Science.gov

Sample records for cycle project twenty-first

  1. Projection of drought hazards in China during twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yulian; Wang, Yongli; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Wenbin; Jin, Shaofei; Han, Mingchen

    2017-06-01

    Drought is occurring with increased frequency under climate warming. To understand the behavior of drought and its variation in the future, current and future drought in the twenty-first century over China is discussed. The drought frequency and trend of drought intensity are assessed using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which is calculated based on historical meteorological observations and outputs of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. The simulation results of drought period, defined by PDSI class, could capture more than 90% of historical drought events. Projection results indicate that drought frequency will increase over China in the twenty-first century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the mid-twenty-first century (2021-2050), similar patterns of drought frequency are found under the three emission scenarios, and annual drought duration would last 3.5-4 months. At the end of the twenty-first century (2071-2100), annual drought duration could exceed 5 months in northwestern China as well as coastal areas of eastern and southern China under the RCP8.5 scenario. Drought is slightly reduced over the entire twenty-first century under the RCP2.6 scenario, whereas drought hazards will be more serious in most regions of China under the RCP8.5 scenario.

  2. Uncertainty in Twenty-First-Century CMIP5 Sea Level Projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Christopher M.; Horton, Radley M.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yip, Stan

    2015-01-01

    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) simulations included in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) quantify the response of the climate system to different natural and anthropogenic forcing scenarios. These simulations differ because of 1) forcing, 2) the representation of the climate system in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), and 3) the presence of unforced (internal) variability. Global and local sea level rise projections derived from these simulations, and the emergence of distinct responses to the four RCPs depend on the relative magnitude of these sources of uncertainty at different lead times. Here, the uncertainty in CMIP5 projections of sea level is partitioned at global and local scales, using a 164-member ensemble of twenty-first-century simulations. Local projections at New York City (NYSL) are highlighted. The partition between model uncertainty, scenario uncertainty, and internal variability in global mean sea level (GMSL) is qualitatively consistent with that of surface air temperature, with model uncertainty dominant for most of the twenty-first century. Locally, model uncertainty is dominant through 2100, with maxima in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The model spread is driven largely by 4 of the 16 AOGCMs in the ensemble; these models exhibit outlying behavior in all RCPs and in both GMSL and NYSL. The magnitude of internal variability varies widely by location and across models, leading to differences of several decades in the local emergence of RCPs. The AOGCM spread, and its sensitivity to model exclusion and/or weighting, has important implications for sea level assessments, especially if a local risk management approach is utilized.

  3. Effects of long-term variability on projections of twenty-first century dynamic sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, Mohammad H.; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of anthropogenic global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea-level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations has been conducted with a climate model, where each realization was forced by identical CO2 increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea-level rise, suggesting that internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing twenty-first-century DSL trends. The ensemble spread is considerably reduced in the mid- to high latitudes when only the atmospheric initial conditions differ while keeping the oceanic initial state identical; indicating that centennial DSL projections are strongly dependent on ocean initial conditions.

  4. Projected deglaciation of western Canada in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Garry K. C.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Anslow, Faron S.; Radić, Valentina; Menounos, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Retreat of mountain glaciers is a significant contributor to sea-level rise and a potential threat to human populations through impacts on water availability and regional hydrology. Like most of Earth’s mountain glaciers, those in western North America are experiencing rapid mass loss. Projections of future large-scale mass change are based on surface mass balance models that are open to criticism, because they ignore or greatly simplify glacier physics. Here we use a high-resolution regional glaciation model, developed by coupling physics-based ice dynamics with a surface mass balance model, to project the fate of glaciers in western Canada. We use twenty-first-century climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations; the results indicate that by 2100, the volume of glacier ice in western Canada will shrink by 70 +/- 10% relative to 2005. According to our simulations, few glaciers will remain in the Interior and Rockies regions, but maritime glaciers, in particular those in northwestern British Columbia, will survive in a diminished state. We project the maximum rate of ice volume loss, corresponding to peak input of deglacial meltwater to streams and rivers, to occur around 2020-2040. Potential implications include impacts on aquatic ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, alpine tourism and water quality.

  5. On the twenty-first-century wet season projections over the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selman, Christopher; Misra, Vasu; Stefanova, Lydia; Dinapoli, Steven; Smith, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reconciles the difference in the projections of the wet season over the Southeastern United States (SEUS) from a global climate model (the Community Climate System Model Version 3 [CCSM3]) and from a regional climate model (the Regional Spectral Model [RSM]) nested in the CCSM3. The CCSM3 projects a dipole in the summer precipitation anomaly: peninsular Florida dries in the future climate, and the remainder of the SEUS region becomes wetter. The RSM forced with CCSM3 projects a universal drying of the SEUS in the late twenty-first century relative to the corresponding twentieth-century summer. The CCSM3 pattern is attributed to the “upped-ante” mechanism, whereby the atmospheric boundary layer moisture required for convection increases in a warm, statically stable global tropical environment. This criterion becomes harder to meet along convective margins, which include peninsular Florida, resulting in its drying. CCSM3 also projects a southwestward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high that leads to further stabilizing of the atmosphere above Florida, inhibiting convection. The RSM, because of its high (10-km grid) resolution, simulates diurnal variations in summer rainfall over SEUS reasonably well. The RSM improves upon CCSM3 through the RSM’s depiction of the diurnal variance of precipitation, which according to observations accounts for up to 40 % of total seasonal precipitation variance. In the future climate, the RSM projects a significant reduction in the diurnal variability of convection. The reduction is attributed to large-scale stabilization of the atmosphere in the CCSM3 projections.

  6. Projections of glacier change in the Altai Mountains under twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Kadota, Tsutomu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2016-11-01

    We project glacier surface mass balances of the Altai Mountains over the period 2006-2100 for the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using daily near-surface air temperature and precipitation from 12 global climate models in combination with a surface mass balance model. The results indicate that the Altai glaciers will undergo sustained mass loss throughout the 21st for both RCPs and reveal the future fate of glaciers of different sizes. By 2100, glacier area in the region will shrink by 26 ± 10 % for RCP4.5, while it will shrink by 60 ± 15 % for RCP8.5. According to our simulations, most disappearing glaciers are located in the western part of the Altai Mountains. For RCP4.5, all glaciers disappearing in the twenty-first century have a present-day size smaller than 5.0 km2, while for RCP8.5, an additional 7 % of glaciers in the initial size class of 5.0-10.0 km2 also vanish. We project different trends in the total meltwater discharge of the region for the two RCPs, which does not peak before 2100, with important consequences for regional water availability, particular for the semi-arid and arid regions. This further highlights the potential implications of change in the Altai glaciers on regional hydrology and environment.

  7. Projections of Twenty-first Century Regional and Coastal Sea-level Changes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stammer, D.; Slangen, A.; Carson, M. L.; Katsman, C. A.; Vandewal, R.; Koehl, A.; Vermeersen, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Regional and coastal sea-level projections and associated uncertainty estimates during the twenty-first century are being presented. Results are based on CMIP5 climate model results in addition to gravitational effects due to land ice mass changes and groundwater extraction, and regional changes in ocean density and circulation, atmospheric pressure loading, and glacial isostatic adjustment. A moderate and a warmer climate change scenario yield a global mean sea-level rise of 0.53 (+/- 0.18) m and 0.72 (+/-0.27) m, respectively. Regionally however, changes can deviate from the global mean. Higher values of up to 30% can be reached in coastal regions along the North Atlantic Ocean and along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and up to 20% in the subtropical and equatorial regions. Limited sea-level rise down to 50% of the global mean value is projected for the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean, portions of the Arctic Ocean and off the western Antarctic coast.

  8. Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Niño and related precipitation variability.

    PubMed

    Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

    2013-10-24

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20 years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during El Niño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized.

  9. Robust twenty-first-century projections of ElNiño and related precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    The ElNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during ElNiño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized.

  10. Projected seasonal mean summer monsoon over India and adjoining regions for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sushil K.; Mishra, Saroj K.; Pattnayak, Kanhu C.; Mamgain, Ashu; Mariotti, Laura; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo; Giuliani, Graziano

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we present the projected seasonal mean summer monsoon over India and adjoining regions for the twenty-first century under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios using the regional model RegCM4 driven by the global model GFDL-ESM2M. RegCM4 is integrated from 1970 to 2099 at 50 km horizontal resolution over the South Asia CORDEX domain. The simulated mean summer monsoon circulation and associated rainfall by RegCM4 are validated against observations in the reference period 1975 to 2004 based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) data sets. Regional model results are also compared with those of the global model GFDL which forces the RegCM4, showing that the regional model in particular improves the simulation of precipitation trends during the reference period. Future projections are categorized as near future (2010-2039), mid future (2040-2069), and far future (2070-2099). Comparison of projected seasonal (June-September) mean rainfall from the different time slices indicate a gradual increase in the intensity of changes over some of the regions under both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. RegCM4 projected rainfall decreases over most of the Indian land mass and the equatorial and northern Indian Ocean, while it increases over the Arabian Sea, northern Bay of Bengal, and the Himalayas. Results show that the monsoon circulation may become weaker in the future associated with a decrease in rainfall over Indian land points. The RegCM4 projected decrease in June, July, August, September (JJAS) rainfall under the RCP8.5 scenario over the central, eastern, and peninsular India by the end of the century is in the range of 25-40 % of their mean reference period values; it is significant at the 95 % confidence level and it is broadly in line with patterns of observed change in recent decades. Surface evaporation is projected to increase over the Indian Ocean, thereby

  11. Twenty-first century reversal of the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, O. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Correa, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

    2014-10-01

    Changing emissions can alter the surface O3 seasonal cycle, as detected from northeastern U.S. (NE) observations during recent decades. Under continued regional precursor emission controls (-72% NE NOx by 2100), the NE surface O3 seasonal cycle reverses (to a winter maximum) in 21st century transient chemistry-climate simulations. Over polluted regions, regional NOx largely controls the shape of surface O3 seasonal cycles. In the absence of regional NOx controls, climate warming contributes to a higher surface O3 summertime peak over the NE. A doubling of the global CH4 abundance by 2100 partially offsets summertime surface O3 decreases attained via NOx reductions and contributes to raising surface O3 during December-March when the O3 lifetime is longer. The similarity between surface O3 seasonal cycles over the NE and the Intermountain West by 2100 indicates a NE transition to a region representative of baseline surface O3 conditions.

  12. The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Houser, P. R.; Adler, R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Clayson, C. A.; Chambers, D.; Clark, E.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Gao, X.; Gu, G.; Hilburn, K.; Huffman, G. J.; Lettenmier, D. P.; Liu, W. T.; Robertson, F. R.; Schlosser, C. A.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study quantifies mean annual and monthly fluxes of Earth's water cycle over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the flux estimates are based on satellite measurements first and data-integrating models second. A careful accounting of uncertainty in the estimates is included. It is applied within a routine that enforces multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework in order to produce objectively determined optimized flux estimates. In the majority of cases, the observed annual surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are negligible. Fluxes were poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Many of the satellite systems that contributed data have been or will soon be lost or replaced. Models that integrate ground-based and remote observations will be critical for ameliorating gaps and discontinuities in the data records caused by these transitions. Continued development of such models is essential for maximizing the value of the observations. Next-generation observing systems are the best hope for significantly improving global water budget accounting.

  13. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, C.V.; Marcot, B.G.; Douglas, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained >10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance. ?? 2011 US Government.

  14. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained <10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance.

  15. Twenty-first century probabilistic projections of precipitation over Ontario, Canada through a regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, probabilistic projections of precipitation for the Province of Ontario are developed through a regional climate model ensemble to help investigate how global warming would affect its local climate. The PRECIS regional climate modeling system is employed to perform ensemble simulations, driven by a set of boundary conditions from a HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble. The PRECIS ensemble simulations are fed into a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify uncertain factors affecting the resulting projections of precipitation and thus generate probabilistic precipitation changes at grid point scales. Following that, reliable precipitation projections throughout the twenty-first century are developed for the entire province by applying the probabilistic changes to the observed precipitation. The results show that the vast majority of cities in Ontario are likely to suffer positive changes in annual precipitation in 2030, 2050, and 2080 s in comparison to the baseline observations. This may suggest that the whole province is likely to gain more precipitation throughout the twenty-first century in response to global warming. The analyses on the projections of seasonal precipitation further demonstrate that the entire province is likely to receive more precipitation in winter, spring, and autumn throughout this century while summer precipitation is only likely to increase slightly in 2030 s and would decrease gradually afterwards. However, because the magnitude of projected decrease in summer precipitation is relatively small in comparison with the anticipated increases in other three seasons, the annual precipitation over Ontario is likely to suffer a progressive increase throughout the twenty-first century (by 7.0 % in 2030 s, 9.5 % in 2050 s, and 12.6 % in 2080 s). Besides, the degree of uncertainty for precipitation projections is analyzed. The results suggest that future changes in spring precipitation show higher degree of uncertainty than other

  16. Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maida, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on…

  17. Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maida, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on…

  18. Developing Students' Twenty-First Century Skills through a Service Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabat, Isaac E.; Morgan, Whitney B.; Perry, Sara J.; Wang, Ying C.

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly important for students to develop practiced and applied knowledge, teamwork skills, and civic engagement in addition to core curriculum knowledge in order to be prepared for the demands of the 21st century workforce. We propose that service-learning, or learning through an applied community service project, can uniquely address…

  19. Semi-empirical versus process-based sea-level projections for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlić, Mirko; Pasarić, Zoran

    2013-08-01

    Two dynamical methods are presently used to project sea-level changes during the next century. The process-based method relies on coupled atmosphere-ocean models to estimate the effects of thermal expansion and on sea-level models combined with certain empirical relationships to determine the influence of land-ice mass changes. The semi-empirical method uses various physically motivated relationships between temperature and sea level, with parameters determined from the data, to project total sea level. However, semi-empirical projections far exceed process-based projections. Here, we test the robustness of semi-empirical projections to the underlying assumptions about the inertial and equilibrium responses of sea level to temperature forcing and the impacts of groundwater depletion and dam retention during the twentieth century. Our results show that these projections are sensitive to the dynamics considered and the terrestrial-water corrections applied. For B1, which is a moderate climate-change scenario, the lowest semi-empirical projection of sea-level rise over the twenty-first century equals 62+/-14cm. The average value is substantially smaller than previously published semi-empirical projections and is therefore closer to the corresponding process-based values. The standard deviation is larger than the uncertainties of process-based estimates.

  20. Twenty-first century projected summer mean climate in the Mediterranean interpreted through the monsoon-desert mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Annamalai, H.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Alessandri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The term "monsoon-desert mechanism" indicates the relationship between the diabatic heating associated with the South Asian summer monsoon rainfall and the remote response in the western sub-tropics where long Rossby waves anchor strong descent with high subsidence. In CMIP5 twenty-first century climate scenarios, the precipitation over South Asia is projected to increase. This study investigates how this change could affect the summer climate projections in the Mediterranean region. In a linear framework the monsoon-desert mechanism in the context of climate change would imply that the change in subsidence over the Mediterranean should be strongly linked with the changes in South Asian monsoon precipitation. The steady-state solution from a linear model forced with CMIP5 model projected precipitation change over South Asia shows a broad region of descent in the Mediterranean, while the results from CMIP5 projections differ having increased descent mostly in the western sector but also decreased descent in parts of the eastern sector. Local changes in circulation, particularly the meridional wind, promote cold air advection that anchors the descent but the barotropic Rossby wave nature of the wind anomalies consisting of alternating northerlies/southerlies favors alternating descent/ascent locations. In fact, the local mid-tropospheric meridional wind changes have the strongest correlation with the regions where the difference in subsidence is largest. There decreased rainfall is mostly balanced by changes in moisture, omega and in the horizontal advection of moisture.

  1. Uncertainty in twenty-first century projections of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in CMIP3 and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reintges, Annika; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Keenlyside, Noel S.

    2017-09-01

    Uncertainty in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is analyzed in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) and Phase 5 (CMIP5) projections for the twenty-first century; and the different sources of uncertainty (scenario, internal and model) are quantified. Although the uncertainty in future projections of the AMOC index at 30°N is larger in CMIP5 than in CMIP3, the signal-to-noise ratio is comparable during the second half of the century and even larger in CMIP5 during the first half. This is due to a stronger AMOC reduction in CMIP5. At lead times longer than a few decades, model uncertainty dominates uncertainty in future projections of AMOC strength in both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 model ensembles. Internal variability significantly contributes only during the first few decades, while scenario uncertainty is relatively small at all lead times. Model uncertainty in future changes in AMOC strength arises mostly from uncertainty in density, as uncertainty arising from wind stress (Ekman transport) is negligible. Finally, the uncertainty in changes in the density originates mostly from the simulation of salinity, rather than temperature. High-latitude freshwater flux and the subpolar gyre projections were also analyzed, because these quantities are thought to play an important role for the future AMOC changes. The freshwater input in high latitudes is projected to increase and the subpolar gyre is projected to weaken. Both the freshening and the gyre weakening likely influence the AMOC by causing anomalous salinity advection into the regions of deep water formation. While the high model uncertainty in both parameters may explain the uncertainty in the AMOC projection, deeper insight into the mechanisms for AMOC is required to reach a more quantitative conclusion.

  2. Uncertainty in twenty-first century projections of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in CMIP3 and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reintges, Annika; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Keenlyside, Noel S.

    2016-05-01

    Uncertainty in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is analyzed in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) and Phase 5 (CMIP5) projections for the twenty-first century; and the different sources of uncertainty (scenario, internal and model) are quantified. Although the uncertainty in future projections of the AMOC index at 30°N is larger in CMIP5 than in CMIP3, the signal-to-noise ratio is comparable during the second half of the century and even larger in CMIP5 during the first half. This is due to a stronger AMOC reduction in CMIP5. At lead times longer than a few decades, model uncertainty dominates uncertainty in future projections of AMOC strength in both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 model ensembles. Internal variability significantly contributes only during the first few decades, while scenario uncertainty is relatively small at all lead times. Model uncertainty in future changes in AMOC strength arises mostly from uncertainty in density, as uncertainty arising from wind stress (Ekman transport) is negligible. Finally, the uncertainty in changes in the density originates mostly from the simulation of salinity, rather than temperature. High-latitude freshwater flux and the subpolar gyre projections were also analyzed, because these quantities are thought to play an important role for the future AMOC changes. The freshwater input in high latitudes is projected to increase and the subpolar gyre is projected to weaken. Both the freshening and the gyre weakening likely influence the AMOC by causing anomalous salinity advection into the regions of deep water formation. While the high model uncertainty in both parameters may explain the uncertainty in the AMOC projection, deeper insight into the mechanisms for AMOC is required to reach a more quantitative conclusion.

  3. Projected Changes on the Global Surface Wave Drift Climate towards the END of the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Ana; Semedo, Alvaro; Behrens, Arno; Weisse, Ralf; Breivik, Øyvind; Saetra, Øyvind; Håkon Christensen, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The global wave-induced current (the Stokes Drift - SD) is an important feature of the ocean surface, with mean values close to 10 cm/s along the extra-tropical storm tracks in both hemispheres. Besides the horizontal displacement of large volumes of water the SD also plays an important role in the ocean mix-layer turbulence structure, particularly in stormy or high wind speed areas. The role of the wave-induced currents in the ocean mix-layer and in the sea surface temperature (SST) is currently a hot topic of air-sea interaction research, from forecast to climate ranges. The SD is mostly driven by wind sea waves and highly sensitive to changes in the overlaying wind speed and direction. The impact of climate change in the global wave-induced current climate will be presented. The wave model WAM has been forced by the global climate model (GCM) ECHAM5 wind speed (at 10 m height) and ice, for present-day and potential future climate conditions towards the end of the end of the twenty-first century, represented by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) CMIP3 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 3) A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (usually referred to as a ''medium-high emissions'' scenario). Several wave parameters were stored as output in the WAM model simulations, including the wave spectra. The 6 hourly and 0.5°×0.5°, temporal and space resolution, wave spectra were used to compute the SD global climate of two 32-yr periods, representative of the end of the twentieth (1959-1990) and twenty-first (1969-2100) centuries. Comparisons of the present climate run with the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-40 reanalysis are used to assess the capability of the WAM-ECHAM5 runs to produce realistic SD results. This study is part of the WRCP-JCOMM COWCLIP (Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project) effort.

  4. Projected changes of summer monsoon extremes and hydroclimatic regimes over West Africa for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Ismaïla; Giorgi, Filippo; Deme, Abdoulaye; Tall, Moustapha; Mariotti, Laura; Gaye, Amadou T.

    2016-12-01

    We use two CORDEX-Africa simulations performed with the regional model RegCM4 to characterize the projected changes in extremes and hydroclimatic regimes associated with the West African Monsoon (WAM). RegCM4 was driven for the period 1970-2100 by the HadGEM2-ES and the MPI-ESM Global Climate Models (GCMs) under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentration pathway. RegCM4 accurately simulates the WAM characteristics in terms of seasonal mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and extreme events of rainfall. Overall, both RegCM4 experiments are able to reproduce the large-scale atmospheric circulation for the reference period (i.e. present-day), and in fact show improved performance compared to the driving GCMs in terms of precipitation mean climatology and extreme events, although different shortcomings in the various models are still evident. Precipitation is projected to decrease (increase) over western (eastern) Sahel, although with different spatial detail between RegCM4 and the corresponding driving GCMs. Changes in extreme precipitation events show patterns in line with those of the mean change. The models project different changes in water budget over the Sahel region, where the MPI projects an increased deficit in local moisture supply (E < P) whereas the rest of models project a local surplus (E > P). The E-P change is primarily precipitation driven. The precipitation increases over the eastern and/or central Sahel are attributed to the increase of moisture convergence due to increased water vapor in the boundary layer air column and surface evaporation. On the other hand, the projected dry conditions over the western Sahel are associated with the strengthening of moisture divergence in the upper level (850-300 hPa) combined to both a southward migration of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and a weakening of rising motion between the core of the AEJ and the Tropical Easterly Jet.

  5. Regional projections of glacier volume and runoff in response to twenty-first century climate scenarios (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, V.; Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier melt-water is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In this study we use an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model to project annual volume changes and monthly runoff from all mountain glaciers and ice caps in the world (excluding those in the Antarctic periphery) for the 21st century forced by temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. The largest contributors to projected total volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska and glaciers peripheral to Greenland ice sheet. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 75% of their volume by 2100. The magnitude and sign of trends in annual runoff totals differ considerably among regions depending on the balance between enhanced melt and the reduction of the glacier reservoir by glacier retreat and shrinkage. Most regions show strong declines in glacier runoff indicating that the effect of glacier shrinkage is more dominant than increased melting rates. Some high-latitude regions (Arctic Canada North, Russian Arctic and Greenland) exhibit increases in runoff totals. Iceland and Svalbard show an increase in runoff followed by a multi-decadal decrease in annual runoff.

  6. A library for the twenty-first century: the Galter Health Sciences Library's renovation and expansion project.

    PubMed

    Shedlock, J; Ross, F

    1997-04-01

    A renovation and expansion project at the Galter Health Sciences Library of Northwestern University strikes a balance between traditional and future libraries, library ambiance and high technology, old and new. When guided by a vision of future building use, renovation projects can succeed in meeting many institutional goals as a viable alternative to new library buildings. Issues addressed include planning considerations, architectural history, library design, building features, information technology considerations, and ideal library space design when new construction is not possible.

  7. A library for the twenty-first century: the Galter Health Sciences Library's renovation and expansion project.

    PubMed Central

    Shedlock, J; Ross, F

    1997-01-01

    A renovation and expansion project at the Galter Health Sciences Library of Northwestern University strikes a balance between traditional and future libraries, library ambiance and high technology, old and new. When guided by a vision of future building use, renovation projects can succeed in meeting many institutional goals as a viable alternative to new library buildings. Issues addressed include planning considerations, architectural history, library design, building features, information technology considerations, and ideal library space design when new construction is not possible. Images PMID:9160155

  8. Twenty-first century wave climate projections for Ireland and surface winds in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Gleeson, Emily; Tiron, Roxana; McGrath, Ray; Dias, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Ireland has a highly energetic wave and wind climate, and is therefore uniquely placed in terms of its ocean renewable energy resource. The socio-economic importance of the marine resource to Ireland makes it critical to quantify how the wave and wind climate may change in the future due to global climate change. Projected changes in winds, ocean waves and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events should be carefully assessed for long-term marine and coastal planning. We derived an ensemble of future wave climate projections for Ireland using the EC-Earth global climate model and the WAVEWATCH III® wave model, by comparing the future 30-year period 2070-2099 to the period 1980-2009 for the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. This dataset is currently the highest resolution wave projection dataset available for Ireland. The EC-Earth ensemble predicts decreases in mean (up to 2 % for RCP4.5 and up to 3.5 % for RCP8.5) 10 m wind speeds over the North Atlantic Ocean (5-75° N, 0-80° W) by the end of the century, which will consequently affect swell generation for the Irish wave climate. The WAVEWATCH III® model predicts an overall decrease in annual and seasonal mean significant wave heights around Ireland, with the largest decreases in summer (up to 15 %) and winter (up to 10 %) for RCP8.5. Projected decreases in mean significant wave heights for spring and autumn were found to be small for both forcing scenarios (less than 5 %), with no significant decrease found for RCP4.5 off the west coast in those seasons.

  9. CO2 and non-CO2 radiative forcings in climate projections for twenty-first century mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmann, Kuno M.; Plattner, G.-K.; Joos, F.

    2009-11-01

    Climate is simulated for reference and mitigation emissions scenarios from Integrated Assessment Models using the Bern2.5CC carbon cycle-climate model. Mitigation options encompass all major radiative forcing agents. Temperature change is attributed to forcings using an impulse-response substitute of Bern2.5CC. The contribution of CO2 to global warming increases over the century in all scenarios. Non-CO2 mitigation measures add to the abatement of global warming. The share of mitigation carried by CO2, however, increases when radiative forcing targets are lowered, and increases after 2000 in all mitigation scenarios. Thus, non-CO2 mitigation is limited and net CO2 emissions must eventually subside. Mitigation rapidly reduces the sulfate aerosol loading and associated cooling, partly masking Greenhouse Gas mitigation over the coming decades. A profound effect of mitigation on CO2 concentration, radiative forcing, temperatures and the rate of climate change emerges in the second half of the century.

  10. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) projected twenty-first century warming over Southern Africa: Role of Local Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, Mxolisi; Ntsangwane, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    The warming rates projected by an ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) over southern Africa (south of 10 degrees latitude) are investigated. The low resolution GCMs forced by four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been interpolated to a common resolution using a bilinear interpolation scheme. Warming is defined in terms of absolute differences in annual-mean near-surface air temperatures between two twenty-year time slices (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and the historical period 1986-2005. In all RCPs, CMIP5 models project a higher warming rate over the southwestern parts centred around the arid Kalahari and Namib deserts and extending towards northern South Africa, eastern Namibia, western Botswana and southern Angola. The higher warming rates over these areas outpace global warming by up to a factor 2 in some GCMs. The projected warming is associated with an increase in heat waves. There is notable consensus across the models with little intermodel spread, suggesting a strong robustness of the projections. The spatial pattern and magnitude of the projected temperature increase relative to global warming is quite similar across the two selected time slices in the twenty-first century. Mechanisms underlying the enhanced warming are investigated. A positive soil moisture-temperature feedback is suggested to contribute to the accelerated temperature increase. A decrease in soil moisture is projected by the GCMs over the area of highest warming. The reduction in soil wetness reduces evapotranspiration rates over the area where evaporation is dependent on available soil moisture. The reduction is evapotranspiration affects the partitioning of turbulent energy fluxes from the soil surface into the atmosphere and translates into an increase of the Bowen ratio featuring an increase in sensible relative to latent heat flux. An increase in sensible heat flux leads to an increase in near

  11. Sources of uncertainty in projections of twenty-first century westerly wind changes over the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, in CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott; Phillips, Tony

    2014-10-01

    The influence of changes in winds over the Amundsen Sea has been shown to be a potentially key mechanism in explaining rapid loss of ice from major glaciers in West Antarctica, which is having a significant impact on global sea level. Here, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model data are used to assess twenty-first century projections in westerly winds over the Amundsen Sea ( U AS ). The importance of model uncertainty and internal climate variability in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenario projections are quantified and potential sources of model uncertainty are considered. For the decade 2090-2099 the CMIP5 models show an ensemble mean twenty-first century response in annual mean U AS of 0.3 and 0.7 m s-1 following the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios respectively. However, as a consequence of large internal climate variability over the Amundsen Sea, it takes until around 2030 (2065) for the RCP8.5 response to exceed one (two) standard deviation(s) of decadal internal variability. In all scenarios and seasons the model uncertainty is large. However the present-day climatological zonal wind bias over the whole South Pacific, which is important for tropical teleconnections, is strongly related to inter-model differences in projected change in U AS (more skilful models show larger U AS increases). This relationship is significant in winter (r = -0.56) and spring (r = -0.65), when the influence of the tropics on the Amundsen Sea region is known to be important. Horizontal grid spacing and present day sea ice extent are not significant sources of inter-model spread.

  12. Projected impact of climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the Lake of Guiers for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tall, Moustapha; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Diallo, Ismaïla; Pal, Jeremy S.; Faye, Aïssatou; Mbaye, Mamadou Lamine; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes the impact of anthropogenic climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the lake of Guiers basin for the middle (2041-2060) and late twenty-first century (2080-2099). To this end, high-resolution multimodel ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used. The results indicate that an elevated warming, leading to substantial increase of atmospheric water demand, is projected over the whole of Senegal. In the Lake basin, these increases in potential evapotranspiration (PE) range between 10 and 25 % in the near future and for RCP4.5 while for the far future and RCP8.5, they exceed 50 %. In addition, mean precipitation unveils contrasting changes with wetter (10 to 25 % more) conditions by the middle of the century and drier conditions (more than 50 %) during the late twenty-first century. Such changes cause more/less evapotranspiration and soil moisture respectively during the two future periods. Furthermore, surface runoff shows a tendency to increase in most areas amid few locations including the Lake basin with substantial reduction. Finally, it is found that while semi-arid climates develop in the RCP4.5 scenario, generalized arid conditions prevail over the whole Senegal for RCP8.5. It is thus evident that these future climate conditions substantially threaten freshwater availability for the country and irrigated cropping over the Lake basin. Therefore, strong governmental politics are needed to help design response options to cope with the challenges posed by the projected climate change for the country.

  13. Projected impact of climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the Lake of Guiers for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tall, Moustapha; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Diallo, Ismaïla; Pal, Jeremy S.; Faye, Aïssatou; Mbaye, Mamadou Lamine; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzes the impact of anthropogenic climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the lake of Guiers basin for the middle (2041-2060) and late twenty-first century (2080-2099). To this end, high-resolution multimodel ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used. The results indicate that an elevated warming, leading to substantial increase of atmospheric water demand, is projected over the whole of Senegal. In the Lake basin, these increases in potential evapotranspiration (PE) range between 10 and 25 % in the near future and for RCP4.5 while for the far future and RCP8.5, they exceed 50 %. In addition, mean precipitation unveils contrasting changes with wetter (10 to 25 % more) conditions by the middle of the century and drier conditions (more than 50 %) during the late twenty-first century. Such changes cause more/less evapotranspiration and soil moisture respectively during the two future periods. Furthermore, surface runoff shows a tendency to increase in most areas amid few locations including the Lake basin with substantial reduction. Finally, it is found that while semi-arid climates develop in the RCP4.5 scenario, generalized arid conditions prevail over the whole Senegal for RCP8.5. It is thus evident that these future climate conditions substantially threaten freshwater availability for the country and irrigated cropping over the Lake basin. Therefore, strong governmental politics are needed to help design response options to cope with the challenges posed by the projected climate change for the country.

  14. Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

  15. Evaluating CMIP5 models using GPS radio occultation COSMIC temperature in UTLS region during 2006-2013: twenty-first century projection and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, P.; Basha, Ghouse; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Velicogna, Isabella; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2016-11-01

    This paper provides a first overview of the performance of global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) temperatures. Temperature from CMIP5 models is evaluated with high resolution global positioning system radio occultation (GPSRO) constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere, and climate (COSMIC) data during the period of July 2006-December 2013. Future projections of 17 CMIP5 models based on the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenarios are utilized to assess model performance and to identify the biases in the temperature in the UTLS region at eight different pressure levels. The evaluations were carried out vertically, regionally, and globally to understand the temperature uncertainties in CMIP5 models. It is found that the CMIP5 models successfully reproduce the general features of temperature structure in terms of vertical, annual, and inter-annual variation. The ensemble mean of CMIP5 models compares well with the COSMIC GPSRO data with a mean difference of ±1 K. In the tropical region, temperature biases vary from one model to another. The spatial difference between COSMIC and ensemble mean reveals that at 100 hPa, the models show a bias of about ±2 K. With increase in altitude the bias decreases and turns into a cold bias over the tropical and Antarctic regions. The future projections of the CMIP5 models were presented during 2006-2099 under the RCP 8.5 scenarios. Projections show a warming trend at 300, 200, and 100 hPa levels over a wide region of 60°N-45°S. The warming decreases rapidly and becomes cooling with increase in altitudes by the end of twenty-first century. Significant cooling is observed at 30, 20, and 10 hPa levels. At 300/10 hPa, the temperature trend increases/decreases by 0.82/0.88 K/decade at the end of twenty-first century under RCP 8.5 scenarios.

  16. Regional and global projections of twenty-first century glacier mass changes in response to climate scenarios from global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radić, Valentina; Bliss, Andrew; Beedlow, A. Cody; Hock, Regine; Miles, Evan; Cogley, J. Graham

    2014-01-01

    A large component of present-day sea-level rise is due to the melt of glaciers other than the ice sheets. Recent projections of their contribution to global sea-level rise for the twenty-first century range between 70 and 180 mm, but bear significant uncertainty due to poor glacier inventory and lack of hypsometric data. Here, we aim to update the projections and improve quantification of their uncertainties by using a recently released global inventory containing outlines of almost every glacier in the world. We model volume change for each glacier in response to transient spatially-differentiated temperature and precipitation projections from 14 global climate models with two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) prepared for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The multi-model mean suggests sea-level rise of 155 ± 41 mm (RCP4.5) and 216 ± 44 mm (RCP8.5) over the period 2006-2100, reducing the current global glacier volume by 29 or 41 %. The largest contributors to projected global volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska, and glaciers peripheral to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 80 % of their volume by 2100. However, large uncertainties in the projections remain due to the choice of global climate model and emission scenario. With a series of sensitivity tests we quantify additional uncertainties due to the calibration of our model with sparsely observed glacier mass changes. This gives an upper bound for the uncertainty range of ±84 mm sea-level rise by 2100 for each projection.

