GeV and Eμ = 100 GeV, have been found to be in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, median primary energies for the low energy muons with large zenith angle have been seen to be relatively higher than the ones for the muons with narrower angles.

  5. Flow rate and duty cycle effects in lysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using high-energy pulsed focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Riesberg, Grant; Bigelow, Timothy A; Stessman, Dan J; Spalding, Martin H; Yao, Linxing; Wang, Tong; Xu, Jin

    2014-06-01

    To consider microalgae lipid biofuel as a viable energy source, it is a necessity to maximize algal cell lysis, lipid harvest, and thus biofuel production versus the energy used to lyse the cells. Previous techniques have been to use energy consumptive ultrasound waves in the 10-40 kHz range in a stationary exposure environment. This study evaluated the potential of using 1.1 MHz ultrasound pulses in a new flow through type chamber on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism for cell breakage. The ultrasound was generated using a spherically focused transducer with a focal length of 6.34 cm and an active diameter of 6.36 cm driven by 20 cycle sine-wave tone bursts at varied pulse repetition frequencies. First, variations in flow rate were examined at a constant duty cycle of 3.6%. After assessing flow rates, the duty cycle was varied to further explore the dependence on the tone burst parameters. Cell lysis was assessed by quantifying protein and chlorophyll release into the supernatant as well as by lipid extractability. Appropriate flow rates with higher duty cycles led to statistically significant increases in cell lysis relative to controls and other exposure conditions.

  6. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  7. Energy cycle associated with inter-member variability in a large ensemble of simulations with the Canadian RCM (CRCM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiéma, Oumarou; Laprise, René

    2016-01-01

    In an ensemble of Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations where different members are initialised at different times but driven by identical lateral boundary conditions, the individual members provide different, but equally acceptable, weather sequences. In others words, RCM simulations exhibit the phenomenon of Internal Variability (or inter-member variability—IV), defined as the spread between members in an ensemble of simulations. Our recent studies reveal that RCM's IV is associated with energy conversions similar to those taking place in weather systems. By analogy with the classical work on global energetics of weather systems, a formulation of an energy cycle for IV has been developed that is applicable over limited-area domains. Prognostic equations for ensemble-mean kinetic energy and available enthalpy are decomposed into contributions due to ensemble-mean variables and those due to deviations from the ensemble mean (IV). Together these equations constitute an energy cycle for IV in ensemble simulations of an RCM. A 50-member ensemble of 1-year simulations that differ only in their initial conditions was performed with the fifth-generation Canadian RCM (CRCM5) over an eastern North America domain. The various energy reservoirs of IV and exchange terms between reservoirs were evaluated; the results show a remarkably close parallel between the energy conversions associated with IV in ensemble simulations of RCM and the energy conversions taking place in weather systems in the real atmosphere.

  8. Energy cycle associated with Inter-member Variability in a large ensemble of simulations of the Canadian RCM (CRCM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiema, Oumarou; Laprise, René

    2015-04-01

    In an ensemble of high-resolution Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations where different members are initialised at different times, the individual members provide different, but equally acceptable, weather sequences. In others words, RCM simulations exibit a kind of uncertainty called Internal Variability (or Inter-member Variability - IV), defined as the inter-member spread between members of the ensemble of simulations. Our recent studies reveal that RCM's IV can be associated with energy conversions similar to those taking place in weather systems. By analogy with the classical work on global energetics of weather systems, a formulation of an energy cycle for IV has been developed that is applicable over limited-area domains. Prognostic equations for ensemble-mean kinetic energy and available enthalpy are decomposed into contributions due to ensemble-mean (EM) variables and those due to deviations from the ensemble mean (IV). Together these equations constitute an energy cycle for IV in ensemble simulations of a RCM. By using a 50-member ensemble of one-year simulations that differ only in their initial conditions (IC) and performed with the fifth-generation of the Canadian RCM (CRCM5) over an eastern North America domain, we evaluate the various energy reservoirs of IV and exchange terms between reservoirs. Results show a remarkably close parallel between the energy conversions associated with IV in ensemble simulations of RCM and the energy conversions in weather systems.

  9. Algal photosynthesis as the primary driver for a sustainable development in energy, feed, and food production.

    PubMed

    Anemaet, Ida G; Bekker, Martijn; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2010-11-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO₂ into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO₂ into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps--after acid hydrolysis--as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro.

  10. Algal Photosynthesis as the Primary Driver for a Sustainable Development in Energy, Feed, and Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Anemaet, Ida G.; Bekker, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO2 into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO2 into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps—after acid hydrolysis—as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro. PMID:20640935

  11. Effects of 13 T Static Magnetic Fields (SMF) in the Cell Cycle Distribution and Cell Viability in Immortalized Hamster Cells and Human Primary Fibroblasts Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guoping; Chen, Shaopeng; Zhao, Ye; Zhu, Lingyan; Huang, Pei; Bao, Lingzhi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Xu, An

    2010-02-01

    Magnetic resonance image (MRI) systems with a much higher magnetic flux density were developed and applied for potential use in medical diagnostic. Recently, much attention has been paid to the biological effects of static, strong magnetic fields (SMF). With the 13 T SMF facility in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the present study focused on the cellular effects of the SMF with 13 T on the cell viability and the cell cycle distribution in immortalized hamster cells, such as human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, DNA double-strand break repair deficient mutant (XRS-5) cells, and human primary skin fibroblasts (AG1522) cells. It was found that the exposure of 13 T SMF had less effect on the colony formation in either nonsynchronized or synchronized AL cells. Moreover, as compared to non-exposed groups, there were slight differences in the cell cycle distribution no matter in either synchronized or nonsynchronized immortalized hamster cells after exposure to 13 T SMF. However, it should be noted that the percentage of exposed AG1522 cells at G0/G1 phase was decreased by 10% as compared to the controls. Our data indicated that although 13 T SMF had minimal effects in immortalized hamster cells, the cell cycle distribution was slightly modified by SMF in human primary fibroblasts.

  12. Characterization of Energy Conservation in Primary Knock-On Atom Cascades: Ballistic Phase Effects on Variable Time Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Corrales, Louis R.; Devanathan, Ram

    2006-09-01

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation trajectories must in principle conserve energy along the entire path. Processes exist in high-energy primary knock-on atom cascades that can affect the energy conservation, specifically during the ballistic phase where collisions bring atoms into very close proximities. The solution, in general, is to reduce the time step size of the simulation. This work explores the effects of variable time step algorithms and the effects of specifying a maximum displacement. The period of the ballistic phase can be well characterized by methods developed in this work to monitor the kinetic energy dissipation during a high-energy cascade.

  13. Life-cycle fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of bioderived chemicals and their conventional counterparts.

    PubMed

    Adom, Felix; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Sather, Norm

    2014-12-16

    Biomass-derived chemical products may offer reduced environmental impacts compared to their fossil-derived counterparts and could improve profit margins at biorefineries when coproduced with higher-volume, lower-profit margin biofuels. It is important to assess on a life-cycle basis the energy and environmental impacts of these bioproducts as compared to conventional, fossil-derived products. We undertook a life-cycle analysis of eight bioproducts produced from either algal-derived glycerol or corn stover-derived sugars. Selected on the basis of technology readiness and market potential, the bioproducts are propylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, polyethylene, succinic acid, isobutanol, and 1,4-butanediol. We developed process simulations to obtain energy and material flows in the production of each bioproduct and examined sensitivity of these flows to process design assumptions. Conversion process data for fossil-derived products were based on the literature. Conversion process data were combined with upstream parameters in the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to generate life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy consumption (FEC) for each bioproduct and its corresponding petroleum-derived product. The bioproducts uniformly offer GHG emissions reductions compared to their fossil counterparts ranging from 39 to 86% on a cradle-to-grave basis. Similarly, FEC was lower for bioproducts than for conventional products.

  14. Computing conformational free energy differences in explicit solvent: An efficient thermodynamic cycle using an auxiliary potential and a free energy functional constructed from the end points.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robert C; Deng, Nanjie; Levy, Ronald M; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-23

    Many biomolecules undergo conformational changes associated with allostery or ligand binding. Observing these changes in computer simulations is difficult if their timescales are long. These calculations can be accelerated by observing the transition on an auxiliary free energy surface with a simpler Hamiltonian and connecting this free energy surface to the target free energy surface with free energy calculations. Here, we show that the free energy legs of the cycle can be replaced with energy representation (ER) density functional approximations. We compute: (1) The conformational free energy changes for alanine dipeptide transitioning from the right-handed free energy basin to the left-handed basin and (2) the free energy difference between the open and closed conformations of β-cyclodextrin, a "host" molecule that serves as a model for molecular recognition in host-guest binding. β-cyclodextrin contains 147 atoms compared to 22 atoms for alanine dipeptide, making β-cyclodextrin a large molecule for which to compute solvation free energies by free energy perturbation or integration methods and the largest system for which the ER method has been compared to exact free energy methods. The ER method replaced the 28 simulations to compute each coupling free energy with two endpoint simulations, reducing the computational time for the alanine dipeptide calculation by about 70% and for the β-cyclodextrin by > 95%. The method works even when the distribution of conformations on the auxiliary free energy surface differs substantially from that on the target free energy surface, although some degree of overlap between the two surfaces is required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an ethanol production process based on blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dexin; Hu, Zushou; Choi, Dong Gu; Thomas, Valerie M; Realff, Matthew J; Chance, Ronald R

    2010-11-15

    Ethanol can be produced via an intracellular photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), excreted through the cell walls, collected from closed photobioreactors as a dilute ethanol-in-water solution, and purified to fuel grade ethanol. This sequence forms the basis for a biofuel production process that is currently being examined for its commercial potential. In this paper, we calculate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for three different system scenarios for this proposed ethanol production process, using process simulations and thermodynamic calculations. The energy required for ethanol separation increases rapidly for low initial concentrations of ethanol, and, unlike other biofuel systems, there is little waste biomass available to provide process heat and electricity to offset those energy requirements. The ethanol purification process is a major consumer of energy and a significant contributor to the carbon footprint. With a lead scenario based on a natural-gas-fueled combined heat and power system to provide process electricity and extra heat and conservative assumptions around the ethanol separation process, the net life cycle energy consumption, excluding photosynthesis, ranges from 0.55 MJ/MJ(EtOH) down to 0.20 MJ/ MJ(EtOH), and the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions range from 29.8 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) down to 12.3 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) for initial ethanol concentrations from 0.5 wt % to 5 wt %. In comparison to gasoline, these predicted values represent 67% and 87% reductions in the carbon footprint for this ethanol fuel on a energy equivalent basis. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced via employment of higher efficiency heat exchangers in ethanol purification and/ or with use of solar thermal for some of the process heat.

  16. Development of a long cycle life sealed nickel-zinc battery for high energy-density applications

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, D.; Ferreira, E.; Charkey, A.

    1997-12-01

    Nickel-zinc battery technology is being developed for commercial applications requiring high energy density and high power capability. Current development cells have demonstrated the ability to deliver over 60 Watt-hours per kilogram at the one hour rate and more than 450 Watts per kilogram at the 12C rate. Cycle life has been improved to more than 600 cycles at 80% depth of discharge by using a patented, reduced solubility zinc electrode and an improved sealed cell design. More than 7,000 charge/discharge cycles at 10% depth-of-discharge have been completed. Large quantities of sealed prismatic cells have been manufactured, including a 220 V battery for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV).

  17. Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Wang, Michael; Bloyd, Cary; Putsche, Vicky

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  18. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, H.; Wang, M.; Bloyd, C.; Putsche, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  19. 76 FR 51281 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Industrial Equipment: Statement of Policy for Adopting Full-Fuel-Cycle Analyses Into Energy Conservation... intends to use full-fuel- cycle (FFC) measures of energy use and emissions, rather than the primary (or... page can be found at:...

  20. Comprehensive Analysis of Coronal Mass Ejection Mass and Energy Properties Over a Full Solar Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the evolution of the solar corona and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) over a full solar cycle with high quality images and regular cadence. This is the...observed the evolution of the solar corona and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) over a full solar cycle with high quality images and regular cadence. This is...1985) and Vourlidas et al. (2002). We discuss several aspects that emerge from the statistical analysis of such a large event sample such as solar

  1. Life-cycle assessment of a Waste-to-Energy plant in central Norway: Current situation and effects of changes in waste fraction composition.

    PubMed

    Lausselet, Carine; Cherubini, Francesco; Del Alamo Serrano, Gonzalo; Becidan, Michael; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-12-01

    Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants constitute one of the most common waste management options to deal with municipal solid waste. WtE plants have the dual objective to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and simultaneously to produce useful energy (heat and/or power). Energy from WtE is gaining steadily increasing importance in the energy mix of several countries. Norway is no exception, as energy recovered from waste currently represents the main energy source of the Norwegian district heating system. Life-cycle assessments (LCA) of WtE systems in a Norwegian context are quasi-nonexistent, and this study assesses the environmental performance of a WtE plant located in central Norway by combining detailed LCA methodology with primary data from plant operations. Mass transfer coefficients and leaching coefficients are used to trace emissions over the various life-cycle stages from waste logistics to final disposal of the ashes. We consider different fractions of input waste (current waste mix, insertion of 10% car fluff, 5% clinical waste and 10% and 50% wood waste), and find a total contribution to Climate Change Impact Potential ranging from 265 to 637gCO2eq/kg of waste and 25 to 61gCO2eq/MJ of heat. The key drivers of the environmental performances of the WtE system being assessed are the carbon biogenic fraction and the lower heating value of the incoming waste, the direct emissions at the WtE plant, the leaching of the heavy metals at the landfill sites and to a lesser extent the use of consumables. We benchmark the environmental performances of our WtE systems against those of fossil energy systems, and we find better performance for the majority of environmental impact categories, including Climate Change Impact Potential, although some trade-offs exist (e.g. higher impacts on Human Toxicity Potential than natural gas, but lower than coal). Also, the insertion of challenging new waste fractions is demonstrated to be an option both to cope with the excess

  2. Enhanced Employment of the Xanthophyll Cycle and Thermal Energy Dissipation in Spinach Exposed to High Light and N Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, A. S.; Demmig-Adams, B.; Adams III, W. W.

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection of N-deficient spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Nobel) was investigated. Spinach plants were fertilized with 14 mM nitrate (control, high N) versus 0.5 mM (low N) fertilizer, and grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Plants were characterized from measurements of photosynthetic oxygen exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as carotenoid and cholorophyll analysis. Compared with the high-N plants, the low-N plants showed a lower capacity for photosynthesis and a lower chlorophyll content, as well as a lower rate of photosystem II photosynthetic electron transport and a corresponding increase in thermal energy dissipation activity measured as nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching. The low-N plants displayed a greater fraction of the total xanthophyll cycle pool as zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin at midday, and an increase in the ratio of xanthophyll cycle pigments to total chlorophyll. These results indicate that under N limitation both the light-collecting system and the photosynthetic rate decrease. However, the increased dissipation of excess energy shows that there is excess light absorbed at midday. We conclude that spinach responds to N limitation by a combination of decreased light collection and increased thermal dissipation involving the xanthophyll cycle. PMID:12223645

  3. Students' understanding of energy flow and matter cycling in the context of the food chain, photosynthesis, and respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen-Yung; Hu, Reping

    2003-12-01

    The research focus on children's science has recently shifted from separate concepts to more comprehensive and complex topics. This study addressed pupils' understanding of the complex topic of energy flow and matter cycling. A scoring system with three categories and six concepts was developed and used by four biology teachers to analyze 106 pupils' concept maps. The results indicate that most of the pupils failed to recognize the interrelationships among the various concepts concerned with units of energy flow and matter cycling. It was the relationship between the living world and the non-living world that presented the greatest difficult to understanding. This paper concludes with suggestions for curriculum development and biology teaching.

  4. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from low-Earth orbit satellites sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimations are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments like the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers. Specifically, we assess how representing the fire diurnal cycle affects FRP and FRE estimations when using data collected at MODIS overpasses. Using data assimilation we explored three different methods to estimate hourly FRE, based on an incremental sophistication of parameterizing the fire diurnal cycle. We sampled data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) at MODIS detection opportunities to drive the three approaches. The full SEVIRI time-series, providing full coverage of the diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised three years (2010-2012), and we focussed on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal cycle as done currently in some approaches caused structural

  5. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Michael; Saricks, Christoper; Wu, May

    1997-12-19

    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  6. Body Parts, the Water Cycle, Plants, and Dolphins: Adventures in Primary-Grade Whole-Class Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences leading primary grades in whole-class composing. Together they created songs inspired by topics the students were exploring in their homeroom classes. The author systematically describes the songwriting process they employed, identifying specific challenges encountered along the way. The…

  7. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  8. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Candow, Darren G; Little, Jonathan P; Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Wingate cycle performance and muscle endurance. Healthy young adults (N = 15, 11 men, 4 women, 21 +/- 5 y old) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body mass of caffeine) or isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo, separated by 7 d. Muscle endurance (bench press) was assessed by the maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% of baseline 1-repetition maximum. Three 30-s Wingate cycling tests (load = 0.075 kp/kg body mass), with 2 min recovery between tests, were used to assess peak and average power output. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets (Red Bull = 34 +/- 9 vs. placebo = 32 +/- 8, P %%%lt; 0.05) but had no effect on Wingate peak or average power (Red Bull = 701 +/- 124 W vs. placebo = 700 +/- 132 W, Red Bull = 479 +/- 74 W vs. placebo = 471 +/- 74 W, respectively). Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance but had no effect on anaerobic peak or average power during repeated Wingate cycling tests in young healthy adults.

  9. Statistical study of low-energy heliosphere particle fluxes from 1.4 to 5 AU over a solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Reza, J. Z.; Nelson, A. J.; Patterson, J. D.; Armstrong, T. P.; Maclennan, C. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2007-07-01

    Throughout the entire Ulysses mission, the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra, Composition, and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HI-SCALE) has collected measurements of low-energy interplanetary ions and electrons. Time series of electron, proton, and ion fluxes have been obtained since 1990. We present statistical studies of high-resolution ion and electron energy spectra (~50 keV to ~5 MeV) as measured by the HI-SCALE instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft over a time interval longer than a solar cycle (1990 to 2004). Ulysses is the only spacecraft that continually measured the inner (~1.4 to ~5 AU) heliosphere particle population during these years. The data thus provide measures of the lower-energy population of particles that a spacecraft traveling outward from Earth would have encountered and that also could have impacted the atmosphere and surface of Mars and of its satellites during this interval. Comparisons of Ulysses particle fluxes with those from the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft (the HI-SCALE backup instrument) have shown that azimuthal and heliolatitude dependencies of particle fluxes in the inner heliosphere following solar events are not as extreme as might be expected. Thus the Ulysses measurements, while taken over a range of heliolatitudes, can provide important statistical information that can be used to estimate the low-energy radiation dosages and potential sputtering fluxes to planetary surfaces and to heliosphere spacecraft surfaces and solar arrays over a solar cycle.

  10. High-energy electron emission from metallic nano-tips driven by intense single-cycle terahertz pulses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Jones, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Electrons ejected from atoms and subsequently driven to high energies in strong laser fields enable techniques from attosecond pulse generation to imaging with rescattered electrons. Analogous processes govern strong-field electron emission from nanostructures, where long wavelength radiation and large local field enhancements hold the promise for producing electrons with substantially higher energies, allowing for higher resolution time-resolved imaging. Here we report on the use of single-cycle terahertz pulses to drive electron emission from unbiased nano-tips. Energies exceeding 5 keV are observed, substantially greater than previously attained at higher drive frequencies. Despite large differences in the magnitude of the respective local fields, we find that the maximum electron energies are only weakly dependent on the tip radius, for 10 nmcycle nature of the field, the high-energy electron emission is predicted to be confined to a single burst, potentially enabling a variety of applications. PMID:27830701

  11. Life cycle assessment of energy self-sufficiency systems based on agricultural residues for organic arable farms.

    PubMed

    Kimming, M; Sundberg, C; Nordberg, A; Baky, A; Bernesson, S; Norén, O; Hansson, P-A

    2011-01-01

    The agricultural industry today consumes large amounts of fossil fuels. This study used consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) to analyse two potential energy self-sufficient systems for organic arable farms, based on agricultural residues. The analysis focused on energy balance, resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A scenario based on straw was found to require straw harvest from 25% of the farm area; 45% of the total energy produced from the straw was required for energy carrier production and GHG emissions were reduced by 9% compared with a fossil fuel-based reference scenario. In a scenario based on anaerobic digestion of ley, the corresponding figures were 13%, 24% and 35%. The final result was sensitive to assumptions regarding, e.g., soil carbon content and handling of by-products.

  12. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem.

  13. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V.

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  14. Solar Energy Investigation Activities for Primary Pupils: Experience Sharing from a Teacher of a Solar Energy School in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Kit Fan

    2005-01-01

    CCC Kei Wai Primary School (Ma Wan) is a 30-classroom 7-story primary school located at Ma Wan Island. The campus was completed in 2003. There are three arrays of photovoltaic modules installed on the roof with an expected annual yield of 5600 kWh a.c. electricity. This system is supported by a research project called "Building Integrated…

  15. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater.

  16. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs. 87 refs.

  17. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  18. The influence of the rotational energy of a flywheel on the load pulse sum during pedalling on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Voigt, B; von Kiparski, R

    1989-01-01

    Employing seven male subjects, the influence of four different ergometer flywheels with the moments of inertia at the crankshaft (J') = 5.5, 10.5, 16.5, and 19.5 kg.m2 on 6-min load pulse sum (LPS), the heart rate integrated over 6-min was investigated. The J' was demonstrated to influence LPS at each of the corresponding rotational energies of the flywheels (75, 144, 226 and 276 J at 50 rev.min-1) in the four work-load steps (50, 100, 150 and 200 W). Between the values J' = 5.5 kg.m2 and 10.5 kg.m2 the LPS decreases, to rise again in the range J' = 10.5 kg.m2-19.5 kg.m2. For equal work-loads the minimum LPS was reached at a J' of 10.5 kg.m2. For the workloads of 100, 150 and 200 W it was possible to show statistically significant differences. The moment of inertia of ergometer flywheels J has a smoothing effect on the fluctuations of the rotational speed which are unavoidable during work on a cycle ergometer. The flywheel stores the leg forces acting on the pedals as rotational energy and opposes any rotational acceleration. If the J used is too small, equalization of the fluctuations of the rotational speed remains unsatisfactory. Flywheels with larger J require larger torques at the crankshaft for acceleration. For the most effective delivery of work to a cycle ergometer, an optimal rotational energy of the flywheel was found. For equal physical work, smaller or larger rotational energies require a larger expenditure of biological energy. A J' = 11 +/- 2 kg.m2 was incorporated into the draft for the German standard DIN 13,405 -- cycle-type ergometers.

  19. A retrospective on early cryogenic primary rocket subsystem designs as integrated into rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.; Schnurstein, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    A study (Escher and Flornes, 1966) of aerospace propulsion systems for a fully reusable earth-to-orbit space transport application that was performed in 1965-67 is reviewed. The present review provides a detailed, subject-focused technical retrospective on a key subsystem element of the rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) class of aerospace propulsion systems. The RBCC concept is considered to be a leading candidate propulsion approach for either SSTO or two-stage-to-orbit space transportaion applications.

  20. A retrospective on early cryogenic primary rocket subsystem designs as integrated into rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escher, William J. D.; Schnurstein, Robert E.