  17. The role of ENSO and PDO in variability of winter precipitation over North America from twenty first century CMIP5 projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Franco, Ramón; Giorgi, Filippo; Coppola, Erika; Kucharski, Fred

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the combined impact of ENSO and PDO on North American winter climate in current and future climate projections from 11 global models in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset. We first analyze winter sea surface temperature, sea level pressure (SLP) and precipitation anomalies for the historical period 1951-2005, and find that the CMIP5 models reproduce well the constructive interference between ENSO and the PDO compared to observations (i.e. positive ENSO and PDO or negative ENSO and PDO). On the other hand, the destructive interference (positive ENSO and negative PDO or negative ENSO and positive PDO) is less accurately reproduced. Consistently with observations, ENSO events show generally more impact on North American winter climate than PDO events, although there is a robust increase of rainfall in the Southeastern US during the negative PDO phase. For the twenty first century projections, we focus on the 2050-2099 period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentration scenario and we find an overall strengthening of both the ENSO and PDO signals, and particularly the PDO one, on the SLP and related teleconnections. This results in an enhanced influence of the negative PDO phase on flood conditions in the Southeastern United States, and in drier conditions over the Southwest coasts of North America.

  18. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2016-07-01

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975-2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December-May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  19. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  20. Variations in northern hemisphere snowfall: An analysis of historical trends and the projected response to anthropogenic forcing in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasting, John P.

    , such as northern Quebec. A signal-to-noise analysis reveals that the projected changes in snowfall are likely to become apparent during the twenty-first century for most locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  1. Twenty-first century vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-10-12

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78-85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498-503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177-1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages.

  2. Twenty-first century vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  3. Coupled MODEL Intercomparison Project PHASE 5 (CMIP5) Projected Twenty-First Century Warming over Southern Africa: Role of LOCAL Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, M.

    2014-12-01

    The warming rates projected by an ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) over southern Africa (south of 10 degrees latitude) are investigated. In all RCPs, CMIP5 models project a higher warming rate over the southwestern parts centred around the arid Kalahari and Namib deserts. The higher warming rates over these areas outpace global warming by up to a factor 2 in some GCMs. The projected warming is associated with an increase in heat waves. There is notable consensus across the models with little intermodel spread, suggesting a strong robustness of the projections. Mechanisms underlying the enhanced warming are investigated. A positive soil moisture-temperature feedback is suggested to contribute to the accelerated temperature increase. A decrease in soil moisture is projected by the GCMs over the area of highest warming. The reduction in soil wetness reduces evapotranspiration rates over the area where evaporation is dependent on available soil moisture. The reduction is evapotranspiration affects the partitioning of turbulent energy fluxes from the soil surface into the atmosphere and translates into an increase of the Bowen ratio featuring an increase in sensible relative to latent heat flux. An increase in sensible heat flux leads to an increase in near-surface temperature. The increase in temperature leads to a higher vapour pressure deficit and evaporative demand and evapotranspiration from the dry soils, possibly leading to a further decrease in soil moisture. A precipitation-soil moisture feedback is also suggested. A decrease in mean precipitation and an increase in drought conditions are projected over the area of enhanced warming. The reduced precipitation results in drier soils. The drier soil translates to reduced evapotranspiration for cloud and rainfall formation. However, the role played by the soil moisture-precipitation feedback loop is still inconclusive and characterized by some degree

  4. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning.

  5. Mid-Twenty-First-Century Changes in Global Wave Energy Flux: Single-Model, Single-Forcing and Single-Scenario Ensemble Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Lemos, Gil; Dobrynin, Mikhail; Behrens, Arno; Staneva, Joanna; Miranda, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of ocean surface wave energy fluxes (or wave power) is of outmost relevance since wave power has a direct impact in coastal erosion, but also in sediment transport and beach nourishment, and ship, as well as in coastal and offshore infrastructures design. Changes in the global wave energy flux pattern can alter significantly the impact of waves in continental shelf and coastal areas. Up until recently the impact of climate change in future global wave climate had received very little attention. Some single model single scenario global wave climate projections, based on CMIP3 scenarios, were pursuit under the auspices of the COWCLIP (coordinated ocean wave climate projections) project, and received some attention in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) AR5 (fifth assessment report). In the present study the impact of a warmer climate in the near future global wave energy flux climate is investigated through a 4-member "coherent" ensemble of wave climate projections: single-model, single-forcing, and single-scenario. In this methodology model variability is reduced, leaving only room for the climate change signal. The four ensemble members were produced with the wave model WAM, forced with wind speed and ice coverage from EC-Earth projections, following the representative concentration pathway with a high emissions scenario 8.5 (RCP8.5). The ensemble present climate reference period (the control run) has been set for 1976 to 2005. The projected changes in the global wave energy flux climate are analyzed for the 2031-2060 period.

  6. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Twenty-first quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1992--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Combustor spare and contingency hardware was shipped to the CDIF. Manufacture of spare and replacement hardware for the lA4 channel and diffuser continued. Fabrication of a modified/spare channel inlet frame which enables iron oxide injection. The cathode power cabinets and associated control system were successfully tested at Westinghouse and met all design requirements. The cathode system was delivered to the CDIF and installed in the current consolidation building. With the delivery of tills component, all prototypical power train components have been delivered to the CDIF. The hot-fire checkout of the channel subsystem and the design verification test series of the integrated power train were completed. A total of 29 tests were performed accumulating 120 thermal and 52 electrical hours. The test series demonstrated the adequacy of the overall cooling of the channel subsystem and provided an initial evaluation of the integrated combustor and channel performance in terms of operating conditions, power output, conductivity, heat loss, slagging behavior, and gas-side wear characteristics. During the test series localized wear in the supersonic nozzle was observed on the right sidewall. Cause of wear is being investigated. At conclusion of DVT test series, the channel was removed for inspection.

  7. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; Vavrus, Stephen; Van Den Elsen, Lena; Coluccy, John; Hoving, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  8. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; Vavrus, Stephen; Van Den Elsen, Lena; Coluccy, John; Hoving, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected. PMID:27959911

  9. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century

    DOE PAGES

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; ...

    2016-12-13

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expectedmore » for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.« less

  10. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; Vavrus, Stephen; Van Den Elsen, Lena; Hoving, Christopher; Waldenström, Jonas

    2016-12-13

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  11. Winter weather regimes over the Mediterranean region: their role for the regional climate and projected changes in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, M.; Li, L. Z.; Kanakidou, M.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Seze, G.; Le Treut, H.

    2013-08-01

    The winter time weather variability over the Mediterranean is studied in relation to the prevailing weather regimes (WRs) over the region. Using daily geopotential heights at 700 hPa from the ECMWF ERA40 Reanalysis Project and Cluster Analysis, four WRs are identified, in increasing order of frequency of occurrence, as cyclonic (22.0 %), zonal (24.8 %), meridional (25.2 %) and anticyclonic (28.0 %). The surface climate, cloud distribution and radiation patterns associated with these winter WRs are deduced from satellite (ISCCP) and other observational (E-OBS, ERA40) datasets. The LMDz atmosphere-ocean regional climate model is able to simulate successfully the same four Mediterranean weather regimes and reproduce the associated surface and atmospheric conditions for the present climate (1961-1990). Both observational- and LMDz-based computations show that the four Mediterranean weather regimes control the region's weather and climate conditions during winter, exhibiting significant differences between them as for temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and radiation distributions within the region. Projections (2021-2050) of the winter Mediterranean weather and climate are obtained using the LMDz model and analysed in relation to the simulated changes in the four WRs. According to the SRES A1B emission scenario, a significant warming (between 2 and 4 °C) is projected to occur in the region, along with a precipitation decrease by 10-20 % in southern Europe, Mediterranean Sea and North Africa, against a 10 % precipitation increase in northern European areas. The projected changes in temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean are explained by the model-predicted changes in the frequency of occurrence as well as in the intra-seasonal variability of the regional weather regimes. The anticyclonic configuration is projected to become more recurrent, contributing to the decreased precipitation over most of the basin, while the cyclonic and zonal ones become more

  12. Effects of Projected Twenty-First Century Sea Level Rise, Storm Surge, and River Flooding on Water Levels in the Skagit River Floodplain and Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamman, J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Grossman, E. E.; Fuller, R.

    2012-12-01

    Near coastal environments have been identified as some of the most likely to be impacted by climate change. Observed changes in Puget Sound sea level and flood magnitudes are in line with those projected by previous climate change impacts studies. Current understanding of the combined effects of these changes is relatively low and has prompted us to explore the ways in which their co-occurrence will influence near coastal ecosystems and infrastructure. Using numerical simulation models the project examines the projected effects of climate change on water levels and inundation in the lower reaches of the Skagit River in western WA due to the combined effects of changes in storm surge, sea level rise, and riverine flooding. Global climate model simulations from the ECHAM-5 climate model were used as the climate forcings and were 1) statistically downscaled using the hybrid delta method, and 2) dynamically downscaled using the WRF regional climate model. Naturalized flows produced using the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrology model were used to drive reservoir models that simulate flood control operations and regulated flow during extreme events. Storm surge was calculated using a regression approach that included atmospheric pressure patterns simulated by the WRF model and ENSO. A 2D hydrodynamic model was used to estimate water surface elevations in the Skagit River estuary and floodplain using resampled hourly hydrographs keyed to regulated daily flood flows produced by the daily time step reservoir simulation model and tide predictions adjusted for SLR and storm surge. Combining peak annual storm surge with expected sea level rise, the historic (1970-1999) 100-yr peak tidal anomaly is found to be exceeded every year by the 2020s. By the 2050s, the extrapolated 100-yr riverine flood events are found to increase by 30% and 25% in the Skagit and Nisqually Rivers, respectively. In the Skagit River, the combined effect of sea level rise and larger floods yields

  13. Impact of land-use and land-cover changes on CRCM5 climate projections over North America for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Adelina; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) on regional climate projections for North America. To this end, two transient climate change simulations, with and without LULCC, but identical atmospheric forcing, are performed with the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by CanESM2 model for the (2006-2100)-RCP4.5 scenario. For the simulation with LULCC, land-cover data sets are taken from the Global Change Assessment Model representing the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2006-2100. LULCC in RCP4.5 scenario point to significant reduction in cultivated land (e.g. Canadian Prairies and Mississippi basin) due to intense afforestation. Results suggest that biogeophysical effects of LULCC on climate, assessed through differences between the all-forcing (atmospheric and LULCC) run and the atmospheric forcing run (with constant land cover) are substantial for relevant surface variables. It is shown that the afforestation of cropland lead to warmer regional climates, especially in winter (warming above 1.5 °C), as compared with climates resulting from atmospheric forcings alone. The investigation of processes leading to this response shows high sensitivity of the results to changes in albedo as a response to LULCC. Additional roughness, evaporative cooling and water soil availability also seem to play an important role in regional climate especially for the summer season in certain afforested areas (e.g., southeastern US).

  14. Twenty-First Century Learning in Afterschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    After-school programs offer a superb venue to teach twenty-first century skills. The programs enable students to explore new fields, use new technology, meet real-world challenges, and develop mastery. They create a new civic space in which young people can forge positive relationships with adults, learn the joys of productive work, and be…

  15. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Views March–April 2015 Air & Space Power Journal | 129 Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining Col Michael W. Pietrucha, USAFR On 23 September 2014, a B...52H bomber at high altitude north of Guam accomplished an aviation first—the release of a winged, precision aerial mine (fig. 1). The inert, orange...settled to the bottom to lie in wait for a target. This effort marked the first advance in aerial mine - delivery techniques since 1943 and demonstrated

  16. Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hench, Larry L; Thompson, Ian

    2010-08-06

    During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to 'achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host'. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological 'inertness'. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century.

  17. Shelter for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, J D

    1990-01-01

    Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention. PMID:2401266

  18. Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century. PMID:20484227

  19. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N.; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr−1) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3−) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr−1 to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40–70 Tg N yr−1 to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr−1) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 102–103 years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

  20. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-07-05

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced.

  1. Annual maximum 5-day rainfall total and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.

    2014-04-01

    We simulated changes in annual maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and annual maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.

  2. The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion.

    PubMed

    Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

    2014-04-01

    Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process.

  3. United Nations Peacekeeping in the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Strategy by CARLOS ROBERTO ...Name of Candidate: LTC Carlos Roberto Pinto de Souza Thesis Title: United Nations Peacekeeping in the Twenty-first Century Approved by...PEACEKEEPING IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, by LTC Carlos Roberto Pinto de Souza, BRAZILIAN ARMY, 118 pages. This study objectively analyzes, within a

  4. Childhood obesity: a pandemic of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Malecka-Tendera, E; Mazur, A

    2006-06-01

    The researchers and clinicians need to gain a better understanding of the social and environmental contexts by which childhood obesity is becoming a growing problem of twenty-first century and develop more efficacious methods of prevention and treatment. Summary of the actions and achievements of the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) since its foundation in 1991 until the 16th anniversary. Review of the sessions of the 16th ECOG workshop devoted to epidemiology, prevention, risk factors, comorbidities and treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Meta-analysis of epidemiological data on childhood obesity in Europe underscores an urgent need of preventive actions in which general practitioners may play an important role. Media should get actively involved in promotion of healthy lifestyle. Metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes type 2 and sleep apnoea syndrome are becoming more common in obese adolescents. In morbid obesity with severe comorbidities, more aggressive ways of treatment may be considered. European Childhood Obesity Group members should get actively involved into targeted prevention and intervention project to promote healthy lifestyle and successful weight control.

  5. Silicon materials task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project: Phase IV. Effects of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Twenty-first quarterly report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.H.; Hanes, M.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H.C.

    1981-01-30

    The overall objective of this program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes, and any impurity-process interactions upon the performance of terrestrial solar cells. The results of the study form a basis for silicon producers, wafer manufacturers, and cell fabricators to develop appropriate cost-benefit relationships for the use of less pure, less costly solar grade silicon. Cr is highly mobile in silicon even at temperatures as low as 600/sup 0/C. Contrasting with earlier data for Mo, Ti, and V, Cr concentrations vary from place to place in polycrystalline silicon wafers and the electrically-active Cr concentration in the polysilicon is more than an order of magnitude smaller than would be projected from single crystal impurity data. We hypothesize that Cr diffuses during ingot cooldown after groth, preferentially segregates to grain boundaries and becomes electrically deactivated. Both Al and Au introduce deep levels when grown into silicon crystals. Accelerated aging data from Ni-contaminated silicon imply that no significant impurity-induced cell performance reduction should be expected over a twenty-year device lifetime. Combined electrical bias and thermal stressing of silicon solar cells containing Nb, Fe, Cu, Ti, Cr, and Ag, respectively produces no performance loss after 100 hour exposures up to 225/sup 0/C. Ti and V, but not Mo, can be gettered from polycrystalline silicon by POCl/sub 3/ or HCl at temperatures of 1000 and 1100/sup 0/C.

  6. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  7. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  8. Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

  9. Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

  10. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  11. Why the American Public Supports Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    American attitudes toward the need for teaching twenty-first century skills appear as strong as the socioeconomic research being done that shows how critical these skills are for students' future access to the middle class and the country's economic competitiveness. In 2003, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation) set out…

  12. The Presidential Platform on Twenty-First Century Education Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Socol, Allison Rose

    2016-01-01

    As social and economic problems change, so do the goals of education reformers. This content analysis of presidential debates transcripts, state of the union addresses, and education budgets from 2000 to 2015 reveals the ways in which presidents and presidential candidates have framed education goals thus far in the twenty-first century. Using…

  13. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  14. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  15. Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article…

  16. Confucius: Philosopher of Twenty-First Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I examine the Partnership for twenty-first Century Skills (P21) framework from a Confucian perspective. Given that this framework has attracted attention around the world, including Confucian-heritage societies, an analysis of how key ideas compare with Confucian values appears important and timely. As I shall show, although…

  17. The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  18. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  19. "Essential Africa" for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet provides a sample of free and inexpensive learning activities and materials on African culture for elementary and secondary grade students which are available from the African-American Institute. Learning activities entitled "Essential Africa for the Twenty-First Century" are designed to help pupils realize that Africans are…

  20. Confucius: Philosopher of Twenty-First Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I examine the Partnership for twenty-first Century Skills (P21) framework from a Confucian perspective. Given that this framework has attracted attention around the world, including Confucian-heritage societies, an analysis of how key ideas compare with Confucian values appears important and timely. As I shall show, although…

  1. Why the American Public Supports Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    American attitudes toward the need for teaching twenty-first century skills appear as strong as the socioeconomic research being done that shows how critical these skills are for students' future access to the middle class and the country's economic competitiveness. In 2003, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation) set out…

  2. Constraints, Dangers, and Challenges of the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This document groups together the ideas about the difficulties, dangers, and challenges of the 21st century expressed by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century. In discussing constraints created by contemporary world history, the paper suggests that the development of the world economy and society is at present…

  3. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  4. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic...U.S. Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market...Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized by the U.S. Secretary

  5. The Neural Crest Migrating into the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Marianne E; Simões-Costa, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    From the initial discovery of the neural crest over 150 years ago to the seminal studies of Le Douarin and colleagues in the latter part of the twentieth century, understanding of the neural crest has moved from the descriptive to the experimental. Now, in the twenty-first century, neural crest research has migrated into the genomic age. Here, we reflect upon the major advances in neural crest biology and the open questions that will continue to make research on this incredible vertebrate cell type an important subject in developmental biology for the century to come. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society

    PubMed Central

    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

    2013-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the human immune responses are paving the way for the development of new vaccines. Final goal will be to rationally design effective vaccines where conventional approaches have failed. PMID:24478777

  7. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  8. Earth observations in the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the achievements of earth observations from past space missions are described. Also discussed are the achievements to be anticipated from currently approved and planned earth observation missions. In looking forward to what the objectives of earth observations from space are expected to be in the future, together with what technology is expected to enable, what the earth observing program will look like during the first part of the twenty-first century is discussed. It is concluded that a key part of this program will be long-term observations holistically viewing the earth system.

  9. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976-2005, 2006-2035, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041-2050 and 2071-2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976-2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071-2100 in contrast with 2041-2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071-2100) in comparison to 2041-2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in

  10. Modeling international cooperation in human space exploration for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, E; Lester, J P; Sadeh, W Z

    1998-10-01

    The policy process of international cooperation in space exploration. including optimistic and pessimistic scenarios for the twenty-first century, is modeled and examined in this study. In the optimistic scenario, international cooperation involves a balanced and interdependent distribution of capabilities between states, their respective national space agencies and communities of space scientists and space engineers. Cooperation is characterized by interstate participation in critical path components and joint research and development. In the pessimistic scenario, international cooperation is structured and dominated politically and economically by powerful states vis-a-vis weaker states. Cooperation is limited to coordination of separate nationally approved projects and augmentation of capabilities in noncritical path components. On the basis of these two scenarios, policy predictions and implications relevant to exploration missions in the twenty-first century, such as a human-tended lunar base and human missions to Mars, are presented and discussed.

  11. Preface: Twenty-First Target Fabrication Specialists Meeting

    DOE PAGES

    Nikroo, Abbas; Czechowicz, Don

    2017-04-21

    The Twenty First Target Fabrication Meeting held in Las Vegas, Nevada, from June xx-yy 2015, was attended by more than 100 scientists, engineers, and technicians from the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Japan, bringing together international experts on the design, development, and fabrication of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density (HED) experimental targets fielded on laser and pulsed-power facilities around the world. We were delighted to have such exceptional international representation. The program included 4 invited papers, 53 contributed papers, and 55 posters. A selection of these is presented in this dedicated issue of Fusion Science and Technologymore » (FST).« less

  12. Mediated politics and citizenship in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Graber, Doris

    2004-01-01

    Since the birth of the nation, concepts about the political duties of citizens have changed drastically to keep pace with growth and development. The information needs have changed as well, as have the institutions that supply this information. In this essay I analyze the interrelation between citizenship in the twenty-first century and the information supply that nourishes it. I focus on studies that explore how political news is shaped to attract public attention and how citizens select it and make sense of it. Evidence from content analyses, focus group data, and intensive interviews supports the conclusion that the news supply is adequate for citizens' civic needs and that they use it judiciously. To accept that conclusion requires abandoning outdated paradigms of citizenship that ignore information-processing capabilities of human beings, the basic motivations that drive the search for political information, and the impact of the ever-increasing complexity of politics.

  13. Antepartum care in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Posmontier, Barbara E

    2002-12-01

    Major factors impacting on antepartum care in the twenty-first century were reviewed in this article, including the impact of managed care and collaborative health care teams, the malpractice crisis, antepartum visits and the quality of care, increased use of the Internet and computer technology, the increasing age of childbearing, advances in genetic and prenatal diagnosis, the importance of evidence-based medicine, the goals of Healthy People 2010 [11], the Safe Mother Initiative, and the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Recommendations for antepartum care in the twenty-first century include; the formation of integrated collaborative health care teams to deal with the effects of managed care; development of a more sensitive health care system to assist all parties involved with medical malpractice; increased expertise in the use of the Internet and computer technology; acknowledging and preparing for the increased population of older gravidas; becoming aware of advances in genetic and prenatal diagnosis; increasing the ability to critically evaluate research and incorporate well-founded study findings into clinical practice; incorporating the goals of Healthy People 2010 [11] when providing care to antepartum patients; contributing resources and manpower to the Safe Mother Initiative to decrease maternal mortality in developing countries; becoming knowledgeable, obtaining adequate training, and utilizing or performing evidence-based studies to validate the use of complementary and alternative medicine in antepartum practice; and finally to find a balance between the factors impacting on prenatal care and the ability to continue to provide safe, high-quality, continuous, sensitive, and humane antepartum care.

  14. Twenty-first century learning in schools: A case study of New Technology High School in Napa, California.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The most pertinent question concerning teaching and learning in the twenty-first century is not what knowledge and skills students need--that laundry list was identified over a decade ago--but rather how to foster twenty-first century learning. What curricula, experiences, assessments, environments, and technology best support twenty-first century learning? New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, is one example of a successful twenty-first century school. In this chapter, the author describes the components of this exemplary high school, illustrating an environment that will cultivate twenty-first century student learning. New Technology High School began by defining eight learning outcomes, aligned with the standards of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills; to graduate, students demonstrate mastery of these outcomes through an online portfolio. To help students achieve the outcomes, NTHS employs project- and problem-based learning. Whereas in traditional classrooms students work alone on short-term assignments that do not lend themselves to deep understanding, the project-based learning approach has students working in teams on long-term, in-depth, rigorous projects. Students' work is supported by the school's workplace-like environment and effectiv use of technology. Meaningful assessment is essential to project-based learning; students receive continuous feedback, helping them become self-directed learners. In fact, NTHS uses outcome-based grading through which students constantly know how they are performing on the twenty-first century outcomes. Research has shown that NTHS graduates are better prepared for postsecondary education, careers, and citizenship than their peers from other schools. To facilitate twenty-first century learning, all schools need to rethink their approach to teaching and learning. New Technology High School is one way to do so.

  15. A Model for Reform. Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers (TYC21).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C., Ed.

    This book describes the TYC21 project (Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers), which provided a framework to implement reform in science, engineering, and physics education at two-year colleges via the cooperative efforts of faculty in cross-educational activities. The project sought to increase the quality of…

  16. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  17. The twenty-first century and the control of cancer?

    PubMed

    Brown, H G

    1990-01-01

    In order to look ahead at what may be accomplished in cancer control by the year 2010, one must look at where we have been and where we are today. Because of the accelerated pace of life and the information and technological explosion, it is necessary to rethink and adopt different attitudes in much the same manner that we have different attitudes now than we had in the 1950s. The past 40 years have brought a 50% cure rate in cancer, higher cancer incidence rates, a population that will now become older and older, and a zero growth rate by 2050. There is a real possibility of being able to control 85%-90% of cancers by 2010. This will result from the marriage of the biotechnology and molecular genetic fields, the death of the tobacco industry, discoveries in prevention, and improvements in therapy and early detection. The key to these advances will be the oncology nurse. The nurse will be the healthcare change agent of the twenty-first century using the expertise developed as the deliverer to the patient while the physician will become the advisor to patients, business, and the community.

  18. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  19. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  20. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  1. Estimates of twenty-first century sea-level changes for Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew J. R.; Breili, Kristian; Kierulf, Halfdan P.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we establish a framework for estimating future regional sea-level changes for Norway. Following recently published works, we consider how different physical processes drive non-uniform sea-level changes by accounting for spatial variations in (1) ocean density and circulation (2) ice and ocean mass changes and associated gravitational effects on sea level and (3) vertical land motion arising from past surface loading change and associated gravitational effects on sea level. An important component of past and present sea-level change in Norway is glacial isostatic adjustment. Central to our study, therefore, is a reassessment of vertical land motion using a far larger set of new observations from a permanent GNSS network. Our twenty-first century sea-level estimates are split into two parts. Firstly, we show regional projections largely based on findings from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4) and dependent on the emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1. These indicate that twenty-first century relative sea-level changes in Norway will vary between -0.2 to 0.3 m (1-sigma ± 0.13 m). Secondly, we explore a high-end scenario, in which a global atmospheric temperature rise of up to 6 °C and emerging collapse for some areas of the Antarctic ice sheets are assumed. Using this approach twenty-first century relative sea-level changes in Norway are found to vary between 0.25 and 0.85 m (min/max ± 0.45 m). We attach no likelihood to any of our projections owing to the lack of understanding of some of the processes that cause sea-level change.

  2. "Twenty First Century Science": Insights from the Design and Implementation of a Scientific Literacy Approach in School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although the term "scientific literacy" has been increasingly used in recent years to characterise the aim of school science education, there is still considerable uncertainty about its meaning and implications for the curriculum. A major national project in England, "Twenty First Century Science", is evaluating the feasibility…

  3. Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-07-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty-first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high productivity, and effective communication techniques of the students exposed to a MEGA. Three factors, as they pertained to these skills, emerged from classroom observations. Interaction with the teacher, discussion with peers, and engagement/time-on-task while playing the MEGA suggested that students playing an educational video game exhibited all of the projected twenty-first century skills while being engrossed in the embedded science content.

  4. Linked Courses at the Twenty-First Century Metropolitan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, the authors argue that linked-course learning communities serve students at nonresidential metropolitan public universities by increasing their academic achievement, reducing their attrition, and engaging them in the project of public education. They use a winter 2004 research project to argue that linked courses create supportive…

  5. Dominating Controls for Wetter South Asian Summer Monsoon in the Twenty-First Century

    DOE PAGES

    Mei, Rui; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; ...

    2015-04-07

    This study analyzes a suite of global climate models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives to understand the mechanisms behind a net increase in the South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in response to enhanced radiative forcing during the twenty-first century. An increase in radiative forcing fuels an increase in the atmospheric moisture content through warmer temperatures, which overwhelms the weakening of monsoon circulation and results in an increase of moisture convergence and therefore summer monsoon precipitation over South Asia. Moisture source analysis suggests that both regional (local recycling, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal)more » and remote (including the south Indian Ocean) sources contribute to the moisture supply for precipitation over South Asia during the summer season that is facilitated by the monsoon dynamics. For regional moisture sources, the effect of excessive atmospheric moisture is offset by weaker monsoon circulation and uncertainty in the response of the evapotranspiration over land, so anomalies in their contribution to the total moisture supply are either mixed or muted. In contrast, weakening of the monsoon dynamics has less influence on the moisture supply from remote sources that not only is a dominant moisture contributor in the historical period but is also the net driver of the positive summer monsoon precipitation response in the twenty-first century. Finally, the results also indicate that historic measures of the monsoon dynamics may not be well suited to predict the nonstationary moisture-driven South Asian summer monsoon precipitation response in the twenty-first century.« less

  6. Dominating Controls for Wetter South Asian Summer Monsoon in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Rui; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Leung, L. Ruby; Dominguez, Francina

    2015-04-07

    This study analyzes a suite of global climate models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives to understand the mechanisms behind a net increase in the South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in response to enhanced radiative forcing during the twenty-first century. An increase in radiative forcing fuels an increase in the atmospheric moisture content through warmer temperatures, which overwhelms the weakening of monsoon circulation and results in an increase of moisture convergence and therefore summer monsoon precipitation over South Asia. Moisture source analysis suggests that both regional (local recycling, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal) and remote (including the south Indian Ocean) sources contribute to the moisture supply for precipitation over South Asia during the summer season that is facilitated by the monsoon dynamics. For regional moisture sources, the effect of excessive atmospheric moisture is offset by weaker monsoon circulation and uncertainty in the response of the evapotranspiration over land, so anomalies in their contribution to the total moisture supply are either mixed or muted. In contrast, weakening of the monsoon dynamics has less influence on the moisture supply from remote sources that not only is a dominant moisture contributor in the historical period but is also the net driver of the positive summer monsoon precipitation response in the twenty-first century. Finally, the results also indicate that historic measures of the monsoon dynamics may not be well suited to predict the nonstationary moisture-driven South Asian summer monsoon precipitation response in the twenty-first century.

  7. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of 4-H.

    PubMed

    Kress, Cathann

    2006-01-01

    Founded in the early 1900s, the 4-H Youth Development program can serve as a model for out-of-school programs of the twenty-first century. The 4-H pledge, repeated by its members--over 7 million, ranging in age from five to twenty--articulates its core values: "I pledge: My head to clearer thinking, My heart to greater loyalty, My hands to larger service, and My health to better living for my club, my community, my country, and my world." The 4-H Development movement was created to provide opportunities for rural children, to help them become constructive adults. Through an emphasis on "learning by doing," 4-H teaches children the habits of lifelong learning. Historically, 4-H has tapped into university-level advancements, extending such knowledge to youth and thereby giving them early access to scientific discoveries and technological progress. Members apply this learning in their communities through hands-on projects crossing a wide-range of pertinent topics. Research shows that 4-H members are more successful in school than other children and develop a wide range of skills essential in the twenty-first century. Thus, the author makes the case that the foundation of 4-H is exceptionally relevant in today's complex world, perhaps even more so than a century ago. 4-H is a leader in youth development, making it a natural model for twenty-first century after-school programs. Expanding on the 4-H pledge, the author outlines the principles a successful youth development program would have: an emphasis on leadership skills, a feeling of connection and belonging, a forum for exploring career opportunities, and a component of meaningful community service.

  8. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  9. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  10. Fertilizer production facilities of the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Faucett, H.L.; Nichols, D.E.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    TVA is examining the concept of using integrated gasification combined cycle technology as a way of meeting electrical power and fertilizers needs starting around the year 2000. This technology offers a way to use coal, a US resource, in an environmentally acceptable manner to produce electricity, urea, and sulfuric acid for phosphate fertilizer. The technology, envirorunental emissions, and economics for a commercial-scale production facility are discussed.

  11. Fertilizer production facilities of the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Faucett, H.L.; Nichols, D.E.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1991-12-31

    TVA is examining the concept of using integrated gasification combined cycle technology as a way of meeting electrical power and fertilizers needs starting around the year 2000. This technology offers a way to use coal, a US resource, in an environmentally acceptable manner to produce electricity, urea, and sulfuric acid for phosphate fertilizer. The technology, envirorunental emissions, and economics for a commercial-scale production facility are discussed.

  12. Tropical Pacific Variability and its Influence on Twenty-First Century Arctic Sea Ice Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wettstein, J. J.; Deser, C.

    2014-12-01

    Large declines in Arctic sea ice volume and summer sea ice extent are generally anticipated for the coming decades, based upon their trajectory in available observations and from a wide variety of greenhouse gas-forced model projections. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, regarding the magnitude of twenty-first century Arctic sea ice loss. Two studies are presented that document and explore the existence of an atmospheric teleconnection between the tropical Pacific and the Arctic on time scales ranging from the interannual to the multi-decadal. In the first study, twenty-first-century summer Arctic sea ice loss and its relationship to the large-scale atmospheric circulation is investigated in a 39-member Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) ensemble for the period 2000-2061. Each member is subject to an identical greenhouse gas emissions scenario and differs only in the atmospheric model component's initial condition. A surprisingly large factor of three range in the multi-decadal trends of Arctic sea ice loss is projected, which can only be attributed to internal variability. Higher rates of summer Arctic sea ice loss in CCSM3 are associated with enhanced transpolar drift and Fram Strait ice export driven by surface wind and sea level pressure patterns. Outside the Arctic, the internal variability in sea ice loss is associated with an atmospheric Rossby wave train concentrated over the Pacific sector. The structure of the atmospheric teleconnection pattern in CCSM3 suggests that the tropical Pacific modulates Arctic sea ice loss via the aforementioned Rossby wave train. The second study generally corroborates results in the first by documenting qualitatively similar relationships in a newer model version and across a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ensemble. Hints of a similar tropical Pacific-Arctic sea ice variability relationship are also present in various reanalyses at the interannual time scale.

  13. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

  14. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  15. Low Fertility at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S. Philip; Taylor, Miles G.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world's population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research. PMID:20376287

  16. Pressure effects on regional mean sea level trends in the German Bight in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Frauke; Weisse, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The effect of large-scale atmospheric pressure changes on regional mean sea level projections in the German Bight in the twenty-first century are considered. A developed statistical model is applied to climate model data of sea level pressure for the twenty-first century to assess the potential contribution of large-scale atmospheric changes to future sea level changes in the German Bight. Using 78 experiments, an ensemble mean of 1.4-cm rise in regional mean sea level is estimated until the end of the twenty-first century. Changes are somewhat higher for realisations of the special report on emission scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, but generally do not exceed a few centimeters. This is considerably smaller than the changes expected from steric and self-gravitational effects. Large-scale changes in sea level pressure are thus not expected to provide a substantial contribution to twenty-first century sea level changes in the German Bight.

  17. Water and Food in the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marsily, Ghislain; Abarca-del-Rio, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    In 2000, the World population was 6.2 billion people; it reached 7 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach 9.5 billion (±0.4) in 2050 and 11 billion (±1.5) in 2100, according to the 2012 UN projections (Gerland et al. in Science 346:234-237, 2014). The trend after 2100 is still one of the global demographic growths, but after 2060, Africa is the only continent where the population would still increase. The amount of water consumed annually to produce the food necessary to meet the needs of the populations varies greatly between countries, from about 600 to 2500 m3/year per capita (Zimmer in L'empreinte eau. Les faces cachées d'une ressource vitale. Charles Léopold Meyer, Paris, 2013), depending on their wealth, their food habits, and the percentage of food waste they generate (on average, 30 % of the food produced is wasted). In 2000, the total food production was on the order of 3300 million tons (in cereal equivalents). In 2014, it is estimated that about 0.8 billion inhabitants of the planet suffer from hunger (FAO in World agriculture: towards 2030-2050. FAO, Rome, 2014. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y3557E/y3557e00.HTM) and do not get the nutrition they need to be in good health or, in the case of children, to grow properly (both physically and intellectually). This food deficit was on the order of 40 million tons of cereal equivalents in 2014. The number of inhabitants with a food deficit was about 0.85 billion before the 2008 crisis and was decreasing annually, but it increased abruptly after 2008 up to 1 billion inhabitants and is slowly decreasing now. Assuming a World average water consumption for food of 1300 m3/year per capita in 2000, 1400 m3/year in 2050, and 1500 m3/year in 2100, a volume of water of around 8200 km3/year was needed in 2000, 13,000 km3/year will be needed in 2050, and 16,500 km3/year in 2100 (Marsily in L'eau, un trésor en partage. Dunod, Paris, 2009). Can bioenergy be added to food production? Will that much water be available

  18. Twenty-first century learning in states: the case of the Massachusetts educational system.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David P

    2006-01-01

    A current crisis in education is leaving students less prepared to succeed in the working world than any generation before them. Increasingly complex external, nonacademic pressures have an impact on many of today's students, often causing them to drop out of school. Only 76 percent of Massachusetts high school students graduate, and only 29 percent earn a college degree. National figures are worse. Most educational institutions share a common goal to support students in becoming skilled, productive, successful members of society, but the author argues that this goal is not being met. Despite the constant changes in the world, educational practices have remained static. Most public schools are not adapting to meet the shifting needs of students. Universities are not able to prepare the right mix of prospective employees for the demands of the job market; for example, schools are graduating only 10 percent of the needed engineers. Institutions of higher learning cannot keep up with employers' needs in an evolving global market: strong math, science, and writing abilities; critical thinking skills; and the ability to work in teams. The author draws on exemplary efforts at work in his home state of Massachusetts--whose improvements in student achievement outcomes have been some of the best in the nation--to suggest there is promise in twenty-first century learning. Middle school students involved in a NASA-funded project write proposals, work in teams, and engage in peer review. Older students participate in enhanced, hands-on cooperative school-to-work and after-school programs. Schools are starting to offer expanded day learning, increasing the number of hours they are engaged in formal learning. Yet such programs have not reached significant levels of scale. The author calls for a major shift in education to help today's students be successful in the twenty-first century.