    1993-06-01

    A study (Escher and Flornes, 1966) of aerospace propulsion systems for a fully reusable earth-to-orbit space transport application that was performed in 1965-67 is reviewed. The present review provides a detailed, subject-focused technical retrospective on a key subsystem element of the rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) class of aerospace propulsion systems. The RBCC concept is considered to be a leading candidate propulsion approach for either SSTO or two-stage-to-orbit space transportaion applications.

  1. Cycling performance of the iron-chromium redox energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1985-12-01

    Extended charge-discharge cycling of this electrochemical storage system at 65 C was performed on 14.5 sq cm single cells and a four cell, 867 sq cm bipolar stack. Both the anolyte and catholyte reactant fluids contained 1 molar concentrations of iron and chromium chlorides in hydrochloric acid and were separated by a low-selectivity, cation-exchange membrane. The effect of cycling on the chromium electrode and the cation-exchange membrane was determined. Bismuth and bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes and a radiation-grafted polyethylene membrane were evaluated by cycling between 5 and 85 percent state-of-charge at 80 mA/sq cm and by periodic charge-discharge polarization measurements to 140 mA/sq cm. Gradual performance losses were observed during cycling but were recoverable by completely discharging the system. Good scale-up to the 867 sq cm stack was achieved. The only difference appeared to be an unexplained resistive-type loss which resulted in a 75 percent W-hr efficiency (at 80 mA/sq cm versus 81 percent for the 14.5 sq cm cell). A new rebalance cell was developed to maintain reactant ionic balance. The cell successfully reduced ferric ions in the iron reactant stream to ferrous ions while chloride ions were oxidized to chlorine gas.

  2. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a “cradle-to-grave” approach, LCA ev...

  3. Cycling Performance of the Iron-Chromium Redox Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extended charge-discharge cycling of this electrochemical storage system at 65 C was performed on 14.5 sq cm single cells and a four cell, 867 sq cm bipolar stack. Both the anolyte and catholyte reactant fluids contained 1 molar concentrations of iron and chromium chlorides in hydrochloric acid and were separated by a low-selectivity, cation-exchange membrane. The effect of cycling on the chromium electrode and the cation-exchange membrane was determined. Bismuth and bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes and a radiation-grafted polyethylene membrane were evaluated by cycling between 5 and 85 percent state-of-charge at 80 mA/sq cm and by periodic charge-discharge polarization measurements to 140 mA/sq cm. Gradual performance losses were observed during cycling but were recoverable by completely discharging the system. Good scale-up to the 867 sq cm stack was achieved. The only difference appeared to be an unexplained resistive-type loss which resulted in a 75 percent W-hr efficiency (at 80 mA/sq cm versus 81 percent for the 14.5 sq cm cell). A new rebalance cell was developed to maintain reactant ionic balance. The cell successfully reduced ferric ions in the iron reactant stream to ferrous ions while chloride ions were oxidized to chlorine gas.

  4. Cycling performance of the iron-chromium redox energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extended charge-discharge cycling of this electrochemical storage system at 65 C was performed on 14.5 sq cm single cells and a four cell, 867 sq cm bipolar stack. Both the anolyte and catholyte reactant fluids contained 1 molar concentrations of iron and chromium chlorides in hydrochloric acid and were separated by a low-selectivity, cation-exchange membrane. The effect of cycling on the chromium electrode and the cation-exchange membrane was determined. Bismuth and bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes and a radiation-grafted polyethylene membrane were evaluated by cycling between 5 and 85 percent state-of-charge at 80 mA/sq cm and by periodic charge-discharge polarization measurements to 140 mA/sq cm. Gradual performance losses were observed during cycling but were recoverable by completely discharging the system. Good scale-up to the 867 sq cm stack was achieved. The only difference appeared to be an unexplained resistive-type loss which resulted in a 75 percent W-hr efficiency (at 80 mA/sq cm versus 81 percent for the 14.5 sq cm cell). A new rebalance cell was developed to maintain reactant ionic balance. The cell successfully reduced ferric ions in the iron reactant stream to ferrous ions while chloride ions were oxidized to chlorine gas.

  5. Energy Spectrum of the Recurrent Variation of Galactic Cosmic Rays During the Solar Minimum of Cycles 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Agnieszka; Alania, Michael V.

    2016-08-01

    The Sun during the recent epoch of solar activity operated in a different way than during the last 60 years, being less active. We study temporal changes of the energy spectrum of the first three harmonics of the 27-day variation of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity during the unusual, recent solar minimum, between Solar Cycles 23 and 24 (SC 23/24) and compare with four previous minima. We show that the energy spectrum of the amplitudes of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity is hard in the maximum epochs and is soft in the minimum epochs during Solar Cycles 20 - 24, but with peculiarities during the Solar Minimum 23/24. In particular, while the energy/rigidity spectrum of the amplitudes of the first harmonic of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity behaves practically the same as for previous epochs, the energy/rigidity spectrum of the amplitudes of the second and the third harmonics demonstrates a pronounced softening. We attribute this phenomenon to the decrease of the extension of the heliosphere caused by the decrease of the solar-wind dynamic pressure during the unusual Solar Minimum 23/24.

  6. Method applied to the background analysis of energy data to be considered for the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD).

    PubMed

    Fazio, Simone; Garraín, Daniel; Mathieux, Fabrice; De la Rúa, Cristina; Recchioni, Marco; Lechón, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Under the framework of the European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment, the European Reference Life-Cycle Database (ELCD - developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission), provides core Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data from front-running EU-level business associations and other sources. The ELCD contains energy-related data on power and fuels. This study describes the methods to be used for the quality analysis of energy data for European markets (available in third-party LC databases and from authoritative sources) that are, or could be, used in the context of the ELCD. The methodology was developed and tested on the energy datasets most relevant for the EU context, derived from GaBi (the reference database used to derive datasets for the ELCD), Ecoinvent, E3 and Gemis. The criteria for the database selection were based on the availability of EU-related data, the inclusion of comprehensive datasets on energy products and services, and the general approval of the LCA community. The proposed approach was based on the quality indicators developed within the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook, further refined to facilitate their use in the analysis of energy systems. The overall Data Quality Rating (DQR) of the energy datasets can be calculated by summing up the quality rating (ranging from 1 to 5, where 1 represents very good, and 5 very poor quality) of each of the quality criteria indicators, divided by the total number of indicators considered. The quality of each dataset can be estimated for each indicator, and then compared with the different databases/sources. The results can be used to highlight the weaknesses of each dataset and can be used to guide further improvements to enhance the data quality with regard to the established criteria. This paper describes the application of the methodology to two exemplary datasets, in order to show the potential of the methodological approach. The analysis helps LCA

  7. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Open Reading Frame 50/Rta Protein Activates the Entire Viral Lytic Cycle in the HH-B2 Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell Line†

    PubMed Central

    Gradoville, Lyndle; Gerlach, Jennifer; Grogan, Elizabeth; Shedd, Duane; Nikiforow, Sarah; Metroka, Craig; Miller, George

    2000-01-01

    Rta, the gene product of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encoded mainly in open reading frame 50 (ORF50), is capable of activating expression of viral lytic cycle genes. What was not demonstrated in previous studies was whether KSHV Rta was competent to initiate the entire viral lytic life cycle including lytic viral DNA replication, late-gene expression with appropriate kinetics, and virus release. In HH-B2, a newly established primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell line, KSHV ORF50 behaved as an immediate-early gene and autostimulated its own expression. Expression of late genes, ORF65, and K8.1 induced by KSHV Rta was eliminated by phosphonoacetic acid, an inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase. Transfection of KSHV Rta increased the production of encapsidated DNase-resistant viral DNA from HH-B2 cells. Thus, introduction of an ORF50 expression plasmid is sufficient to drive the lytic cycle to completion in cultured PEL cells. PMID:10846108

  8. Nuclear energy in Europe: uranium flow modeling and fuel cycle scenario trade-offs from a sustainability perspective.

    PubMed

    Tendall, Danielle M; Binder, Claudia R

    2011-03-15

    The European nuclear fuel cycle (covering the EU-27, Switzerland and Ukraine) was modeled using material flow analysis (MFA).The analysis was based on publicly available data from nuclear energy agencies and industries, national trade offices, and nongovernmental organizations. Military uranium was not considered due to lack of accessible data. Nuclear fuel cycle scenarios varying spent fuel reprocessing, depleted uranium re-enrichment, enrichment assays, and use of fast neutron reactors, were established. They were then assessed according to environmental, economic and social criteria such as resource depletion, waste production, chemical and radiation emissions, costs, and proliferation risks. The most preferable scenario in the short term is a combination of reduced tails assay and enrichment grade, allowing a 17.9% reduction of uranium demand without significantly increasing environmental, economic, or social risks. In the long term, fast reactors could theoretically achieve a 99.4% decrease in uranium demand and nuclear waste production. However, this involves important costs and proliferation risks. Increasing material efficiency is not systematically correlated with the reduction of other risks. This suggests that an overall optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle is difficult to obtain. Therefore, criteria must be weighted according to stakeholder interests in order to determine the most sustainable solution. This paper models the flows of uranium and associated materials in Europe, and provides a decision support tool for identifying the trade-offs of the alternative nuclear fuel cycles considered.

  9. Research in Support of the Use of Rankine Cycle Energy Conversion Systems for Space Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahey, Richard T., Jr.; Dhir, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    This is the report of a Scientific Working Group (SWG) formed by NASA to determine the feasibility of using a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor and Rankine energy conversion cycle for dual purpose power and propulsion in space. This is a high level technical report which is intended for use by NASA management in program planning. The SWG was composed of a team of specialists in nuclear energy and multiphase flow and heat transfer technology from academia, national laboratories, NASA and industry. The SWG has identified the key technology issues that need to be addressed and have recommended an integrated short term (approx. 2 years) and a long term (approx. 10 year) research and development (R&D) program to qualify a Rankine cycle power plant for use in space. This research is ultimately intended to give NASA and its contractors the ability to reliably predict both steady and transient multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena at reduced gravity, so they can analyze and optimize designs and scale-up experimental data on Rankine cycle components and systems. In addition, some of these results should also be useful for the analysis and design of various multiphase life support and thermal management systems being considered by NASA.

  10. Composition of primary cosmic rays at energies 10(15) to approximately 10(16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amenomori, M.; Konishi, E.; Hotta, N.; Mizutani, K.; Kasahara, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Mikumo, E.; Sato, K.; Yuda, T.; Mito, I.

    1985-01-01

    The sigma epsilon gamma spectrum in 1 approx. 5 x 1000 TV observed at Mt. Fuji suggests that the flux of primary protons 10 to the 15 approx 10th eV is lower by a factor of 2 approx. 3 than a simple extrapolation from lower energies; the integral proton spectrum tends to be steeper than around to the power V and the spectral index tends to be steeper than Epsilon to the -17th power around 10 to the 14th power eV and the spectral index becomes approx. 2.0 around 10 to the 15th power eV. If the total flux of primary particles has no steepening up to approx 10 to the 15th power eV, than the fraction of primary protons to the total flux should be approx 20% in contrast to approx 45% at lower energies.

  11. Disruption of BCATm in mice leads to increased energy expenditure associated with the activation of a futile protein turnover cycle

    PubMed Central

    She, Pengxiang; Reid, Tanya M.; Bronson, Sarah K.; Vary, Thomas C.; Hajnal, Andras; Lynch, Christopher J; Hutson, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Leucine is recognized as a nutrient signal, however the long-term in vivo consequences of leucine signaling and the role of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism in this signaling remains unclear. To investigate these questions, the BCATm gene encoding the enzyme catalyzing the first step in peripheral BCAA metabolism was disrupted. BCATm−/− mice exhibited elevated plasma BCAAs, decreased adiposity and body weight, despite eating more food, along with increased energy expenditure, remarkable improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance, and protection from diet induced obesity. The increased energy expenditure did not seem to be due to altered locomotor activity, uncoupling proteins, sympathetic activity, and thyroid hormones but was strongly associated with food consumption and an active futile cycle of increased protein degradation and synthesis. These observations suggest that either elevated BCAAs and/or loss of BCAA catabolism in peripheral tissues play an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure. PMID:17767905

  12. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest are induced in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells exposed to fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Cao, Ji-Yu; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Chen, Dao-Jun; Che, Zhen; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a linkage between morbidity and mortality and particulate matter (PM), particularly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that can readily penetrate into the lungs and are therefore more likely to increase the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the compositions of cooking oil fume (COF)-derived PM2.5, which is the major source of indoor pollution in China. Furthermore, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest induced by COF-derived PM2.5 in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II cells) were also detected. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a radical scavenger, was used to identify the role of oxidative stress in the abovementioned processes. Our results suggested that compositions of COF-derived PM2.5 are obviously different to PM2.5 derived from other sources, and COF-derived PM2.5 led to cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and G0/G1 cell arrest in primary fetal AEC II cells. Furthermore, the results also showed that COF-derived PM2.5 induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, which is indicated by the increased expression of ER stress-related apoptotic markers, namely GRP78 and caspase-12. Besides, the induction of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest was reversed by pretreatment with NAC. These findings strongly suggested that COF-derived PM2.5-induced toxicity in primary fetal AEC II cells is mediated by increased oxidative stress, accompanied by ER stress which results in apoptosis.

  13. The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) field test facility -- system description, aquifer characterization, and results of short-term test cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holm, N.L.; Holm, T.R.; Kanivetsky, R.; Jirsa, M.A.; Lee, H.C.; Lauer, J.L.; Miller, R.T.; Norton, J.L.; Runke, H. )

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Project at the University of Minnesota was to test the feasibility, and model, the ATES concept at temperatures above 100{degrees}C using a confined aquifer for the storage and recovery of hot water. Phase 1 included design, construction, and operation of a 5-MW thermal input/output field test facility (FTF) for four short-term ATES cycles (8 days each of heat injection, storage, and heat recover). Phase 1 was conducted from May 1980 to December 1983. This report describes the FTF, the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville (FIG) aquifer used for the test, and the four short-term ATES cycles. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are all included. The FTF consists of monitoring wells and the source and storage well doublet completed in the FIG aquifer with heat exchangers and a fixed-bed precipitator between the wells of the doublet. The FIG aquifer is highly layered and a really anisotropic. The upper Franconia and Ironton-Galesville parts of the aquifer, those parts screened, have hydraulic conductivities of {approximately}0.6 and {approximately}1.0 m/d, respectively. Primary ions in the ambient ground water are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate. Ambient temperature FIG ground water is saturated with respect to calcium/magnesium bicarbonate. Heating the ground water caused most of the dissolved calcium to precipitate out as calcium carbonate in the heat exchanger and precipitator. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water, suggesting dissolution of some constituents of the aquifer during the cycles. Further work on the ground water chemistry is required to understand water-rock interactions.

  14. The annual cycle of gross primary production, net community production, and export efficiency across the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palevsky, Hilary I.; Quay, Paul D.; Lockwood, Deirdre E.; Nicholson, David P.

    2016-02-01

    We measured triple oxygen isotopes and oxygen/argon dissolved gas ratios as nonincubation-based geochemical tracers of gross oxygen production (GOP) and net community production (NCP) on 16 container ship transects across the North Pacific from 2008 to 2012. We estimate rates and efficiency of biological carbon export throughout the full annual cycle across the North Pacific basin (35°N-50°N, 142°E-125°W) by constructing mixed layer budgets that account for physical and biological influences on these tracers. During the productive season from spring to fall, GOP and NCP are highest in the Kuroshio region west of 170°E and decrease eastward across the basin. However, deep winter mixed layers (>200 m) west of 160°W ventilate ~40-90% of this seasonally exported carbon, while only ~10% of seasonally exported carbon east of 160°W is ventilated in winter where mixed layers are <120 m. As a result, despite higher annual GOP in the west than the east, the annual carbon export (sequestration) rate and efficiency decrease westward across the basin from export of 2.3 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1 east of 160°W to 0.5 ± 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 west of 170°E. Existing productivity rate estimates from time series stations are consistent with our regional productivity rate estimates in the eastern but not western North Pacific. These results highlight the need to estimate productivity rates over broad spatial areas and throughout the full annual cycle including during winter ventilation in order to accurately estimate the rate and efficiency of carbon sequestration via the ocean's biological pump.

  15. A new control method depending on primary phase angle of transcutaneous energy transmission system for artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Miura, H; Saito, I; Sato, F; Shiraishi, Y; Yambe, T; Matsuki, H

    2013-01-01

    A new control method for stabilizing output voltage of the transcutaneous energy transmission system for artificial heart is proposed. This method is primary side, is outside of the body, which is not depending on a signal transmission system from the implanted device. The impedance observed from primary side changes from inductive to capacitive and the output voltage decreases drastically when the output current is large and the coupling factor is higher than that of the optimal condition. In this case, the driving frequency should be changed to higher so that the phase angle of the primary impedance is zero degree. The preliminary examination showed that this control method can enhance the output voltage limit to twice and the feasibility of the primary side control.

  16. A quantitative evaluation of closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology in central station applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritton, E. C.; Pei, R. Y.; Aroesty, J.; Balaban, M. M.; Gazley, C.; Hess, R. W.; Krase, W. H.

    1980-05-01

    An evaluation of a closed cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system for delivery of electric power to the United States is presented. Performance and costs of complete commercial OTEC systems are analyzed at the system level using inputs from component analyses and thermal resource data in the Gulf of Mexico. Such sites could feed the Gulf Coast from the west coast of Florida to the New Orleans area. By exploiting the temperature difference between warm surface waters and cold water from the depths to operate a thermodynamic cycle to generate electricity, OTEC acts as a heat engine that taps the surface waters of tropical and subtropical oceans as a heat source and the cold water originating in the polar regions as a heat sink. Results of the engineering analysis indicate that the system and platform appear to be within the state-of-the-art.

  17. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  18. Determination for dry layer resistance of sucrose under various primary drying conditions using a novel simulation program for designing pharmaceutical lyophilization cycle.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Tatsuhiro; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Hosomi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Masahito; Wakiyama, Naoki; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2013-08-16

    Dry layer resistance, which is the resistance of dried cake against water vapor flow generated from sublimation, is one of the important parameters to predict maximum product temperature and drying time during primary drying in lyophilization. The purpose of this study was to develop the predictive model of dry layer resistance under various primary drying conditions using the dry layer resistance obtained from a preliminary lyophilization run. When the maximum dry layer resistance was modified under the assumption that the chamber pressure is zero, the modified dry layer resistance, which is defined as specific dry layer resistance, correlated well with the sublimation rate. From this correlation, the novel predictive model including the empirical formula of sublimation rate and specific dry layer resistance is proposed. In this model, the dry layer resistance under various conditions of shelf temperature and chamber pressure was successfully predicted based on the relationship of the sublimation rate and specific dry layer resistance of the edge and center vials obtained from the product temperature in one preliminary cycle run. It is expected that this predictive model could be a practical and useful tool to predict product temperature during primary drying.

  19. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  20. Sensitivity of Pumping Energy on the Life Cycle Impacts of a Commercial Rainwater Harvesting System

    EPA Science Inventory

    assessed using a functional unit of 1 m3 of rainwater and municipal water delivery for flushing toilets and urinals in a four story-commercial building in DC. We collect primary data on CRWH including designs and amount of materials from the ARCSA partners and compile the life cy...

  1. Detecting robust signals of interannual variability of gross primary productivity in Asia from multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models and long-term satellite-based vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ueyama, M.; Kato, T.; Ito, A.; Sasai, T.; Sato, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.

    2014-12-01

    Long term record of satellite-based terrestrial vegetation are important to evaluate terrestrial carbon cycle models. In this study, we demonstrate how multiple satellite observation can be used for evaluating past changes in gross primary productivity (GPP) and detecting robust anomalies in terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia through our model-data synthesis analysis, Asia-MIP. We focused on the two different temporal coverages: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2011; data intensive period) scales. We used a NOAA/AVHRR NDVI record for long-term analysis and multiple satellite data and products (e.g. Terra-MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION) as historical satellite data, and multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, ORCHIDEE, SEIB-DGVM, and VISIT). As a results of long-term (30 years) trend analysis, satellite-based time-series data showed that approximately 40% of the area has experienced a significant increase in the NDVI, while only a few areas have experienced a significant decreasing trend over the last 30 years. The increases in the NDVI were dominant in the sub-continental regions of Siberia, East Asia, and India. Simulations using the terrestrial biosphere models also showed significant increases in GPP, similar to the results for the NDVI, in boreal and temperate regions. A modeled sensitivity analysis showed that the increases in GPP are explained by increased temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Precipitation, solar radiation, CO2fertilization and land cover changes are important factors in the tropical regions. However, the relative contributions of each factor to GPP changes are different among the models. Year-to-year variations of terrestrial GPP were overall consistently captured by the satellite data and terrestrial carbon cycle models if the anomalies are large (e.g. 2003 summer GPP anomalies in East Asia and 2002 spring GPP anomalies in mid to high latitudes). The behind mechanisms can be consistently

  2. Review of life-cycle approaches coupled with data envelopment analysis: launching the CFP + DEA method for energy policy making.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Iribarren, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Life-cycle (LC) approaches play a significant role in energy policy making to determine the environmental impacts associated with the choice of energy source. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be combined with LC approaches to provide quantitative benchmarks that orientate the performance of energy systems towards environmental sustainability, with different implications depending on the selected LC + DEA method. The present paper examines currently available LC + DEA methods and develops a novel method combining carbon footprinting (CFP) and DEA. Thus, the CFP + DEA method is proposed, a five-step structure including data collection for multiple homogenous entities, calculation of target operating points, evaluation of current and target carbon footprints, and result interpretation. As the current context for energy policy implies an anthropocentric perspective with focus on the global warming impact of energy systems, the CFP + DEA method is foreseen to be the most consistent LC + DEA approach to provide benchmarks for energy policy making. The fact that this method relies on the definition of operating points with optimised resource intensity helps to moderate the concerns about the omission of other environmental impacts. Moreover, the CFP + DEA method benefits from CFP specifications in terms of flexibility, understanding, and reporting.

  3. Review of Life-Cycle Approaches Coupled with Data Envelopment Analysis: Launching the CFP + DEA Method for Energy Policy Making

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Life-cycle (LC) approaches play a significant role in energy policy making to determine the environmental impacts associated with the choice of energy source. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be combined with LC approaches to provide quantitative benchmarks that orientate the performance of energy systems towards environmental sustainability, with different implications depending on the selected LC + DEA method. The present paper examines currently available LC + DEA methods and develops a novel method combining carbon footprinting (CFP) and DEA. Thus, the CFP + DEA method is proposed, a five-step structure including data collection for multiple homogenous entities, calculation of target operating points, evaluation of current and target carbon footprints, and result interpretation. As the current context for energy policy implies an anthropocentric perspective with focus on the global warming impact of energy systems, the CFP + DEA method is foreseen to be the most consistent LC + DEA approach to provide benchmarks for energy policy making. The fact that this method relies on the definition of operating points with optimised resource intensity helps to moderate the concerns about the omission of other environmental impacts. Moreover, the CFP + DEA method benefits from CFP specifications in terms of flexibility, understanding, and reporting. PMID:25654136

  4. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m(-2) BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) VO2max). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The inter-subject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min(-1) per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p=0.026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p=0.574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p=0.032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p=0.026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  5. The Statistical Properties of Low Energy Heliosphere Particle Fluxes from 1.4 to 5 AU Over a Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Wang, H.; Maclennan, C. G.; Armstrong, T. P.; Patterson, J. D.