  19. Why the twenty-first century tropical Pacific trend pattern cannot significantly influence ENSO amplitude?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Soon-Il; Choi, Jung

    2015-01-01

    Although the climate is highly expected to change due to global warming, it is unclear whether the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will be more or less active in the future. One may argue that this uncertainty is due to the intrinsic uncertainties in current climate models or the strong natural long-term modulation of ENSO. Here, we propose that the global warming trend cannot significantly modify ENSO amplitude due to weak feedback between the global warming induced tropical climate change and ENSO. By analyzing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and observation data, we found that the zonal dipole pattern of sea surface temperature [SST; warming in the eastern Pacific and cooling in the western Pacific or vice versa; `Pacific zonal mode' (PZM)] is highly correlated to change in ENSO amplitude. Additionally, this PZM is commonly identified in control experiments (pre-industrial conditions), twentieth century observations, and twenty-first century scenario experiments [representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 W m-2 (RCP 4.5, 8.5)]. PZM provides favorable conditions for the intensification of ENSO by strengthening air-sea coupling and modifying ENSO pattern. On the other hand, the twenty-first century SST trend pattern, which is different from PZM, is not favorable towards changing ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, we performed an intermediate ocean-atmosphere coupled model simulations, in which the SST trend pattern and PZM are imposed as an external anomalous heat flux or prescribed as a basic state. It was concluded that the SST trend pattern forcing insignificantly changes ENSO amplitude, and the PZM forcing intensifies ENSO amplitude.

  20. Preparing Students for a Twenty-First Century Global Workplace in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cognetta, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to thoroughly examine a school district's plan for developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan for adequately preparing students with twenty-first century skills or the marketable skills students will need in order to contribute to the dynamic twenty-first century workplace while meeting federal and state…

  1. Slowmation: A Twenty-First Century Educational Tool for Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Kathryn; Bentley, Brendan; Dobson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Slowmation is a twenty-first century digital literacy educational tool. This teaching and learning tool has been incorporated as an assessment strategy in the curriculum area of science and mathematics with pre-service teachers (PSTs). This paper explores two themes: developing twenty-first century digital literacy skills and modelling best…

  2. Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and…

  3. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  4. Army Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Wheeled Vehicles Classification : Unclassified Five components of the U.S. Army Transportation Systems collectively meet...Army Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment by Lieutenant Colonel Mark D. Stimer...Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  5. Preparing Students for a Twenty-First Century Global Workplace in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cognetta, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to thoroughly examine a school district's plan for developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan for adequately preparing students with twenty-first century skills or the marketable skills students will need in order to contribute to the dynamic twenty-first century workplace while meeting federal and state…

  6. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  7. Assessing Multidimensional Students' Perceptions of Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Sing; Deng, Feng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Koh, Joyce Hwee; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to design a survey to assess students' perceptions of twenty-first-century learning practices in their classrooms and the resulting knowledge creation self-efficacy among the students. In addition, it also explores the relationships among the various dimensions of twenty-first-century learning practices. Four hundred and…

  8. Assessing Multidimensional Students' Perceptions of Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Sing; Deng, Feng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Koh, Joyce Hwee; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to design a survey to assess students' perceptions of twenty-first-century learning practices in their classrooms and the resulting knowledge creation self-efficacy among the students. In addition, it also explores the relationships among the various dimensions of twenty-first-century learning practices. Four hundred and…

  9. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  10. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-09-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  11. Picking the Right Horse? Dominant Maneuver in the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    SUBTITLE Picking the Right Horse ? Dominant Maneuver in the Twenty-First Century 6.AUTH0RIS) Major Steven D. Russell, U.S. Army 7. PERFORMING...Z39-18 298-102 PICKING THE RIGHT HORSE ? DOMINANT MANEUVER IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command...unlimited. wc«’*u»»»«aBI PICKING THE RIGHT HORSE ? DOMINANT MANEUVER IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army

  12. Effects of model structural uncertainty on carbon cycle projections: biological nitrogen fixation as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Lawrence, David M.; Bonan, Gordon B.

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainties in terrestrial carbon (C) cycle projections increase uncertainty of potential climate feedbacks. Efforts to improve model performance often include increased representation of biogeochemical processes, such as coupled carbon-nitrogen (N) cycles. In doing so, models are becoming more complex, generating structural uncertainties in model form that reflect incomplete knowledge of how to represent underlying processes. Here, we explore structural uncertainties associated with biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and quantify their effects on C cycle projections. We find that alternative plausible structures to represent BNF result in nearly equivalent terrestrial C fluxes and pools through the twentieth century, but the strength of the terrestrial C sink varies by nearly a third (50 Pg C) by the end of the twenty-first century under a business-as-usual climate change scenario representative concentration pathway 8.5. These results indicate that actual uncertainty in future C cycle projections may be larger than previously estimated, and this uncertainty will limit C cycle projections until model structures can be evaluated and refined.

  13. Teacher-Friendly Technology Applications for the Twenty-First Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Jaime; Potter, Jalene; Hollas, Tori

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present recent technology applications for teachers as well as share important techniques in setting up a classroom environment that will prepare their students as twenty-first century learners.

  14. Prevention of toxic environmental illness in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J

    1990-01-01

    Previous introductions of new technologies have frequently resulted in unanticipated occupational and environmental illness. Prevention of such illness in the twenty-first century requires stringent application of two fundamental principles of public health: evaluation of new technologies before their introduction, and surveillance of exposed persons after the introduction of new technologies. Failure to establish these basic preventive mechanisms in advance will inevitably result in the development of new toxic diseases in the twenty-first century. PMID:1698154

  15. Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    gap between the dynamic 21st - century environment and our 20th- century bureaucracy. Their initiative and perse- verance allow us to succeed in our...September–October 2015 | 85 Views Twenty-First- Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War Strategic Agility Maj Michael W. Benitez, USAF America’s...SUBTITLE Twenty-First- Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  16. Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two twenty-first-century climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusel, Luke D.; Frey, Karen E.; Das, Sarah B.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van Meijgaard, Erik; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2015-12-01

    Ice shelves modulate Antarctic contributions to sea-level rise and thereby represent a critical, climate-sensitive interface between the Antarctic ice sheet and the global ocean. Following rapid atmospheric warming over the past decades, Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have progressively retreated, at times catastrophically. This decay supports hypotheses of thermal limits of viability for ice shelves via surface melt forcing. Here we use a polar-adapted regional climate model and satellite observations to quantify the nonlinear relationship between surface melting and summer air temperature. Combining observations and multimodel simulations, we examine melt evolution and intensification before observed ice shelf collapse on the Antarctic Peninsula. We then assess the twenty-first-century evolution of surface melt across Antarctica under intermediate and high emissions climate scenarios. Our projections reveal a scenario-independent doubling of Antarctic-wide melt by 2050. Between 2050 and 2100, however, significant divergence in melt occurs between the two climate scenarios. Under the high emissions pathway by 2100, melt on several ice shelves approaches or surpasses intensities that have historically been associated with ice shelf collapse, at least on the northeast Antarctic Peninsula.

  17. Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

  18. A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.

  19. Investigating the pace of temperature change and its implications over the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavaillaz, Y.; Joussaume, S.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-12-01

    In most studies, climate change is approached by focusing on the evolution between a fixed current baseline and the future, emphasizing stronger warming as we move further from the current climate. Under climate conditions that are continuously evolving, human systems might have to constantly adapt to a changing target. We propose here an alternative approach, and consider indicators of the pace of temperature change and its effects on temperature distributions estimated from projections of an ensemble of 18 General Circulation Models. The pace is represented by a rate defined by the difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. Under the strongest emission pathway (RCP 8.5), the warming rate strongly increases over the twenty-first century, with a maximum reached before 2080. Whilst northern high-latitudes witness the highest temperature rise, all other latitudes highlight at least a doubling in the warming rate compared to the current period. The spatial extent of significant shifts in annual temperature distributions between two subsequent 20-year periods is projected to be at least four times larger than in the current period. They are mainly located in tropical areas, such as West Africa and South-East Asia. The fraction of the world population exposed to these shifts grows from 8% to 60% from around 2060 onwards, i.e. reaching 6 billions people. In contrast, low mitigation measures (RCP 6.0) are sufficient to keep the warming rate similar to current values. Under the medium mitigation pathway (RCP 4.5), population exposure to significant shifts drops to negligible values by the end of the century. Strong mitigation measures (RCP 2.6) are the only option that generates a global return to historical conditions regarding our indicators. Considering the pace of change can bring an alternative way to interact with climate impacts and adaptation communities.

  20. Projected future changes in regional seasonal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arizmendi, Fernando; Barreiro, Marcelo; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the consequences of climate change is relevant for social, biological and ecomical interests. Particularly, knowing the potential changes in the seasonal cycle is useful for taking the appropiate actions to prevent adverse circumstances. In this study, we aim to detect future changes in the surface air temperature (SAT) seasonal cycles. We do so by analyzing differences in the response of the SAT field to the solar annual forcing in different scenarios of models of the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). With this approach, we are able to find well-localized areas where the temperature cycle change considerably.

  1. Taking the British Library Forward in the Twenty-First Century; Harvard's Library Digital Initiative: Building a First Generation Digital Library Infrastructure; Spoken Words, Unspoken Meanings: A DLI2 Project Ethnography; Resource Guide for the Social Sciences: Signposting a Dissemination and Support Route for Barefoot and Meta-Librarians in UK Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Lynne; Flecker, Dale; Seadle, Michael; Huxley, Lesly; Ford, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss strategic planning in the British Library, including electronic strategies and collaborative partnerships; Harvard University's plans for a digital library infrastructure; the National Gallery of the Spoken Word, a Digital Library Initiative (DLI)-funded project that is language-related; and promoting networked…

  2. Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; Shakun, Jeremy D.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Mix, Alan C.; Eby, Michael; Kulp, Scott; Levermann, Anders; Milne, Glenn A.; Pfister, Patrik L.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Solomon, Susan; Stocker, Thomas F.; Strauss, Benjamin H.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Winkelmann, Ricarda; Archer, David; Bard, Edouard; Goldner, Aaron; Lambeck, Kurt; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper

    2016-04-01

    Most of the policy debate surrounding the actions needed to mitigate and adapt to anthropogenic climate change has been framed by observations of the past 150 years as well as climate and sea-level projections for the twenty-first century. The focus on this 250-year window, however, obscures some of the most profound problems associated with climate change. Here, we argue that the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, a period during which the overwhelming majority of human-caused carbon emissions are likely to occur, need to be placed into a long-term context that includes the past 20 millennia, when the last Ice Age ended and human civilization developed, and the next ten millennia, over which time the projected impacts of anthropogenic climate change will grow and persist. This long-term perspective illustrates that policy decisions made in the next few years to decades will have profound impacts on global climate, ecosystems and human societies -- not just for this century, but for the next ten millennia and beyond.

  3. Twenty-first century skills for students: hands-on learning after school builds school and life success.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Leide

    2006-01-01

    At the core of the movement for twenty-first century skills are students. The growing efforts to increase programs leveraging out-of-school time are focused on giving American youth everything they need to compete in this increasingly complex world. The author is one of many students who have been well served by initiatives imparting twenty-first century skills during after-school hours. Now a senior at Boston Latin School, the author has been helped along the way by Citizen Schools, an after-school education program focused on hands-on learning apprenticeships and homework help. While enrolled in the program as a middle school student, the author took part in projects that exemplified hands-on, inquiry-based learning that helped her develop twenty-first century skills. For example, along with dozens of other students, she advanced her data analysis skills by analyzing statistics about Boston Public high schools, which also helped her select and enroll in one of the city's premier exam schools. Also, she and her peers worked with corporate attorneys who served as writing coaches and whose expertise the author drew from in producing a published essay and greatly improving her writing skills. The author now finds that the public speaking, leadership, organizational, social, and management abilities she built through her participation in Citizen Schools are a great asset to her in high school. The confidence with which she tackles her responsibilities can also be traced back to her experiences in the program. As she looks toward college, the author reflects and realizes that being actively involved in a quality after-school program put her on track for a successful future.

  4. The Five Cs of Digital Curation: Supporting Twenty-First-Century Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschaine, Mark E.; Sharma, Sue Ann

    2015-01-01

    Digital curation is a process that allows university professors to adapt and adopt resources from multidisciplinary fields to meet the educational needs of twenty-first-century learners. Looking through the lens of new media literacy studies (Vasquez, Harste, & Albers, 2010) and new literacies studies (Gee, 2010), we propose that university…

  5. Becoming Numerate with Information and Communications Technologies in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola; Kilderry, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on data from a three-year Australian Research Council-funded study that examined the ways in which young children become numerate in the twenty-first century. We were interested in the authentic problem-solving contexts that we believe are required to create meaningful learning. This being so, our basic tenet was that such…

  6. 76 FR 14856 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... be available electronically in ASCII, Word 97, and/or Adobe Acrobat. The complete text may be.... To request this document in accessible formats (computer diskettes, large print, audio recording, and... rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission takes an initial step to implement the Twenty-First...

  7. Twenty First Century Education: Transformative Education for Sustainability and Responsible Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David V. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many ministries of education focus on twenty-first century education but unless they are looking at this topic through a sustainability lens, they will be missing some of its most important elements. The usual emphasis on developing skills for employability in the current global economy begs the question whether the global economy is itself…

  8. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  9. Philosophy and Methods for China's Vocational Education Curriculum Reforms in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Curriculum reform is an important aspect of progress in China's vocational education in the twenty-first century. The past decade's round of reforms were unprecedented in China in terms of both the scope and depth of their impact. They have and will continue to dramatically alter the nation's vocational education curriculum and teaching methods.…

  10. Distance Education Technology: Higher Education Barriers during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Ansah, Angela; Neill, Patti; Haralson, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, despite the expanded opportunities technology affords in student-access to higher education, most institutions of higher education are hesitant to offer technology-based distance education (TBDE). The prohibiting factors include cost, accessibility, faculty concerns, state mandates, academic administrative actions, and…

  11. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  12. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  13. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  14. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10, 2013...

  15. Forecasting Twenty-First Century Information Technology Skills: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jackie A.

    2012-01-01

    As cities and regions seek to increase the stock of college educated citizens in order to compete in the twenty-first century knowledge-economy, colleges and universities are realizing increased enrollment. At the same time, much is being written about the skills needed by graduates for the new economy. These studies articulate skills in critical…

  16. 76 FR 55585 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 79 Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This Order reinstates the video description rules adopted by the Commission in 2000....

  17. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town... Programming Accessibility Act (the Act or CVAA) hosted by the California State University at Northridge (CSUN... and video programming changes required by the Act. DATES: The Town Hall meeting was held on Thursday...

  18. Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing,…

  19. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  20. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

  1. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

  2. Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Devon Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author…

  3. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive…

  4. A Profile of Twenty-First Century Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine secondary social studies teachers' professional characteristics and workplace perceptions in order to better understand who represents social education in the twenty-first century. Utilizing data from the National Center for Educational Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey, parametric and non-parametric…

  5. Developmental Education: A Twenty-First Century Social and Economic Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; Day, Philip R., Jr., Ed.

    This monograph addresses developmental education in the 21st Century, identifying the major issues and providing examples of successful developmental programs. The first chapter, "Access and the New America of the Twenty-First Century," emphasizes several changes in American society that have affected access to education and…

  6. Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing,…

  7. The New Cosmopolitan Monolingualism: On Linguistic Citizenship in Twenty-First Century Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramling, David

    2009-01-01

    In the early years of the twenty-first century, being German has become a matter of linguistic competence and performance. An acute shift in citizenship statutes at the end of the 1990s brought about a peripatetic departure from Germany's "right of blood" ("ius sanguinis") toward a French-inspired "right of territory"…

  8. Distance Education Technology: Higher Education Barriers during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Ansah, Angela; Neill, Patti; Haralson, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, despite the expanded opportunities technology affords in student-access to higher education, most institutions of higher education are hesitant to offer technology-based distance education (TBDE). The prohibiting factors include cost, accessibility, faculty concerns, state mandates, academic administrative actions, and…

  9. Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Devon Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author…

  10. Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first…

  11. An Education for the Twenty-First Century: Stewardship of the Global Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Douglas C.; Cornwell, Grant H.; Al-Lail, Haifa Jamal; Schenck, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing that the term "global education" has become commonplace but, too often, is put forward without adequate substance, this proposal seeks to envision a foundational higher education for the twenty-first century. The authors believe it is important to imagine an education fit for global possibilities because theirs has become a world in…

  12. Forecasting Twenty-First Century Information Technology Skills: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jackie A.

    2012-01-01

    As cities and regions seek to increase the stock of college educated citizens in order to compete in the twenty-first century knowledge-economy, colleges and universities are realizing increased enrollment. At the same time, much is being written about the skills needed by graduates for the new economy. These studies articulate skills in critical…

  13. Knowledge and Educational Research in the Context of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Educational researchers and academics cannot ignore the ever-present call for education, and schooling in particular, to reflect the needs of the twenty-first century knowledge economy. Since the 1990s, national curricula and education systems have reflected this call in their focus on technology and shifting pedagogy to increasingly…

  14. The Effect of Participating in Indiana's Twenty-First Century Scholars Program on College Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Hossler, Don; DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.

    2015-01-01

    Our study adds to prior work on Indiana's Twenty-first Century Scholars(TFCS) program by focusing on whether participating in--rather than completing--the program affects the likelihood of students going to college and where they initially enrolled. We first employ binary and multinomial logistic regression to obtain estimates of the impact of the…

  15. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  16. An Education for the Twenty-First Century: Stewardship of the Global Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Douglas C.; Cornwell, Grant H.; Al-Lail, Haifa Jamal; Schenck, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing that the term "global education" has become commonplace but, too often, is put forward without adequate substance, this proposal seeks to envision a foundational higher education for the twenty-first century. The authors believe it is important to imagine an education fit for global possibilities because theirs has become a world in…

  17. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  18. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  19. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  20. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  1. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  2. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive…

  3. Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

  4. Teachers' Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, learning and teaching at school must prepare young people for engaging in a complex and dynamic world deeply influenced by globalisation and the revolution in digital technology. In addition to the use of digital technologies, is the development of flexible learning spaces. It is claimed that these developments demand,…

  5. The Conundrum of Religious Schools in Twenty-First-Century Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Merry examines in detail the continued--and curious--popularity of religious schools in an otherwise "secular" twenty-first century Europe. To do this he considers a number of motivations underwriting the decision to place one's child in a religious school and delineates what are likely the best empirically supported…

  6. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  7. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  8. TPACK Updated to Measure Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko; Kukkonen, Jari; Kontkanen, Sini; Lambert, Matthew C.; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills have attracted significant attention in recent years. Students of today and the future are expected to have the skills necessary for collaborating, problem solving, creative and innovative thinking, and the ability to take advantage of information and communication technology (ICT) applications. Teachers must be…

  9. Mobile Experiences of an Adolescent Learning Spanish Online in a Twenty-First Century High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tochon, Francois Victor

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on a case analysis based on the experience of an adolescent having to further Spanish learning through the Spanish 3 (third year) distance course of a twenty-first century high school program. Autoethnographic reflections mediate the storyline of the experiential report, as conversations and observations are internalized by…

  10. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  11. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  12. 76 FR 56658 - Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 79 Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 Action: Final rules; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: In... issues relating to the video description rules. The final information collection requirements were...

  13. 76 FR 68117 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... No. 11-43; FCC 11-126] Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... September 8, 2011, a document concerning implementation of the Video Description elements of the Twenty...

  14. Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-First Century College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather G. S.

    2015-01-01

    "Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-first Century College Classroom" discusses the challenge of teaching literary theory to undergraduate and graduate students in a cultural atmosphere that may at times feel simultaneously anti-intellectual and overpopulated with competing scholarly concerns. Approaching theory as a…

  15. Intellectual Freedom and Libraries: Complexity and Change in the Twenty-First-Century Digital Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresang, Eliza T.

    2006-01-01

    What is the state of intellectual freedom and libraries in the early twenty-first-century digital environment? This question is addressed largely in relation to public and school libraries, where more than 90 percent of documented challenges exist and at which most legislative and judicial actions relevant to intellectual freedom and libraries are…

  16. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  17. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  18. Teachers' Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, learning and teaching at school must prepare young people for engaging in a complex and dynamic world deeply influenced by globalisation and the revolution in digital technology. In addition to the use of digital technologies, is the development of flexible learning spaces. It is claimed that these developments demand,…

  19. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    PubMed

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills.

  20. Twenty-first century learning for teachers: helping educators bring new skills into the classroom.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John I

    2006-01-01

    The motivation behind every educator's dedication and hard work in the classroom is the knowledge that his or her teaching will result in students' success in life. Educators are committed to implementing twenty-first century skills; they have no question that students need such skills to be equipped for life beyond school. Members of the National Education Association are enthusiastic about the Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework, yet express frustration that many schools do not have adequate resources to make the necessary changes. Teaching these skills poses significant new responsibilities for schools and educators. To make it possible for teachers to build twenty-first century skills into the curriculum, physical and policy infrastructures must exist, professional development and curriculum materials must be offered, and meaningful assessments must be available. With an established understanding of what skills need to be infused into the classroom-problem solving, analysis, and com- munications-and educators' commitment to the new skill set, this chapter explores how to make such a dramatic reform happen. The author discusses existing strategies that will guide educators in infusing twenty-first century skills into traditional content areas such as math, English, geography, and science. Ultimately, public policy regarding educational standards, professional development, assessments, and physical school structures must exist to enable educators to employ twenty-first century skills, leading to student success in contemporary life. Any concern about the cost of bringing this nation's educational system up to par internationally should be offset by the price that not making twenty-first century skills a priority in the classroom will have on future economic well-being.

  1. Evolving roles of life and health sciences librarians for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J

    1998-07-01

    The twenty-first century will provide exciting challenges for life and health sciences librarians that will force us to redefine our position in the world of information. This rapidly changing environment influences the profession in a variety of ways including whom we serve and through what service, how and where we practice librarianship, and even the very composition of the profession itself. We must look at the changes in society and make the appropriate reciprocal changes in how we educate future librarians, how we market the profession, and how we develop the profession as a whole. We, as life and health sciences librarians, need to meet these challenges head on in order to continue the evolution of the profession well into the twenty-first century.

  2. Evolving roles of life and health sciences librarians for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C J

    1998-01-01

    The twenty-first century will provide exciting challenges for life and health sciences librarians that will force us to redefine our position in the world of information. This rapidly changing environment influences the profession in a variety of ways including whom we serve and through what service, how and where we practice librarianship, and even the very composition of the profession itself. We must look at the changes in society and make the appropriate reciprocal changes in how we educate future librarians, how we market the profession, and how we develop the profession as a whole. We, as life and health sciences librarians, need to meet these challenges head on in order to continue the evolution of the profession well into the twenty-first century. PMID:9681173

  3. The Best Aircraft for Close Air Support in the Twenty First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Fall 2016 | 39 The Best Aircraft for Close Air Support in the Twenty-First Century Maj Kamal J. Kaaoush, USAF Disclaimer: The views and opinions... Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, Air University, or other agencies or departments of the US govern- ment. This article may be...reproduced in whole or in part without permission. If it is reproduced, the Air and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. Introduction and

  4. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    sources of power supply. Estonia is the only country in the world where oil shale is the primary source of energy, supplying over 75 percent of its total...Unclassified The contributions of Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania ("the Baltic States") to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European...23 vi TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY EUROPE: EMERGENCE OF THE BALTIC STATES INTO EUROPEAN ALLIANCES BACKGROUND Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania are often

  5. Automation and robotics for Space Station in the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Space Station telerobotics will evolve beyond the initial capability into a smarter and more capable system as we enter the twenty-first century. Current technology programs including several proposed ground and flight experiments to enable development of this system are described. Advancements in the areas of machine vision, smart sensors, advanced control architecture, manipulator joint design, end effector design, and artificial intelligence will provide increasingly more autonomous telerobotic systems.

  6. Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David S G; Knight, Melanie; Wiggs, Giles F S

    2005-06-30

    Although desert dunes cover 5 per cent of the global land surface and 30 per cent of Africa, the potential impacts of twenty-first century global warming on desert dune systems are not well understood. The inactive Sahel and southern African dune systems, which developed in multiple arid phases since the last interglacial period, are used today by pastoral and agricultural systems that could be disrupted if climate change alters twenty-first century dune dynamics. Empirical data and model simulations have established that the interplay between dune surface erodibility (determined by vegetation cover and moisture availability) and atmospheric erosivity (determined by wind energy) is critical for dunefield dynamics. This relationship between erodibility and erosivity is susceptible to climate-change impacts. Here we use simulations with three global climate models and a range of emission scenarios to assess the potential future activity of three Kalahari dunefields. We determine monthly values of dune activity by modifying and improving an established dune mobility index so that it can account for global climate model data outputs. We find that, regardless of the emission scenario used, significantly enhanced dune activity is simulated in the southern dunefield by 2039, and in the eastern and northern dunefields by 2069. By 2099 all dunefields are highly dynamic, from northern South Africa to Angola and Zambia. Our results suggest that dunefields are likely to be reactivated (the sand will become significantly exposed and move) as a consequence of twenty-first century climate warming.

  7. Project Kaleidoscope 2.0: Leadership for Twenty-First Century STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Susan

    2010-01-01

    It has been over twenty years since the publication of reports calling for increased efforts to reform undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. There are more STEM classrooms today that utilize "pedagogies of engagement" than there were twenty years ago; however, these kinds of learning environments are…

  8. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    Treesearch

    Chadwick V. Jay; Bruce G. Marcot; David C. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental...

  9. Projection of wildfire activity in southern California in the mid-twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xu; Mickley, Loretta J.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2014-10-01

    We estimate area burned in southern California at mid-century (2046-2065) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. We develop both regressions and a parameterization to predict area burned in three ecoregions, and apply present-day (1981-2000) and future meteorology from the suite of general circulation models to these fire prediction tools. The regressions account for the impacts of both current and antecedent meteorological factors on wildfire activity and explain 40-46 % of the variance in area burned during 1980-2009. The parameterization yields area burned as a function of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity, and includes the impact of Santa Ana wind and other geographical factors on wildfires. It explains 38 % of the variance in area burned over southern California as a whole, and 64 % of the variance in southwestern California. The parameterization also captures the seasonality of wildfires in three ecoregions of southern California. Using the regressions, we find that area burned likely doubles in Southwestern California by midcentury, and increases by 35 % in the Sierra Nevada and 10 % in central western California. The parameterization suggests a likely increase of 40 % in area burned in southwestern California and 50 % in the Sierra Nevada by midcentury. It also predicts a longer fire season in southwestern California due to warmer and drier conditions on Santa Ana days in November. Our method provides robust estimates of area burned at midcentury, a key metric which can be used to calculate the fire-related effects on air quality, human health, and the associated costs.

  10. Why American business demands twenty-first century skills: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Public education is the key to individual and business prosperity. With a vested stake in education, educators, employers, parents, policymakers, and the public should question how this nation's public education system is faring. Knowing that recent international assessments have shown little or no gains in American students' achievement, the author asserts the clear need for change. As both a large American corporate employer and a provider of technology for schools, Dell is concerned with ensuring that youth will thrive in their adult lives. Changing workplace expectations lead to a new list of skills students will need to acquire before completing their schooling. Through technology, Dell supports schools in meeting educational goals, striving to supply students with the necessary skills, referred to as twenty-first century skills. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, of which Dell is a member, has led an initiative to define what twenty-first century learning should entail. Through extensive research, the partnership has built a framework outlining twenty-first century skills: analytical thinking, communication, collaboration, global awareness, and technological and economic literacy. Dell and the partnership are working state by state to promote the integration of these skills into curricula, professional development for teachers, and classroom environments. The authors describe two current initiatives, one in Virginia, the other in Texas, which both use technology to help student learning. All stakeholders can take part in preparing young people to compete in the global economy. Educators and administrators, legislators, parents, and employers must play their role in helping students be ready for what the workforce and the world has in store for them.

  11. Establishing the R&D agenda for twenty-first century learning.

    PubMed

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    An infusion of twenty-first century skills into American public education necessitates a plan for research and development to further such reform. While the nation agrees that students must obtain critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills to succeed in the current global marketplace, this chapter puts forth a long-term, proactive agenda to invest in targeted research to propel and sustain this shift in education. The authors examine the impact such an R&D agenda would have on pedagogy and assessment and the implications for institutions of higher education. As the United States struggles to maintain dominance in the international economy, it faces a great challenge in keeping up with European and Asian competitors' strategies for preparing youth for the global marketplace. The authors hope the global reality will help contextualize the debate around American education--the current trend toward basics and accountability needs to be broadened. Building on frameworks created by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this chapter proposes questions to guide research around teaching, professional development, and assessment significant to twenty-first century skills. Knowing that educational change depends on providing teachers with the tools, support, and training to make fundamental changes in their practice, the authors argue for extensive research around best practices. In addition, if assessments are created to measure the desired outcomes, such measuring tools can drive reform. Furthermore, large-scale changes in teacher preparation programs must take place to allow teachers to adequately employ twenty-first century teaching and assessment strategies.

  12. A history of meniscal surgery: from ancient times to the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, B; Moran, C J; Tarabella, V; Viganò, A; Tomba, P; Marcacci, M; Verdonk, R

    2016-05-01

    The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.

  13. Neurogenetics in Child Neurology: Redefining a Discipline in the Twenty-first Century.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Walter E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing knowledge on genetic etiology of pediatric neurologic disorders is affecting the practice of the specialty. I reviewed here the history of pediatric neurologic disorder classification and the role of genetics in the process. I also discussed the concept of clinical neurogenetics, with its role in clinical practice, education, and research. Finally, I propose a flexible model for clinical neurogenetics in child neurology in the twenty-first century. In combination with disorder-specific clinical programs, clinical neurogenetics can become a home for complex clinical issues, repository of genetic diagnostic advances, educational resource, and research engine in child neurology.

  14. The public health enterprise: examining our twenty-first-century policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Tilson, Hugh; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the public health enterprise and its policy challenges in the twenty-first century. Among the many challenges public health faces, we include here collaboration across a broad range of stakeholders, the public health infrastructure, agreement on public health's essential services, preparedness, accountability and measurement, workforce, and a research agenda. Two Institute of Medicine reports on the future of public health have set the context for a more in-depth review of the public health workforce and infrastructure. Policy advocates must ask, however, why, if the way and the means are so clear, the public health system is still in disarray.

  15. An explanation for the difference between twentieth and twenty-first century land-sea warming ratio in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M. M.; Lambert, F. H.; Webb, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    A land-sea surface warming ratio (or φ) that exceeds unity is a robust feature of both observed and modelled climate change. Interestingly, though climate models have differing values for φ, it remains almost time-invariant for a wide range of twenty-first century climate transient warming scenarios, while varying in simulations of the twentieth century. Here, we present an explanation for time-invariant land-sea warming ratio that applies if three conditions on radiative forcing are met: first, spatial variations in the climate forcing must be sufficiently small that the lower free troposphere warms evenly over land and ocean; second, the temperature response must not be large enough to change the global circulation to zeroth order; third, the temperature response must not be large enough to modify the boundary layer amplification mechanisms that contribute to making φ exceed unity. Projected temperature changes over this century are too small to breach the latter two conditions. Hence, the mechanism appears to show why both twenty-first century and time-invariant CO2 forcing lead to similar values of φ in climate models despite the presence of transient ocean heat uptake, whereas twentieth century forcing—which has a significant spatially confined anthropogenic tropospheric aerosol component that breaches the first condition—leads to modelled values of φ that vary widely amongst models and in time. Our results suggest an explanation for the behaviour of φ when climate is forced by other regionally confined forcing scenarios such as geo-engineered changes to oceanic clouds. Our results show how land-sea contrasts in surface and boundary layer characteristics act in tandem to produce the land-sea surface warming contrast.

  16. A Comparison of Concept Age Gains of Kindergarten Children in Traditional and Twenty-First Century Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Patricia W.

    This study sought to determine whether kindergarten students in a "twenty-first century classroom" would have a greater gain in concept age than students in a traditional kindergarten classroom. Subjects were students, randomly assigned, in two kindergarten classrooms. The twenty-first century classroom incorporates five computers into the…

  17. 78 FR 5557 - Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of the twenty-first meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems...

  18. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than…

  19. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than…

  20. Improved Views of the Moon in the Early Twenty First Century: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongwei; Zhao, Wenjin

    2015-02-01

    The twenty first century was an exciting epoch in planetary exploration, when a large number of lunar scientific achievements were accomplished. New missions in the first decade of the twenty first century have herald a new and exciting phase in lunar exploration, including LRO, LCROSS, the dual GRAIL orbiters, Kaguya, Chandrayaan 1, and the Chang'e series. Here we review the most significant advances in our understanding of lunar geoscience, including the assessment of water ice at lunar poles, the detection of new elements and minerals relating to exposed interior materials, the calculation of highly accurate gravity models, and the detection of subsurface interfaces probably related to basaltic strata formed in distinct episodes. In this paper we emphasize the importance of integrated approaches to the analysis of these large yield of new lunar data, through comparison and integration. By integrating a range of diverse technologies and approaches, this paper reviews new understanding of lunar processes, including the confirmation of the presence of water ice at the poles, the interactions between solar wind and surface oxides, and an improved model of lunar interior structures.

  1. Twenty-first century changes in snowfall climate in Northern Europe in ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    Changes in snowfall in northern Europe (55-71°N, 5-35°E) are analysed from 12 regional model simulations of twenty-first century climate under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario. As an ensemble mean, the models suggest a decrease in the winter total snowfall in nearly all of northern Europe. In the middle of the winter, however, snowfall generally increases in the coldest areas. The borderline between increasing and decreasing snowfall broadly coincides with the -11 °C isotherm in baseline (1980-2010) monthly mean temperature, although with variation between models and grid boxes. High extremes of daily snowfall remain nearly unchanged, except for decreases in the mildest areas, where snowfall as a whole becomes much less common. A smaller fraction of the snow in the simulated late twenty-first century climate falls on severely cold days and a larger fraction on days with near-zero temperatures. Not only do days with low temperatures become less common, but they also typically have more positive anomalies of sea level pressure and less snowfall for the same temperature than in the present-day climate.