    We present statistical studies of high resolution ion and electron energy spectra sim 50 keV to sim 5 MeV as measured by the HI-SCALE instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft over a time interval longer than a solar cycle from launch in 1990 to nearly the present Ulysses was the only spacecraft that continually measured the inner sim 1 4 to sim 5 AU heliosphere particle population during these years The data thus provide measures of the lower energy population of particles that a spacecraft traveling outward from Earth would have encountered and that also impacted the atmosphere and surface of Mars and the surfaces of the Martian satellites Phobos and Deimos during this interval Comparisons of Ulysses particle fluxes with those from the EPAM instrument on the ACE spacecraft the HI-SCALE back-up instrument have shown that it is common for the particle fluxes in the inner heliosphere following solar events to be distributed quite uniformly in heliolatitude Thus the Ulysses measurements while taken over a range of heliolatitudes can provide important statistical information that can be used to estimate the low energy radiation dosages and potential sputtering fluxes to planetary surfaces and to heliosphere spacecraft surfaces and solar arrays over a solar cycle

  6. Ethylene Regulates Energy-Dependent Non-Photochemical Quenching in Arabidopsis through Repression of the Xanthophyll Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent (qE) non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity. PMID:26630486

  7. Application of a Tractive Energy Analysis to Quantify the Benefits of Advanced Efficiency Technologies Using Characteristic Drive Cycle Data

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    Accurately predicting the fuel savings that can be achieved with the implementation of various technologies developed for fuel efficiency can be very challenging, particularly when considering combinations of technologies. Differences in the usage of highway vehicles can strongly influence the benefits realized with any given technology, which makes generalizations about fuel savings inappropriate for different vehicle applications. A model has been developed to estimate the potential for reducing fuel consumption when advanced efficiency technologies, or combinations of these technologies, are employed on highway vehicles, particularly medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The approach is based on a tractive energy analysis applied to drive cycles representative of the vehicle usage, and the analysis specifically accounts for individual energy loss factors that characterize the technologies of interest. This tractive energy evaluation is demonstrated by analyzing measured drive cycles from a long-haul trucking fleet and the results of an assessment of the fuel savings potential for combinations of technologies are presented. The results of this research will enable more reliable estimates of the fuel savings benefits that can be realized with particular technologies and technology combinations for individual trucking applications so that decision makers can make informed investment decisions for the implementation of advanced efficiency technologies.

  8. Ethylene Regulates Energy-Dependent Non-Photochemical Quenching in Arabidopsis through Repression of the Xanthophyll Cycle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Gallie, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent (qE) non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) thermally dissipates excess absorbed light energy as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The xanthophyll cycle, induced when the level of absorbed light energy exceeds the capacity of photochemistry, contributes to qE. In this work, we show that ethylene regulates the xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Analysis of eto1-1, exhibiting increased ethylene production, and ctr1-3, exhibiting constitutive ethylene response, revealed defects in NPQ resulting from impaired de-epoxidation of violaxanthin by violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) encoded by NPQ1. Elevated ethylene signaling reduced the level of active VDE through decreased NPQ1 promoter activity and impaired VDE activation resulting from a lower transthylakoid membrane pH gradient. Increasing the concentration of CO2 partially corrected the ethylene-mediated defects in NPQ and photosynthesis, indicating that changes in ethylene signaling affect stromal CO2 solubility. Increasing VDE expression in eto1-1 and ctr1-3 restored light-activated de-epoxidation and qE, reduced superoxide production and reduced photoinhibition. Restoring VDE activity significantly reversed the small growth phenotype of eto1-1 and ctr1-3 without altering ethylene production or ethylene responses. Our results demonstrate that ethylene increases ROS production and photosensitivity in response to high light and the associated reduced plant stature is partially reversed by increasing VDE activity.

  9. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  10. Solar powered absorption cycle heat pump using phase change materials for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Solar powered heating and cooling system with possible application to residential homes is described. Operating principles of system are defined and illustration of typical energy storage and exchange system is provided.

  11. Specification and implementation of IFC based performance metrics to support building life cycle assessment of hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Elmer; O'Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-03-29

    Minimizing building life cycle energy consumption is becoming of paramount importance. Performance metrics tracking offers a clear and concise manner of relating design intent in a quantitative form. A methodology is discussed for storage and utilization of these performance metrics through an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instantiated Building Information Model (BIM). The paper focuses on storage of three sets of performance data from three distinct sources. An example of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilizing the sets of performance data, two discrete performance effectiveness ratios may be computed, thus offering an accurate method of quantitatively assessing building performance.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  13. A role for caspase-8 and c-FLIPL in proliferation and cell-cycle progression of primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gilot, David; Serandour, Anne-Laure; Ilyin, Guennady P; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Loyer, Pascal; Corlu, Anne; Coutant, Alexandre; Baffet, Georges; Peter, Marcus E; Fardel, Olivier; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane

    2005-12-01

    Growth factors are known to favor both proliferation and survival of hepatocytes. In the present study, we investigated if c-FLIP(L) (cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein, long isoform) could be involved in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated proliferation of rat hepatocytes since c-FLIP(L) regulates both cell proliferation and procaspase-8 maturation. Treatment with MEK inhibitors prevented induction of c-FLIP(L) by EGF along with total inhibition of DNA replication. However, EGF failed to inhibit processing of procaspase-8 in the presence of EGF suggesting that c-FLIP(L) does not play its canonical anti-apoptotic role in this model. Downregulation of c-FLIP expression using siRNA oligonucleotides strongly reduced DNA replication but did not result in enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, intermediate cleavage products of c-FLIP(L) and caspase-8 were found in EGF-treated hepatocytes in the absence of caspase-3 maturation and cell death. To determine whether the Fas/FADD/caspase-8/c-FLIP(L) complex was required for this activity, Fas, procaspase-8 and Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) expression or function was inhibited using siRNA or constructs encoding dominant negative mutant proteins. Inhibition of any of these components of the Fas/FADD/caspase-8 pathway decreased DNA replication suggesting a function of these proteins in cell-cycle arrest. Similar results were obtained when the IETD-like caspase activity detectable in EGF-treated hepatocytes was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-ASP. Finally, we demonstrated co-immunoprecipitation between EGFR and Fas within 15 min following EGF stimulation. In conclusion, our results indicate that the Fas/FADD/c-FLIP(L)/caspase-8 pathway positively controls the G(1)/S transition in EGF-stimulated hepatocytes. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms by which apoptotic proteins participate to mitogenic signals during the G(1) phase.

  14. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  15. Application of hybrid life cycle approaches to emerging energy technologies--the case of wind power in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Suh, Sangwon; Feng, Kuishuang; Lenzen, Manfred; Acquaye, Adolf; Scott, Kate; Barrett, John R

    2011-07-01

    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework - Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy.

  16. Li3PO4 Matrix Enables a Long Cycle Life and High Energy Efficiency Bismuth-Based Battery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuan-Fu; Hu, Junkai; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xi-Yuan; Lee, Sang Bok; Wang, YuHuang

    2016-09-14

    Bismuth is a lithium-ion battery anode material that can operate at an equilibrium potential higher than graphite and provide a capacity twice as high as that of Li4Ti5O12, making it intrinsically free from lithium plating that may cause catastrophic battery failure. However, the potential of bismuth is hampered by its inferior cyclability (limited to tens of cycles). Here, we propose an "ion conductive solid-state matrix" approach to address this issue. By homogeneously confining bismuth nanoparticles in a solid-state γ-Li3PO4 matrix that is electrochemically formed in situ, the resulting composite anode exhibits a reversible capacity of 280 mA hours per gram (mA h/g) at a rate of 100 mA/g and a record cyclability among bismuth-based anodes up to 500 cycles with a capacity decay rate of merely 0.071% per cycle. We further show that full-cell batteries fabricated from this composite anode and commercial LiFePO4 cathode deliver a stable cell voltage of ∼2.5 V and remarkable energy efficiency up to 86.3%, on par with practical batteries (80-90%). This work paves a way for harnessing bismuth-based battery chemistry for the design of high capacity, safer lithium-ion batteries to meet demanding applications such as electric vehicles.

  17. Biofuels via Fast Pyrolysis of Perennial Grasses: A Life Cycle Evaluation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Zaimes, George G; Soratana, Kullapa; Harden, Cheyenne L; Landis, Amy E; Khanna, Vikas

    2015-08-18

    A well-to-wheel (WTW) life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed to evaluate the environmental profile of producing liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis of perennial grasses: switchgrass and miscanthus. The framework established in this study consists of (1) an agricultural model used to determine biomass growth rates, agrochemical application rates, and other key parameters in the production of miscanthus and switchgrass biofeedstock; (2) an ASPEN model utilized to simulate thermochemical conversion via fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to renewable transportation fuel. Monte Carlo analysis is performed to determine statistical bounds for key sustainability and performance measures including life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Energy Return on Investment (EROI). The results of this work reveal that the EROI and GHG emissions (gCO2e/MJ-fuel) for fast pyrolysis derived fuels range from 1.52 to 2.56 and 22.5 to 61.0 respectively, over the host of scenarios evaluated. Further analysis reveals that the energetic performance and GHG reduction potential of fast pyrolysis-derived fuels are highly sensitive to the choice of coproduct scenario and LCA allocation scheme, and in select cases can change the life cycle carbon balance from meeting to exceeding the renewable fuel standard emissions reduction threshold for cellulosic biofuels.

  18. Laser-induced Magnesium Production from Magnesium Oxide for Renewable Magnesium Energy Cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shi-Hua; Yabe, Takashi; Baasandash, Choijil; Sato, Yuji; Ichikawa, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Masashi; Fukushima, Chika; Uchida, Shigeaki; Ohkubo, Tomomasa

    2010-10-01

    We succeeded in reducing magnesium [Mg] from magnesium oxide [MgO] by laser irradiation. The laser-induced vapor temperature was measured to be approximately 5000 K on the irradiating spot, where MgO separated into Mg and oxygen [O] atoms through thermal dissociation. The Mg vapor was intercepted a cooper plate, forming solid deposits on it. However, the presence of oxygen, resulting from MgO dissociation, leads to Mg oxidization in the course of vapor cooling. The deoxidization process results in lower Mg fraction in the deposits and degrades energy recovery efficiency from laser irradiation. To quench this recombination, we also employed silicon as reducing agents to capture oxygen in favor of Mg extraction. In these experiments, the molar ratio effect (MgO:Si = 1:0-1) on the magnesium fractions and energy efficiencies were measured by means of a chemical reaction. The maximal energy efficiency, %, was obtained at the ratio of MgO:Si = 1:0.5. This ratio is lower than that of the Pidgeon process with Mg:Si = 1:1 resulting in a lower energy efficiency of %. This implies laser-induced Mg production is a economical process of using reducing agents with large throughput. The usage of laser radiation generated from solar energy for Mg metallurgy will significantly reduce CO2 emission.

  19. Uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment of biodiesel versus diesel: global warming and non-renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty information is essential for the proper use of life cycle assessment and environmental assessments in decision making. To investigate the uncertainties of biodiesel and determine the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel, an explicit analytical approach based on the Taylor series expansion for lognormal distribution was applied in the present study. A biodiesel case study demonstrates the probability that biodiesel has a lower global warming and non-renewable energy score than diesel, that is 92.3% and 93.1%, respectively. The results indicate the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel based on the global warming and non-renewable energy scores.

  20. Nuclear Poincaré cycle synchronizes with the incident de Broglie wave to predict regularity in neutron resonance energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Makio

    2016-06-01

    In observed neutron resonances, long believed to be a form of quantum chaos, regular family structures are found in the s-wave resonances of many even-even nuclei in the tens keV to MeV region [M.Ohkubo, Phys. Rev. C 87, 014608(2013)]. Resonance reactions take place when the incident de Broglie wave synchronizes with the Poincaré cycle of the compound nucleus, which is composed of several normal modes with periods that are time quantized by inverse Fermi energy. Based on the breathing model of the compound nucleus, neutron resonance energies in family structures are written by simple arithmetic expressions using Sn and small integers. Family structures in observed resonances of 40Ca+n and 37Cl+n are described as simple cases. A model for time quantization is discussed.

  1. Evaluating new processes and concepts for energy and resource recovery from municipal wastewater with life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Remy, C; Boulestreau, M; Warneke, J; Jossa, P; Kabbe, C; Lesjean, B

    2016-01-01

    Energy and resource recovery from municipal wastewater is a pre-requisite for an efficient and sustainable water management in cities of the future. However, a sound evaluation of available processes and pathways is required to identify opportunities and short-comings of the different options and reveal synergies and potentials for optimization. For evaluating environmental impacts in a holistic view, the tool of life cycle assessment (LCA, ISO 14040/44) is suitable to characterize and quantify the direct and indirect effects of new processes and concepts. This paper gives an overview of four new processes and concepts for upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants towards energy positive and resource efficient wastewater treatment, based upon an evaluation of their environmental impacts with LCA using data from pilot and full-scale assessments of the considered processes.

  2. Numerical studies on the Impact of the Last Glacial Cycle on recent borehole temperature profiles: implications for terrestrial energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Matharoo, G. S.; Tarasov, L.; Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.

    2014-09-01

    Reconstructions of past climatic changes from borehole temperature profiles are important independent estimates of temperature histories over the last millennium. There remain, however, multiple uncertainties in the interpretation of these data as climatic indicators and as estimates of the changes in the heat content of the continental subsurface due to long-term climatic change. One of these uncertainties is associated with the often ignored impact of the last glacial cycle (LGC) on the subsurface energy content, and on the estimate of the background quasi steady-state signal associated with the diffusion of accretionary energy from the Earth's interior. Here, we provide the first estimate of the impact of the development of the Laurentide ice sheet on the estimates of energy and temperature reconstructions from measurements of terrestrial borehole temperatures in North America. We use basal temperature values from the data-calibrated Memorial University of Newfoundland glacial systems model (MUN-GSM) to quantify the extent of the perturbation to estimated steady-state temperature profiles, and to derive spatial maps of the expected impacts on measured profiles over North America. Furthermore, we present quantitative estimates of the potential effects of temperature changes during the last glacial cycle on the borehole reconstructions over the last millennium for North America. The range of these possible impacts is estimated using synthetic basal temperatures for a period covering 120 ka to the present day that include the basal temperature history uncertainties from an ensemble of results from the calibrated numerical model. For all the locations, we find that within the depth ranges that are typical for available boreholes (≈600 m), the induced perturbations to the steady-state temperature profile are on the order of 10 mW m-2, decreasing with greater depths. Results indicate that site-specific heat content estimates over North America can differ by as much

  3. University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project report on the third long-term cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, M.C.; Hallgren, J.P.; Uebel, M.H.; Delin, G.N.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Sterling, R.L.

    1994-12-01

    The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system has been operated as a field test facility (FTF) since 1982. The objectives were to design, construct, and operate the facility to study the feasibility of high-temperature ATES in a confined aquifer. Four short-term and two long-term cycles were previously conducted, which provided a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. The third long-term cycle (LT3) was conducted to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact that heated water storage had on the aquifer. For LT3, the source and storage wells were modified so that only the most permeable portion, the Ironton-Galesville part, of the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer was used for storage. This was expected to improve storage efficiency by reducing the surface area of the heated volume and simplify analysis of water chemistry results by reducing the number of aquifer-related variables which need to be considered. During LT3, a total volume of 63.2 {times} 10{sup 3} m {sup 3} of water was injected at a rate of 54.95 m{sup 3}/hr into the storage well at a mean temperature of 104.7{degrees}C. Tie-in to the reheat system of the nearby Animal Sciences Veterinary Medicine (ASVM) building was completed after injection was completed. Approximately 66 percent (4.13 GWh) of the energy added to the aquifer was recovered. Approximately 15 percent (0.64 GWh) of the usable (10 building. Operations during heat recovery with the ASVM building`s reheat system were trouble-free. Integration into more of the ASVM (or other) building`s mechanical systems would have resulted in significantly increasing the proportion of energy used during heat recovery.

  4. A novel role for Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway effector protein FANCD2 in cell cycle progression of untransformed primary human cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Ihn Young; Barkley, Laura R; Day, Tovah A; Weiss, Robert S; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2010-06-15

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a cancer-susceptibility syndrome characterized by cellular sensitivity to DNA inter-strand cross-link (ICL)-inducing agents. The Fanconia Anemia D2 (FANCD2) protein is implicated in repair of various forms of DNA damage including ICLs. Studies with replicating extracts from Xenopus eggs indicate a role for FANCD2 in processing and repair of DNA replication-associated double stranded breaks (DSB). We have investigated the role of FANCD2 in cell cycle progression of cultured human cells. Similar to Xenopus cell-free extracts, we show that chromatin association of FANCD2 in human cells is coupled to ongoing DNA replication. siRNA depletion experiments demonstrate that FANCD2 is necessary for efficient DNA synthesis. However, in contrast with Xenopus extracts, FANCD2-deficiency does not elicit a DNA damage response, and does not affect the elongation phase of DNA synthesis, suggesting that FANCD2 is dispensable for repair of replication-associated DNA damage. Using synchronized cultures of primary untransformed human dermal fibroblasts we demonstrate that FANCD2 is necessary for efficient initiation of DNA synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for the FA pathway in regulation of DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. Inefficient DNA replication may contribute to the genome instability and cancer-propensity of FA patients.

  5. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2011-03-01

    In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission.

  6. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2010-07-15

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  7. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  8. A life cycle assessment of environmental performances of two combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Arena, Umberto; Ardolino, Filomena; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    An attributional life cycle analysis (LCA) was developed to compare the environmental performances of two waste-to-energy (WtE) units, which utilize the predominant technologies among those available for combustion and gasification processes: a moving grate combustor and a vertical shaft gasifier coupled with direct melting. The two units were assumed to be fed with the same unsorted residual municipal waste, having a composition estimated as a European average. Data from several plants in operation were processed by means of mass and energy balances, and on the basis of the flows and stocks of materials and elements inside and throughout the two units, as provided by a specific substance flow analysis. The potential life cycle environmental impacts related to the operations of the two WtE units were estimated by means of the Impact 2002+ methodology. They indicate that both the technologies have sustainable environmental performances, but those of the moving grate combustion unit are better for most of the selected impact categories. The analysis of the contributions from all the stages of each specific technology suggests where improvements in technological solutions and management criteria should be focused to obtain further and remarkable environmental improvements.

  9. Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rule, Bridget M; Worth, Zeb J; Boyle, Carol A

    2009-08-15

    In order to make the best choice between renewable energy technologies, it is important to be able to compare these technologies on the basis of their sustainability, which may include a variety of social, environmental, and economic indicators. This study examined the comparative sustainability of four renewable electricity technologies in terms of their life cycle CO2 emissions and embodied energy, from construction to decommissioning and including maintenance (periodic component replacement plus machinery use), using life cycle analysis. The models developed were based on case studies of power plants in New Zealand, comprising geothermal, large-scale hydroelectric, tidal (a proposed scheme), and wind-farm electricity generation. The comparative results showed that tidal power generation was associated with 1.8 g of CO2/kWh, wind with 3.0 g of CO2/kWh, hydroelectric with 4.6 g of CO2/kWh, and geothermal with 5.6 g of CO2/kWh (not including fugitive emissions), and that tidal power generation was associated with 42.3 kJ/kWh, wind with 70.2 kJ/kWh, hydroelectric with 55.0 kJ/kWh, and geothermal with 94.6 kJ/kWh. Other environmental indicators, as well as social and economic indicators, should be applied to gain a complete picture of the technologies studied.

  10. A Constant Energy-Per-Cycle Ring Oscillator Over a Wide Frequency Range for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhee; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient oscillator for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). It avoids short-circuit current by minimizing the time spent in the input voltage range from Vthn to [Vdd − |Vthp|]. A current-feeding scheme with gate voltage control enables the oscillator to operate over a wide frequency range. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show that the proposed oscillator achieves a constant energy-per-cycle (EpC) of 0.8 pJ/cycle over the 21–60 MHz frequency range and is more efficient than a conventional current-starved ring oscillator (CSRO) below 300 kHz at 1.8 V supply voltage. As an application example, the proposed oscillator is implemented in a switched-capacitor DC–DC converter. The converter is 11%–56% more efficient for load power values ranging from 583 pW to 2.9 nW than a converter using a conventional CSRO. PMID:27546899

  11. Improvements on APTC (Ambient Pressure Thermal Cycling) Chamber Regarding Temperature Homogeneity and Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollner, B.; Doring, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the working principles of IABG's Ambient Pressure Thermal Cycling chamber (an alternative to thermal-vacuum tests for some cases) and our activities to characterize and improve the system. For example a 3D grid of 64 temperature sensors was installed inside the test volume, in order to determine reliable temperature distribution data for standard operating conditions. Camera monitoring inside the temperature control / fan box allowed us to study the processes. A modification of the direct injection of liquid nitrogen (for efficient cooling) by installation of defined spray nozzles improved the temperature distribution. The characteristics of the original LN2 injection valve caused enormous consumption of liquid nitrogen and electrical power even at constant chamber temperatures. A new valve with a different control characteristic reduced this standby consumption remarkably.

  12. ENERGY DEMANDS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ACROSS THE LIFE CYCLE OF BIOETHANOL USED AS FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most assessments of converting biomass to fuels are limited to energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances to determine if there is a net loss or gain. A fairly consistent conclusion of these studies is that the use of bio-ethanol in place of conventional fuels leads to a net gain....

  13. Innovation & Risk Management Result in Energy and Life-Cycle Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstrand, David E.; Singh, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines a Pennsylvania school's successful planning, design, and bidding process for acquiring a geothermal heat pump (GHP)system whose subsequent efficiency became award-winning for environmental excellence. Charts and statistical tables describe the GHP's energy savings. Concluding comments review the lessons learned from the process. (GR)

  14. Principle design of a protontherapy, rapid-cycling, variable energy spiral FFAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, S.; Autin, B.; Beeckman, W.; Collot, J.; Conjat, M.; Forest, F.; Fourrier, J.; Froidefond, E.; Lancelot, J. L.; Mandrillon, J.; Mandrillon, P.; Méot, F.; Mori, Y.; Neuvéglise, D.; Ohmori, C.; Pasternak, J.; Planche, T.

    2009-04-01

    The FFAG method is nowadays seen as a potential candidate for the acceleration of protons and light ions for hadrontherapy. This has motivated the design of a principle protontherapy installation, in the frame of the RACCAM project. This article presents the design study, a medical spiral scaling FFAG assembly, capable of producing variable energy proton beams, with potentially high repetition and dose delivery rates.