  2. An Improved Solar Cycle Statistical Model for the Projection of Near Future Sunspot Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the current solar cycle 23 has progressed near the end of the cycle and accurate solar minimum and maximum occurrences have been defined, a statistical model based on the odd-even behavior of historical sunspot cycles was reexamined. Separate calculations of activity levels were made for the rising and declining phases in solar cycle 23, which resulted in improved projection of sunspots in the remainder of cycle 23. Because a fundamental understanding of the transition from cycle to cycle has not been developed, at this time it is assumed for projection purposes that solar cycle 24 will continue at the same activity level in the declining phase of cycle 23. Projection errors in solar cycle 24 can be corrected as the cycle progresses and observations become available because this model is shown to be self-correcting.

  3. Container Refurbishment Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aloi, t.; anthony, p; blair, t; forester, c; hall, k; hawk, t; gordon, b; johnsen, s; keck, g; clifford, m; reichert, d; rogers, p; richards, w; smallen, p; tilley, e

    2000-05-15

    In mid-1999, a Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) project was initiated by senior management to improve the overall efficiency of the Container Refurbishment process. A cross-functional team was formed by the Industrial Engineering Services group within Product Certification Organization to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. The CTR team efforts have resulted in increased productivity equaling approximately $450K per year. The effort also significantly reduced the wait time required necessary to start assembly work on the shop floor. Increasing daily production time and identifying delays were key team goals. Following is a brief summary of accomplishments: (A) Productivity Improvements: (1) Reduced Radcon survey time for empty containers: (i) 50% at 9720-3 (ii) 67% at 9204-2 and (iii) 100% at 9212; (2) Eliminated container inspections at 9720-3; (3) Reduced charged time (includes hands-on labor and support functions) per empty container by 25%; (4) Reduced cycle time to refurbish a container by 25%. (Dramatic wait time reduction -Assembly); (5) Reduced the time for 9212 to receive empty, refurbished containers by 67-80%; (6) Reduced the time for 9204-2E to receive empty, refurbished containers from 1 day to immediate; (7) Implemented software to track time charged per container for continuous improvement; (8) Initiated continuous improvement efforts between Workstream experts and Refurbishment personnel, reworded complex Workstream prompts to allow worker data corrections, and reduces time of support groups, Workstream personnel, and Refurbishment personnel; (9) Consolidated refurbished, container warehousing areas, eliminated long travel times to areas outside the protected area portals to an area in the vicinity of the refurbishment area and a process area, benefits are improved container flow and better housekeeping; and (10) improved overall communication of team by flowcharting entire process. B. Annual Cost Savings: $453K

  4. Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities for space science in the period from 1995 to 2015 are discussed. A perspective on progress in the six disciplines (the planet Earth; planetary and lunar exploration; solar system space physics; astronomy and astrophysics; fundamental physics and chemistry; and life sciences) of space science are reviewed. The prospectives for major achievements by 1995 from missions already underway or awaiting new starts are included. A set of long range goals for these disciplines are presented for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Broad themes for future scientific pursuits are presented and some examples of high-priority missions for the turn of the century are highlighted. A few recommendations are cited for each discipline to suggest how these themes might be developed.

  5. Expecting motherhood? Stratifying reproduction in twenty-first century Scottish abortion practice

    PubMed Central

    Beynon-Jones, Siân M.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how Scottish health professionals involved in contemporary abortion provision construct stratified expectations about women’s reproductive decision-making. Drawing on 42 semi-structured interviews I reveal the contingent discourses through which health professionals constitute the ‘rationality’ of the female subject who requests abortion. Specifically, I illustrate how youth, age, parity and class are mobilised as criteria through which to distinguish ‘types’ of patient whose requests for abortion are deemed particularly understandable or particularly problematic. I conceptualise this process of differentiation as a form of ‘stratified reproduction’ (Colen, 1995; Ginsburg and Rapp, 1995) and argue that it is significant for two reasons. Firstly, it illustrates the operation of dominant discourses concerning abortion and motherhood in twenty-first century Britain. Secondly, it extends the forms of critique which feminist scholarship has, to date, developed of the regulation of abortion provision in the UK. PMID:25774067

  6. Building the electronic health sciences library for the twenty-first century: the Galter Library experience.

    PubMed

    Shedlock, J; Barkey, D C; Ross, F

    1996-01-01

    Constructing home pages for World-Wide Web access has become a major activity in academic health sciences libraries. At the Northwestern University, Galter Health Sciences Library staff are creating the library's new health information system using Web resources and integrating them with existing library systems-NUmed (OVID MEDLINE) and LUIS/NUcat (NOTIS). Development of Web pages, including selection and organization of electronic information, has become the building process for the electronic library. Selection, organization, design, and construction are important factors in the creation of an efficient and useful information system. Using resources like the World-Wide Web and tools like Netscape, library staff are designing an interface, defining policies and guidelines, and creating the tools that will give users easy access to local and international electronic, scholarly information resources. In this paper, the process used at Northwestern is shown as a model of an electronic health sciences library for the twenty-first century.

  7. Civil Rights Laws as Tools to Advance Health in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Angela K; Lee, Mary M; Meneses, Cristina M; Perkins, Jane; Youdelman, Mara

    2016-01-01

    To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health.

  8. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving.

  9. Expecting motherhood? Stratifying reproduction in twenty-first century Scottish abortion practice.

    PubMed

    Beynon-Jones, Siân M

    2013-06-01

    This article illustrates how Scottish health professionals involved in contemporary abortion provision construct stratified expectations about women's reproductive decision-making. Drawing on 42 semi-structured interviews I reveal the contingent discourses through which health professionals constitute the 'rationality' of the female subject who requests abortion. Specifically, I illustrate how youth, age, parity and class are mobilised as criteria through which to distinguish 'types' of patient whose requests for abortion are deemed particularly understandable or particularly problematic. I conceptualise this process of differentiation as a form of 'stratified reproduction' (Colen, 1995; Ginsburg and Rapp, 1995) and argue that it is significant for two reasons. Firstly, it illustrates the operation of dominant discourses concerning abortion and motherhood in twenty-first century Britain. Secondly, it extends the forms of critique which feminist scholarship has, to date, developed of the regulation of abortion provision in the UK.

  10. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities.

    PubMed

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lawler, Joshua J; Olden, Julian D; Blumenthal, Dana M; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P; Sorte, Cascade J B; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-08-23

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion.

  11. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    PubMed Central

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  12. Organizing knowledge in the Isis bibliography from Sarton to the early twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    This essay explores various ways in which bibliographies have exhibited "sociality." Bibliographies are both products of the social contexts that have created them and engines of social interaction in scholarly communities. By tracing the history of the Isis Bibliography, the longest-running and most comprehensive bibliography in its field, this essay explains how different Isis classification systems have been tied to major twentieth-century cataloging efforts. By looking at classification, the essay also attends to the ways in which aspects of the Isis Bibliography in different decades have reflected social mores of their period. Finally, it demonstrates how critical the Isis Bibliography was in the formation of the discipline of history of science and goes on to discuss how that disciplinary connection is evolving in the twenty-first century. By thinking of the bibliography as a network of scholars, not just scholarly works, the essay asks us to reflect on the nature and purpose of bibliography in the digital age.

  13. Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Farrally, M R; Cochran, A J; Crews, D J; Hurdzan, M J; Price, R J; Snow, J T; Thomas, P R

    2003-09-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US dollar 3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11 golf science disciplines recognized by the World Scientific Congress of Golf have reported 311 papers at four world congresses since 1990. Additionally, scientific papers have been published in discipline-specific peer-reviewed journals, research has been sponsored by the two governing bodies of golf, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association, and confidential research is undertaken by commercial companies, especially equipment manufacturers. This paper reviews much of this human endeavour and points the way forward for future research into golf.

  14. Influence of food-environment interactions on health in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Fennema, O

    1990-01-01

    The quality and safety of foods are affected by the environment, and the quality and safety of the environment are, in turn, affected by foods and food processing. To explore these interrelationships, as they might exist in the twenty-first century, one must speculate regarding future changes in foods and food processing. Several trends in food processing seem likely to predominate into the twenty-first century, and they will be, for the most part, evolutionary in nature and of low consumer visibility. These trends are greater use of foods marketed in a refrigerated state, greater use of irradiation and combination processes, greater automation and optimization of processes, and greater use of biotechnology. It is also reasonable to assume that food products of the following types will increase in importance, namely, those that are convenient (includes eating away from home), those that are tailored to specific dietary needs, those containing chemically modified components such as altered proteins and carbohydrates, and fabricated foods. If these trends in foods and food processes prevail then concern must be directed to the following areas: Microbiological concerns--refrigerated foods; food service operations; new or altered procedures for processing, handling and storing foods; and new foods or food formulations; attention must be given both to controlling known pathogens as well as newly perceived pathogens. Chemical concerns--toxicants occurring naturally in foods; contaminants; chemicals developing in foods during processing, handling and storage; chemicals used in fabricated foods; and chemicals of newly perceived importance, especially those having adverse, covert effects. Several of these chemical concerns are influenced in seriousness by composition of the food environment. PMID:2401258

  15. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of Junior Achievement Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Box, John M

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to increase after-school programming indicate the nation's concern about how youth are engaged during out-of-school time. There are clear benefits to extending the learning that goes on during the school day. Research from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice shows that after-school participants do better in school and have stronger expectations for the future than youth who are not occupied after school. And the need is evident: 14.3 million students return to an empty house after school, yet only 6.5 million children are currently enrolled in after-school programs. If an after-school program were available, parents of 15.3 million would enroll their child. JA Worldwide began in 1919 and has been rooted in the afterschool arena from its origins. Its after-school programs teach students about the free enterprise system through curriculum focusing on business, citizenship, economics, entrepreneurship, ethics and character, financial literacy, and career development. At the same time, JA Worldwide incorporates hands-on learning and engagement with adults as role models, both key elements to a successful after-school program. Now focused on developing curriculum emphasizing skills needed for the twenty-first century, JA adopted the key elements laid out for after-school programs by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. To ensure that the next generation of students enters the workforce prepared, America's education system must provide the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Programs such as JA Worldwide serve as models of how to provide the twenty-first century skills that all students need to succeed.

  16. Watershed-scale response to climate change through the twenty-first century for selected basins across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven; Ward-Garrison, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic response of different climate-change emission scenarios for the twenty-first century were evaluated in 14 basins from different hydroclimatic regions across the United States using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a process-based, distributed-parameter watershed model. This study involves four major steps: 1) setup and calibration of the PRMS model in 14 basins across the United States by local U.S. Geological Survey personnel; 2) statistical downscaling of the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 climate-change emission scenarios to create PRMS input files that reflect these emission scenarios; 3) run PRMS for the climate-change emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and 4) evaluation of the PRMS output.This paper presents an overview of this project, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be very different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the climate emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations. This paper concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned and potential for future work.

  17. Twenty First Century Science: Insights from the Design and Implementation of a Scientific Literacy Approach in School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, Robin

    2006-10-01

    Although the term “scientific literacy” has been increasingly used in recent years to characterise the aim of school science education, there is still considerable uncertainty about its meaning and implications for the curriculum. A major national project in England, Twenty First Century Science, is evaluating the feasibility of a more flexible science curriculum structure for 15-year-old and 16-year-old students, centring around a core course for all students with a scientific literacy emphasis. Over 12,000 students in 78 schools have followed this course since September 2003. The development of a detailed teaching programme is an important means of clarifying the meanings and implications of a “scientific literacy” approach. Questionnaire data from teachers at the end of the first and second years of the project (N = 40 and N = 51) show a strongly positive evaluation of the central features of the course design. Teachers perceive the scientific literacy emphasis as markedly increasing student interest and engagement. Key challenges identified are the language and reasoning demands in looking critically at public accounts of science, and the classroom management of more open discussion about science-related issues.

  18. Evaluation of the twenty-first century RCM simulations driven by multiple GCMs over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önol, Barış; Bozkurt, Deniz; Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Sen, Omer Lutfi; Dalfes, H. Nuzhet

    2014-04-01

    In this study, human-induced climate change over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region has been analyzed for the twenty-first century by performing regional climate model simulations forced with large-scale fields from three different global circulation models (GCMs). Climate projections have been produced with Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2, A1FI and B1 scenarios, which provide greater diversity in climate information for future period. The gradual increases for temperature are widely apparent during the twenty-first century for each scenario simulation, but ECHAM5-driven simulation generally has a weaker signal for all seasons compared to CCSM3 simulations except for the Fertile Crescent. The contrast in future temperature change between the winter and summer seasons is very strong for CCSM3-A2-driven and HadCM3-A2-driven simulations over Carpathians and Balkans, 4-5 °C. In addition, winter runoff over mountainous region of Turkey, which feeds many river systems including the Euphrates and Tigris, increases in second half of the century since the snowmelt process accelerates where the elevation is higher than 1,500 m. Moreover, analysis of daily temperature outputs reveals that the gradual decrease in daily minimum temperature variability for January during the twenty-first century is apparent over Carpathians and Balkans. Analysis of daily precipitation extremes shows that positive trend is clear during the last two decades of the twenty-first century over Carpathians for both CCSM3-driven and ECHAM5-driven simulations. Multiple-GCM driven regional climate simulations contribute to the quantification of the range of climate change over a region by performing detailed comparisons between the simulations.

  19. Transient twenty-first century changes in daily-scale temperature extremes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-03-01

    A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in temperature extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 daily-scale extreme temperature indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of daily maximum temperature over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century

  20. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change in an ensemble of twenty first century scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, Fanny; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Jordà, Gabriel; Aznar, Roland; Déqué, Michel; Herrmann, Marine; Marcos, Marta; Dubois, Clotilde; Padorno, Elena; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique; Gomis, Damià

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean climate is expected to become warmer and drier during the twenty-first century. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change could be modulated by the choice of the socio-economic scenario as well as the choice of the boundary conditions mainly the Atlantic hydrography, the river runoff and the atmospheric fluxes. To assess and quantify the sensitivity of the Mediterranean Sea to the twenty-first century climate change, a set of numerical experiments was carried out with the regional ocean model NEMOMED8 set up for the Mediterranean Sea. The model is forced by air-sea fluxes derived from the regional climate model ARPEGE-Climate at a 50-km horizontal resolution. Historical simulations representing the climate of the period 1961-2000 were run to obtain a reference state. From this baseline, various sensitivity experiments were performed for the period 2001-2099, following different socio-economic scenarios based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. For the A2 scenario, the main three boundary forcings (river runoff, near-Atlantic water hydrography and air-sea fluxes) were changed one by one to better identify the role of each forcing in the way the ocean responds to climate change. In two additional simulations (A1B, B1), the scenario is changed, allowing to quantify the socio-economic uncertainty. Our 6-member scenario simulations display a warming and saltening of the Mediterranean. For the 2070-2099 period compared to 1961-1990, the sea surface temperature anomalies range from +1.73 to +2.97 °C and the SSS anomalies spread from +0.48 to +0.89. In most of the cases, we found that the future Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (MTHC) tends to reach a situation similar to the eastern Mediterranean Transient. However, this response is varying depending on the chosen boundary conditions and socio-economic scenarios. Our numerical experiments suggest that the choice of the near-Atlantic surface water evolution, which is very uncertain in

  1. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century.

  2. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century. PMID:27047406

  3. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  4. The expert patient: a new approach to chronic disease management for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Robert L

    2002-01-01

    The expert patient: a new approach to chronic disease management for the twenty-first century, produced by the Department of Health, recommends the introduction of 'user-led self management' for chronic diseases to all areas of the NHS by 2007. The premise is that many patients are expert in managing their disease, and this could be used to encourage others to become 'key decision makers in the treatment process'. Furthermore, these expert patients could 'contribute their skills and insights for the further improvement of services'. It is hypothesised that self-management programmes could reduce the severity of symptoms and improve confidence, resourcefulness and self-efficacy. It is stressed that this is more than just patient education to improve compliance. Instead there should be 'a cultural change...so that user-led self management can be fully valued and understood by healthcare professionals'. I point out that these ideas, while welcome, are not particularly new. Achieving the desired culture change will not be easy.

  5. How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Tuffen, Hugh

    2010-05-28

    Glaciers and ice sheets on many active volcanoes are rapidly receding. There is compelling evidence that melting of ice during the last deglaciation triggered a dramatic acceleration in volcanic activity. Will melting of ice this century, which is associated with climate change, similarly affect volcanic activity and associated hazards? This paper provides a critical overview of the evidence that current melting of ice will increase the frequency or size of hazardous volcanic eruptions. Many aspects of the link between ice recession and accelerated volcanic activity remain poorly understood. Key questions include how rapidly volcanic systems react to melting of ice, whether volcanoes are sensitive to small changes in ice thickness and how recession of ice affects the generation, storage and eruption of magma at stratovolcanoes. A greater frequency of collapse events at glaciated stratovolcanoes can be expected in the near future, and there is strong potential for positive feedbacks between melting of ice and enhanced volcanism. Nonetheless, much further research is required to remove current uncertainties about the implications of climate change for volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century.

  6. Origins and estimates of uncertainty in predictions of twenty-first century temperature rise.

    PubMed

    Stott, Peter A; Kettleborough, J A

    2002-04-18

    Predictions of temperature rise over the twenty-first century are necessarily uncertain, both because the sensitivity of the climate system to changing atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations, as well as the rate of ocean heat uptake, is poorly quantified and because future influences on climate-of anthropogenic as well as natural origin-are difficult to predict. Past observations have been used to help constrain the range of uncertainties in future warming rates, but under the assumption of a particular scenario of future emissions. Here we investigate the relative importance of the uncertainty in climate response to a particular emissions scenario versus the uncertainty caused by the differences between future emissions scenarios for our estimates of future change. We present probabilistic forecasts of global-mean temperatures for four representative scenarios for future emissions, obtained with a comprehensive climate model. We find that, in the absence of policies to mitigate climate change, global-mean temperature rise is insensitive to the differences in the emissions scenarios over the next four decades. We also show that in the future, as the signal of climate change emerges further, the predictions will become better constrained.

  7. AMEE 2010 symposium: medical student education in the twenty-first century - a new Flexnerian era?

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Paul A; Busing, Nick; Boulet, John R; Burdick, William P; McKillop, James; Irby, David; Ann Farmer, Elizabeth; Duvivier, Robbert

    2011-01-01

    As we mark the 100th anniversary of the Flexner report which revolutionized the process of medical education, there is again concern that we face a critical need for change in the process of medical education in order to meet the needs of learners, teachers, and patients. In this symposium, panelists shared perspectives on medical education reform from throughout the world, including The Future of Medical Education in Canada, the role of regulators in contributing to reform, the evolution of accreditation standards, the current state of medical education in Southeast Asia, and the perspectives of a medical student on medical education reform. In the "Audience discussion" section, themes emerged surrounding medical education as a social good, the need for governmental support of medical education, the cost of medical education and the rise of for-profit medical schools, and embracing a broader view of health professional education. There remain remarkable parallels in calls for reform in medical education at the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries but education which is patient-centered and actively involves the voices of our patients and our students is likely to be a hallmark.

  8. Psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: role of patient advocacy organisations in the twenty first century

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, G; Savage, L; Chandler, D; Maccarone, B

    2005-01-01

    All the psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patient advocacy organisations are devoted to promoting public awareness and patient education; supporting access to effective treatments and physicians committed to the welfare of patients; working with physicians and other organisations to facilitate development of new treatments; and supporting research for more effective treatments and a cure for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They have participated in the remaking of health politics in the late twentieth century. This was an era in which small patient support and advocacy groups were transformed into sophisticated national health organisations integral to the formation of national health policy and research, treatment, and education funding by working with physicians, legislators, pharmaceutical companies, third party payors, and the media. As we enter the twenty first century, some of these groups have done critical surveys of patients and physicians to discern needs that are redirecting their programming and reshaping directions in the field. Many national leagues have united to form international organisations. Although differences in their national healthcare systems, the age of their organisations, and the diseases they cover are reflected in the focus of their individual activities, much unites them. Whatever their size, as their roles have come to be recognised in the healthcare community, the patient advocacy organisations welcome being invited to the decision making table. This report describes a sampling of these organisations. PMID:15708949

  9. World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1998-09-01

    The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

  10. Civil engineering at the crossroads in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Francisco; Seco, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The twenty-first century presents a major challenge for civil engineering. The magnitude and future importance of some of the problems perceived by society are directly related to the field of the civil engineer, implying an inescapable burden of responsibility for a group whose technical soundness, rational approach and efficiency is highly valued and respected by the citizen. However, the substantial changes in society and in the way it perceives the problems that it considers important call for a thorough review of our structures, both professional and educational; so that our profession, with its undeniable historical prestige, may modernize certain approaches and attitudes in order to continue to be a reliable instrument in the service of society, giving priority from an ethical standpoint to its actions in pursuit of "the public good". It possesses important tools to facilitate this work (new technologies, the development of communications, the transmission of scientific thought.···); but there is nevertheless a need for deep reflection on the very essence of civil engineering: what we want it to be in the future, and the ability and willingness to take the lead at a time when society needs disinterested messages, technically supported, reasonably presented and dispassionately transmitted.

  11. History and evolution of surgical ethics: John Gregory to the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Namm, Jukes P; Siegler, Mark; Brander, Caroline; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lowe, Christian; Angelos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    As surgery grew to become a respected medical profession in the eighteenth century, medical ethics emerged as a response to the growing need to protect patients and maintain the public's trust in physicians. The early influences of John Gregory and Thomas Percival were instrumental in the formulation of patient-centered medical ethics. In the late nineteenth century, the modern surgical advances of anesthesia and antisepsis created the need for a discipline of ethics specific to surgery in order to confront new and evolving ethical issues. One of the founding initiatives of the American College of Surgeons in 1913 was to eliminate unethical practices such as fee-splitting and itinerant surgery. As surgery continued to advance in the era of solid organ transplantation and minimally invasive surgery in the latter half of the twentieth century, surgical innovation and conflict of interest have emerged as important ethical issues moving forward into the twenty-first century. Surgical ethics has evolved into a distinct branch of medical ethics, and the core of surgical ethics is the surgeon-patient relationship and the surgeon's responsibility to advance and protect the well-being of the patient.

  12. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO/sub 4/) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs.

  13. Predicting twenty-first century recession of architectural limestone in European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, Carlota M.; Bonazza, Alessandra; Brimblecombe, Peter; Harris, Ian; Sabbioni, Cristina

    2008-12-01

    Cities of the twenty-first century will expose buildings to environments that are quite different from those experienced over preceding periods. The recent reduction in sulfur dioxide in cities and continued pressure to lower the emissions of combustion generated pollutants creates a potential for climate induced deterioration, by contrast, to be more important. Given that climate will likely change over the next hundred years, recession rates of calcareous stones have been predicted for Oviedo (Spain), Paris and Prague over the period 1981-2099. This can give guidance as to the likely change in balance of future threat. The Lipfert, ICP, and MULTI-ASSESS functions were used to calculate recession from estimates of climate and air quality. It is likely that under a continued decline or stable levels of pollution, recession rates having reached low values will remain largely unchanged over the coming century, despite likely changes in climate. Although the functions adopted disagree in a quantitative sense, there is evidence that they were reasonably concordant in the last decades of the twentieth century. In a cleaner future their different underlying assumptions lead to poorer agreement.

  14. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  15. Twenty-first-century warming of a large Antarctic ice-shelf cavity by a redirected coastal current.

    PubMed

    Hellmer, Hartmut H; Kauker, Frank; Timmermann, Ralph; Determann, Jürgen; Rae, Jamie

    2012-05-09

    The Antarctic ice sheet loses mass at its fringes bordering the Southern Ocean. At this boundary, warm circumpolar water can override the continental slope front, reaching the grounding line through submarine glacial troughs and causing high rates of melting at the deep ice-shelf bases. The interplay between ocean currents and continental bathymetry is therefore likely to influence future rates of ice-mass loss. Here we show that a redirection of the coastal current into the Filchner Trough and underneath the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf during the second half of the twenty-first century would lead to increased movement of warm waters into the deep southern ice-shelf cavity. Water temperatures in the cavity would increase by more than 2 degrees Celsius and boost average basal melting from 0.2 metres, or 82 billion tonnes, per year to almost 4 metres, or 1,600 billion tonnes, per year. Our results, which are based on the output of a coupled ice-ocean model forced by a range of atmospheric outputs from the HadCM3 climate model, suggest that the changes would be caused primarily by an increase in ocean surface stress in the southeastern Weddell Sea due to thinning of the formerly consolidated sea-ice cover. The projected ice loss at the base of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf represents 80 per cent of the present Antarctic surface mass balance. Thus, the quantification of basal mass loss under changing climate conditions is important for projections regarding the dynamics of Antarctic ice streams and ice shelves, and global sea level rise.

  16. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  17. Preparation of European Public Health Professionals in the Twenty-first Century

    PubMed Central

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Otok, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The public health profession in Europe has a leadership role for ensuring European’s health in the twenty-first century and therefore must assume responsibility for advancing education for research and practice. Three fundamental questions are explored: (1) What are the main public health problems facing public health professionals; (2) What are their existing competencies after training; and (3) What competencies do European employers expect? The European Schools of Public Health assessed their best success to be in the field of health promotion, followed by disease prevention including identification of priority health problems, and elimination of health hazards in the community. Conversely, they see the least success in dealing with preparedness and planning for public health emergencies. From an employer’s perspective, significant gaps between current and desired levels of performance at the job exist for all Essential Public Health Operations of World Health Organization. Based on prior research and recent European surveys of Schools and Departments of Public Health, the following recommendations are made, which emphasize the leadership role of the European public health community: (1) the preparation of public health professionals requires an interface between public health functions, competencies, and performance; (2) competence-based education is important and allows debates on the scope of the required education; (3) governments have to realize that the present lack of infrastructure and capacity is detrimental to the people’s health; (4) as public health challenges are increasingly global, educational institutions have to look beyond the national boundaries and participate in European and global networks for education, research, and practice. PMID:28261578

  18. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2016-01-01

    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest "strong inference in mathematical modeling" as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century.

  19. Prospects for the automobile: sputtering toward the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, S.

    1980-02-01

    America has 130 million licensed drivers with over 100 million cars, logging over 1 trillion miles of travel every year. The American automobile fleet accounts for more than 90% of all personal transportation and not without its costs. Automobiles have become the greatest threat to the lives of Americans between the ages of 15 and 35; autos generate about half of the pollution that chokes many American cities. They have broken up neighborhoods and families, created congestion on roads and highways, and produced irreversible changes in the social patterns of American life. Automobiles have been a powerful force behind the economic expansion of the industrialized world. In 1979, the Office of Technology Assessment published an extensive study of the automobile's future, Changes in the Future Use and Characteristics of the Automobile Transportation System. Here, the author examines the options open to policymakers in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the automobile's next two decades as discussed in that study. The supplies of petroleum, development of alternative fuels, prices, and regulations pertinent to the automobile industry and their impacts on the automobile industry and the US economy are discussed. Successes and failures of the various technologies and alternative fuels now under study will determine the mobility of Americans in the twenty-first century, according to Mr. Olson. Continued gasoline shortages could kindle a strong and profitable demand for smaller cars or different kinds of cars possibly opening up an export market for the auto industry, he says. Such a shift towards energy-conservng technologies could allow the US to lead the industrialized world toward the efficient use of limited stores of energy, like it led the world toward the excessive use of energy. (MCW)

  20. Preparation of European Public Health Professionals in the Twenty-first Century.

    PubMed

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Otok, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The public health profession in Europe has a leadership role for ensuring European's health in the twenty-first century and therefore must assume responsibility for advancing education for research and practice. Three fundamental questions are explored: (1) What are the main public health problems facing public health professionals; (2) What are their existing competencies after training; and (3) What competencies do European employers expect? The European Schools of Public Health assessed their best success to be in the field of health promotion, followed by disease prevention including identification of priority health problems, and elimination of health hazards in the community. Conversely, they see the least success in dealing with preparedness and planning for public health emergencies. From an employer's perspective, significant gaps between current and desired levels of performance at the job exist for all Essential Public Health Operations of World Health Organization. Based on prior research and recent European surveys of Schools and Departments of Public Health, the following recommendations are made, which emphasize the leadership role of the European public health community: (1) the preparation of public health professionals requires an interface between public health functions, competencies, and performance; (2) competence-based education is important and allows debates on the scope of the required education; (3) governments have to realize that the present lack of infrastructure and capacity is detrimental to the people's health; (4) as public health challenges are increasingly global, educational institutions have to look beyond the national boundaries and participate in European and global networks for education, research, and practice.

  1. Gendering inequality: a note on Piketty's Capital in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Perrons, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is remarkable for moving inequality from the margins to mainstream debate through detailed analysis of longitudinal statistics and, for an economist, by advocating an interdisciplinary perspective and writing in a witty and accessible style. With reference to the post 1970 period, when wage increases are largely responsible for the increase in inequality, Piketty shows how patrimonial capitalists (elite managers) in the top decile and centile of the distribution appropriate a growing share of social wealth as a consequence of their 'power to set their own remuneration' in the context of tolerant social norms rather than through their productive contributions. Piketty raises but defers the question of where these social norms come from to other disciplines. A Feminist Economics perspective indicates that these questions are central to a more inclusive form of economic analysis and such an approach would enrich Piketty's analysis in two main ways. First, by paying greater attention to the processes and social norms through which inequalities are produced and justified and second by highlighting the ways in which inequality is experienced differently depending not only on class, but also on other aspects of identity including gender. This approach also suggests that it is necessary to supplement the ex-post redistributive policies recommended by Piketty: a global wealth tax and more steeply progressive income tax, with ex-ante measures to stop the rise in wage inequality in the first place, especially by bridging the huge gulf that exists between those who care for people and those who manage money.

  2. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-07-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunities. In addition to a number of well-known, large public repositories, there are dozens of smaller public collections that differ in the range of species and strains preserved, field of emphasis and services offered. Several collections have converted their catalogues to comprehensive databases and synchronize them continuously through public services, making it easier for users worldwide to locate a suitable source for specific yeast strains and the data associated with these yeasts. In-house research such as yeast taxonomy continues to be important at culture collections. Because yeast culture collections preserve a broad diversity of species and strains within a species, they are able to make discoveries in many other areas as well, such as biotechnology, functional, comparative and evolution genomics, bioprocesses and novel products. Due to the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Nagoya Protocol (NP), there are new requirements for both depositors and users to ensure that yeasts were collected following proper procedures and to guarantee that the country of origin will be considered if benefits arise from a yeast's utilization. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are extremely relevant to the current access and benefit-sharing (ABS) mechanisms; most research and development involving genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge will be subject to this topic. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2016-01-01

    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest “strong inference in mathematical modeling” as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century. PMID:27499750

  4. Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, A. K.; Braun, J. L.; Daanen, R. P.; Hock, R.; Liljedahl, A.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    In South-Central Alaska, the Susitna River is the site of a proposed hydroelectric dam. The catchment of the reservoir in the upper Susitna watershed (13,289 km^2, 450-4000 m a.s.l.) is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. Glaciers, permafrost, and the water cycle are expected to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming by the end of this century, thus impacting water yields to the hydroelectric reservoir. We aim to quantify future changes in glacier wastage, surface- and groundwater, permafrost, and evapotranspiration. We apply the physically-based hydrological model WaSiM using daily air temperature and precipitation data from station observations and gridded climate products. The model is calibrated with runoff and glacier mass balance measurements from the 1980s and validated with measurements from ongoing field campaigns which started in spring 2012. With the past and present data, the model is able to match both the magnitude and timing of observed river discharge. However, the scarcity of meteorological observations from the upper Susitna basin presents a major challenge to simulating the catchment hydrology. We present methods for extrapolation of the spatially-sparse long-term data across the catchment, with particular emphasis on high-elevation precipitation. To project future changes in river runoff, we run WaSiM with air temperature and precipitation downscaled from global climate models and compare results from several emission scenarios (selected from CMIP5). We discuss the anticipated changes in basin hydrology as the climate warms, permafrost thaws, and glaciers shrink.

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in precipitation climatology, twenty-first century change, and teleconnections in global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbrunner, Baird Grant

    The ability of global climate models (GCMs) to simulate climatological precipitation and other features of the hydrological cycle accurately is acceptable by some metrics, especially at large scales. Regionally, however, there can be substantial discrepancy in a multi-model ensemble, both in the annual or seasonal historical precipitation climatology as well as in end-of-century changes. Characterizing this intermodel spread and identifying leading uncertainty patterns and underlying physical pathways is important in constraining climatological biases and projections of future change. This dissertation looks at three aspects of precipitation uncertainty in ensembles. First, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections are analyzed in an atmosphere-only ensemble to gauge the ability of atmospheric components of GCMs to reproduce ENSO precipitation teleconnections. This serves as a test for how well models simulate the atmospheric response to sea surface temperature forcing in the immediate ENSO vicinity, as well as how accurately they reproduce the large-scale tropical-to-midlatitude dynamics leading to teleconnected precipitation. While individual models have difficulty in simulating the exact spatial pattern of teleconnections, they demonstrate skill in regional amplitude measures and sign agreement of the precipitation teleconnections at the grid point level, which lends value to the use of such measures in global warming projections. Next, objective spatial analysis techniques are applied to a fully-coupled GCM ensemble in order to visualize patterns of uncertainty in end-of-century precipitation changes and in the historical climatology. Global patterns are considered first, with the tropics exerting a clear dominance in intermodel spread, mainly within zones of deep convection or along convective margins. Regional domains are considered second, with a focus on the wintertime midlatitude Pacific storm track. A key region of end-of-century precipitation

  6. The Break the Cycle Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Aronoff, Jessica; Shelley, Gene A.

    2007-01-01

    Break the Cycle is a private, nonprofit organization that seeks to end domestic violence by working proactively with youth. Founded in 1996, it includes a preventive education and outreach program, a legal services program, and a peer leadership program. All three programs focus exclusively on youth aged 12-22 years. In 2000, Centers for Disease…

  7. The Break the Cycle Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Aronoff, Jessica; Shelley, Gene A.

    2007-01-01

    Break the Cycle is a private, nonprofit organization that seeks to end domestic violence by working proactively with youth. Founded in 1996, it includes a preventive education and outreach program, a legal services program, and a peer leadership program. All three programs focus exclusively on youth aged 12-22 years. In 2000, Centers for Disease…

  8. Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! to team science and a place for community psychology.

    PubMed

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science.

  9. Aerospace Power in the Twenty-First Century: A Basic Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Clayton K. S. Chun 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United States Air...this project without their suppo r t . CLAYTON K. S. CHUN US Army War College Carlisle, Pennsylvania xviii Chapter 1 Aerospace Concepts and Definit...their gunfire and ant i sh ip miss i les . Longer- range sh ipboard and submar ine missiles are improving naval force projections . 3 AEROSPACE

  10. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project... availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project Preliminary... the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, which would...