  15. Lithium Sulfur Primary Battery with Super High Energy Density: Based on the Cauliflower-like Structured C/S Cathode

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Hongzhang; Wu, Baoshan; Wang, Meiri; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-01-01

    The lithium-sulfur primary batteries, as seldom reported in the previous literatures, were developed in this work. In order to maximize its practical energy density, a novel cauliflower-like hierarchical porous C/S cathode was designed, for facilitating the lithium-ions transport and sulfur accommodation. This kind of cathode could release about 1300 mAh g−1 (S) capacity at sulfur loading of 6 ~ 14 mg cm−2, and showed excellent shelf stability during a month test at room temperature. As a result, the assembled Li-S soft package battery achieved an energy density of 504 Wh kg−1 (654 Wh L−1), which was the highest value ever reported to the best of our knowledge. This work might arouse the interests on developing primary Li-S batteries, with great potential for practical application. PMID:26456914

  16. Lithium Sulfur Primary Battery with Super High Energy Density: Based on the Cauliflower-like Structured C/S Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Hongzhang; Wu, Baoshan; Wang, Meiri; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-10-01

    The lithium-sulfur primary batteries, as seldom reported in the previous literatures, were developed in this work. In order to maximize its practical energy density, a novel cauliflower-like hierarchical porous C/S cathode was designed, for facilitating the lithium-ions transport and sulfur accommodation. This kind of cathode could release about 1300 mAh g-1 (S) capacity at sulfur loading of 6 ~ 14 mg cm-2, and showed excellent shelf stability during a month test at room temperature. As a result, the assembled Li-S soft package battery achieved an energy density of 504 Wh kg-1 (654 Wh L-1), which was the highest value ever reported to the best of our knowledge. This work might arouse the interests on developing primary Li-S batteries, with great potential for practical application.

  17. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  18. Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

  19. Effects of low and high levels of moderate hypoxia on anaerobic energy release during supramaximal cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Katamoto, Shizuo; Uchimaru, Jin; Takahashi, Kohei; Naito, Hisashi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hypoxia can alter anaerobic energy release during supramaximal exercise. Seven male subjects performed 12 submaximal cycling tests to establish the relationship between workload and O2 demand. The subjects also performed 40 s Wingate tests (WT) under normoxia (room air), two levels of moderate hypoxia of 16.4% O2 and 12.7% O2. We measured the power output and oxygen uptake (VO2) during each test and estimated the O2 demand, O2 deficit and percentage of anaerobic energy release (%AnAER). These data were analyzed for each 20 s interval. At all intervals, there were no differences in Pmean per body mass (BM)(-1), O2 demand per BM(-1) or O2 deficit per BM(-1) among the three O2 conditions. However, under hypoxia of 12.7%, VO2 per BM(-1) was significantly decreased and %AnAER was significantly increased in the late phase (20-40 s) of the WT, compared to normoxia (P<0.05). There were no such significant differences between normoxia and hypoxia of 16.4%. Thus, the present results show that the degree of hypoxia affects the magnitude of the hypoxia-induced increase in anaerobic energy release in the late phase of the WT and suggest that certain degrees of hypoxia induce significant increases in the amount of anaerobic energy released, compared to normoxia.

  20. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a Building-Scale Wastewater Treatment and Nonpotable Reuse System.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Thomas P; Nguyen, Mi T; Sukardi, Marsha; Miot, Alexandre; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-09-01

    Treatment and water reuse in decentralized systems is envisioned to play a greater role in our future urban water infrastructure due to growing populations and uncertainty in quality and quantity of traditional water resources. In this study, we utilized life-cycle assessment (LCA) to analyze the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of an operating Living Machine (LM) wetland treatment system that recycles wastewater in an office building. The study also assessed the performance of the local utility's centralized wastewater treatment plant, which was found to be significantly more efficient than the LM (79% less energy, 98% less GHG emissions per volume treated). To create a functionally equivalent comparison, the study developed a hypothetical scenario in which the same LM design flow is recycled via centralized infrastructure. This comparison revealed that the current LM has energy consumption advantages (8% less), and a theoretically improved LM design could have GHG advantages (24% less) over the centralized reuse system. The methodology in this study can be applied to other case studies and scenarios to identify conditions under which decentralized water reuse can lower GHG emissions and energy use compared to centralized water reuse when selecting alternative approaches to meet growing water demands.

  1. Conceptual design of an Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Net Power-Producing Experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H. J.; Link, H. F.; Parsons, B. K.; Parsons, J. M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.

  2. Assessing Location and Scale of Urban Nonpotable Water Reuse Systems for Life-Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Kavvada, Olga; Horvath, Arpad; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Eisenstein, William A; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-12-20

    Nonpotable water reuse (NPR) is one option for conserving valuable freshwater resources. Decentralization can improve distribution system efficiency by locating treatment closer to the consumer; however, small treatment systems may have higher unit energy and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. This research explored the trade-off between residential NPR systems using a life-cycle approach to analyze the energy use and GHG emissions. Decentralized and centralized NPR options are compared to identify where decentralized systems achieve environmental advantages over centralized reuse alternatives, and vice versa, over a range of scales and spatial and demographic conditions. For high-elevation areas far from the centralized treatment plant, decentralized NPR could lower energy use by 29% and GHG emissions by 28%, but in low-elevation areas close to the centralized treatment plant, decentralized reuse could be higher by up to 85% (energy) and 49% (GHG emissions) for the scales assessed (20-2000 m(3)/day). Direct GHG emissions from the treatment processes were found to be highly uncertain and variable and were not included in the analysis. The framework presented can be used as a planning support tool to reveal the environmental impacts of integrating decentralized NPR with existing centralized wastewater infrastructure and can be adapted to evaluate different treatment technology scales for reuse.

  3. Charge composition of high energy heavy primary cosmic ray nuclei. Ph.D. Thesis - Catholic Univ. of Am.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed study of the charge composition of primary cosmic radiation for about 5000 charged nuclei from neon to iron with energies greater than 1.16 GeV/nucleon is presented. Values are obtained after corrections were made for detector dependences, atmospheric attenuation, and solar modulation. New values of 38.5, 32.4, 23.7, and 16.8 g/sq cm for the attenuation mean free paths in air for the same charge groups are presented.

  4. Energy losses in thermally cycled optical fibers constrained in small bend radii

    SciTech Connect

    Guild, Eric; Morelli, Gregg

    2012-09-23

    High energy laser pulses were fired into a 365μm diameter fiber optic cable constrained in small radii of curvature bends, resulting in a catastrophic failure. Q-switched laser pulses from a flashlamp pumped, Nd:YAG laser were injected into the cables, and the spatial intensity profile at the exit face of the fiber was observed using an infrared camera. The transmission of the radiation through the tight radii resulted in an asymmetric intensity profile with one half of the fiber core having a higher peak-to-average energy distribution. Prior to testing, the cables were thermally conditioned while constrained in the small radii of curvature bends. Single-bend, double-bend, and U-shaped eometries were tested to characterize various cable routing scenarios.

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Analysis of Passive House with Variable Construction Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baďurová, Silvia; Ponechal, Radoslav; Ďurica, Pavol

    2013-11-01

    The term "passive house" refers to rigorous and voluntary standards for energy efficiency in a building, reducing its ecological footprint. There are many ways how to build a passive house successfully. These designs as well as construction techniques vary from ordinary timber constructions using packs of straw or constructions of clay. This paper aims to quantify environmental quality of external walls in a passive house, which are made of a timber frame, lightweight concrete blocks and sand-lime bricks in order to determine whether this constructional form provides improved environmental performance. Furthermore, this paper assesses potential benefit of energy savings at heating of houses in which their external walls are made of these three material alternatives. A two storey residential passive house, with floorage of 170.6 m2, was evaluated. Some measurements of air and surface temperatures were done as a calibration etalon for a method of simulation.

  6. Renewable Energy Production and Urban Remediation: Modeling the biogeochemical cycle at contaminated urban brownfields and the potential for renewable energy production and mitigation of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Brownfields or urban sites that have been contaminated as a result of historic practices are present throughout the world. In the United States alone, the National Research Council has estimated that there are approximately 300,000 to 400,000 sites which have been contaminated by improper use and disposal of chemicals (NRC 1993). The land available at these sites is estimated at several million acres; however, the presence of high levels of contamination in the soil and groundwater makes it difficult to utilize these sites for traditional purposes such as agriculture. Further, the time required to remediate these contaminants to regulated levels is in the order of decades, which often results in long-term economic consequences for the areas near these sites. There has been significant interest in developing these sites as potential sources of renewable energy production in order to increase the economic viability of these sites and to provide alternative land resources for renewable energy production (EPA 2012). Solar energy, wind energy, and bioenergy from lignocellulosic biomass production have been identified as the main sources of renewable energy that can be produced at these locations. However, the environmental impacts of such a policy and the implications for greenhouse gas emissions, particularly resulting from changes in land-use impacting the biogeochemical cycle at these sites, have not been studied extensively to date. This study uses the biogeochemical process-based model DNDC to simulate carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions and methane emissions from typical urban brownfield systems in the United States, when renewable energy systems are deployed. Photovoltaic solar energy and lignocellulosic biomass energy systems are evaluated here. Plants modeled include those most widely used for both bioenergy and remediation such as woody trees. Model sensitivity to soil conditions, contaminant levels and local weather data and the resulting impacts on

  7. Solar Thermochemical Energy Storage Through Carbonation Cycles of SrCO3/SrO Supported on SrZrO3.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Nathan R; Barde, Amey; Randhir, Kelvin; Li, Like; Hahn, David W; Mei, Renwei; Klausner, James F; AuYeung, Nick

    2015-11-01

    Solar thermochemical energy storage has enormous potential for enabling cost-effective concentrated solar power (CSP). A thermochemical storage system based on a SrO/SrCO3 carbonation cycle offers the ability to store and release high temperature (≈1200 °C) heat. The energy density of SrCO3/SrO systems supported by zirconia-based sintering inhibitors was investigated for 15 cycles of exothermic carbonation at 1150 °C followed by decomposition at 1235 °C. A sample with 40 wt % of SrO supported by yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) shows good energy storage stability at 1450 MJ m(-3) over fifteen cycles at the same cycling temperatures. After further testing over 45 cycles, a decrease in energy storage capacity to 1260 MJ m(-3) is observed during the final cycle. The decrease is due to slowing carbonation kinetics, and the original value of energy density may be obtained by lengthening the carbonation steps.

  8. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  9. Dynamics and Energy Balance in Stellar Transition Regions Cycle 3 Augmentation - Missing Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    We will observe with 80,000 spectral resolution the stellar Lyman alpha emission line and interstellar hydrogen and deuterium absorption towards local late-type stars to derive the H and D column densities and D/H ratios along different lines of sight. High resolution (90,000) spectra of the MgII and FeII lines will help determine the interstellar line broadening and whether material along each line of sight has more than one velocity component. This is critical for accurate measurements of D/H, because both the D and H lines are on or near the flat part of the curve of growth. Previous IUE and Copernicus observations, which had low signal/noise and inadequate spectral resolution, provided very crude D/H values and suggested that the D/H ratio may vary within a few parsecs of the Sun. We will measure D/H with at least one order of magnitude improved precision and determine whether the proposed local variations are real. The local value(s) of D/H may be extrapolated to zero metal abundance to estimate the primordial value, which is valuable for constraining cosmological models. THIS PHASE II IS FOR OBSERVATION OF AN UNSCHEDULED CYCLE3 LYMAN ALPHA OBSERVATION OF HR1099 AT ORBITAL PHASE 0.75.

  10. Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Burton; Chu, Margaret; Hoffman, Darleane; Juzaitis, Ray; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Omberg, Ronald P.; Rempe, Joy L.; Warin, Dominique

    2012-06-12

    The Fuel Cycle (FC) Subcommittee of NEAC met February 7-8, 2012 in Washington (Drs. Hoffmann and Juzaitis were unable to attend). While the meeting was originally scheduled to occur after the submission of the President’s FY 2013 budget, the submission was delayed a week; thus, we could have no discussion on balance in the NE program. The Agenda is attached as Appendix A. The main focus of the meeting was on accident tolerant fuels, an important post Fukushima issue, and on issues related to the report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future (BRC) as related to the responsibility for used fuel disposal which was assigned to the FC program with the end of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. In addition we heard an update on the systems study program which is aimed at helping chose the best options for advanced reactors, and possible new study on separation and waste form relevance to used fuel disposal (these two items are only discussed in this section of the report).

  11. Economic analysis of community solar heating systems that use annual cycle thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.; Hooper, F. C.; McClenahan, J. D.