  11. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  12. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly,…

  13. The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information. Twenty-First Edition. With Cumulative Index 1972-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Madeline, Ed.; And Others

    The twenty-first edition of the Bowker Annual serves as an almanac, handbook, and fact finder for the library and publishing fields. The first section, "Reports from National Associations and Agencies," summarizes the 1975 activities of 14 organizations. The second part, "Developments in Librarianship and Publishing," features articles on the…

  14. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian…

  15. Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such…

  16. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

  17. Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such…

  18. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

  19. Critical Pedagogy in the Twenty-First Century: A New Generation of Scholars. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry Stephenson, Ed.; Porfilio, Bradley, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book simultaneously provides multiple analyses of critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century while showcasing the scholarship of this new generation of critical scholar-educators. Needless to say, the writers herein represent just a small subset of a much larger movement for critical transformation and a more humane, less Eurocentric, less…

  20. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  1. Critical Pedagogy in the Twenty-First Century: A New Generation of Scholars. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry Stephenson, Ed.; Porfilio, Bradley, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book simultaneously provides multiple analyses of critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century while showcasing the scholarship of this new generation of critical scholar-educators. Needless to say, the writers herein represent just a small subset of a much larger movement for critical transformation and a more humane, less Eurocentric, less…

  2. Review of Twenty-First Century Portable Electronic Devices for Persons with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Use of portable electronic devices by persons with moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders is gaining increased research attention. The purpose of this review was to synthesize twenty-first century literature (2000-2010) focusing on these technologies. Twenty-one studies were identified which evaluated use of: (a) handheld…

  3. A Shift to Inquiry: The Heart of Effective Teaching and Professional Development for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini, Vicki; Worth, Karen; Jensen LaConte, Judy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how an experienced teacher navigates the demands of curriculum to implement her inquiry-centered teaching and learning philosophy, and how administrators along the way supported her during this change. Interviews with this classroom teacher surface suggestions for twenty-first-century professional development and support,…

  4. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

  5. The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information. Twenty-First Edition. With Cumulative Index 1972-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Madeline, Ed.; And Others

    The twenty-first edition of the Bowker Annual serves as an almanac, handbook, and fact finder for the library and publishing fields. The first section, "Reports from National Associations and Agencies," summarizes the 1975 activities of 14 organizations. The second part, "Developments in Librarianship and Publishing," features articles on the…

  6. Professional Capabilities for Twenty-First Century Creative Careers: Lessons from Outstandingly Successful Australian Artists and Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgstock, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…

  7. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Miri

    2016-01-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  8. Assessing Twenty-First Century Skills through a Teacher Created Video Game for High School Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…

  9. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

  10. Professional Capabilities for Twenty-First Century Creative Careers: Lessons from Outstandingly Successful Australian Artists and Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgstock, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…

  11. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri

    2017-01-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher…

  12. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  13. Imagination in Twenty-First Century Teaching and Learning Teachers as Creative-Adaptive Leaders in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Shamini Samanlatha Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explored the value and functions of imagination in leading learning in the twenty-first century, a knowledge-based age marked by diversity, change and unpredictability. In such a context, how can imagination enable teachers to be leaders of learning who optimally engage and prepare students for success? Research in cognitive…

  14. Noise Management in Twenty-First Century Libraries: Case Studies of Four U.S. Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Janet E.; Asher, Darla C.

    2014-01-01

    University libraries have had to provide acceptable noise levels for many years and this pressure has not diminished in the twenty-first century. Library space has to be utilized to ensure noise levels are best managed. A study was undertaken across four university libraries in South Florida to determine how universities utilized their limited…

  15. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  16. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  17. Teaching and Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Educational Goals, Policies, and Curricula from Six Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando M., Ed.; Chung, Connie K., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book describes how different nations have defined the core competencies and skills that young people will need in order to thrive in the twenty-first-century, and how those nations have fashioned educational policies and curricula meant to promote those skills. The book examines six countries--Chile, China, India, Mexico, Singapore, and the…

  18. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Miri

    2017-04-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  19. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  20. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  1. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly,…

  2. Impact of the Twenty-First Century Afterschool Program on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the academic impacts of the Twenty-First Century Community Learning Centers on students who participated in this program. The following research questions guided the study: (a) are there significant differences between the Criterion Reference Competency Test English Language Arts scores of…

  3. Rethinking Teaching and Learning Pedagogy for Education in the Twenty-First Century: Blended Learning in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Renée

    2017-01-01

    In an increasingly technologically driven world, there is proliferate discussion among education and government authorities about the necessity to rethink education in the twenty-first century. The evolution of technology and its pervasive influence on the needs and requirements of society is central to this mindset. Innovations in online…

  4. Teaching and Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Educational Goals, Policies, and Curricula from Six Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando M., Ed.; Chung, Connie K., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book describes how different nations have defined the core competencies and skills that young people will need in order to thrive in the twenty-first-century, and how those nations have fashioned educational policies and curricula meant to promote those skills. The book examines six countries--Chile, China, India, Mexico, Singapore, and the…

  5. Insights into Finnish First-Year Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Kukkonen, Jari; Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Finnish pre-service teachers' perceptions of their twenty-first century skills, especially their learning strategies, collaboration and teamwork, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to ICT in education. The target group consist of 263 first-year pre-service teachers from three universities. The results outline how…

  6. Guideposts for the U.S. Military in the Twenty-first Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    processing, exploitation, and dissemination ( TCPED ) of intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance ( ISR ) assets employing all disciplines. History...fully appreciate the extent of the problem, we must remind ourselves that an optimal interface between intelligence and operations really must occur...context of optimized information management. Today The current Intel cycle- TCPED --is sequential, oriented toward particular systems and security

  7. The U.S. Nuclear Data Network: Summary of the twenty-first meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The following progress reports and related documents from the members of the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN) are included at attachments: INEL Decay Data and Mass-chain Evaluation Project; Decay-data Evaluation Project; Isotopes Project Report; Report on High-spin Data Evaluations; The NNDC Activity Report, Parts A and B; Nuclear Science References (NSR) Task Force Report; Status of Mass Chains A = 1 to 266; Nuclear Data Project Activity Report; and TUNL Nuclear Data Evaluation Project Report; The progress report of the Center for Nuclear Information Technology; An Overview of the USNDN; Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File-Status; Report on High-spin Evaluations for ENSDF since November 1994; The High-spin Data and the Workshop on Data Analysis; Decay Data Evaluation Project; Compilation of High Energy Heavy-ion and Electron Interaction Data; Dissemination/code development update; 8th Edition of the Table of Isotopes/VuENSDF; Bits of Power-Issues in the Transborder Flow of Scientific and Technical Data; Data activities at the Center for Nuclear Information Technology (CNIT), San Jose State University; The Agenda and the Minutes of the Formats and Procedures Subcommittee of the NSDD; A status report on the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN); Coordination/Cooperation and Communication as applied to the USNDN; Nuclear Structure Data Evaluations: Issues/Concerns; Electronic Publishing of Nuclear Data; The status of the Nuclear Astrophysics Data Project; and Nuclear Astrophysics Data needs for A=3-20/Possible contributions by TUNL. The attendees formed the three Discussion Groups. The charge to these Discussion Groups was how to achieve the goal of the USNDN to make the ENSDF and the NSR the best nuclear structure and bibliographic databases available, while maintaining a proper balance between evaluations and data dissemination.

  8. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.

    2011-11-01

    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  9. Challenges to deployment of twenty-first century nuclear reactor systems

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The science and engineering of materials have always been fundamental to the success of nuclear power to date. They are also the key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of nuclear reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. This article reflects on some of the historical issues, the challenges still prevalent today and the requirement for significant ongoing materials R&D and discusses the potential role of small modular reactors. PMID:28293142

  10. Challenges to deployment of twenty-first century nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Sue

    2017-02-01

    The science and engineering of materials have always been fundamental to the success of nuclear power to date. They are also the key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of nuclear reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. This article reflects on some of the historical issues, the challenges still prevalent today and the requirement for significant ongoing materials R&D and discusses the potential role of small modular reactors.

  11. Challenges to deployment of twenty-first century nuclear reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Ion, Sue

    2017-02-01

    The science and engineering of materials have always been fundamental to the success of nuclear power to date. They are also the key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of nuclear reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. This article reflects on some of the historical issues, the challenges still prevalent today and the requirement for significant ongoing materials R&D and discusses the potential role of small modular reactors.

  12. Climate Change driven evolution of hazards to Europe's transport infrastructure throughout the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulla, Christoph; Hollósi, Brigitta; Andre, Konrad; Gringinger, Julia; Chimani, Barbara; Namyslo, Joachim; Fuchs, Tobias; Auerbach, Markus; Herrmann, Carina; Sladek, Brigitte; Berghold, Heimo; Gschier, Roland; Eichinger-Vill, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Road authorities, freight, and logistic industries face a multitude of challenges in a world changing at an ever growing pace. While globalization, changes in technology, demography, and traffic, for instance, have received much attention over the bygone decades, climate change has not been treated with equal care until recently. However, since it has been recognized that climate change jeopardizes many business areas in transport, freight, and logistics, research programs investigating future threats have been initiated. One of these programs is the Conference of European Directors of Roads' (CEDR) Transnational Research Programme (TRP), which emerged about a decade ago from a cooperation between European National Road Authorities and the EU. This paper presents findings of a CEDR project called CliPDaR, which has been designed to answer questions from road authorities concerning climate-driven future threats to transport infrastructure. Pertaining results are based on two potential future socio-economic pathways of mankind (one strongly economically oriented "A2" and one more balanced scenario "A1B"), which are used to drive global climate models (GCMs) producing global and continental scale climate change projections. In order to achieve climate change projections, which are valid on regional scales, GCM projections are downscaled by regional climate models. Results shown here originate from research questions raised by European Road Authorities. They refer to future occurrence frequencies of severely cold winter seasons in Fennoscandia, to particularly hot summer seasons in the Iberian Peninsula and to changes in extreme weather phenomena triggering landslides and rutting in Central Europe. Future occurrence frequencies of extreme winter and summer conditions are investigated by empirical orthogonal function analyses of GCM projections driven with by A2 and A1B pathways. The analysis of future weather phenomena triggering landslides and rutting events requires

  13. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  14. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  15. Moving Teaching and Learning into the Twenty-first Century through Community-Based Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, Anne S.

    The Technical College of the Lowcountry (TCL), in South Carolina, is one of eight pilot community colleges involved in the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling (ACCLAIM). ACCLAIM is a demonstration project involving colleges in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina concerned with expanding…

  16. Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jessica B.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital…

  17. Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jessica B.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital…

  18. Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Devin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.

  19. Latino Access to Higher Education: Ethnic Realities and New Directions for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbina, Martin Guevara; Wright, Claudia Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    While the black and white racial experience has been delineated over the years, the ethnic realities of Latinos have received minimal attention. Therefore, with Latinos projected as the upcoming U.S. population majority, the central goal of this book is to document the Latino experience in the world of academia, focusing primarily, but not…

  20. Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Devin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.

  1. Student Workers: Essential Partners in the Twenty-First Century Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Firouzeh

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a case study that best illustrates the value of student workers in university libraries, focusing particularly on how this kind of creative endeavor benefits everyone involved--the library, the students, the faculty, and at the end of the project: the university community. (Contains 1 table.)

  2. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  3. Seasonal Cycle of Ocean Heat Transport and its Projected Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Saenko, O.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal cycle of ocean heat transport (OHT) and its projected changes are analyzed using the second-generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The future anthropogenic forcing is assessed using two newly-developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gases and aerosols (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Consistent with some previous results based on eddy-permitting models, it is found that much of the seasonal variability of meridional circulation in the CanESM2 ocean is captured by the seasonal cycle of meridional Ekman fluxes, compensated by deep-reaching barotropic return flows. Since the seasonal cycle of zonal wind stress is projected to change at some latitudes, both in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, the projected seasonal variability of OHT essentially follows these changes in the wind.

  4. High-resolution modelling of the Antarctic surface mass balance, application for the twentieth, twenty first and twenty second centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, Cécile; Favier, Vincent; Krinner, Gerhard; Gallée, Hubert; Fettweis, Xavier; Genthon, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    About 75 % of the Antarctic surface mass gain occurs over areas below 2,000 m asl, which cover 40 % of the grounded ice-sheet. As the topography is complex in many of these regions, surface mass balance modelling is highly dependent on horizontal resolution, and studying the impact of Antarctica on the future rise in sea level requires physical approaches. We have developed a computationally efficient, physical downscaling model for high-resolution (15 km) long-term surface mass balance (SMB) projections. Here, we present results of this model, called SMHiL (surface mass balance high-resolution downscaling), which was forced with the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model to assess Antarctic SMB variability in the twenty first and the twenty second centuries under two different scenarios. The higher resolution of SMHiL better reproduces the geographical patterns of SMB and increase significantly the averaged SMB over the grounded ice-sheet for the end of the twentieth century. A comparison with more than 3200 quality-controlled field data shows that LMDZ4 and SMHiL reproduce the observed values equally well. Nevertheless, field data below 2,000 m asl are too scarce to efficiently show the added value of SMHiL and measuring the SMB in these undocumented areas should be a future scientific priority. Our results suggest that running LMDZ4 at a finer resolution (15 km) may give a future increase in SMB in Antarctica that is about 30 % higher than by using its standard resolution (60 km) due to the higher increase in precipitation in coastal areas at 15 km. However, a part (˜15 %) of these discrepancies could be an artefact from SMHiL since it neglects the foehn effect and likely overestimates the precipitation increase. Future changes in the Antarctic SMB at low elevations will result from the competition between higher snow accumulation and runoff. For this reason, developing downscaling models is crucial to represent processes in sufficient detail and correctly

  5. Biorefinery and Carbon Cycling Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Das, K. C., Adams; Thomas, T; Eiteman, Mark A; Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Adolphson, Ryan

    2012-06-08

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [ 1] pretreatment of biomass to enhance quality of products from thermochemical conversion; [2] characterization of and development of coproduct uses; [3] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics and particularly C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously, and [ 4] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the thermochemical product quality in the form of lower tar production, simultaneous of use of multiple sugars in fermentation, use ofbiochar in environmental (ammonia adsorption) and agricultural applications, and production of algal biomass in wastewaters. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  6. Reinventing oversight in the twenty-first century: the question of capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosso, Christopher; DeLeo, Rob A.; Kay, W. D.

    2011-04-01

    This article addresses a key question emerging from this project based at the University of Minnesota: the fundamental capacity of government to engage in "dynamic oversight" of emergent technologies. This conception of oversight requires additional or new types of capacity for government agencies that must arbitrate conflicts and endow any outcomes with necessary democratic legitimacy. Rethinking oversight thus also requires consideration of the fundamental design and organizational capacity of the regulatory regime in the democratic state.

  7. Reviewing the Role of the Army National Guard in the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    meet their internal requirements organic within their state’s units. Simultaneously, throughout the 1990’ s , preparedness for and response to natural...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Chase, David W ; 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S )9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS , 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12

  8. Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

    2012-09-01

    In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam).

  9. Twenty-first century learning in school systems: the case of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Marcia; Knoderer, Troy

    2006-01-01

    To empower students with skills such as information and technological literacy, global awareness and cultural competence, self-direction, and sound reasoning, teachers must master these skills themselves. This chapter examines how the Digital Age Literacy Initiative of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township in Indianapolis, Indiana, which is funded by the Lilly Endowment, incorporated twenty-first century learning through a systemic approach involving teacher training and the use of data. The authors explain the district's content, process, and context goals toward accomplishing its mission of empowering students with the necessary twenty-first century skills to succeed in the digital age. The district places a strong emphasis on professional development for teachers. To support the necessary teacher learning and therefore sustain the work of the initiative, the district has adopted action research, self-assessment, and an online professional development network. To support teachers in implementing new strategies, master teachers serve as digital age literacy coaches. The chapter discusses the initiative's focus on evidence of progress. Through a partnership with the Metiri Group of California, the district has built a range of assessments including online inventories and twenty-first century skill rubrics. For example, the Mankato Survey collected teacher and student data around access, ability, and use of technology in the classroom in 2001 and then in 2004. This research showed significant gains in some technologies across all grade levels and consistent gains in nearly all technologies for middle and high school students. As it moves into the next phase of implementing the Digital Age Literacy Initiative, the district embraces the systemic shifts in school culture necessary to institutionalize twenty-first century learning.

  10. Atmospheric aerosols versus greenhouse gases in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Andreae, Meinrat O

    2007-07-15

    Looked at in a simplistic way, aerosols have counteracted the warming effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) over the past century. This has not only provided some 'climate protection', but also prevented the true magnitude of the problem from becoming evident. In particular, it may have resulted in an underestimation of the sensitivity of the climate system to the effect of GHG. Over the present century, the role of aerosols in opposing global warming will wane, as there are powerful policy reasons to reduce their emissions and their atmospheric lifetimes are short in contrast to those of the GHG. On the other hand, aerosols will continue to play a role in regional climate change, especially with regard to the water cycle. The end of significant climate protection by atmospheric aerosols, combined with the potentially very high sensitivity of the climate system, makes sharp and prompt reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2, very urgent.

  11. A twenty-first century perspective. [NASA space communication infrastructure to support space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.; Miller, Albert

    1990-01-01

    The status of the NASA assets which are operated by the Office of Space Operations is briefly reviewed. These assets include the ground network, the space network, and communications and data handling facilities. The current plans for each element are examined, and a projection of each is made to meet the user needs in the 21st century. The following factors are noted: increasingly responsive support will be required by the users; operational support concepts must be cost-effective to serve future missions; and a high degree of system reliability and availability will be required to support manned exploration and increasingly complex missions.

  12. A twenty-first century perspective. [NASA space communication infrastructure to support space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.; Miller, Albert

    1990-01-01

    The status of the NASA assets which are operated by the Office of Space Operations is briefly reviewed. These assets include the ground network, the space network, and communications and data handling facilities. The current plans for each element are examined, and a projection of each is made to meet the user needs in the 21st century. The following factors are noted: increasingly responsive support will be required by the users; operational support concepts must be cost-effective to serve future missions; and a high degree of system reliability and availability will be required to support manned exploration and increasingly complex missions.

  13. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered.

  14. Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

    2010-09-27

    This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO(2) rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified.

  15. Estimating the potential for twenty-first century sudden climate change.

    PubMed

    Shindell, Drew

    2007-11-15

    I investigate the potential for sudden climate change during the current century. This investigation takes into account evidence from the Earth's history, from climate models and our understanding of the physical processes governing climate shifts. Sudden alterations to climate forcing seem to be improbable, with sudden changes instead most likely to arise from climate feedbacks. Based on projections from models validated against historical events, dramatic changes in ocean circulation appear unlikely. Ecosystem-climate feedbacks clearly have the potential to induce sudden change, but are relatively poorly understood at present. More probable sudden changes are large increases in the frequency of summer heatwaves and changes resulting from feedbacks involving hydrology. These include ice sheet decay, which may be set in motion this century. The most devastating consequences are likely to occur further in the future, however. Reductions in subtropical precipitation are likely to be the most severe hydrologic effects this century, with rapid changes due to the feedbacks of relatively well-understood large-scale circulation patterns. Water stress may become particularly acute in the Southwest US and Mexico, and in the Mediterranean and Middle East, where rainfall decreases of 10-25% (regionally) and up to 40% (locally) are projected.

  16. Rising river flows throughout the twenty-first century in two Himalayan glacierized watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2013-09-01

    Greater Himalayan glaciers are retreating and losing mass at rates comparable to glaciers in other regions of the world. Assessments of future changes and their associated hydrological impacts are scarce, oversimplify glacier dynamics or include a limited number of climate models. Here, we use results from the latest ensemble of climate models in combination with a high-resolution glacio-hydrological model to assess the hydrological impact of climate change on two climatically contrasting watersheds in the Greater Himalaya, the Baltoro and Langtang watersheds that drain into the Indus and Ganges rivers, respectively. We show that the largest uncertainty in future runoff is a result of variations in projected precipitation between climate models. In both watersheds, strong, but highly variable, increases in future runoff are projected and, despite the different characteristics of the watersheds, their responses are surprisingly similar. In both cases, glaciers will recede but net glacier melt runoff is on a rising limb at least until 2050. In combination with a positive change in precipitation, water availability during this century is not likely to decline. We conclude that river basins that depend on monsoon rains and glacier melt will continue to sustain the increasing water demands expected in these areas.

  17. Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO2 rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified. PMID:20713397

  18. Variations of Antarctic Oscillation during the past millennium and the twenty first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S.; Long, Z.; Kim, S. J.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) profoundly affects the frequency and intensity of the synoptic weather events and precipitation/temperature in the mid- and high-latitudes Sothern Hemisphere. This study investigated the simulated changes in AAO during 850AD to 2100AD using fully coupled climate models participating in the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The output from 11 models with specific historical anthropocentric and natural forcing during 850-1850AD (last millennium run) and 43 models during 1850-2005 (historical runs), as well as 40 models with 21st century changes in greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols following the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) for 2006-2100 are analyzed. Those models were classified into 'good' and 'poor' models based on their performance in simulating the observed AAO spatial pattern, interannual variability and trend. The AAO during 850-1850AD show considerable interannual variations. However, there are no noticeable decadal and centennial variations during this periods regardless of the models are good or poor. These results are inconsistent with the proxy-based AAO reconstructions and suggested that the models may underestimate the natural forcing during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. The multiple-model ensemble (MME) shows similar AAO variations as the reanalysis data during 1850-2005. The seasonal AAO has being steadily increasing before 1960s followed by abrupt increasing during 1970-2005. The increasing of AAO is projected to continue during the 21st century. Under RCP4.5 scenario, the AAO will be weakly but steadily increasing until 2050s and then leveled off or slightly decreasing in the second half of this century. Under RCP8.5 scenario, the AAO will continue to increase in the 21st century. Though the MME of the poor and good models show similar seasonal AAO variations during 1850-2005, the poor models projected much stronger AAO in the future

  19. A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, Dorte; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

    2013-01-01

    During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

  20. Fixing Freud: the Oedipus complex in early twenty-first century US American novels.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Robert Deam

    2011-01-01

    Representations of Sigmund Freud in early 21st century US American novels rely on and respond to the image of Freud that emerged from investigations by Paul Roazen ("Brother Animal," 1969) and Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson ("The Assault on Truth," 1984), which cast doubt on the validity of the Oedipus complex. Relying on Roazen, Brenda Webster's "Vienna Triangle" (2009) links Freud's oedipal thinking to paranoia and male masochism. Working with Masson, Selden Edwards's "The Little Book" (2008) takes Freud to task for abandoning the seduction theory in favor of the Oedipus complex. Jed Rubenfeld's "The Interpretation of Murder" (2006) rethinks the Oedipus complex as a projection of adults onto their children. All three novels seek to celebrate Freud's understanding of the human psyche, while shifting the focus of the oedipal structure away from the murderous and lustful child toward the adult.

  1. Radiochemistry in the twenty-first century: Strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goeij, J. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of radiochemistry and associated nuclear chemistry are discussed. For that purpose radiochemistry is subdivided into three categories. The first category covers fundamental aspects, e.g. nuclear reaction cross-sections, production routes with associated yields and radionuclidic impurities, decay schemes, radiochemical separations, recoil and hot-atom chemistry, isotope effects and fractionation, and interaction of radiation with matter and detection. The second category covers topics where radioactivity is inextricably involved, e.g. the nuclear fuel cycle, very heavy elements and other actinides, primordial and cosmogenic radioactivity, and radionuclide techniques for dating. The third category involves radioactivity as essential part of a technique. On one hand radioactivity is used here as source of ionising radiation for food conservation, polymerisation of plastics, sterilisation, radiotherapy and pain palliation. On the other hand it is used to get information on systems and materials, via radiotracer methods and nuclear activation techniques. In particular the latter field is experiencing strong competition with other, non-nuclear methods. In this frame it is indicated what is required to achieve a situation where nuclear analytical techniques may successfully be exploited to the full extent of their potentials, particularly in providing valuable and sometimes unique information.

  2. Hydrological and biogeochemical constraints on terrestrial carbon cycle projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L.; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current Earth System Models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day Evapotranspiration (ET) and Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease of the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction of the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on Net Biome Productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Also, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. Moreover, a similar strategy is used to provide constraints on the feedbacks involving the terrestrial carbon cycle and the climate system. The findings indicate that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change.

  3. Extremely large telescope: a twenty-five meter aperture for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Frank N.; Sebring, Thomas A.; Ray, Frank B.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1997-03-01

    The 10-meter class Hobby-Eberly telescope (HET), now nearing completion, provides technology for optical Arecibo-type telescopes which can be extrapolated to even larger apertures. Utilizing a fixed elevation angle and a spherical segmented primary mirror provides cost effective and pragmatic solutions to mirror mounting and fabrication. Arecibo-type tracking implies a greatly reduced tracking mass and no change to the gravity vector for the primary mirror. Such a telescope can address 70 percent of the available sky and exhibit optical quality easily sufficient for effective spectroscopy and photometry. The extremely large telescope takes advantage of several key engineering approaches demonstrated by the HET project to achieve a cost comparable to similarly-sized radio rather than optical telescopes. These engineering approaches include: bolted pre-manufactured primary mirror truss, factory manufactured geodesic enclosure dome, air bearing rotation of primary mirror, tracker, and dome systems directly on concrete piers, and tracking via a hexapod system. Current estimates put the cost of the ELT at $200 million for a 25-meter aperture utilizing a 33-meter primary mirror array. Construction of the ELT would provide the astronomy community with an optical telescope nearly an order of magnitude larger than even the largest telescopes in operation or under construction today.

  4. The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Audrey

    In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

  5. Global response of glacier runoff to twenty-first century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Andrew; Hock, Regine; Radić, Valentina

    2014-04-01

    The hydrology of many important river systems in the world is influenced by the presence of glaciers in their upper reaches. We assess the global-scale response of glacier runoff to climate change, where glacier runoff is defined as all melt and rain water that runs off the glacierized area without refreezing. With an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model, we project monthly glacier runoff for all mountain glaciers and ice caps outside Antarctica until 2100 using temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. We aggregate results for 18 glacierized regions. Despite continuous glacier net mass loss in all regions, trends in annual glacier runoff differ significantly among regions depending on the balance between increased glacier melt and reduction in glacier storage as glaciers shrink. While most regions show significant negative runoff trends, some regions exhibit steady increases in runoff (Canadian and Russian Arctic), or increases followed by decreases (Svalbard and Iceland). Annual glacier runoff is dominated by melt in most regions, but rain is a major contributor in the monsoon-affected regions of Asia and maritime regions such as New Zealand and Iceland. Annual net glacier mass loss dominates total glacier melt especially in some high-latitude regions, while seasonal melt is dominant in wetter climate regimes. Our results highlight the variety of glacier runoff responses to climate change and the need to include glacier net mass loss in assessments of future hydrological change.

  6. Dominating Controls for Wetter South Asian Summer Monsoon in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Rui; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dominguez, Francina

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a suite of Global Climate Models from the 5th Phase of Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives to understand the mechanisms behind a net increase in the South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in response to enhanced radiative forcing during the 21st century despite a robust weakening of dynamics governing the monsoon circulation. Combining the future changes in the contributions from various sources, which contribute to the moisture supply over South Asia, with those in monsoon dynamics and atmospheric moisture content, we establish a pathway of understanding that partly explains these counteracting responses to increase in radiative forcing. Our analysis suggests that both regional (local recycling, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal) and remote (mainly Indian Ocean) sources contribute to the moisture supply for precipitation over South Asia during the summer season that is facilitated by the monsoon dynamics. Increase in radiative forcing fuels an increase in the atmospheric moisture content through warmer temperatures. For regional moisture sources, the effect of excessive atmospheric moisture is offset by weaker monsoon circulation and uncertainty in the response of the evapotranspiration over land, so anomalies in their contribution to the total moisture supply are either mixed or muted. In contrast, weakening of the monsoon dynamics has less influence on the moisture supply from remote sources that not only is a dominant moisture contributor in the historical period, but is also the net driver of the positive summer monsoon precipitation response in the 21st century. Our results also indicate that historic measures of the monsoon dynamics may not be well suited to predict the non-stationary moisture driven South Asian summer monsoon precipitation response in the 21st century.

  7. Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.; Whorton, E.; Braun, J. L.; Gusmeroli, A.; Liljedahl, A.; Schulla, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the face of climate change, the hydrology of the upper Susitna Basin in South-Central Alaska is expected to change. This would impact the quantity and seasonality of river flow into a proposed hydroelectric dam, if it were to be built. The upper Susitna Basin catchment area is 13,289 km², ranging from 450-4000 m a.s.l. It is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. We present field measurements and results from hydrological modeling. We present new field data from spring and fall 2014 along with field measurements from the 1980's, 2012, and 2013. These data are used to calibrate and validate the hydrological model. Traditional glacier mass balance measurements show that the glaciers lost more mass in 2012 and 2013 than in 1981, 1982, or 1983. Springtime snow radar surveys of the glaciers allow us to extrapolate from point measurements of snow depth to the whole glacier area. Snow depth measurements at tundra sites as well as tundra vegetation and soil characterizations help us choose appropriate model parameters for the tundra portions of the basin. Meteorological data (temperature, humidity, and precipitation) from over 20 stations in the basin show the summertime temperature lapse rate to be smaller over glacier surfaces compared to ice-free surfaces. Precipitation is highly variable across the basin. Energy balance measurements from two meteorological stations, one located on West Fork Glacier and one on a nunatak near Susitna Glacier, are used for more detailed modeling of summertime glacier melt and runoff. We run a physically-based hydrological model to project 21st century river discharge: Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM). Climate inputs come from a CCSM CMIP5 RCP6.0 scenario downscaled to a 20km-5km nested grid using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. From 2010-2029 to 2080-2099 the basin-wide mean-annual temperature will rise 2.5 degrees and total

  8. The twenty-first century Colorado River hot drought and implications for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, Bradley; Overpeck, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Between 2000 and 2014, annual Colorado River flows averaged 19% below the 1906-1999 average, the worst 15-year drought on record. At least one-sixth to one-half (average at one-third) of this loss is due to unprecedented temperatures (0.9°C above the 1906-1999 average), confirming model-based analysis that continued warming will likely further reduce flows. Whereas it is virtually certain that warming will continue with additional emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, there has been no observed trend toward greater precipitation in the Colorado Basin, nor are climate models in agreement that there should be a trend. Moreover, there is a significant risk of decadal and multidecadal drought in the coming century, indicating that any increase in mean precipitation will likely be offset during periods of prolonged drought. Recently published estimates of Colorado River flow sensitivity to temperature combined with a large number of recent climate model-based temperature projections indicate that continued business-as-usual warming will drive temperature-induced declines in river flow, conservatively -20% by midcentury and -35% by end-century, with support for losses exceeding -30% at midcentury and -55% at end-century. Precipitation increases may moderate these declines somewhat, but to date no such increases are evident and there is no model agreement on future precipitation changes. These results, combined with the increasing likelihood of prolonged drought in the river basin, suggest that future climate change impacts on the Colorado River flows will be much more serious than currently assumed, especially if substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions do not occur.Plain Language SummaryBetween 2000 and 2014, annual Colorado River flows averaged 19% below the 1906-1999 average, the worst 15-year drought on record. Approximately one-third of the flow loss is due to high temperatures now common in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150369"><span>Redesigning healthcare systems to meet the health challenges associated with climate change in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phua, Kai-Lit</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century, climate change is emerging as a significant threat to the health and well-being of the public through links to the following: extreme weather events, sea level rise, temperature-related illnesses, air pollution patterns, water security, food security, vector-borne infectious diseases, and mental health effects (as a result of extreme weather events and climate change-induced population displacement). This article discusses how national healthcare systems can be redesigned through changes in its components such as human resources, facilities and technology, health information system, and health policy to meet these challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036670"><span>Error Cost Escalation Through the <span class="hlt">Project</span> Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stecklein, Jonette M.; Dabney, Jim; Dick, Brandon; Haskins, Bill; Lovell, Randy; Moroney, Gregory</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that the costs to fix errors increase as the <span class="hlt">project</span> matures, but how fast do those costs build? A study was performed to determine the relative cost of fixing errors discovered during various phases of a <span class="hlt">project</span> life <span class="hlt">cycle</span>. This study used three approaches to determine the relative costs: the bottom-up cost method, the total cost breakdown method, and the top-down hypothetical <span class="hlt">project</span> method. The approaches and results described in this paper presume development of a hardware/software system having <span class="hlt">project</span> characteristics similar to those used in the development of a large, complex spacecraft, a military aircraft, or a small communications satellite. The results show the degree to which costs escalate, as errors are discovered and fixed at later and later phases in the <span class="hlt">project</span> life <span class="hlt">cycle</span>. If the cost of fixing a requirements error discovered during the requirements phase is defined to be 1 unit, the cost to fix that error if found during the design phase increases to 3 - 8 units; at the manufacturing/build phase, the cost to fix the error is 7 - 16 units; at the integration and test phase, the cost to fix the error becomes 21 - 78 units; and at the operations phase, the cost to fix the requirements error ranged from 29 units to more than 1500 units</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17389570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17389570"><span>Academic tenure and higher education in the United States: implications for the dental education workforce in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peterson, Melanie R</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>This article reviews the literature related to the evolution and implementation of academic tenure (AT) in U.S. higher education. It is intended to highlight AT implications for the recruitment, retention, and development of the dental education workforce in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century and the need for this workforce to implement change in dental education. The dental education workforce is shrinking, and a further decrease is <span class="hlt">projected</span>, yet the demand for dental education is increasing. AT is becoming increasingly controversial, and the proportion of tenured to nontenured (i.e., contingent) faculty is declining within an already shrinking faculty pool. Confusion regarding the definition of scholarship and its relationship to research and publishing further confounds discussions about AT. Whether the principles of academic freedom and due process require tenure for their preservation in a democratic society is open to question. In view of competing time demands and increasing pressure to publish and apply for grants, factors including the seven-year probationary period for tenure, the decreased availability of tenured positions, and the often perceived inequities between tenured and contingent (i.e., nontenured track) faculty may pose an obstacle to faculty recruitment and retention. These factors may severely limit the diversity and skill mix of the dental education workforce, resulting in a decrease in staffing flexibility that appears to be needed in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Politics, increasing dependence on grant funding by some institutions, resistance to change, and insufficient mentoring are all stimulating discussions about the future of tenure and its implications for U.S. dental education.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...146..133L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...146..133L"><span>The regional patterns of the global dynamic and steric sea level variation in <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century <span class="hlt">projections</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Juan; Tan, Wei; Chen, Meixiang; Zuo, Juncheng; Yang, Yiqiu</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This study discusses the regional sea-level variation associated with possible influence factors using Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) in the 21st century. Under the moderate emission scenario of the IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5), the predicted sea-level variation is spatially non-uniform. The most remarkable variation of the dynamic sea level (DSL) is observed in three typical regions (North Pacific, Southern Ocean, and North Atlantic). In the North Pacific, the DSL rises significantly around Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension, while declines in the subpolar gyre. The DSL variation shows an out-of-phase relationship with the Sverdrup transport, indicating that the wind stress induced Sverdrup transport is generally responsible for the DSL variation. In the Southern Ocean, the DSL variation performs a belt-like pattern, it rises around 40°S zonal band, while declines in its southern side, this is related to the enhancement of westerly wind stress. In the North Atlantic, the DSL variation acts as a dipole mode, it rises in the north of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and declines in the south. This dipole pattern can be also interpreted by the Sverdrup transport except in the northeast of the NAC, where the DSL rise is more affected by the weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Compared with the DSL, the steric sea level (SSL) rises in most of the ocean, and the thermosteric sea level (TSL) is the major contributor. Only in the Southern Ocean, the SSL descends. The decreased SSL is affected by the halosteric sea level (HSL), which is mainly attributed to the weakly increased salinity from 300 m to the bottom. To some extent, the HSL also contributes to the SSL rise in the Pacific, this is caused by the seawater freshening and warming in the upper 1500 m. However, in the Atlantic, the HSL declines, thus partly offsets the rising effect of the TSL. These opposite variations are associated with the weakened AMOC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+ICTS+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1145829','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+ICTS+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1145829"><span>Urban Middle School Students, <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century Skills, and STEM-ICT Careers: Selected Findings from a Front-End Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cohen, Jonathan D.; Renken, Maggie; Calandra, Brendan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>As part of the design and development of an informal learning environment meant to increase urban middle school students' interest in technology-focused STEM careers, and to support their <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century skill development, researchers developed and administered the ICT/<span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century Skills Questionnaire. Both STEM-ICT professionals and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=skills&id=EJ1121053','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=skills&id=EJ1121053"><span>Preparing Teacher-Students for <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): A Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Valtonen, Teemu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century learning practices in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=current&pg=3&id=EJ1121053','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=current&pg=3&id=EJ1121053"><span>Preparing Teacher-Students for <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): A Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Valtonen, Teemu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century learning practices in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.3101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.3101K"><span>Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century in EC-Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the <span class="hlt">twenty</span> <span class="hlt">first</span> century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the <span class="hlt">twenty</span> <span class="hlt">first</span> century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58..473G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58..473G"><span>Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R 2 (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade-1 on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade-1 under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade-1 under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade-1 under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25324026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25324026"><span>The horror of stigma: psychosis and mental health care environments in <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century horror film (part II).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goodwin, John</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This paper highlights the specific manner in which <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century horror films stigmatize psychosis and mental health care environments (MHCEs) A search on various film forums using the terms "mental/psychiatric patient," "psychosis/psychoses," and "mental/psychiatric hospital" (limited from 2000 to 2012) revealed 55 films. A literature review revealed criteria for a checklist. Subsequent to viewings, salient recurring criteria were added to the checklist. Films were systematically analyzed under these criteria. Homicidal maniacs are the most common stereotypes. Misinformation is often communicated. Familiar horror tropes are used to stigmatize MHCEs. Practitioners should be aware of the specific manner in which clients are being stigmatized by the media. This paper highlights specific ways in which psychosis and MHCEs are stigmatized, and encourages practitioners to challenge these depictions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11645330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11645330"><span>Bioethics in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century: why we should pay attention to eighteenth-century medical ethics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCullough, Laurence B</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>Those of us who work in the field of bioethics tend to think that, because the word "bioethics" is new, so too the field is new in all respects, but we are not the first to do bioethics. John Gregory (1724-1773) did bioethics just as we do it, at least two centuries before we thought to do it. He deployed philosophical methods as sophisticated as our own. Indeed, Gregory took up the very best moral philosophy available to thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment, namely, David Hume's moral philosophy and its core concept of sympathy. Gregory also responded in a conceptually powerful and clinically applicable way to the problems of his time, just as we do. I want here to outline Gregory's accomplishment and to identify some aspects of its importance for bioethics in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24964519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24964519"><span>Us, them, and others: reflections on Canadian multiculturalism and national identity at the turn of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winter, Elke</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The John Porter Lecture at the annual meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria 2013 draws upon my book Us, Them, and Others: Pluralism and National Identity in Diverse Societies. Incorporating the findings from an analysis of Canadian English-language newspaper discourses during the 1990s into a theoretical framework inspired by Weberian sociology, the book argues that pluralism is best understood as a dynamic set of triangular relations where the compromise between unequal groups--"us" and "others"--is rendered meaningful through the confrontation with real or imagined outsiders ("them"). The lecture summarizes the theoretical contribution and explains how multiculturalism became consolidated in dominant Canadian discourses in the late 1990s. The lecture then discusses changes to Canadian multicultural identity at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AREPS..40...89P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AREPS..40...89P"><span>End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1041356','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1041356"><span>Background and Reflections on the Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Assessment Harmonization <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Despite the ever-growing body of life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization <span class="hlt">Project</span> in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this <span class="hlt">project</span> were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization <span class="hlt">Project</span>'s initial focus was evaluating life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the <span class="hlt">project</span> are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815357S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815357S"><span><span class="hlt">Projected</span> changes in the annual wind-wave <span class="hlt">cycle</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stopa, Justin; Hemer, Mark</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The uneven distribution of the sun's energy directly and indirectly drives physical atmosphere and ocean processes. This creates intricate spatial patterns within the seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> where higher order harmonics are seen to play an important role in regional climates. The annual <span class="hlt">cycle</span> and associated harmonics are the strongest oscillations within the climate system and describe the majority of variance across the oceans. Consequently when studying climate oscillations, it is common practice to remove the seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> in order to elucidate inter-annual <span class="hlt">cycles</span>. Furthermore the annual <span class="hlt">cycle</span> plays an important role in the evolution of other inter-annual oscillations through non-linear coupling (e.g ENSO). Despite the important role of the seasons within the climate system very few studies describe the seasonality with any rigor. Therefore our focus is to describe the higher harmonics linked to the annual <span class="hlt">cycle</span> and how they are expected to evolve in a changing climate. Using simulations from the Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate <span class="hlt">Project</span>, the seasonality of multiple mid and end of the 21st century wind-wave climate <span class="hlt">projections</span> are analyzed relative to historical experiment forced simulations. A comparison of various GCM forced wave simulations to reanalysis datasets reveals that a multi-model ensemble best describes the seasons. This ensemble is used to describe the changes within the wave seasonality. A systematic analysis reveals the primary mode of the seasons is relatively unchanged in the mid and end century. The largest changes occur in the second and third modes. The second mode defines the shift or translation within the seasons while the third mode characterizes relative change between the seasonal extremes (ie sharpening or flattening of the waveform). The relative changes in the second and third modes are not homogeneous and intricate patterns are revealed. Certain regions have sharper contrast in seasonality while other regions have a longer strong season. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032795&hterms=Water+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DWater%2Bcycle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032795&hterms=Water+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DWater%2Bcycle"><span>The NASA Energy and Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Extreme (NEWSE) Integration <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Skillful predictions of water and energy <span class="hlt">cycle</span> extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water <span class="hlt">cycle</span> Extremes (NEWSE) Integration <span class="hlt">Project</span>, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this <span class="hlt">project</span>, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960020421','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960020421"><span>Mir Cooperative Solar Array <span class="hlt">Project</span> Accelerated Life Thermal <span class="hlt">Cycling</span> Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, David J.; Scheiman, David A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) <span class="hlt">project</span> was a joint U.S./Russian effort to build a photovoltaic (PV) solar array and deliver it to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA will be used to increase the electrical power on Mir and provide PV array performance data in support of Phase 1 of the International Space Station. The MCSA was brought to Mir by space shuttle Atlantis in November 1995. This report describes an accelerated thermal life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> test which was performed on two samples of the MCSA. In eight months time, two MCSA solar array 'mini' panel test articles were simultaneously put through 24,000 thermal <span class="hlt">cycles</span>. There was no significant degradation in the structural integrity of the test articles and no electrical degradation, not including one cell damaged early and removed from consideration. The nature of the performance degradation caused by this one cell is briefly discussed. As a result of this test, changes were made to improve some aspects of the solar cell coupon-to-support frame interface on the flight unit. It was concluded from the results that the integration of the U.S. solar cell modules with the Russian support structure would be able to withstand at least 24,000 thermal <span class="hlt">cycles</span> (4 years on-orbit). This was considered a successful development test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..547R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..547R"><span>Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Assessment of Biochar - EuroChar <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rack, M.; Woods, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>One of the most significant challenges faced by modern-day society is that of global warming. An exclusive focus on reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not suffice and therefore technologies capable of removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere at low or minimal cost are gaining increased attention. The production and use of biochar is an example of such an emerging mitigation strategy. However, as with any novel product, process and technology it is vital to conduct an assessment of the entire life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> in order to determine the environmental impacts of the new concept in addition to analysing the other sustainability criteria. Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Assessment (LCA), standardized by ISO (2006a), is an example of a tool used to calculate the environmental impacts of a product or process. Imperial College London will follow the guidelines and recommendations of the ISO 14040 series (ISO 2002, ISO 2006a-b) and the International Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Data System (ILCD) Handbook (EC JRC IES, 2010a-e), and will use the SimaPro software to conduct a LCA of the biochar supply chains for the EuroChar <span class="hlt">project</span>. EuroChar ('biochar for Carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere') is a <span class="hlt">project</span> funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). EuroChar aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar and, in particular, explore a possible introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe, thereby moving closer to the determination of the true potential of biochar. EuroChar will use various feedstocks, ranging from wheat straw to olive residues and poplar, as feedstocks for biochar production and will focus on two conversion technologies, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Thermochemical Carbonization (TC), followed by the application of the biochar in crop-growth field trials in England, France and Italy. In April 2012, the EuroChar <span class="hlt">project</span> will be at its halfway mark and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-30/pdf/2011-31162.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-30/pdf/2011-31162.pdf"><span>76 FR 82353 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-30</p> <p>...In this document, the Commission adopts rules that implement provisions of section 104 of the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA), Public Law 111-260, the most significant accessibility legislation since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990. A Proposed Rule relating to implementation of section 718 of the Communications Act of 1934, as enacted by the CVAA, is published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register. This proceeding amends the Commission's rules to ensure that people with disabilities have access to the incredible and innovative communications technologies of the 21st-century. These rules are significant and necessary steps towards ensuring that the 54 million Americans with disabilities are able to fully utilize and benefit from advanced communications services (ACS). People with disabilities often have not shared in the benefits of this rapid technological advancement. The CVAA implements steps in addressing this inequity by advancing the accessibility of ACS in a manner that is consistent with our objectives of promoting investment and innovation. This is consistent with the Commission's commitment to promote rapid deployment of and universal access to broadband services for all Americans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26501046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26501046"><span>Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: An Innovative Training Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Transformational learning is the focus of <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17255028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17255028"><span>Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glaser, Bruno</p> <p>2007-02-28</p> <p>Terra Preta soils of central Amazonia exhibit approximately three times more soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus and 70 times more charcoal compared to adjacent infertile soils. The Terra Preta soils were generated by pre-Columbian native populations by chance or intentionally adding large amounts of charred residues (charcoal), organic wastes, excrements and bones. In this paper, it is argued that generating new Terra Preta sites ('Terra Preta nova') could be the basis for sustainable agriculture in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century to produce food for billions of people, and could lead to attaining three Millennium Development Goals: (i) to combat desertification, (ii) to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the long term, and (iii) to maintain biodiversity hotspots such as tropical rainforests. Therefore, large-scale generation and utilization of Terra Preta soils would decrease the pressure on primary forests that are being extensively cleared for agricultural use with only limited fertility and sustainability and, hence, only providing a limited time for cropping. This would maintain biodiversity while mitigating both land degradation and climate change. However, it should not be overlooked that the infertility of most tropical soils (and associated low population density) is what could have prevented tropical forests undergoing large-scale clearance for agriculture. Increased fertility may increase the populations supported by shifting cultivation, thereby maintaining and increasing pressure on forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6366171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6366171"><span>Shelter and indoor air in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fabrikant, J.I. )</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4595738','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4595738"><span>Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: An Innovative Training Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N.; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Transformational learning is the focus of <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning. PMID:26501046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19669387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19669387"><span>Animal models of human cerebellar ataxias: a cornerstone for the therapies of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manto, Mario; Marmolino, Daniele</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Cerebellar ataxias represent a group of disabling neurological disorders. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of cerebellar ataxias is continuously expanding. A considerable number of laboratory animals with neurological mutations have been reported and numerous relevant animal models mimicking the phenotype of cerebellar ataxias are becoming available. These models greatly help dissecting the numerous mechanisms of cerebellar dysfunction, a major step for the assessment of therapeutics targeting a given deleterious pathway and for the screening of old or newly synthesized chemical compounds. Nevertheless, differences between animal models and human disorders should not be overlooked and difficulties in terms of characterization should not be occulted. The identification of the mutations of many hereditary ataxias, the development of valuable animal models, and the recent identifications of the molecular mechanisms underlying cerebellar disorders represent a combination of key factors for the development of anti-ataxic innovative therapies. It is anticipated that the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century will be the century of effective therapies in the field of cerebellar ataxias. The animal models are a cornerstone to reach this goal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866909','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866909"><span>The era of the wandering mind? <span class="hlt">Twenty-first</span> century research on self-generated mental activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Callard, Felicity; Smallwood, Jonathan; Golchert, Johannes; Margulies, Daniel S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The first decade of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in direct response to experimenters’ instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term “mind wandering” from 2006, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering into cognitive neuroscience (particularly in relation to research on the default mode and default mode network). If our article concludes that this might, indeed, be the “era of the wandering mind,” it also calls for more explicit reflection to be given by researchers in this field to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focus on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore. PMID:24391606</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U43B..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U43B..02S"><span>The NASA Energy and Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Climatology (NEWCC) Integration <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schlosser, C. A.; Lin, B.; NEWCC Team</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>To date, a truly self-consistent, quantitative description of the Earth's global water and energy <span class="hlt">cycles</span>, based on the highest quality, independently-observed pieces of information that decipher each of the key storage terms, fluxes, and pathways has been elusive. Such a data compilation of adequate climate quality is of vital interest and an ultimate scientific need of the global observation, modeling, and prediction community. To meet this need, we present results from the first phase of a NASA Energy and Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Climatology (NEWCC) Integration <span class="hlt">Project</span>, a collaborative effort whose aim is to construct a defensible, self-consistent, long-term climatology of the global energy and water <span class="hlt">cycles</span>. Our working hypothesis is that an observationally-based estimate of water and energy fluxes and storages, derived from focused and independently observed components of these <span class="hlt">cycles</span>, can be balanced and provide useful characterizations and evaluation data for climate prediction and predictability studies. The NEWCC team members are actively involved in key facets of this observational arena, and thus for the first phase of NEWCC, we bring together state-of-the-art, (predominantly) satellite-based observations that include: precipitation, ocean and land evaporation, runoff, atmospheric water storage, ocean and land storage changes, atmospheric transport, radiation, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and subsequently hope to include explicit snow/ice information, such as snow water equivalent and ice mass changes. Our current efforts focus on the period spanning the years 2003 to 2005, for which the most recent and highest-quality satellite-based information is available for all the aforementioned quantities. We present an assessment of the ability of these observational datasets to satisfy the water and energy budgets and the degree to which they show consistency in their mean annual <span class="hlt">cycles</span> as well as geospatial variability. In doing so, we will highlight, where possible, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27329211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27329211"><span>Inequalities in cancer incidence and mortality across medium to highly developed countries in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arnold, Melina; Rentería, Elisenda; Conway, David I; Bray, Freddie; Van Ourti, Tom; Soerjomataram, Isabelle</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Inequalities in the burden of cancer have been well documented, and a variety of measures exist to analyse disease disparities. While previous studies have focused on inequalities within countries, the aim of the present study was to quantify existing inequalities in cancer incidence and mortality between countries. Data on total and site-specific cancer incidence and mortality in 2003-2007 were obtained for 43 countries with medium-to-high levels of human development via Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol. X and the WHO Mortality Database. We calculated the concentration index as a summary measure of socioeconomic-related inequality between countries. Inequalities in cancer burden differed markedly by site; the concentration index for all sites combined was 0.03 for incidence and 0.02 for mortality, pointing towards a slightly higher burden in countries with higher levels of the human development index (HDI). For both incidence and mortality, this pattern was most pronounced for melanoma. In contrast, the burden of cervical cancer was disproportionally high in countries with lower HDI levels. Prostate, lung and breast cancer contributed most to inequalities in overall cancer incidence in countries with higher HDI levels, while for mortality these were mostly driven by lung cancer in higher HDI countries and stomach cancer in countries with lower HDI levels. Global inequalities in the burden of cancer remain evident at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century: with a disproportionate burden of lifestyle-related cancers in countries classified as high HDI, while infection-related cancers continue to predominate in transitioning countries with lower levels of HDI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28848731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28848731"><span>Growth of Global Publishing Output of Health Economics in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: A Bibliographic Insight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Pejcic, Ana V</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Strong growth of interdisciplinary sciences might find exceptional example in academic health economics. We decided to observe the quantitative output in this science since the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Electronic search of the published literature was conducted in four different databases: one medical database-MEDLINE/PubMed, two general databases-Scopus/Elsevier and Web of Science (WoS), and one specialized health economic database-NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED). The applied combination of key words was carefully chosen to cover the most commonly used terms in titles of publications dealing with conceptual areas of health economics. All bibliographic units were taken into account. Within the time horizon from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2016, without language or limitations on bibliographic unit types, we identified an output ranging approximately from 60,345 to 88,246 records with applied search strategy in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus/Elsevier, and WoS. In NHS EED, we detected 14,761 records of economic evaluations of health interventions during the period in which database was maintained and regularly updated. With slightly more than one-third of the identified records, USA clearly dominates in this field. United Kingdom takes a strong second place with about 12% of identified records. Consistently, USA and UK universities are the most frequent among the top 15 affiliations/organizations of the authors of the identified records. Authors from Harvard University contributed to the largest number of the identified records. There is a clear evidence of both the upward stream of blossoming in health economics publications and its acceleration. Based on this bibliographic data set, it is difficult to distinguish the actual impact growth of this output provided dominantly by academia with modest contribution by pharmaceutical/medicinal device industry and diverse national government-based agencies. Further insight into the citation track record of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26205679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26205679"><span>Dietary guidelines to nourish humanity and the planet in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. A blueprint from Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Cannon, Geoffrey; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Martins, Carla Adriano; Garzillo, Josefa; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Barciotte, Maluh; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Jaime, Patrícia Constante</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>To present and discuss the dietary guidelines issued by the Brazilian government in 2014. The present paper describes the aims of the guidelines, their shaping principles and the approach used in the development of recommendations. The main recommendations are outlined, their significance for the cultural, socio-economic and environmental aspects of sustainability is discussed, and their application to other countries is considered. Brazil in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. All people in Brazil, now and in future. The food- and meal-based Brazilian Dietary Guidelines address dietary patterns as a whole and so are different from nutrient-based guidelines, even those with some recommendations on specific foods or food groups. The guidelines are based on explicit principles. They take mental and emotional well-being into account, as well as physical health and disease prevention. They identify diet as having cultural, socio-economic and environmental as well as biological and behavioural dimensions. They emphasize the benefits of dietary patterns based on a variety of natural or minimally processed foods, mostly plants, and freshly prepared meals eaten in company, for health, well-being and all relevant aspects of sustainability, as well as the multiple negative effects of ready-to-consume ultra-processed food and drink products. The guidelines' recommendations are designed to be sustainable personally, culturally, socially, economically and environmentally, and thus fit to face this century. They are for foods, meals and dietary patterns of types that are already established in Brazil, which can be adapted to suit the climate, terrain and customs of all countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=traditional+AND+costing&pg=3&id=EJ745232','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=traditional+AND+costing&pg=3&id=EJ745232"><span>The Eye Diagram: A New Perspective on the <span class="hlt">Project</span> Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jiang, Bin; Heiser, Daniel R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">project</span> life <span class="hlt">cycle</span>, a well-established concept in <span class="hlt">project</span> management literature and education, is used to highlight the dynamic requirements placed on a typical <span class="hlt">project</span> manager. As a <span class="hlt">project</span> moves through the selection, planning, execution, and termination phases, the <span class="hlt">project</span> manager and team are faced with different, vying areas of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+cycle&pg=7&id=EJ745232','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+cycle&pg=7&id=EJ745232"><span>The Eye Diagram: A New Perspective on the <span class="hlt">Project</span> Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jiang, Bin; Heiser, Daniel R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">project</span> life <span class="hlt">cycle</span>, a well-established concept in <span class="hlt">project</span> management literature and education, is used to highlight the dynamic requirements placed on a typical <span class="hlt">project</span> manager. As a <span class="hlt">project</span> moves through the selection, planning, execution, and termination phases, the <span class="hlt">project</span> manager and team are faced with different, vying areas of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/774311','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/774311"><span>Y-12 Respirator Flow <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Time Reduction <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hawk, C.T.; Rogers, P.E.</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>In mid-July 2000, a <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Time Reduction (CTR) <span class="hlt">project</span> was initiated by senior management to improve the flow and overall efficiency of the respirator distribution process at Y-12. A cross-functional team was formed to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. Specifically, the team was challenged to make improvements that would eliminate production work stoppages due to the unavailability of respirators in Y-12 Stores. Prior to the team initiation, plant back orders for a specific model respirator were averaging above 600 and have been as high as 750+. The <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Time Reduction team segmented the respirator flow into detailed steps, with the focus and emphasis primarily being on the movement of dirty respirators out of work areas, transportation to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laundry, and return back to Y-12 Stores inventory. The team selected a popular model respirator, size large, to track improvements. Despite a 30 percent increase in respirator usage for the same period of time in the previous year, the team has reduced the back orders by 89% with a steady trend downward. Summary of accomplishments: A 47 percent reduction in the average <span class="hlt">cycle</span> time for dirty respirators to be laundered and stocked for reuse at the Y-12 Complex; A 73 percent reduction in the average <span class="hlt">cycle</span> time for dirty respirators to be laundered and stocked for reuse specifically for major users: Enriched Uranium Operations (EUO) and Facilities Maintenance Organization (FMO); Development of a performance measure for tracking back orders; An 89 percent reduction in the number of laundered respirators on back order; Implementation of a tracking method to account for respirator loss; Achievement of an annual cost savings/avoidance of $800K with a one-time cost of $20K; Implementation of a routine pick-up schedule for EUO (major user of respirators); Elimination of activities no longer determined to be needed; Elimination of routine complaint calls to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ClDy...35.1073M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ClDy...35.1073M"><span>Future change of climate in South America in the late <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Regional climate change <span class="hlt">projections</span> for the last half of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional <span class="hlt">project</span>. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and <span class="hlt">projections</span> for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is <span class="hlt">projected</span> by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of <span class="hlt">projected</span> future climate change are quite robust across this set of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28488568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28488568"><span>Life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> energy analysis of reclaimed water reuse <span class="hlt">projects</span> in Beijing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; C Chang, Andrew; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>To illustrate the benefits of water reuse <span class="hlt">project</span>, the process-based life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> analysis to evaluate the water reuse <span class="hlt">project</span>. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the <span class="hlt">project</span>. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> should focus on sewage discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse <span class="hlt">project</span> built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> energy consumption. In this paper, we apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse <span class="hlt">projects</span> quantitatively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2828973','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2828973"><span>The effectiveness of community-based <span class="hlt">cycling</span> promotion: findings from the <span class="hlt">Cycling</span> Connecting Communities <span class="hlt">project</span> in Sydney, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Encouraging <span class="hlt">cycling</span> is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The <span class="hlt">Cycling</span> Connecting Communities (CCC) <span class="hlt">Project</span> is a community-based <span class="hlt">cycling</span> promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, <span class="hlt">cycling</span> skills courses, the distribution of <span class="hlt">cycling</span> maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road <span class="hlt">cycle</span> paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart) of a cohort of residents (n = 909) in the intervention area (n = 520) (Fairfield and Liverpool) and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389) (Bankstown). Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the <span class="hlt">Cycling</span> Connecting Communities <span class="hlt">project</span> (13.5% vs 8.0%, p < 0.05) in the intervention area, with significantly higher rates of <span class="hlt">cycling</span> in the intervention area (32.9%) compared with the comparison area (9.7%) amongst those aware of the <span class="hlt">project</span>. There was a significant increase in use of bicycle paths in the intervention area (28.3% versus 16.2%, p < 0.05). These findings were confirmed by the bike count data. Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the <span class="hlt">Cycling</span> Connecting Communities <span class="hlt">project</span> achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased <span class="hlt">cycling</span> in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population <span class="hlt">cycling</span> levels. PMID:20181019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U43B..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U43B..01H"><span>The NASA Energy and Water <span class="hlt">cycle</span> Extreme (NEWSE) Integration <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Skillful predictions of water and energy <span class="hlt">cycle</span> extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water <span class="hlt">cycle</span> Extremes (NEWSE) Integration <span class="hlt">Project</span>, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this <span class="hlt">project</span>, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......190D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......190D"><span>Zoos in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay</p> <p></p> <p>As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000091014','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000091014"><span>The NASA ASTP Combined-<span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Propulsion Database <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hyde, Eric H.; Escher, Daric W.; Heck, Mary T.; Roddy, Jordan E.; Lyles, Garry (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) communicated its long-term R&D goals for aeronautics and space transportation technologies in its 1997-98 annual progress report (Reference 1). Under "Pillar 3, Goal 9" a 25-year-horizon set of objectives has been stated for the Generation 3 Reusable Launch Vehicle ("Gen 3 RLV") class of space transportation systems. An initiative referred to as "Spaceliner 100" is being conducted to identify technology roadmaps in support of these objectives. Responsibility for running "Spaceliner 100" technology development and demonstration activities have been assigned to NASA's agency-wide Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) office located at the Marshall Space Flight Center. A key technology area in which advances will be required in order to meet these objectives is propulsion. In 1996, in order to expand their focus beyond "allrocket" propulsion systems and technologies (see Appendix A for further discussion), ASTP initiated technology development and demonstration work on combined-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> airbreathing/rocket propulsion systems (ARTT Contracts NAS8-40890 through 40894). Combined-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> propulsion (CCP) activities (see Appendix B for definitions) have been pursued in the U.S. for over four decades, resulting in a large documented knowledge base on this subject (see Reference 2). In the fall of 1999 the Combined-<span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Propulsion Database (CCPD) <span class="hlt">project</span> was established with the primary purpose of collecting and consolidating CCP related technical information in support of the ASTP's ongoing technology development and demonstration program. Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) was selected to perform the initial development of the Database under its existing support contract with MSFC (Contract NAS8-99060) because of the company's unique combination of capabilities in database development, information technology (IT) and CCP knowledge. The CCPD is summarized in the descriptive 2-page flyer appended</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169484','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169484"><span><span class="hlt">Projections</span> of Full-Fuel-<span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Energy and Emissions Metrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coughlin, Katie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To accurately represent how conservation and efficiency policies affect energy demand, both direct and indirect impacts need to be included in the accounting. The indirect impacts are defined here as the resource savings that accrue over the fuel production chain, which when added to the energy consumed at the point of use, constitute the full-fuel- <span class="hlt">cycle</span> (FFC) energy. This paper uses the accounting framework developed in (Coughlin 2012) to calculate FFC energy metrics as time series for the period 2010-2040. The approach is extended to define FFC metrics for the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air-borne pollutants. The primary focus is the types of energy used in buildings and industrial processes, mainly natural gas and electricity. The analysis includes a discussion of the fuel production chain for coal, which is used extensively for electric power generation, and for diesel and fuel oil, which are used in mining, oil and gas operations, and fuel distribution. Estimates of the energy intensity parameters make use of data and <span class="hlt">projections</span> from the Energy Information Agency’s National Energy Modeling System, with calculations based on information from the Annual Energy Outlook 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41A0003C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41A0003C"><span>The HIPPO <span class="hlt">Project</span> Archive: Carbon <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> and Greenhouse Gas Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christensen, S. W.; Aquino, J.; Hook, L.; Williams, S. F.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The HIAPER (NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V Aircraft) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) <span class="hlt">project</span> measured a comprehensive suite of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols pertinent to understanding the global carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> from the surface to the tropopause and approximately pole-to-pole over the Pacific Ocean. Flights took place over five missions during different seasons from 2009 to 2011. Data and documentation are available to the public from two archives: (1) NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) provides complete aircraft and flight operational data, and (2) the U.S. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) provides integrated measurement data products. The integrated products are more generally useful for secondary analyses. Data processing is nearing completion, although improvements to the data will continue to evolve and analyses will continue many years into the future. Periodic new releases of integrated measurement (merged) products will be generated by EOL when individual measurement data have been updated as directed by the Lead Principal Investigator. The EOL and CDIAC archives will share documentation and supplemental links and will ensure that the latest versions of data products are available to users of both archives. The EOL archive (http://www.eol.ucar.edu/<span class="hlt">projects</span>/hippo/) provides the underlying investigator-provided data, including supporting data sets (e.g. operational satellite, model output, global observations, etc.), and ancillary flight operational information including field catalogs, data quality reports, software, documentation, publications, photos/imagery, and other detailed information about the HIPPO missions. The CDIAC archive provides integrated measurement data products, user documentation, and metadata through the HIPPO website (http://hippo.ornl.gov). These merged products were derived by consistently combining the aircraft state parameters for position, time, temperature, pressure, and wind speed with meteorological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.........1O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.........1O"><span>Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ochsner, Karl</p> <p></p> <p>Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a <span class="hlt">project</span> evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the <span class="hlt">project</span> evaluation rubric, it</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED212523.