    1981-02-01

    Systems were sized for three housing configurations: single unit dwellings, 10 unit, and 200 unit apartment complexes in 50, 200, 400, and 1000 unit communities in 10 geographic locations in the United States. Thermal energy is stored in large, constructed, underground tanks. Costs were assigned to each component of every system in order to allow calculation of total costs. Results are presented as normalized system costs per unit of heat delivered per building unit. These methods allow: identification of the relative importance of each system component in the overall cost; and identification of the key variables that determine the optimum sizing of a district solar heating system.

  12. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  13. Daylighting Strategies for U. S. Air Force Office Facilities: Economic Analysis of Building Energy Performance and Life-Cycle Cost Modeling with Monte Carlo Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    approximately $15-23 billion annually in energy consumption. Our research findings show that electrochromic windows have the lowest energy consumption...make emerging daylighitng technology, such as electrochromic windows, viable. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of probabilistic life-cycle... Electrochromic Windows ...........................................................................................35 Windows and Daylighting

  14. Ternary metal fluorides as high-energy cathodes with low cycling hysteresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Kim, Sung-Wook; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kang, Kisuk; Wang, Liping; Su, Dong; Vajo, John J.; Wang, John; Graetz, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal fluorides are an appealing alternative to conventional intercalation compounds for use as cathodes in next-generation lithium batteries due to their extremely high capacity (3–4 times greater than the current state-of-the-art). However, issues related to reversibility, energy efficiency and kinetics prevent their practical application. Here we report on the synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of ternary metal fluorides (M1yM21-yFx: M1, M2=Fe, Cu), which may overcome these issues. By substituting Cu into the Fe lattice, forming the solid–solution CuyFe1-yF2, reversible Cu and Fe redox reactions are achieved with surprisingly small hysteresis (<150 mV). This finding indicates that cation substitution may provide a new avenue for tailoring key electrochemical properties of conversion electrodes. Although the reversible capacity of Cu conversion fades rapidly, likely due to Cu+ dissolution, the low hysteresis and high energy suggest that a Cu-based fluoride cathode remains an intriguing candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:25808876

  15. Ternary metal fluorides as high-energy cathodes with low cycling hysteresis

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Feng; Kim, Sung -Wook; Seo, Dong -Hwa; ...

    2015-03-26

    In this study, transition metal fluorides are an appealing alternative to conventional intercalation compounds for use as cathodes in next-generation lithium batteries due to their extremely high capacity (3–4 times greater than the current state-of-the-art). However, issues related to reversibility, energy efficiency and kinetics prevent their practical application. Here we report on the synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of ternary metal fluorides (M1yM21-yFx: M1, M2 = Fe, Cu), which may overcome these issues. By substituting Cu into the Fe lattice, forming the solid–solution CuyFe1-yF2, reversible Cu and Fe redox reactions are achieved with surprisingly small hysteresis (<150 mV). This findingmore » indicates that cation substitution may provide a new avenue for tailoring key electrochemical properties of conversion electrodes. In conclusion, although the reversible capacity of Cu conversion fades rapidly, likely due to Cu+ dissolution, the low hysteresis and high energy suggest that a Cu-based fluoride cathode remains an intriguing candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries.« less

  16. Ternary metal fluorides as high-energy cathodes with low cycling hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Kim, Sung -Wook; Seo, Dong -Hwa; Kang, Kisuk; Wang, Liping; Su, Dong; Vajo, John J.; Wang, John; Gratez, Jason

    2015-03-26

    In this study, transition metal fluorides are an appealing alternative to conventional intercalation compounds for use as cathodes in next-generation lithium batteries due to their extremely high capacity (3–4 times greater than the current state-of-the-art). However, issues related to reversibility, energy efficiency and kinetics prevent their practical application. Here we report on the synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of ternary metal fluorides (M1yM21-yFx: M1, M2 = Fe, Cu), which may overcome these issues. By substituting Cu into the Fe lattice, forming the solid–solution CuyFe1-yF2, reversible Cu and Fe redox reactions are achieved with surprisingly small hysteresis (<150 mV). This finding indicates that cation substitution may provide a new avenue for tailoring key electrochemical properties of conversion electrodes. In conclusion, although the reversible capacity of Cu conversion fades rapidly, likely due to Cu+ dissolution, the low hysteresis and high energy suggest that a Cu-based fluoride cathode remains an intriguing candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  17. Energy intensity, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and economic assessment of liquid biofuel pipelines.

    PubMed

    Strogen, Bret; Horvath, Arpad; Zilberman, David

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum fuels are predominantly transported domestically by pipelines, whereas biofuels are almost exclusively transported by rail, barge, and truck. As biofuel production increases, new pipelines may become economically attractive. Location-specific variables impacting pipeline viability include construction costs, availability and costs of alternative transportation modes, electricity prices and emissions (if priced), throughput, and subsurface temperature. When transporting alcohol or diesel-like fuels, pipelines have a lower direct energy intensity than rail, barge, and trucks if fluid velocity is under 1 m/s for 4-inch diameter pipelines and 2 m/s for 8-inch or larger pipelines. Across multiple hypothetical state-specific scenarios, profit-maximizing design velocities range from 1.2 to 1.9 m/s. In costs and GHG emissions, optimized pipelines outperform trucks in each state and rail and barge in most states, if projected throughput exceeds four billion liters/year. If emissions are priced, optimum design diameters typically increase to reduce pumping energy demands, increasing the cost-effectiveness of pipeline projects.

  18. Sensitivity of YAC to measure the light-component spectrum of primary cosmic rays at the ‘knee’ energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, L. M.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.; Shibata, M.; Katayose, Y.; Zhang, Ying; Liu, J. S.; Chen, Xu; Hu, X. B.; Lin, Y. H.

    2015-04-01

    A new air-shower core-detector array (YAC: Yangbajing air-shower Core-detector array) has been developed to measure the primary cosmic-ray composition at the ‘knee’ energies in Tibet, China, focusing mainly on the light components. The prototype experiment (YAC-I) consisting of 16 detectors has been constructed and operated at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l.) in Tibet since May 2009. YAC-I is installed in the Tibet-III AS array and operates together. In this paper, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation to check the sensitivity of the YAC-I+Tibet-III array to the cosmic-ray light component of cosmic rays around the knee energies, taking account of the observation conditions of the actual YAC-I+Tibet-III array. The selection of light component from others was made by use of an artificial neural network. The simulation shows that the light-component spectrum estimated by our methods can well reproduce the input ones within 10% error, and there will be about 30% systematic errors mostly induced by the primary and interaction models used. It is found that the full-scale YAC and the Tibet-III array is powerful to study the cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei around the knee energies.

  19. Students' Energy Concepts at the Transition between Primary and Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opitz, Sebastian T.; Harms, Ute; Neumann, Knut; Kowalzik, Kristin; Frank, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Energy is considered both a core idea and a crosscutting concept in science education. A thorough understanding of the energy concept is thought to help students learn about other (related) concepts within and across science subjects, thereby fostering scientific literacy. This study investigates students' progression in understanding the energy…

  20. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore » that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  1. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  2. High energy neutrinos from primary cosmic rays accelerated in the cores of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectra and high-energy neutrino fluxes are calculated from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) such as quasars and Seyfert galaxies using recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in the AGN. Collectively AGN should produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10 exp 4 and 10 exp 10 GeV. Measurement of this background could be critical in determining the energy-generation mechanism, evolution, and distribution of AGN. High-energy background spectra and spectra from bright AGN such as NGC4151 and 3C273 are predicted which should be observable with present detectors. High energy AGN nus should produce a sphere of stellar disruption around their cores which could explain their observed broad-line emission regions.

  3. Capital requirements and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of potential PNGV fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.

    1999-03-11

    Our study reveals that supplying gasoline-equivalent demand for the low-market-share scenario requires a capital investment of less than $40 billion for all fuels except H{sub 2}, which will require a total cumulative investment of $150 billion. By contrast, cumulative capital investments under the high-market-share scenario are $50 billion for LNG, $90 billion for ethanol, $100 billion for methanol, $160 billion for CNG and DME, and $560 billion for H{sub 2}. Although these substantial capital requirements are spread over many years, their magnitude could pose a challenge to the widespread introduction of 3X vehicles. Fossil fuel use by US light-duty vehicles declines significantly with introduction of 3X vehicles because of fuel-efficiency improvements for 3X vehicles and because of fuel substitution (which applies to the nonpetroleum-fueled alternatives). Petroleum use for light-duty vehicles in 2030 is reduced by as much as 45% relative to the reference scenario. GHG emissions follow a similar pattern. Total GHG emissions decline by 25-30% with most of the propulsion system/fuel alternatives. For those using renewable fuels (i.e., ethanol and H{sub 2} from solar energy), GHG emissions drop by 33% (H{sub 2}) and 45% (ethanol). Among urban air pollutants, urban NOX emissions decline slightly for 3X vehicles using CIDI and SIDI engines and drop substantially for fuel-cell vehicles. Urban CO emissions decline for CIDI and FCV alternatives, while VOC emissions drop significantly for all alternatives except RFG-, methanol-, and ethanol-fueled SIDI engines. With the exception of CIDI engines fueled by RFD, FT50, or B20 (which increase urban PM{sub 10} emissions by over 30%), all propulsion system/fuel alternatives reduce urban PM{sub 10} emissions. Reductions are approximately 15-20% for fuel cells and for methanol-, ethanol-, CNG-, or LPG-fueled SIDI engines. Table 3 qualitatively summarizes impacts of the 13 alternatives on capital requirements and on energy use and

  4. The primary composition beyond 10 to the 5th power GeV as deduced from high energy hadrons and muons in air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    1985-01-01

    Data obtained from a large set of air shower simulation calculations with use of highly refined hadronic interaction and shower simulation model are presented, in an attempt to solve the problem of primary chemical composition beyond 100,000 GeV total energy. It is rated that high energy hadrons in air showers offer a rather unique primary mass signature and show that the interpretation of high energy muon data is much more ambiguous. Predictions are compared with experimental data.

  5. Determination of primary energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions and the high P(sub)T tail of alpha-particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freier, P. S.; Atwater, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    A determination of primary energy is required in order to study the energy dependence of meson multiplicity in A-A collisions in cosmic rays. Various procedures which estimate the energy of a primary nucleus from its interaction were investigated. An average of two methods were used, one using the pions and wounded protons and the other using spectator protons and alpha particles. The high P sub T tail observed for Z = 2 fragments requires a modification of the latter method.

  6. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: a life-cycle costing approach.

    PubMed

    Massarutto, Antonio; de Carli, Alessandro; Graffi, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  7. Energy Absorption in a Load-Unload Cycle of Knee Implant Using Fractal Model of Rough Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodaei, Mohammad; Farhang, Kambiz

    2016-05-01

    Roughness measurement of knee implant surfaces is investigated. The study of roughness measurement show that the topography of knee implant surface is multi-scale and surface spectra follows a power law behavior. A magnification of rough surface topography implies that there is no difference between original and magnified profile of implant surface. For implant surface, statistical parameters such as variance of height, curvature, and slope are found to be scale-dependent. Fractal representation of implant surface shows that the size-distribution of the multi-scale contacts spots follows a power law and is characterized by the fractal dimension of implant surface. Fractal surface description of the rough surfaces of knee implant is used to obtain force-displacement relationship of the contact force. Using an approximate function through the fusion of two piecewise functions, energy absorption of a knee implant in a single cycle of load-unload is obtained.

  8. Chronic fluoxetine treatment directs energy metabolism towards the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in rat hippocampal nonsynaptic mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Dragana; Costina, Victor; Perić, Ivana; Stanisavljević, Andrijana; Findeisen, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Fluoxetine (Flx) is the principal treatment for depression; however, the precise mechanisms of its actions remain elusive. Our aim was to identify protein expression changes wit