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED212523.pdf"><span>The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century. Volume Two--The Technical Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This second volume of the Global 2000 study presents a technical report of detailed <span class="hlt">projections</span> and analyses. It is a U.S. government effort to present a long-term global perspective on population, resources, and environment. The volume has four parts. Approximately half of the report, part one, deals with <span class="hlt">projections</span> for the future in the areas…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+media+AND+classroom&pg=7&id=EJ1065973','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+media+AND+classroom&pg=7&id=EJ1065973"><span>Engagement and Resistance at Last Chance High: A Case Study of <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Literacies and Identities in One English Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hines, Mary Beth; Kersulov, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article investigates the nature of student resistance to and engagement with digital media and <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century literacies in the English classroom at Last Chance High, an alternative high school. It traces the dynamic interplay of literacy practices and identity performances with and around digital media, exploring one student's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Research+AND+qualitative&id=EJ1045553','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Research+AND+qualitative&id=EJ1045553"><span>Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davidson, Judith</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+games+AND+good&pg=3&id=EJ873521','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+games+AND+good&pg=3&id=EJ873521"><span>Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Games, Ivan Alex</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollution+AND+environmental&pg=7&id=EJ1126395','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollution+AND+environmental&pg=7&id=EJ1126395"><span>Sub-Saharan African Universities' Adult and Continuing Education and the Challenge of Relevance in the Knowledge-Based Economy of the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oduaran, Akpovire</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Beyond the dogged expectations that Sub-Saharan African universities' adult and continuing education needs to play a more visible key role in dealing with the challenges of HIV and AIDS, environmental pollution and excruciating poverty, the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century has brought in at its heels debates surrounding relevance in the era of an upsurge in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interests+AND+vocational+AND+importance&pg=3&id=EJ1088142','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interests+AND+vocational+AND+importance&pg=3&id=EJ1088142"><span>High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century Skill Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century skills. In addition, gender differences in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cool&pg=6&id=EJ1065973','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cool&pg=6&id=EJ1065973"><span>Engagement and Resistance at Last Chance High: A Case Study of <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Literacies and Identities in One English Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hines, Mary Beth; Kersulov, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article investigates the nature of student resistance to and engagement with digital media and <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century literacies in the English classroom at Last Chance High, an alternative high school. It traces the dynamic interplay of literacy practices and identity performances with and around digital media, exploring one student's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mechanics+AND+production&id=EJ873521','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mechanics+AND+production&id=EJ873521"><span>Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Games, Ivan Alex</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+participation&pg=3&id=EJ1088142','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+participation&pg=3&id=EJ1088142"><span>High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century Skill Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century skills. In addition, gender differences in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gale+AND+Research&pg=5&id=EJ957173','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gale+AND+Research&pg=5&id=EJ957173"><span>The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hot&pg=6&id=EJ1076791','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hot&pg=6&id=EJ1076791"><span>Towards a Common Ground: Arab versus Western Views about Challenges of Islamic Religious Education Curriculum of the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rashed, Hazem</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Islamic religious education curriculum of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century is a cornerstone in a hot debate about necessary educational reforms in the Islamic World. This study aimed at investigating the depth of agreement/disagreement between Arab and Western educational views about challenges of this curriculum through reviewing academic…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309674&keyword=hecht&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309674&keyword=hecht&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Addressing the problems of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309674&keyword=human+AND+resource+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91070499&CFTOKEN=86283799','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309674&keyword=human+AND+resource+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91070499&CFTOKEN=86283799"><span>Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Addressing the problems of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Music+AND+education&pg=7&id=EJ821012','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Music+AND+education&pg=7&id=EJ821012"><span>Music Education in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=creativity+AND+innovation&pg=6&id=EJ1094765','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=creativity+AND+innovation&pg=6&id=EJ1094765"><span>Measuring <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century Skills: Development and Validation of a Scale for In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jia, Yueming; Oh, Youn Joo; Sibuma, Bernadette; LaBanca, Frank; Lorentson, Mhora</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A self-report scale that measures teachers' confidence in teaching students about <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century skills was developed and validated with pre-service and in-service teachers. First, 16 items were created to measure teaching confidence in six areas: information literacy, collaboration, communication, innovation and creativity, problem solving,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollution+AND+environmental&pg=7&id=EJ1126395','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollution+AND+environmental&pg=7&id=EJ1126395"><span>Sub-Saharan African Universities' Adult and Continuing Education and the Challenge of Relevance in the Knowledge-Based Economy of the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oduaran, Akpovire</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Beyond the dogged expectations that Sub-Saharan African universities' adult and continuing education needs to play a more visible key role in dealing with the challenges of HIV and AIDS, environmental pollution and excruciating poverty, the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century has brought in at its heels debates surrounding relevance in the era of an upsurge in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=arab&pg=4&id=EJ1076791','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=arab&pg=4&id=EJ1076791"><span>Towards a Common Ground: Arab versus Western Views about Challenges of Islamic Religious Education Curriculum of the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rashed, Hazem</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Islamic religious education curriculum of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century is a cornerstone in a hot debate about necessary educational reforms in the Islamic World. This study aimed at investigating the depth of agreement/disagreement between Arab and Western educational views about challenges of this curriculum through reviewing academic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22the+twenty-first+century%22&pg=4&id=EJ982260','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22the+twenty-first+century%22&pg=4&id=EJ982260"><span>Learning to Innovate in <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Community Colleges: Searching for the General Education Niche in Two-Year Colleges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lundberg, Todd C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the general education needed by newcomers to higher education that will enable them to contribute in multiple ways in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century workplace. In an effort to become more precise about the kind of general education that Midwestern community colleges need to create, this article approaches two questions: (1) In what…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404214.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404214.pdf"><span>Report of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, Second Session (Dakar, Senegal, September 18-21, 1993). Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).</p> <p></p> <p>The second session of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, held in Dakar, Senegal, was preceded by a 2-day working group on education in Africa, at which some 15 African educators, decision-makers, and intellectuals debated problems, approaches, and options in education. Several African educators at the highest…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404213.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404213.pdf"><span>Report of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, First Session (Paris, France, March 2-4, 1993).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).</p> <p></p> <p>This report of the first session of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century describes its agenda of the working methods, the approach, the scope of its work, and the main lines of inquiry to be followed. The initial debate revealed a central theme to be sustained throughout the work of the Commission: the role of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404216.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404216.pdf"><span>Report of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, Fourth Session (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-15, 1994).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).</p> <p></p> <p>This session of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century was preceded by a 2-day working group on the processes of education. The Commission also held an afternoon of hearings that included an in-depth exchange between Canadian educational leaders and the Commission members on a wide range of topics that included…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404217.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404217.pdf"><span>Address Given by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, to the 140th Session of the Executive Board.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Delors, Jacques</p> <p></p> <p>In this speech, the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century describes education as a pathway into the 21st Century. He suggests that if education is to become central in contributing to human progress, policymakers must learn from the experiences of the past 20 years, take the variety of situations into…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404219.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404219.pdf"><span>Address by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, General Conference of UNESCO (27th, Paris, France, November 2, 1993).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Delors, Jacques</p> <p></p> <p>In this speech to the members of the general conference of UNESCO, the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century describes the progress of the Commission's work. The chairman discusses education and the challenges of the world as it enters the 21st century. Changes mentioned include the rapid pace of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404218.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404218.pdf"><span>Report by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, First Session (Paris, France, March 2-4, 1993).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Delors, Jacques</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century reviewed commission discussions on education in the 21st century. The growing interdependence of the modern world is discussed including the results of the U.S. economic ideology of the Ronald Reagan era on the world economy, and the collapse of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=qualitative+AND+research&id=EJ1045553','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=qualitative+AND+research&id=EJ1045553"><span>Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davidson, Judith</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=effective+AND+science+AND+communication+AND+effective+AND+science+AND+communication&pg=3&id=EJ957173','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=effective+AND+science+AND+communication+AND+effective+AND+science+AND+communication&pg=3&id=EJ957173"><span>The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Pre&pg=7&id=EJ1094765','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Pre&pg=7&id=EJ1094765"><span>Measuring <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century Skills: Development and Validation of a Scale for In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jia, Yueming; Oh, Youn Joo; Sibuma, Bernadette; LaBanca, Frank; Lorentson, Mhora</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A self-report scale that measures teachers' confidence in teaching students about <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century skills was developed and validated with pre-service and in-service teachers. First, 16 items were created to measure teaching confidence in six areas: information literacy, collaboration, communication, innovation and creativity, problem solving,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7152305','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7152305"><span>Tampa Electric Company Integrated Gasification Combined <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pless, D.E.; Black, C.R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The proposed <span class="hlt">project</span> will utilize commercially available gasification technology as provided by Texaco in their licensed oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasifier. In this arrangement, coal is ground to specification and slurried in water to the desired concentration (60--70% solids) in rod mills. This coal slurry and an oxidant (95 % pure oxygen) are then mixed in the gasifier burner where the coal partially combusts, in an oxygen deficient environment, to produce syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/SCF (LHV) at a temperature in excess of 2500[degrees]F. The oxygen will be produced from an Air Separation Unit (ASU). The gasifier is expected to achieve greater than 95% carbon conversion in a single pass. It is currently planned for the gasifier to be a single vessel feeding into one radiant syngas cooler where the temperature will be reduced from about 2500[degrees]F to about 1300[degrees]F. After the radiant cooler, the gas will then be split into two (2) parallel convective coolers, where the temperature will be cooled further to about 900[degrees]F. One stream will go to the 50% HGCU system and the other stream to the traditional CGCU system with 100% capacity. This flow arrangement was selected to provide assurance to Tampa Electric that the IGCC capability would not be restricted due to the demonstration of the HGCU system. A traditional amine scrubber type system with conventional sulfur recovery will be used. Sulfur from the HGCU and CGCU systems will be recovered in the form of H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and elemental sulfur respectively.The key components of the combined <span class="hlt">cycle</span> are the advanced combustion.turbine (CT), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and steam turbine (ST), and generators. The advanced CT will be a GE 7F operating with a firing temperature of about 2300[degrees]F.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105085','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105085"><span>Tampa Electric Company Integrated Gasification Combined <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pless, D.E.; Black, C.R.</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>The proposed <span class="hlt">project</span> will utilize commercially available gasification technology as provided by Texaco in their licensed oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasifier. In this arrangement, coal is ground to specification and slurried in water to the desired concentration (60--70% solids) in rod mills. This coal slurry and an oxidant (95 % pure oxygen) are then mixed in the gasifier burner where the coal partially combusts, in an oxygen deficient environment, to produce syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/SCF (LHV) at a temperature in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The oxygen will be produced from an Air Separation Unit (ASU). The gasifier is expected to achieve greater than 95% carbon conversion in a single pass. It is currently planned for the gasifier to be a single vessel feeding into one radiant syngas cooler where the temperature will be reduced from about 2500{degrees}F to about 1300{degrees}F. After the radiant cooler, the gas will then be split into two (2) parallel convective coolers, where the temperature will be cooled further to about 900{degrees}F. One stream will go to the 50% HGCU system and the other stream to the traditional CGCU system with 100% capacity. This flow arrangement was selected to provide assurance to Tampa Electric that the IGCC capability would not be restricted due to the demonstration of the HGCU system. A traditional amine scrubber type system with conventional sulfur recovery will be used. Sulfur from the HGCU and CGCU systems will be recovered in the form of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and elemental sulfur respectively.The key components of the combined <span class="hlt">cycle</span> are the advanced combustion.turbine (CT), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and steam turbine (ST), and generators. The advanced CT will be a GE 7F operating with a firing temperature of about 2300{degrees}F.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227313','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227313"><span>Advanced Low Temperature Geothermal Power <span class="hlt">Cycles</span> (The ENTIV Organic <span class="hlt">Project</span>) Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mugerwa, Michael</p> <p>2015-11-18</p> <p>Feasibility study of advanced low temperature thermal power <span class="hlt">cycles</span> for the Entiv Organic <span class="hlt">Project</span>. Study evaluates amonia-water mixed working fluid energy conversion processes developed and licensed under Kalex in comparison with Kalina <span class="hlt">cycles</span>. Both <span class="hlt">cycles</span> are developed using low temperature thermal resource from the Lower Klamath Lake Geothermal Area. An economic feasibility evaluation was conducted for a pilot plant which was deemed unfeasible by the <span class="hlt">Project</span> Sponsor (Entiv).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/890712','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/890712"><span>INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED <span class="hlt">CYCLE</span> <span class="hlt">PROJECT</span> 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>FuelCell Energy</p> <p>2005-05-16</p> <p>With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and <span class="hlt">projections</span> indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> (IGCC) <span class="hlt">project</span> selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V <span class="hlt">Project</span> was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780007134&hterms=finance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dfinance','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780007134&hterms=finance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dfinance"><span>A life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> cost economics model for <span class="hlt">projects</span> with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Remer, D. S.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> costs for a <span class="hlt">project</span> where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, <span class="hlt">project</span> life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> cost for a <span class="hlt">project</span> can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in <span class="hlt">project</span> economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) <span class="hlt">project</span> life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate <span class="hlt">project</span> life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> costs over a wide range of variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780007134&hterms=project+investment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dproject%2Binvestment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780007134&hterms=project+investment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dproject%2Binvestment"><span>A life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> cost economics model for <span class="hlt">projects</span> with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Remer, D. S.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> costs for a <span class="hlt">project</span> where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, <span class="hlt">project</span> life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> cost for a <span class="hlt">project</span> can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in <span class="hlt">project</span> economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) <span class="hlt">project</span> life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate <span class="hlt">project</span> life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> costs over a wide range of variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=influence+AND+student+NOT+attend+AND+lecture&pg=5&id=EJ968928','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=influence+AND+student+NOT+attend+AND+lecture&pg=5&id=EJ968928"><span>Students' Note-Taking Challenges in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: Considerations for Teachers and Academic Staff Developers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>van der Meer, Jacques</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Note-taking in lectures is often taken to be the distinguishing characteristic of learning at university. It is typically assumed that this is a commonsensical skill that students either have or will learn through trial and error. The data from a research <span class="hlt">project</span> in one New Zealand university suggest that taking good notes is not a skill that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1027422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1027422"><span>Large Scale Duty <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> (LSDC) <span class="hlt">Project</span>: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Evaluations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LaClair, Tim J</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>This report addresses the approach that will be used in the Large Scale Duty <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> (LSDC) <span class="hlt">project</span> to evaluate the fuel savings potential of various truck efficiency technologies. The methods and equations used for performing the tractive energy evaluations are presented and the calculation approach is described. Several representative results for individual duty <span class="hlt">cycle</span> segments are presented to demonstrate the approach and the significance of this analysis for the <span class="hlt">project</span>. The report is divided into four sections, including an initial brief overview of the LSDC <span class="hlt">project</span> and its current status. In the second section of the report, the concepts that form the basis of the analysis are presented through a discussion of basic principles pertaining to tractive energy and the role of tractive energy in relation to other losses on the vehicle. In the third section, the approach used for the analysis is formalized and the equations used in the analysis are presented. In the fourth section, results from the analysis for a set of individual duty <span class="hlt">cycle</span> measurements are presented and different types of drive <span class="hlt">cycles</span> are discussed relative to the fuel savings potential that specific technologies could bring if these drive <span class="hlt">cycles</span> were representative of the use of a given vehicle or trucking application. Additionally, the calculation of vehicle mass from measured torque and speed data is presented and the accuracy of the approach is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28784713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28784713"><span>Ocean (de)oxygenation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century: insights from Earth System models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bopp, L; Resplandy, L; Untersee, A; Le Mezo, P; Kageyama, M</p> <p>2017-09-13</p> <p>All Earth System models <span class="hlt">project</span> a consistent decrease in the oxygen content of oceans for the coming decades because of ocean warming, reduced ventilation and increased stratification. But large uncertainties for these future <span class="hlt">projections</span> of ocean deoxygenation remain for the subsurface tropical oceans where the major oxygen minimum zones are located. Here, we combine global warming <span class="hlt">projections</span>, model-based estimates of natural short-term variability, as well as data and model estimates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ocean oxygenation to gain some insights into the major mechanisms of oxygenation changes across these different time scales. We show that the primary uncertainty on future ocean deoxygenation in the subsurface tropical oceans is in fact controlled by a robust compensation between decreasing oxygen saturation (O2sat) due to warming and decreasing apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) due to increased ventilation of the corresponding water masses. Modelled short-term natural variability in subsurface oxygen levels also reveals a compensation between O2sat and AOU, controlled by the latter. Finally, using a model simulation of the LGM, reproducing data-based reconstructions of past ocean (de)oxygenation, we show that the deoxygenation trend of the subsurface ocean during deglaciation was controlled by a combination of warming-induced decreasing O2sat and increasing AOU driven by a reduced ventilation of tropical subsurface waters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744044"><span>Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> centuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mårald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Sténs, Anna; Moen, Jon</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610641S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610641S"><span>Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is <span class="hlt">projected</span> to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate <span class="hlt">projections</span> under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future <span class="hlt">projections</span>. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5128419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5128419"><span>Phase I life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> documentation for the Total Force Manpower Management System (TFMMS). <span class="hlt">Project</span> Management Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, J.L.; Denson, L.M.; Vancisin, T.G.; Enzmann, J.E.; Martin, M.L.; McNair, M.H.; Whitt, B.R.; Lander, S.L.; Efird, W.A.; Parks, J.F.</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>The Total Force Manpower Management System (TFMMS) is a key element in providing a system that will track validated Navy manpower requirements through the planning process to actual authorizations. Through its corporate manpower data base, TFMMS will support a worldwide user community, consisting of Headquarters staff, Resource Sponsors, Claimants, and Subclaimants. The purpose of a <span class="hlt">Project</span> Management Plan (PMP) is to provide the <span class="hlt">Project</span> Manager with standard tools for managing the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> of an automatic data processing system. It also serves as a <span class="hlt">project</span> history and establishes <span class="hlt">project</span> continuity. This PMP records the status of TFMMS at the end of the Concept Development Phase of Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JOM....58b..34J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JOM....58b..34J"><span>Silver <span class="hlt">cycles</span>: The stocks and flows <span class="hlt">project</span>, part 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jeremiah; Gordon, Robert; Graedel, Thomas</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The quantitative assessment of the flows of materials from resource extraction to final disposal informs resource policy, energy planning, environmental science, and waste management. This article reports the technological <span class="hlt">cycles</span> of silver worldwide and in representative countries for 1997. Most silver is produced in conjunction with other metals; only a quarter of world production is from silver ore. Industrial applications account for 40% of silver use. While about a third of world use goes into jewelry, tableware, and the arts, silver <span class="hlt">cycles</span> through the world economy to recycling faster than metals such as copper and zinc. Despite decreasing use in photography, demand for silver continues to increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361702','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361702"><span>Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century as a result of alteration in WBGT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries <span class="hlt">projected</span> to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES <span class="hlt">Project</span> are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52% during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59..463A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59..463A"><span>Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century as a result of alteration in WBGT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries <span class="hlt">projected</span> to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES <span class="hlt">Project</span> are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..294K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..294K"><span>Climate change uncertainty and risk assessment in Iran during <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century: evapotranspiration and green water deficit analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karandish, Fatemeh; Mousavi, Seyed-Saeed</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>For a 120-year period, the <span class="hlt">projected</span> effects of climate change on annual, seasonal, and monthly potential evapotranspiration (ETo) and green water deficit (GWD) were analyzed involving the associated uncertainties for five climatic zones of Iran. Analysis was carried out using data obtained from 15 general circulation models (GCMs) under three SRES scenarios of A1B, A2, and B1 which were downscaled using LARS-WG for 52 synoptic stations up to 2100. The majority of GCMs as well as the median of the ensemble for each scenario <span class="hlt">project</span> a positive change in both ETo and GWD. A total of 5.8-19.8 % increase in annual ETo, drier than normal wet seasons, as well as 2.3-56.4 % increase in ETo during December-March period well represent a probable increase in the hydrological water requirement in Iran under global warming. Regarding GWD, the country will experience more arid years requiring 113.7 × 103-576.8 × 103 Mm3 more water to supply annual atmospheric water demand. Semi-arid and Mediterranean regions, principal agricultural producer areas of Iran, will be the most vulnerable part of the country due to 1-38.6 % increase in annual GWD under climate change. In addition, water scarcity for irrigated agriculture will enhance in all climatic zones due to 0.9-41 % increase GWD in June-August. However, rain-fed agriculture might be less affected in the hyper-humid and Mediterranean regions because of 1.1-105.3 % reduction in GWD during wet season. Nevertheless, uncertainty analysis revealed that given results for monthly timescale as well as those for times and regions with lower ETo will be the most uncertain. Based on the results, suitable adaptation solutions are highly required to be undertaken to relieve the extra pressure on the decreased blue water resources in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020821','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020821"><span>NEWS Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span>: The State of the Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> at Continental to Global Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Energy and Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy <span class="hlt">cycle</span> consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Climatology <span class="hlt">project</span> is to develop "state of the global water <span class="hlt">cycle</span>" and "state of the global energy <span class="hlt">cycle</span>" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The <span class="hlt">project</span> is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water <span class="hlt">cycle</span> on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C32C..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C32C..06B"><span>Changes to Glacier Runoff and Downstream Effects on the Susitna Basin, Alaska Over the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.; Wolken, G. J.; Whorton, E.; Zhang, J.; Gusmeroli, A.; Braun, J. L.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Schulla, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Runoff from glaciers in the upper Susitna Basin, Alaska will change as the climate changes over the next century. The quantity and seasonality of river flow in the 13,289 km^2 basin depends on glacier runoff to an extent that belies the small percentage of the basin's area that is covered by glaciers (4%). We run a physically-based hydrological model (WaSiM) to <span class="hlt">project</span> 21st century river discharge for the basin, explicitly including the glacier component of runoff. Climate inputs come from a CCSM CMIP5 RCP6.0 scenario downscaled to a 20km-5km nested grid using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and are adjusted with a local bias correction. From 2010-2029 to 2080-2099 the basin-wide mean-annual temperature will rise 2.5 degrees and total precipitation will rise 2%, with a 13% decrease in snowfall and a 20% increase in rainfall. WaSiM runs indicate that glaciers will lose about 40% of their area, evapotranspiration will increase, and permafrost will thaw. Annual runoff will remain relatively steady, but the timing of the peak spring runoff will shift to an earlier date (by about 1 month) and late summer runoff will be reduced (by about 50%) compared to present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26541152','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26541152"><span>Management Options and Outcomes for Neonatal Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome in the Early <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kane, Jason M; Canar, Jeff; Kalinowski, Valerie; Johnson, Tricia J; Hoehn, K Sarah</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Without surgical treatment, neonatal hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) mortality in the first year of life exceeds 90 % and, in spite of improved surgical outcomes, many families still opt for non-surgical management. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in neonatal HLHS management and to identify characteristics of patients who did not undergo surgical palliation. Neonates with HLHS were identified from a serial cross-sectional analysis using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization <span class="hlt">Project</span>'s Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2012. The primary analysis compared children undergoing surgical palliation to those discharged alive without surgery using a binary logistic regression model. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with treatment choice. A total of 1750 patients underwent analysis. Overall hospital mortality decreased from 35.3 % in 2000 to 22.9 % in 2012. The percentage of patients undergoing comfort care discharge without surgery also decreased from 21.2 to 14.8 %. After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, older patients at presentation were less likely to undergo surgery (OR 0.93, 0.91-0.96), and patients in 2012 were more likely to undergo surgery compared to those in prior years (OR 1.5, 1.1-2.1). Discharge without surgical intervention is decreasing with a 30 % reduction between 2000 and 2012. Given the improvement in surgical outcomes, further dialogue about ethical justification of non-operative comfort or palliative care is warranted. In the meantime, clinicians should present families with surgical outcome data and recommend intervention, while supporting their option to refuse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A53G..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A53G..06M"><span>Observed and <span class="hlt">Projected</span> Changes to the Precipitation Annual <span class="hlt">Cycle</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marvel, K.; Biasutti, M.; Bonfils, C.; Taylor, K. E.; Kushnir, Y.; Cook, B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to cause spatial and temporal shifts in precipitation patterns. These may be apparent in changes to the annual <span class="hlt">cycle</span> of zonal mean precipitation (P). We show that trends in the amplitude and phase of the P annual <span class="hlt">cycle</span> in two long-term, global satellite datasets are broadly similar. Model-derived "fingerprints" of externally forced changes to the amplitude and phase of the P seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span>, combined with these observations, enable a formal detection and attribution analysis. Contrary to previous literature, we find that observed amplitude changes are incompatible with both model estimates of internal variability and the response to external forcing. This mismatch between observed and predicted amplitude changes is largely attributable to the sustained La Niña-like conditions that characterize the recent slowdown in the rise of the global mean temperature. However, observed changes to the timing of the wet season onset do not seem to be driven by the recent hiatus. These changes are compatible with model estimates of forced changes, incompatible with estimates of internal variability, and may show the emergence of an externally forced signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Franklyn&pg=2&id=ED244688','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Franklyn&pg=2&id=ED244688"><span>International <span class="hlt">Projects</span> Development: From Decision <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> to Overseas Reality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Franklyn, Gaston J.</p> <p></p> <p>The major elements of the industry-based planning process can be successfully applied to the development and implementation of international <span class="hlt">projects</span> in educational institutions. International education programs share the following fundamental structural elements with business and industry: they compete in the market place, and exist by managing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fundamentals+AND+international+AND+business&pg=4&id=ED244688','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fundamentals+AND+international+AND+business&pg=4&id=ED244688"><span>International <span class="hlt">Projects</span> Development: From Decision <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> to Overseas Reality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Franklyn, Gaston J.</p> <p></p> <p>The major elements of the industry-based planning process can be successfully applied to the development and implementation of international <span class="hlt">projects</span> in educational institutions. International education programs share the following fundamental structural elements with business and industry: they compete in the market place, and exist by managing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+cycle&pg=6&id=ED546266','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+cycle&pg=6&id=ED546266"><span>Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Stages to Ensure Software <span class="hlt">Project</span> Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kocherla, Showry</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Information technology (IT) <span class="hlt">projects</span> are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT <span class="hlt">projects</span> continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> (SDLC) such…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=measure+AND+effectiveness+AND+manager&pg=3&id=ED546266','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=measure+AND+effectiveness+AND+manager&pg=3&id=ED546266"><span>Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Stages to Ensure Software <span class="hlt">Project</span> Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kocherla, Showry</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Information technology (IT) <span class="hlt">projects</span> are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT <span class="hlt">projects</span> continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> (SDLC) such…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Breeding&pg=6&id=EJ471483','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Breeding&pg=6&id=EJ471483"><span>Computer, Video, and Rapid-<span class="hlt">Cycling</span> Plant <span class="hlt">Projects</span> in an Undergraduate Plant Breeding Course.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Michaels, T. E.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Studies the perceived effectiveness of four student <span class="hlt">projects</span> involving videotape production, computer conferencing, microcomputer simulation, and rapid-<span class="hlt">cycling</span> Brassica breeding for undergraduate plant breeding students in two course offerings in consecutive years. Linking of the computer conferencing and video <span class="hlt">projects</span> improved the rating of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=plant+AND+breeding&id=EJ471483','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=plant+AND+breeding&id=EJ471483"><span>Computer, Video, and Rapid-<span class="hlt">Cycling</span> Plant <span class="hlt">Projects</span> in an Undergraduate Plant Breeding Course.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Michaels, T. E.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Studies the perceived effectiveness of four student <span class="hlt">projects</span> involving videotape production, computer conferencing, microcomputer simulation, and rapid-<span class="hlt">cycling</span> Brassica breeding for undergraduate plant breeding students in two course offerings in consecutive years. Linking of the computer conferencing and video <span class="hlt">projects</span> improved the rating of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552205','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552205"><span>A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ikin, Timothy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Simple Summary It is a core task of collecting institutions like museums to take examples of animals and preserve them as specimens in collections. In the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century, museums are equally the places where research is conducted and education is promoted in the service of conservation of animals in an era of the decline of biodiversity. In this paper, the balance of co-operation between collecting of animals by museums and the promotion and scientific pursuit of conservation of fauna in those museums is considered. As a “challenge” to museum science, it is considered in the context of Australia's oldest museum, and its policy and practice in the current century. Abstract Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia's faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia's institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed “conservation ethic” in a <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century Australian setting. PMID:26486222</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JOM....60g..55R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JOM....60g..55R"><span>Nickel and chromium <span class="hlt">cycles</span>: Stocks and flows <span class="hlt">project</span> part IV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reck, Barbara K.; Gordon, Robert B.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Nickel and chromium are essential ingredients in alloys increasingly important for energy-efficient, environmentally friendly modern technology. Quantitative assessment of the flows of these metals through the world economy from resource extraction to final disposal informs resource policy, energy planning, environmental science, and waste management. This article summarizes the worldwide technological <span class="hlt">cycles</span> of nickel and chromium in 2000. Stainless steel is the major use of these metals, but they serve numerous other special needs, as in superalloys for high-temperature service, as plating materials, and in coinage. Because they are used primarily in alloys, novel recycling issues arise as their use becomes more widespread.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=children%27s+AND+library+AND+history&id=ED517053','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=children%27s+AND+library+AND+history&id=ED517053"><span><span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Kids, <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span>-Century Librarians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Virginia A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Inspired by a new generation of librarians and children, Walter reconsiders the legacy passed on by the matriarchs of children's services and examines more recent trends and challenges growing out of changes in educational philosophy and information technology. This thoroughly researched book includes the current issues and trends of: (1)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21512953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21512953"><span>Types of social media (Web 2.0) used by Australian allied health professionals to deliver early <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span>-century practice promotion and health care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Usher, Wayne</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Types of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major allied health professions (AHPs, n = 935) were examined. Australian AHPs are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies for personal use but are failing to implement such technologies throughout their health professions to deliver health care. Australian AHPs are willing to undertake online educational courses designed to up skill them about how Web 2.0 may be used for practice promotion and health care delivery in the early <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Participants in this study indicated that educational courses that were offered online would be the preferred mode of delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011445','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011445"><span>Global Energy and Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International <span class="hlt">Project</span> (GCIP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vane, Deborah</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International <span class="hlt">Project</span> (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological <span class="hlt">cycle</span> by global measurements; model the global hydrological <span class="hlt">cycle</span>; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological <span class="hlt">cycle</span> over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27221102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27221102"><span>How Has Elderly Migration Changed in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century? What the Data Can-and Cannot-Tell Us.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Conway, Karen Smith; Rork, Jonathan C</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Interstate elderly migration has strong implications for state tax policies and health care systems, yet little is known about how it has changed in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Its relative rarity requires a large data set with which to construct reliable measures, and the replacement of the U.S. Census long form (CLF) with the American Community Survey (ACS) has made such updates difficult. Two commonly used alternative migration data sources-the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Statistics of Income (SOI) program of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-suffer serious limitations in studying the migration of any subpopulation, including the elderly. Our study informs migration research in the post-2000 era by identifying methodological differences between data sources and devising strategies for reconciling the CLF and ACS. Our investigation focusing on the elderly suggests that the ACS can generate comparable migration data that reveal a continuation of previously identified geographic patterns as well as changes unique to the 2000s. However, its changed definition of residence and survey timing leaves us unable to construct a comparable national migration rate, suggesting that one must use national trends in the smaller CPS to investigate whether elderly migration has increased or decreased in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26486222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26486222"><span>A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ikin, Timothy</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia's faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia's institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed "conservation ethic" in a <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century Australian setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cell+AND+membrane&pg=5&id=EJ157466','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cell+AND+membrane&pg=5&id=EJ157466"><span><span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Bowditch Lecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Diamond, Jared M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the discovery, physiological function and the three roles (the bridge, the gate, and the fence) of the junctions between epithelial cells. Experimental usefulness of epithelia in studying basic questions common to all cell membranes, such as extraction of channels and carriers, or origin of ion or nonelectrolyte selectivity, is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cell+AND+membrane&pg=5&id=EJ157466','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cell+AND+membrane&pg=5&id=EJ157466"><span><span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Bowditch Lecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Diamond, Jared M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the discovery, physiological function and the three roles (the bridge, the gate, and the fence) of the junctions between epithelial cells. Experimental usefulness of epithelia in studying basic questions common to all cell membranes, such as extraction of channels and carriers, or origin of ion or nonelectrolyte selectivity, is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Public+AND+Bus&pg=7&id=EJ553783','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Public+AND+Bus&pg=7&id=EJ553783"><span><span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century Garage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bushweller, Kevin</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The experiences of several school bus garages around the country show that it is possible to modernize equipment and upgrade training while also holding the line on costs. Computer software is used to track servicing, inventory, and other information about a bus fleet. Related factors in improved bus maintenance are the quality of the vehicles and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6555469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6555469"><span>Construction Cost Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration <span class="hlt">Project</span> <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnett, Cole; Thor, Philip W.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>The Residential Construction Demonstration <span class="hlt">Project</span> (RCDP) is designed to demonstrate new residential building techniques and product innovations which advance the stage-of-the-art in constructing energy-efficient electrically heated residences. A secondary purpose is to obtain documented cost and energy savings data from which to make accurate assessments of the cost-effectiveness of various conservation innovations. The <span class="hlt">project</span> solicits participation of regional homebuilders by offering them financial incentives for constructing homes to the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) and including at least one innovation.'' The innovations are determined by BPA and the States prior to construction and represent construction techniques or energy saving products that might reduce the cost of building MCS homes, or expand the options available to builders in achieving MCS levels of energy efficiency in homes. Besides covering some of the additional risk for employing the innovation, the incentive payment guarantees that builders will provide certain amounts of information regarding the cost and acceptability of building the homes. In addition, an incentive is paid to homeowners for their participation in data collection efforts following construction. Several one-time'' tests were performed on the houses and homeowners were required to report energy consumption and temperature data on a weekly basis for approximately 18 months. BPA and the States compile the information obtained from the builders and homeowners. Access to this data is provided for the purpose of analyzing the cost and performance of the RCDP homes, as well as understanding the value of the various innovations that are tested. 25 tabs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489646','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489646"><span>Improving building life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> information management through documentation and communication of <span class="hlt">project</span> objectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hitchcock, R.J.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Most currently available computer tools for the building industry proffer little more than productivity improvement in the transmission of graphical drawings and textual specifications, without addressing more fundamental changes in building life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> information management. This paper describes preliminary research into the development of a framework for the documentation and communication of the <span class="hlt">project</span> objectives of a building <span class="hlt">project</span>. When implemented in an interactive networked environment, this framework is intended to promote multiple participant involvement in the establishment and use of a common set of explicit goals, from the earliest phase of a <span class="hlt">project</span> throughout its life <span class="hlt">cycle</span>. A number of potential applications for this framework are identified. The requirements for integrating this life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> information with a product model of the physical design of a building, in an attempt to document and communicate design intent, are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23257397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23257397"><span>Ride 2 Recovery's <span class="hlt">Project</span> HERO: using <span class="hlt">cycling</span> as part of rehabilitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Springer, Barbara A</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Ride 2 Recovery was founded in 2008 by a former world-class <span class="hlt">cycling</span> competitor and coach to enhance the physical and psychological recovery of our nation's wounded, ill and injured service members and veterans through the sport of <span class="hlt">cycling</span>. Ride 2 Recovery's most notable endeavor is <span class="hlt">Project</span> HERO (Healing Exercise Rehabilitation Opportunity) which uses staff members and volunteers to promote <span class="hlt">cycling</span> as an integral part of rehabilitation at select military facilities to enhance physical, psychological, spiritual and social recovery. <span class="hlt">Project</span> HERO is directed by a retired military physical therapist that spent the last decade caring for service men and women wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan. This article describes all facets of the <span class="hlt">Project</span> HERO initiative and highlights the profound impact it has had in the lives of US military members and veterans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53E0234T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53E0234T"><span>Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century influenced by changes in climate, land use and atmospheric CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, B.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.; He, R.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in temperature and precipitation (hereafter climate change) would influence river discharge, but the relative importance of climate change, land use, and elevated atmospheric CO2 have not yet been fully investigated. Here we examined how river discharge in the Mississippi River basin in the 21st century might be influenced by these factors using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model driven by atmospheric CO2, downscaled GCMs climate and land use scenarios. Our results suggest that river discharge would be substantially enhanced (10.7-59.8%) by the 2090s compared to the recent decade (2000s), though large discrepancies exist among different climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use change scenarios. Our factorial analyses further indicate that the combined effects of land use change and human-induced atmospheric CO2 elevation on river discharge would outweigh climate change effect under the high emission scenario (A2) of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Our study offers the first attempt to <span class="hlt">project</span> potential changes in river discharge in response to multiple future environmental changes. It demonstrates the importance of land use change and atmospheric CO2 concentrations in <span class="hlt">projecting</span> future changes in hydrologic processes. The <span class="hlt">projected</span> increase river discharge implies that riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients and pesticide from the MRB to the coastal regions would increase in the future, and thus may influence the states of ocean acidification and hypoxia and deteriorate ocean water quality. Further efforts will also be needed to account for additional environmental factors (such as nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone pollution, dam construction, etc.) in <span class="hlt">projecting</span> changes in the hydrological <span class="hlt">cycle</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10145964','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10145964"><span><span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Monteleone, S.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=haunted&pg=4&id=ED386322','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=haunted&pg=4&id=ED386322"><span><span class="hlt">Project</span> Head Start: Models and Strategies for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Source Books on Education, Volume 38.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Washington, Valora; Bailey, Ura Jean Oyemade</p> <p></p> <p>Head Start, the nation's largest early childhood intervention, has enjoyed public and political support. The program has also been haunted by persistent questions about its role in communities, its sustainable impacts, and its quality. This book discusses the past, present, and future of Head Start in the hope of creating better partnerships…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/55014','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/55014"><span>Vulnerability of grazing and confined livestock in the Northern Great Plains to <span class="hlt">projected</span> mid- and late-<span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Justin Derner; David Briske; Matt Reeves; Tami Brown-Brandl; Miranda Meehan; Dana Blumenthal; William Travis; David Augustine; Hailey Wilmer; Derek Scasta; John Hendrickson; Jerry Volesky; Laura Edwards; Dannele Peck</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Northern Great Plains (NGP) region of the USA - which comprises Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska - is a largely rural area that provides numerous ecosystem services, including livestock products, cultural services, and conservation of biological diversity. The region contains 25% of the Nation's beef cattle and approximately...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=HAUNTED&pg=4&id=ED386322','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=HAUNTED&pg=4&id=ED386322"><span><span class="hlt">Project</span> Head Start: Models and Strategies for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Source Books on Education, Volume 38.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Washington, Valora; Bailey, Ura Jean Oyemade</p> <p></p> <p>Head Start, the nation's largest early childhood intervention, has enjoyed public and political support. The program has also been haunted by persistent questions about its role in communities, its sustainable impacts, and its quality. This book discusses the past, present, and future of Head Start in the hope of creating better partnerships…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16537156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16537156"><span>Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: a global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicholls, Robert J; Tol, Richard S J</p> <p>2006-04-15</p> <p>Taking the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) climate and socio-economic scenarios (A1FI, A2, B1 and B2 'future worlds'), the potential impacts of sea-level rise through the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century are explored using complementary impact and economic analysis methods at the global scale. These methods have never been explored together previously. In all scenarios, the exposure and hence the impact potential due to increased flooding by sea-level rise increases significantly compared to the base year (1990). While mitigation reduces impacts, due to the lagged response of sea-level rise to atmospheric temperature rise, impacts cannot be avoided during the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century by this response alone. Cost-benefit analyses suggest that widespread protection will be an economically rational response to land loss due to sea-level rise in the four SRES futures that are considered. The most vulnerable future worlds to sea-level rise appear to be the A2 and B2 scenarios, which primarily reflects differences in the socio-economic situation (coastal population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and GDP/capita), rather than the magnitude of sea-level rise. Small islands and deltaic settings stand out as being more vulnerable as shown in many earlier analyses. Collectively, these results suggest that human societies will have more choice in how they respond to sea-level rise than is often assumed. However, this conclusion needs to be tempered by recognition that we still do not understand these choices and significant impacts remain possible. Future worlds which experience larger rises in sea-level than considered here (above 35 cm), more extreme events, a reactive rather than proactive approach to adaptation, and where GDP growth is slower or more unequal than in the SRES futures remain a concern. There is considerable scope for further research to better understand these diverse issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155504','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155504"><span>Coal diesel combined-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> <span class="hlt">project</span>. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>One of the <span class="hlt">projects</span> selected for funding is a <span class="hlt">project</span> for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The <span class="hlt">project</span>, named the Coal Diesel Combined-<span class="hlt">Cycle</span> <span class="hlt">Project</span>, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam <span class="hlt">cycle</span>; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the <span class="hlt">project</span> is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each <span class="hlt">project</span> selected for award under the CCT-V Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.733a2046C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.733a2046C"><span>Quality management system for application of the analytical quality assurance <span class="hlt">cycle</span> in a research <span class="hlt">project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camargo, R. S.; Olivares, I. R. B.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The lack of quality assurance and quality control in academic activities have been recognized by the inability to demonstrate reproducibility. This paper aim to apply a quality tool called Analytical Quality Assurance <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> on a specific research <span class="hlt">project</span>, supported by a Verification Programme of equipment and an adapted Quality Management System based on international standards, to provide traceability to the data generated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED432625.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED432625.pdf"><span>Planning a Successful Crime Prevention <span class="hlt">Project</span>. The Success <span class="hlt">Cycle</span>: Steps for Success.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Youth in Action Bulletin, 1998</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This bulletin is designed as a how-to-do-it workbook and guide to help young people plan and implement crime prevention <span class="hlt">projects</span> to make their communities safer and healthier by using a five-step Success <span class="hlt">Cycle</span>. Some examples of programs around the country provide a starter list to show the sorts of programs young people can develop. A wide variety…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93536','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93536"><span>Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined <span class="hlt">cycle</span> demonstration <span class="hlt">project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The proposed Penelec <span class="hlt">project</span> is one of 5 <span class="hlt">projects</span> for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined <span class="hlt">cycle</span> mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The <span class="hlt">project</span> would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined <span class="hlt">cycle</span> (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27006757','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27006757"><span>The life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> of a genome <span class="hlt">project</span>: perspectives and guidelines inspired by insect genome <span class="hlt">projects</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papanicolaou, Alexie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Many research programs on non-model species biology have been empowered by genomics. In turn, genomics is underpinned by a reference sequence and ancillary information created by so-called "genome <span class="hlt">projects</span>". The most reliable genome <span class="hlt">projects</span> are the ones created as part of an active research program and designed to address specific questions but their life extends past publication. In this opinion paper I outline four key insights that have facilitated maintaining genomic communities: the key role of computational capability, the iterative process of building genomic resources, the value of community participation and the importance of manual curation. Taken together, these ideas can and do ensure the longevity of genome <span class="hlt">projects</span> and the growing non-model species community can use them to focus a discussion with regards to its future genomic infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC23K..17H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC23K..17H"><span>The future of the North American carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> - <span class="hlt">projections</span> and associated climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huntzinger, D. N.; Chatterjee, A.; Cooley, S. R.; Dunne, J. P.; Hoffman, F. M.; Luo, Y.; Moore, D. J.; Ohrel, S. B.; Poulter, B.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Tzortziou, M.; Walker, A. P.; Mayes, M. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Approximately half of anthropogenic emissions from the burning of fossil fuels is taken up annually by carbon sinks on the land and in the oceans. However, there are key uncertainties in how carbon uptake by terrestrial, ocean, and freshwater systems will respond to, and interact with, climate into the future. Here, we outline the current state of understanding on the future carbon budget of these major reservoirs within North America and the globe. We examine the drivers of future carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> changes, including carbon-climate feedbacks, atmospheric composition, nutrient availability, and human activity and management decisions. Progress has been made at identifying vulnerabilities in carbon pools, including high-latitude permafrost, peatlands, freshwater and coastal wetlands, and ecosystems subject to disturbance events, such as insects, fire and drought. However, many of these processes/pools are not well represented in current models, and model intercomparison studies have shown a range in carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> response to factors such as climate and CO2 fertilization. Furthermore, as model complexity increases, understanding the drivers of model spread becomes increasingly more difficult. As a result, uncertainties in future carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> <span class="hlt">projections</span> are large. It is also uncertain how management decisions and policies will impact future carbon stocks and flows. In order to guide policy, a better understanding of the risk and magnitude of North American carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> changes is needed. This requires that future carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> <span class="hlt">projections</span> be conditioned on current observations and be reported with sufficient confidence and fully specified uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120003759&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120003759&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming"><span>Recent Trends of the Tropical Hydrological <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span> and International Satellite Cloud Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic <span class="hlt">cycle</span>; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span> precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span> cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological <span class="hlt">cycle</span> over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2deg/decade in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7deg/decade in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7deg/decade) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological <span class="hlt">cycle</span> and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120003759&hterms=tropical+circulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtropical%2Bcirculation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120003759&hterms=tropical+circulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtropical%2Bcirculation"><span>Recent Trends of the Tropical Hydrological <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span> and International Satellite Cloud Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic <span class="hlt">cycle</span>; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span> precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology <span class="hlt">Project</span> cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological <span class="hlt">cycle</span> over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2deg/decade in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7deg/decade in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7deg/decade) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological <span class="hlt">cycle</span> and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..25..443D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..25..443D"><span>Research on the Application of Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Cost Management in the Civil Aircraft Assembly Line <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dawei, Lian; Xuefeng, Zhao</p> <p></p> <p>Based on the investigation of airplane enterprises, the paper defines the life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> of the airplane's assembly line in a reasonable way. It takes the model of <span class="hlt">project</span> list in the stage of bidding to make it more actual. Regarding the airplane's assembly line, it also applies the equipments life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> management theory into the using stage so that we can control the using cost more effectively. The paper uses the Crystal Ball to analyze the risk factors of the airplane's assembly line and improves the investment budget's accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5108916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5108916"><span>High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Steam <span class="hlt">Cycle</span>/Cogeneration Lead <span class="hlt">Project</span> strategy plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-03-01</p> <p>The strategy for developing the HTGR system and introducing it into the energy marketplace is based on using the most developed technology path to establish a HTGR-Steam <span class="hlt">Cycle</span>/Cogeneration (SC/C) Lead <span class="hlt">Project</span>. Given the status of the HTGR-SC/C technology, a Lead Plant could be completed and operational by the mid 1990s. While there is remaining design and technology development that must be accomplished to fulfill technical and licensing requirements for a Lead <span class="hlt">Project</span> commitment, the major barriers to the realization a HTGR-SC/C Lead <span class="hlt">Project</span> are institutional in nature, e.g. <span class="hlt">Project</span> organization and management, vendor/supplier development, cost/risk sharing between the public and private sector, and <span class="hlt">Project</span> financing. These problems are further exacerbated by the overall pervading issues of economic and regulatory instability that presently confront the utility and nuclear industries. This document addresses the major institutional issues associated with the HTGR-SC/C Lead <span class="hlt">Project</span> and provides a starting point for discussions between prospective Lead <span class="hlt">Project</span> participants toward the realization of such a <span class="hlt">Project</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17385013','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17385013"><span>Commentary on AAPS Workshop: dissolution testing for the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century: linking critical quality attributes and critical process parameters to clinically relevant dissolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tong, Cheng; D'Souza, Susan S; Parker, Jan E; Mirza, Tahseen</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>This is a summary report of the workshop entitled "Dissolution Testing for the <span class="hlt">Twenty-first</span> Century: Linking Critical Quality Attributes and Critical Process Parameters to Clinically Relevant Dissolution," organized by the In Vitro Release and Dissolution Testing Focus Group of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. Participants from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, and academia in the US, Europe, and Japan attended this workshop to review, discuss, and explore the role of traditional dissolution testing in the new arena of Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT). Other areas of discussion were the use of the dissolution test to evaluate drug release from novel dosage forms, challenges in dissolution testing and specification setting, and dissolution apparatus calibration using performance verification tablets versus mechanical calibration. The workshop identified areas where further research and collaboration are needed to advance knowledge and understanding of the science of dissolution. Views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the FDA and USP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18854302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18854302"><span>The past is a guide to the future? Comparing Middle Pliocene vegetation with predicted biome distributions for the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salzmann, U; Haywood, A M; Lunt, D J</p> <p>2009-01-13</p> <p>During the Middle Pliocene, the Earth experienced greater global warmth compared with today, coupled with higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To determine the extent to which the Middle Pliocene can be used as a 'test bed' for future warming, we compare data and model-based Middle Pliocene vegetation with simulated global biome distributions for the mid- and late <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. The best agreement is found when a Middle Pliocene biome reconstruction is compared with a future scenario using 560 ppmv atmospheric CO2. In accordance with palaeobotanical data, all model simulations indicate a generally warmer and wetter climate, resulting in a northward shift of the taiga-tundra boundary and a spread of tropical savannah and woodland in Africa and Australia at the expense of deserts. Our data-model comparison reveals differences in the distribution of polar vegetation, which indicate that the high latitudes during the Middle Pliocene were still warmer than its predicted modern analogue by several degrees. However, our future scenarios do not consider multipliers associated with 'long-term' climate sensitivity. Changes in global temperature, and thus biome distributions, at higher atmospheric CO2 levels will not have reached an equilibrium state (as is the case for the Middle Pliocene) by the end of this century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26732346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26732346"><span>Constraining future terrestrial carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> <span class="hlt">projections</span> using observation-based water and carbon flux estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2  emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current earth system models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">projected</span> terrestrial carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison <span class="hlt">Project</span> (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and <span class="hlt">projected</span> changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on <span class="hlt">projected</span> GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease in the <span class="hlt">projected</span> GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction in the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between <span class="hlt">projected</span> changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on net biome productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the <span class="hlt">projected</span> land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">projected</span> decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. This indicates that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4798206','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4798206"><span>The life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> of a genome <span class="hlt">project</span>: perspectives and guidelines inspired by insect genome <span class="hlt">projects</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Papanicolaou, Alexie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Many research programs on non-model species biology have been empowered by genomics. In turn, genomics is underpinned by a reference sequence and ancillary information created by so-called “genome projects”. The most reliable genome <span class="hlt">projects</span> are the ones created as part of an active research program and designed to address specific questions but their life extends past publication. In this opinion paper I outline four key insights that have facilitated maintaining genomic communities: the key role of computational capability, the iterative process of building genomic resources, the value of community participation and the importance of manual curation. Taken together, these ideas can and do ensure the longevity of genome <span class="hlt">projects</span> and the growing non-model species community can use them to focus a discussion with regards to its future genomic infrastructure. PMID:27006757</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70182198','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70182198"><span>Adaptation of a stage-<span class="hlt">projection</span> model for species with multiple year reproductive <span class="hlt">cycles</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gilbert, James R.; Udevitz, Mark S.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We apply stage <span class="hlt">projection</span> matrices to multiple age and reproductive categories, deriving the stable age - reproductive category distribution for populations with multi-year reproductive <span class="hlt">cycles</span> and identifying conditions for the existence of a dominant latent root. Given the stable distribution of age and reproductive category and the number of female young for each reproductive category, the age specific fecundity rates can be calculated. For species with multi-year reproductive <span class="hlt">cycles</span>, the fecundity rate associated with the stable age distribution is often not a smooth function of age, but fluctuates as a larger or smaller fraction of females becomes available to breed. We suggest that fecundity rates for species with multi-year reproductive <span class="hlt">cycles</span> be defined in terms of litter size and probabilities of conception and successful gestation rather than average fecundity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1842S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1842S"><span>Uncertainty in the carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> and its contributions to overall uncertainty in future climate <span class="hlt">projections</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sokolov, Andrei</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The contribution of carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> uncertainty to the uncertainty in future climate <span class="hlt">projections</span> is studied by means of numerical simulations with the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). Three ensembles of 21st century climate simulations were carried out using input probability distributions for climate sensitivity, rate of heat uptake by the ocean and strength of aerosol forcing consistent with the changes in climate over 20th century. Uncertainties in the rate of oceanic carbon uptake and strength of CO2 fertilization were also included. Each ensemble consists of 400 simulations. In first ensemble all sub-components of the IGSM were fully coupled. To evaluate uncertainty in the feedback between climate and carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span>, an additional ensemble of radiatively uncoupled simulations was carried out. Because the terrestrial ecosystem model used in the IGSM takes into account nitrogen limitation on carbon uptake by vegetation, feedbacks associated with terrestrial and oceanic carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> have different signs. As a result, total feedback between climate and carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> is rather weak and can be either positive or negative. This explains why the probability distribution for surface warming obtained from simulations with the IGSM is more symmetric than ones presented in the IPCC AR4. Reference greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions for business as usual scenario were used in first two ensembles. In all simulations of the third ensemble the IGSM was forced by the GHGs concentrations from the simulation with the median values of all climate parameter, thus eliminating uncertainty in the carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span>. Contribution of carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> uncertainty to the uncertainties in <span class="hlt">projected</span> climate changes turned out to be surprisingly small, at least for business as usual emission scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a5038B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a5038B"><span>The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> assessment of a brownfield redevelopment <span class="hlt">project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brecheisen, Thomas; Theis, Thomas</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development <span class="hlt">projects</span> to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment <span class="hlt">project</span>, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site. Methodological note: data for this life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> assessment were obtained from <span class="hlt">project</span> reports, construction blueprints and utility bills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27000264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27000264"><span>Trends in survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in Germany and the USA in the first decade of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pulte, Dianne; Castro, Felipe A; Jansen, Lina; Luttmann, Sabine; Holleczek, Bernd; Nennecke, Alice; Ressing, Meike; Katalinic, Alexander; Brenner, Hermann</p> <p>2016-03-22</p> <p>Recent population-based studies in the United States of America (USA) and other countries have shown improvements in survival for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) diagnosed in the early <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. Here, we examine the survival for patients diagnosed with CLL in Germany in 1997-2011. Data were extracted from 12 cancer registries in Germany and compared to the data from the USA. Period analysis was used to estimate 5- and 10-year relative survival (RS). Five- and 10-year RS estimates in 2009-2011 of 80.2 and 59.5%, respectively, in Germany and 82.4 and 64.7%, respectively, in the USA were observed. Overall, 5-year RS increased significantly in Germany and the difference compared to the survival in the USA which slightly decreased between 2003-2005 and 2009-2011. However, age-specific analyses showed persistently higher survival for all ages except for 15-44 in the USA. In general, survival decreased with age, but the age-related disparity was small for patients younger than 75. In both countries, 5-year RS was >80% for patients less than 75 years of age but <70% for those age 75+. Overall, 5-year survival for patients with CLL is good, but 10-year survival is significantly lower, and survival was much lower for those age 75+. Major differences in survival between countries were not observed. Further research into ways to increase survival for older CLL patients are needed to reduce the persistent large age-related survival disparity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110006','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110006"><span>Specific Antigens by Federal Entity in Patients at the Transplant Unit of Specialities Hospital, National Medical Center <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hernández Rivera, J C H; Ibarra Villanueva, A; Espinoza Pérez, R; Cancino López, J D; Silva Rueda, I R; Rodríguez Gómez, R; García Covarrubias, L; Reyes Díaz, E; Pérez López, M J; Salazar Mendoza, M</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The study of the kidney transplant involves understanding the immunologic basis, such as histocompatibility and the genetic basis of a population. In Mexico, the study of the genetic basis has led to a genetic map by federal entities. We performed an HLA study with 1,276 kidney transplant patients (recipients and donors) in the Hospital of the National Medical Center <span class="hlt">Twenty-First</span> Century, determining HLA class I (A, B, and Cw) and class II (DRβ1 and DQβ1) antigens with the use of SSOP-PCR. A descriptive analysis was conducted with measures of central tendency (mean, SD). Of 1,276 HLA patients studied, we obtained 2,552 results for each class by the composition of the 2 haplotypes, and for HLA-Cw we processed 796 patients, for a total of 1,592 antigens for this class. We found antigens specific to each federal entity, and it was found that the Federal District had the highest number of specific antigens (10) followed by Morelos (7), Querétaro and Mexico State (3 each), and Tamaulipas, Aguascalientes, Michoacán, Guerrero, Puebla, and Oaxaca (1 each). The genetic map allows us to know proportions of antigens in every state in the center and south of Mexico owing to the diversity and area of influence of the National Medical Center XXIst Century, as well as the wide number of patients. Furthermore, there are still preserved proportionally distinct genetic roots in every entity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23488700"><span>Why 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beck, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>We can distinguish four positions on the continuing, or maybe even increasing, relevance of the category of class at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century depending on the extent to which they accord central importance to (1) the reproduction or (2) the transformation of social classes with regard to (3) the distribution of goods without bads or (4) the distribution of goods and bads. One could say that Dean Curran introduces the concept of 'risk-class' to radicalize the class distribution of risk and charts who will able to occupy areas less exposed to risk and who will have little choice but to occupy areas that are exposed to the brunt of the fact of the risk society. As he mentioned it is important to note that this social structuring of the distribution of bads will be affected not only by class, but also by other forms of social structuration of disadvantage, such as gender and race. In order to demonstrate that the distribution of bads is currently exacerbating class differences in life chances, however, Curran concentrates exclusively on phenomena of individual risks. In the process, he overlooks the problem of systemic risks in relation of the state, science, new corporate roles, management the mass media, law, mobile capital and social movements; at the same time, his conceptual frame of reference does not really thematize the interdependence between individual and systemic risks. Those who reduce the problematic of risk to that of the life chances of individuals are unable to grasp the conflicting social and political logics of risk and class conflicts. Or, to put it pointedly: 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality in world risk society. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22221375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22221375"><span>Hanford River Protection <span class="hlt">Project</span> Life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The Life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> of the River Protection <span class="hlt">Project</span> (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10136084','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10136084"><span>CPC air-blown integrated gasification combined <span class="hlt">cycle</span> <span class="hlt">project</span>. Quarterly report, October--December 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The overall <span class="hlt">project</span> cost and schedule. The combustion turbine commercial operation date is scheduled for 7/1/95 with the combined <span class="hlt">cycle</span> commercial operation date of 7/1/96. A two year demonstration period will commence after IGCC commercial operation. Details of costs on a total <span class="hlt">project</span> and DOE Envelope basis along with detailed schedule components were covered. Major cost variances to date were discussed. The major variances this year relate to contracts which were anticipated to be finalized mid 1992 but which are not executed. These include GEESI, the ASU and key vessels. Some of these contracts are almost in place and others are scheduled for the first quarter 1993. Numerous <span class="hlt">project</span> specifications, process flow diagrams, piping and instrument diagrams and other drawings have been reviewed and approved as part of the preliminary engineering process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IzMat..72..817T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IzMat..72..817T"><span>On algebraic <span class="hlt">cycles</span> on complex Abelian schemes over smooth <span class="hlt">projective</span> curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tankeev, S. G.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>If the Hodge conjecture holds for some generic (in the sense of Weil) geometric fibre X_s of an Abelian scheme \\pi\\colon X\\to C over a smooth <span class="hlt">projective</span> curve C, then numerical equivalence of algebraic <span class="hlt">cycles</span> on X coincides with homological equivalence. The Hodge conjecture for all complex Abelian varieties is equivalent to the standard conjecture B(X) of Lefschetz type on the algebraicity of the Hodge operator \\ast for all Abelian schemes \\pi\\colon X\\to C over smooth <span class="hlt">projective</span> curves. We investigate some properties of the Gauss-Manin connection and Hodge bundles associated with Abelian schemes over smooth <span class="hlt">projective</span> curves, with applications to the conjectures of Hodge and Tate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17911847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17911847"><span>A systems development life <span class="hlt">cycle</span> approach to patient journey modeling <span class="hlt">projects</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Curry, Joanne M; McGregor, Carolyn; Tracy, Sally</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Patient Journey Modeling, a relatively recent innovation in healthcare quality improvement, models the patient's movement through a Health Care Organisation (HCO) by viewing it from a patient centric perspective. A Systems Development Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> (SDLC) provides a standard <span class="hlt">project</span> management framework that can improve the quality of information systems. The concept of following a consistent <span class="hlt">project</span> management framework to boost quality outcomes can be applied equally to healthcare improvement. This paper describes a SDLC designed specifically for the health care domain and in particular patient journey modeling <span class="hlt">projects</span>. It goes on to suggest that such a framework can be used to compliment the dominant healthcare improvement method, the Model for Improvement. The key contribution of this paper is the introduction of a <span class="hlt">project</span> management framework in the form of an SDLC that can be used by non-professional computer developers (ie: health care staff), to improve the consistency and quality of outcomes for patient journey redesign <span class="hlt">projects</span>. Experiences of applying the SDLC in a midwife-led primary-care maternity services environment are discussed. The <span class="hlt">project</span> team found the steps logical and easy to follow and produced demonstrable improvement results along with ongoing goal-focused action plans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..537F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..537F"><span>ESA's STSE WACMOS <span class="hlt">Project</span>: Towards a Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Multimission Observation Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p> synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water <span class="hlt">cycle</span> and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the <span class="hlt">project</span> Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The <span class="hlt">project</span>, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the <span class="hlt">project</span> objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water <span class="hlt">cycle</span>. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above <span class="hlt">cycle</span> that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the <span class="hlt">project</span>, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water <span class="hlt">cycle</span> product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN53C3817M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN53C3817M"><span>Using <span class="hlt">project</span> life-<span class="hlt">cycles</span> as guide for timing the archival of scientific data and supporting documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinez, E.; Glassy, J. M.; Fowler, D. K.; Khayat, M.; Olding, S. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The NASA Earth Science Data Systems Working Groups (ESDSWG) focuses on improving technologies and processes related to science discovery and preservation. One particular group, the Data Preservation Practices, is defining a set of guidelines to aid data providers in planning both what to submit for archival, and when to submit artifacts, so that the archival process can begin early in the <span class="hlt">project</span>'s life <span class="hlt">cycle</span>. This has the benefit of leveraging knowledge within the <span class="hlt">project</span> before staff roll off to other work. In this poster we describe various <span class="hlt">project</span> archival use cases and identify possible archival life <span class="hlt">cycles</span> that map closely to the pace and flow of work. To understand "archival life <span class="hlt">cycles</span>", i.e., distinct <span class="hlt">project</span> phases that produce archival artifacts such as instrument capabilities, calibration reports, and science data products, the workig group initially mapped the archival requirements defined in the Preservation Content Specification to the typical NASA <span class="hlt">project</span> life <span class="hlt">cycle</span>. As described in the poster, this work resulted in a well-defined archival life <span class="hlt">cycle</span>, but only for some types of <span class="hlt">projects</span>; it did not fit well for condensed <span class="hlt">project</span> life <span class="hlt">cycles</span> experienced within airborne and balloon campaigns. To understand the archival process for <span class="hlt">projects</span> with compressed <span class="hlt">cycles</span>, the working group gathered use cases from various communities. This poster will describe selected uses cases that provided insight into the unique flow of these <span class="hlt">projects</span>, as well as proposing archival life <span class="hlt">cycles</span> that map artifacts to <span class="hlt">projects</span> with compressed timelines. Finally, the poster will conclude with some early recommendations for data providers, which will be captured in a formal Guidelines document - to be published in 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......297H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......297H"><span>Analysis and modeling of concurrency, <span class="hlt">cycle</span> time, and productivity in aerospace development <span class="hlt">projects</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hilscher, Richard Walter</p> <p></p> <p>Engineering development <span class="hlt">projects</span> are a key element of continued economic growth and profitability for companies that produce durable goods based on evolving technology. Today's world economy and the rapid pace of technology development necessitate a minimum development <span class="hlt">project</span> <span class="hlt">cycle</span> time to maximize the economic value of new products. Concurrent engineering and Integrated Product-Process Development (IPPD) evolved as an industry-wide strategy in the late 1980's and early 1990's to address the need for rapid product development and improved product quality. Rapid development of computer-based tools for communications and engineering has occurred in parallel with the emergence of concurrent engineering strategies. The combination of new computer tools and concurrent engineering practices has rendered many <span class="hlt">project</span> management tools less effective or obsolete. New methods are needed for tracking progress and benchmarking <span class="hlt">projects</span> employing concurrent engineering. Concurrent engineering and the resulting concurrency between specific activities within development <span class="hlt">projects</span> has been associated with both positive and negative effects on <span class="hlt">project</span> performance. This research applies empirical data analysis and computer simulation to evaluate these relationships using new metrics designed specifically for concurrent engineering analysis. By looking within the <span class="hlt">project</span> at concurrency between specific activities, new insights have been gained into the nature and progress of concurrent engineering implementation. These relationships are useful tools in developing <span class="hlt">project</span> plans with greater probability of success. A new metric for measuring concurrency is applied that uses the timing of information transactions between <span class="hlt">project</span> activities and yields different conclusions than those related to time-based metrics. The research also applies a new methodology for comparison of <span class="hlt">project</span> performance across product lines within aerospace. By using productivity rates and a new work content</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115518"><span>Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a 'beyond 4°C world' in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicholls, Robert J; Marinova, Natasha; Lowe, Jason A; Brown, Sally; Vellinga, Pier; de Gusmão, Diogo; Hinkel, Jochen; Tol, Richard S J</p> <p>2011-01-13</p> <p>The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m--the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10158779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10158779"><span>MHD Integrated Topping <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> <span class="hlt">Project</span>. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, May 1991--July 1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> (ITC) <span class="hlt">Project</span> represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The <span class="hlt">project</span> is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping <span class="hlt">cycle</span> component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC <span class="hlt">Project</span> will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990`s, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..796L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..796L"><span>The emerging anthropogenic signal in land-atmosphere carbon-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lombardozzi, Danica; Bonan, Gordon B.; Nychka, Douglas W.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Earth system models simulate prominent terrestrial carbon-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> responses to anthropogenically forced changes in climate and atmospheric composition over the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century. The rate and magnitude of the forced climate change is routinely evaluated relative to unforced, or natural, variability using a multi-member ensemble of simulations. However, Earth system model carbon-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> analyses do not account for unforced variability. To investigate unforced terrestrial carbon-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> variability, we analyse ensembles from the Coupled Model Intercomparison <span class="hlt">Project</span> (CMIP5), focusing on the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4). The unforced variability of CCSM4 is comparable to that observed at the Harvard Forest eddy covariance flux tower site. Over the <span class="hlt">twenty-first</span> century, unforced variability in land-atmosphere CO2 flux is larger than the forced response at decadal timescales in many areas of the world, precluding detection of the forced carbon-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> change. Only after several decades does the forced carbon signal consistently emerge in CCSM4 and other models for the business-as-usual radiative forcing scenario (RCP8.5). Grid-cell variability in time of emergence is large, but decreases at regional scales. To attribute changes in the terrestrial carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> to anthropogenic forcings, monitoring networks and model <span class="hlt">projections</span> must consider the timescale at which the forced biogeochemical response emerges from the natural variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080044833','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080044833"><span>Making Use of a Decade of Widely Varying Historical Data: SARP <span class="hlt">Project</span> - "Full Life-<span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Defect Management"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shull, Forrest; Godfrey, Sally; Bechtel, Andre; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Regardie, Myrna; Seaman, Carolyn</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A viewgraph presentation describing the NASA Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) <span class="hlt">project</span>, with a focus on full life-<span class="hlt">cycle</span> defect management, is provided. The topics include: defect classification, data set and algorithm mapping, inspection guidelines, and tool support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1060999','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1060999"><span>Fuel <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative <span class="hlt">Project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brent Dixon</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative <span class="hlt">Project</span> GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth <span class="hlt">projection</span> and four using a high growth <span class="hlt">projection</span> for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel <span class="hlt">cycle</span> strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel <span class="hlt">cycle</span> strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel <span class="hlt">cycle</span> strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA208254','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA208254"><span>Study on the Availability of Commercial Software for the Corps’ Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> <span class="hlt">Project</span> Management (LCPM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OM8 No. 0704-0188 la. REPORT SECURITY CLASSiFICATION ib RESTRICTVE MARKINGS...Securrty Classification ) Study on the Availability of Commercial Software for the Corps’ Life <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> <span class="hlt">Project</span> Management (LCPM) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...8217 ABSTRACT SECRITY CLASSIFICATION M UNCLASSIFIEDUNLIMITED C3 SAME AS RP E D iC jSERS Unciav.ified 22a. NAME OF RESPONSBLE INDVIDUAL Z.2b TE.EPiONE (Include</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181810','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181810"><span>MHD Integrated Topping <span class="hlt">Cycle</span> <span class="hlt">Project</span>. Eighteenth quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping <span class="hlt">cycle</span> <span class="hlt">Project</span> presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27680704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27680704"><span><span class="hlt">Projected</span> land photosynthesis constrained by changes in the seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> of atmospheric CO2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wenzel, Sabrina; Cox, Peter M; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre</p> <p>2016-10-27</p> <p>Uncertainties in the response of vegetation to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations contribute to the large spread in <span class="hlt">projections</span> of future climate change. Climate-carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> models generally agree that elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will enhance terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP). However, the magnitude of this CO2 fertilization effect varies from a 20 per cent to a 60 per cent increase in GPP for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations in model studies. Here we demonstrate emergent constraints on large-scale CO2 fertilization using observed changes in the amplitude of the atmospheric CO2 seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> that are thought to be the result of increasing terrestrial GPP. Our comparison of atmospheric CO2 measurements from Point Barrow in Alaska and Cape Kumukahi in Hawaii with historical simulations of the latest climate-carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> models demonstrates that the increase in the amplitude of the CO2 seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> at both measurement sites is consistent with increasing annual mean GPP, driven in part by climate warming, but with differences in CO2 fertilization controlling the spread among the model trends. As a result, the relationship between the amplitude of the CO2 seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> and the magnitude of CO2 fertilization of GPP is almost linear across the entire ensemble of models. When combined with the observed trends in the seasonal CO2 amplitude, these relationships lead to consistent emergent constraints on the CO2 fertilization of GPP. Overall, we estimate a GPP increase of 37 ± 9 per cent for high-latitude ecosystems and 32 ± 9 per cent for extratropical ecosystems under a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the basis of the Point Barrow and Cape Kumukahi records, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.538..499W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.538..499W"><span><span class="hlt">Projected</span> land photosynthesis constrained by changes in the seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> of atmospheric CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wenzel, Sabrina; Cox, Peter M.; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in the response of vegetation to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations contribute to the large spread in <span class="hlt">projections</span> of future climate change. Climate-carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> models generally agree that elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will enhance terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP). However, the magnitude of this CO2 fertilization effect varies from a 20 per cent to a 60 per cent increase in GPP for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations in model studies. Here we demonstrate emergent constraints on large-scale CO2 fertilization using observed changes in the amplitude of the atmospheric CO2 seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> that are thought to be the result of increasing terrestrial GPP. Our comparison of atmospheric CO2 measurements from Point Barrow in Alaska and Cape Kumukahi in Hawaii with historical simulations of the latest climate-carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> models demonstrates that the increase in the amplitude of the CO2 seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> at both measurement sites is consistent with increasing annual mean GPP, driven in part by climate warming, but with differences in CO2 fertilization controlling the spread among the model trends. As a result, the relationship between the amplitude of the CO2 seasonal <span class="hlt">cycle</span> and the magnitude of CO2 fertilization of GPP is almost linear across the entire ensemble of models. When combined with the observed trends in the seasonal CO2 amplitude, these relationships lead to consistent emergent constraints on the CO2 fertilization of GPP. Overall, we estimate a GPP increase of 37 ± 9 per cent for high-latitude ecosystems and 32 ± 9 per cent for extratropical ecosystems under a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the basis of the Point Barrow and Cape Kumukahi records, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......167B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......167B"><span>Improving Climate <span class="hlt">Projections</span> Through the Assessment of Model Uncertainty and Bias in the Global Water <span class="hlt">Cycle</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Noel C.</p> <p></p> <p>The implications of a changing climate have a profound impact on human life, society, and policy making. The need for accurate climate prediction becomes increasingly important as we better understand these implications. Currently, the most widely used climate prediction relies on the synthesis of climate model simulations organized by the Coupled Model Intercomparison <span class="hlt">Project</span> (CMIP); these simulations are ensemble-averaged to construct <span class="hlt">projections</span> for the 21st century climate. However, a significant degree of bias and variability in the model simulations for the 20th century climate is well-known at both global and regional scales. Based on that insight, this study provides an alternative approach for constructing climate <span class="hlt">projections</span> that incorporates knowledge of model bias. This approach is demonstrated to be a viable alternative which can be easily implemented by water resource managers for potentially more accurate <span class="hlt">projections</span>. Tests of the new approach are provided on a global scale with an emphasis on semiarid regional studies for their particular vulnerability to water resource changes, using both the former CMIP Phase 3 (CMIP3) and current Phase 5 (CMIP5) model archives. This investigation is accompanied by a detailed analysis of the dynamical processes and water budget to understand the behaviors and sources of model biases. Sensitivity studies of selected CMIP5 models are also performed with an atmospheric component model by testing the relationship between climate change forcings and model simulated response. The information derived from each study is used to determine the progressive quality of coupled climate models in simulating the global water <span class="hlt">cycle</span> by rigorously investigating sources of model bias related to the moisture budget. As such, the conclusions of this <span class="hlt">project</span> are highly relevant to model development and potentially may be used to further improve climate <span class="hlt">projections</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED13C0799B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED13C0799B"><span>Introducing the global carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span> to middle school students with a 14C research <span class="hlt">project</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brodman Larson, L.; Phillips, C. L.; LaFranchi, B. W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Global Climate Change (GCC) is currently not part of the California Science Standards for 7th grade. Required course elements, however, such as the carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span>, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration could be linked to global climate change. Here we present a lesson plan developed in collaboration with scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to involve 7th grade students in monitoring of fossil fuel emissions in the Richmond/San Pablo area of California. -The lesson plan is a Greenhouse Gas/Global Climate Change Unit, with an embedded research <span class="hlt">project</span> in which students will collect plant samples from various locals for analysis of 14C, to determine if there is a correlation between location and how much CO2 is coming from fossil fuel combustion. Main learning objectives are for students to: 1) understand how fossil fuel emissions impact the global carbon <span class="hlt">cycle</span>, 2) understand how scientists estimate fossil CO2 emissions, and 3) engage in hypothesis development and testing. This <span class="hlt">project</span> also engages students in active science learning and helps to develop responsibility, two key factors for adolescentsWe expect to see a correlation between proximity to freeways and levels of fossil fuel emissions. This unit will introduce important GCC concepts to students at a younger age, and increase their knowledge about fossil fuel emissions in their local environment, as well as the regional and global impacts of fossil emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......261S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......261S"><span>Marmoset: A programming <span class="hlt">project</span> assignment framework to improve the feedback <span class="hlt">cycle</span> for students, faculty and researchers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spacco, Jaime W.</p> <p></p> <p>We developed Marmoset, a system that improves the feedback <span class="hlt">cycle</span> on programming assignments for students, faculty and researchers alike. Using automation, Marmoset substantially lowers the burden on faculty for grading programming assignments, allowing faculty to give students more rapid feedback on their assignments. To further improve the feedback <span class="hlt">cycle</span>, Marmoset provides students with limited access to the results of the instructor's private test cases before the submission deadline using a novel token-based incentive system. This both encourages students to start their work early and to think critically about their work. Because students submit early, instructors can monitor all students' progress on test cases and identify where in <span class="hlt">projects</span> students are having problems in order to update the <span class="hlt">project</span> requirements in a timely fashion and make the best use of time in lectures, discussion sections, and office hours. To study in more detail the development process of students, Marmoset can be configured to transparently capture snapshots to a central repository every-time students save their files. These detailed development histories offer a unique, detailed perspective of each student's progress on a programming assignment, from the first line of code written and saved all the way through the final edit before the final submission. This type of data has proved extremely valuable for many uses, such as mining new bug patterns and evaluating existing bug-finding tools.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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